Daniel Ireland

Energy Sources

2011/2012

Researched and published by Daniel Ireland
Page 1 of 23

Daniel Ireland

Energy Sources

2011/2012

Contents Page

• Title Page – Page 1 • Contents Page - Page 2 • Introduction – Page 3 • Brief Information on Renewable Energy‟s:• Biofuel – Page 4 • Biomass – Page 5 • Geothermal – Page(s) 6 & 7 • Hydro electricity – Page 8 • Solar Power – Page(s) 9 & 10 • Tidal Power – Page 11 • Wave power – Page 12 • Wind Power – Page 13 • Fossil Fuels – Page 14 • Nuclear Energy – Page(s) 15 & 16 • Research/analysis/conclusion of work exp. at United Utilities – Page(s) 17 - 18

• Analysis & Conclusions of Research – Page(s) 19 - 22

• References – Page 23

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The need for renewable sources of energy and their derived fuels is becoming increasingly important in today‟s society. industry and workplaces. this is not a conventional personal loan as the charge is attached to the meter and paid back through your fuel bill. remains to be seen. due to the use of fossil fuels. I aim to answer some of the questions and concerns surrounding renewable energy. Although you will repay the cost over time. the idea is that the new occupant will pick up the charge while also benefiting from a more energy-efficient property. I hope by the end of this project to have provided detailed and structured arguments for both sides concerning all the options available with energy/fuel and make a judgement based on the facts. nuclear and the facts surrounding them. A quarter of the UK‟s carbon emissions come from the energy used in homes and a similar amount comes from our businesses. The UK government's target is to reduce those emissions by 2050. the Green Deal will allow you to install energy-efficiency measures and pay for the improvements with the savings on your fuel bill. fossil fuel energy. These are designed by the government to invest in alternative energy. It is also important for heavy investment now as energy bills are continually rising and customer‟s incomes are not rising at the same rate. Page 3 of 23 . reducing the impact on both the demand for fossil fuels and also reduce carbon emissions. renewable energy & fuels and nuclear energy. It is no longer affordable for many people nowadays. There are incentive schemes the government run at the moment such as the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI). The other major factor is that fossil fuels are not a limitless supply and as they become rarer the cost will be extreme. whether this is down to what customers perceive as “greedy” energy companies and their profits or the fact that fossil fuels are no longer a financially and sustainable viable option. Green Deal is a new government initiative designed to help meet the upfront cost of making your home more energy efficient. It would seem then that governments and energy companies taking action now and heavily investing in new sources would not only be a boost to the economy but also ensure that the future is bright for our children. It will be looking at both sides of the argument for and against the use of fossil fuels. as soaring energy costs and concern for co² carbon footprints. Due to be launched in late 2012.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Renewable Energy This project is based on sources of renewable energy. If you move out.

as it contains a higher octane. However. such as waste water treatment and household waste etc. so to drive the same distance would require more fuel. ethanol. ethanol has lower energy content. Biogas consists of mainly methane and carbon dioxide. this is considered more efficient when burnt.. rubber hoses. fertilizers and machinery etc. be used in any diesel engine. this has a corrosive effect. gaskets and fuel systems are also corroded by ethanol. green waste. It can also include hydrogen sulphide. More research is needed to clarify this.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Biofuel A biofuel is a fuel that is mainly derived from biomass or bio waste (biological carbon fixation). Aluminium. Biogas is another example of biofuel. Butanol can be directly used as a replacement for gasoline however it is currently more difficult to produce than methanol or ethanol. It can be when mixed with mineral diesel. biomass. which is made from used vegetable oil. Biogas is created when organic materials such as. Ethanol is the most commonly used biofuel in the world and when used in a mixture with gasoline and 15% bioethanol. When ethanol is burnt in the combustion chambers. Digestate is a by-product of the production process and can be used as a biofuel or fertilizer. These are biologically produced and include methanol. Finding credible data on whether biofuel carbon emissions are lower than fossil fuel derivatives if difficult. are far lower in Page 4 of 23 . One type of biofuel is biodiesel. What is clear however is that biofuels derived from waste products. propanol and butanol which all have high octane ratings. Another biofuel is bioalcohol. such as land space being used for planting crops. as there a large number of factors to consider. sewage and plant material are anaerobically digested by anaerobes. moisture and siloxanes.

Biomass Biomass is a renewable energy source. Heat is then extracted from the generator which is then turned into steam thus creating more electricity. can be sourced locally thus supporting the local economy and less atmospheric pollutants generated from biomass. the sludge is then put through the anaerobic digesters. which comes from sources such as. Plus there is the added bonus that these wastes are being used for good purposes. rather than being dumped out at sea or landfill sites.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 terms of carbon emissions than fossil fuels. When waste water is being treated by water utilities. plant crops and sewage. digestate and liquid liquor. These occur when the biomass is processed through an anaerobic digester. The digestate can then be used as a compost alternative and the liquid liquor used as fertilizer. From this process. The use of biomass as a renewable energy source is becoming ever increasingly popular as it is proving to be a sustainable method of harnessing energy from the sources and turning it into other kinds of energy. food waste. this allows for the combustion to be most efficient. which in turn creates biogas. The biogas produced can be used to power generators which in turn provide electricity. There are many benefits to using biomass including it being “carbon lean”. Page 5 of 23 . They are biological materials from living or recently living organisms. wood. The biogas is used to power generators which create electricity. Products of biomass include biogas. they take raw sewage (biomass) through a process. As the generators run and begin to get hot. industrial waste. digestate and liquid liquor.

there are some concerns that the fracturing process can cause seismic events and trigger earthquakes. This being said. When the geothermal energy is directly applied.500 households. “With a capacity of 3-4MW electric and the ability to generate 95% of the time. but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than fossil fuels. One is to create electricity. Water injected down the first borehole will be returned to the surface at around 180°C via the second borehole. sustainable and environmentally friendly. It is considered cost effective. spent water from these kinds of systems is then pumped round pipes under pavements and roads. it should produce enough electricity to supply Eden and around 3. reliable. Greenhouse gases are emitted from the geothermal wells. Page 6 of 23 . There are a few different processes that can be done with the geothermal energy sources. as well as heating for the Biomes and possibly some district heating. As the technology is advancing. keeping them ice and snow free in the winter. more of these emissions can be captured and injected back into the earth‟s crust.5km into the granite beneath Eden. and will then be returned to the injection borehole. The Eden Project in Cornwall has recently gone ahead with a plan for a Geothermal heating district.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Geothermal Geothermal energy is thermal energy trapped between the earth‟s core and its crust. the geothermal heat pump will pump heated water round anywhere that space heating is required. Iceland. The rock at that depth is at about 180°C. another is by direct application. In Reykjavik. driven around 4. The plant will be made up of two boreholes. The superheated water will be used to generate electricity. It is hoped that power will be delivered from late 2013”.

Also. the earth‟s crust has different depths with places where it is thin termed a hot spot. Page 7 of 23 . The plant should cover an area about the size of a rugby pitch. as drilling anywhere within an unstable tectonic region can potentially trigger earthquakes. Geothermal is not suitable for all. so it can be said to be about 70% efficient overall. Around 30% of the power created by the plant will go back into pumping water around the system. and the buildings no more than 10m (30ft) tall.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 “An EGS plant is very efficient when compared to many other systems. These are more ideal for geothermal technology due to less drilling required and more heat available to meet energy demands. the plant will be able to run 24 hours a day more than 345 days a year”. Unlike other sources of renewable energy.

driving a generator that converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. there is no direct waste created and the greenhouse gases emitted are considerably lower than the fossil fuel alternative. The greenhouse gases (methane) come from organic matter being submerged. where water flows from a high-level reservoir down through a tunnel and away from a dam. These problems can essentially have a damaging and lasting impact on the local ecosystem. Turbines placed within the flow of water extract its kinetic energy and convert it to mechanical energy. The disadvantages to hydroelectricity however. As this matter breaks down.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Hydroelectricity Hydroelectric power is the energy derived from flowing water. are that sometimes a river may be completely diverted or a large space of land flooded to create a reservoir. meaning that this can cause problems with wildlife. this creates methane which is released to the atmosphere when water passes through the turbines. This causes the turbines to rotate at high speed. The amount of hydroelectric power generated depends on the water flow and the vertical distance (known as „head‟) the water falls through. This can be from rivers or man-made installations. As hydroelectricity can be generated 24 hours a day. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. which when completed. Page 8 of 23 . Another issue is that the temperature of the water that is released back into the river is warmer. There are not any carbon emissions from hydroelectricity. this is a good source for renewable energy as opposed to some of the other options. This can have a damaging and lasting impact upon the eco system immediately surrounding the dam.

photovoltaic. this is done by the solar panels capturing the photons which cause the free electrons in the panels to move about. With photovoltaic. concentrated solar power and chemical solar power. This is because it is completely “green” and a constant free energy source. Chemical solar power is where a chemical reaction is started by applying energy from solar power to start the chain. Page 9 of 23 . There are three different types of solar power. possibly one of the best available sources for renewable energy. creating energy which flows using the positive and negative terminals of the solar panels. Solar Power is currently.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Solar Power Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity. Concentrated solar power is where mirrors/lenses track the sun‟s movement and direct the beam on to a central tower which is used as a hear source.

hydrogen and oxygen. but to develop something better and more efficient. The idea is not just to replicate this. carbohydrates made with the help of atmospheric carbon dioxide. take water and use sunlight to split it thus creating energy.in the case of plants. Although development is at an early stage. and rearranging them into chemically more energetic molecules . The idea is simple. Page 10 of 23 . it has been somewhat achieved. Photosynthesis is all about using the sun's energy to split water into its constituents.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Another new alternative is that of artificial photosynthesis.

Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Tidal Power Tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of the tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. much as wind turbines extract energy from the movement of the air. Tidal energy is therefore a predictable form of renewable energy. Page 11 of 23 . the increasing water volume in an area causes the water level to rise near the coast (high tide) and this reverses as the tide turns and the water moves away from the coastline. Tidal stream devices seek to extract energy from this kinetic movement of water. As the tides move (flow and ebb). The tide is created by the gravitational effect of the sun and the moon on the earth. Barrages and lagoons use this potential energy component of the tide to generate energy. which can be harnessed in two forms: Tidal Range Tidal range occurs due to the movement of large volumes of water in the sea. and manifests itself as tidal current. The amplitude of these effects is dependent upon the gravitational pull from the sun and moon and the local coastal morphology. Tidal Stream This is the flow of water as the tide ebbs and floods.

again with various designs available. longer. Waves travel vast distances across oceans at great speed. One of these ways is the Pelamis device (seen above right) which works hydraulically. Wave power works in various ways. faster and more powerful the sea is. which is quite different. The longer and stronger the wind blows over the sea surface. The hydraulic motors drive electrical generators to produce electricity Other methods include attenuators and buoys. Energy is transferred from the wind to the waves. The energy within a wave is proportional to the square of the wave height. the sections move relative to one another. so a two-meter high wave has four times the power of a one-meter high wave. The Pelamis machine consists of a series of semi-submerged cylindrical sections linked by hinged joints. the higher. with their being numerous different designs for the means of capturing the energy in the waves. Wave energy is sometimes confused with tidal energy. As waves pass along the length of the machine. Page 12 of 23 .Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Wave Power Waves are generated by the wind as it blows across the sea surface. The wave-induced motion of the sections is resisted by hydraulic cylinders which pump high pressure oil through hydraulic motors via smoothing hydraulic accumulators.

Forty percent of all the wind energy in Europe blows over the UK. Page 13 of 23 . Wind turbines work by converting the kinetic energy carried by the wind.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Wind Power Wind turbines harness the power of the wind and use it to generate electricity. wind is difficult to predict meaning that generation of electricity would cease at times. Wind turbines tend to be by the coast. making it an ideal country for domestic turbines (known as 'microwind' or 'small-wind' turbines). generates electricity which is then exported back to the grid and distributed. but in the long run they will prove to be much more cost effective. Initial costs are quite steep. at sea or in hilly regions where the greatest chance of strong winds are to occur. A typical system in an exposed site could easily generate more power for your electrical appliances use. Also. Although wind energy is a relatively cheap option when compared with some of the alternatives. there are drawbacks that come with using the turbines. These being that the turbines are “unsightly”. Wind energy uses the kinetic energy of the wind and turns into electrical energy. The wind drives the propeller blades round which in turn.

Although this ultra-clean petrol produces fewer emissions than standard petrol. and most useful of all energy sources. The syngas is then condensed over a catalyst – the „Fischer-Tropsch‟ process – to produce high quality. Coal – This can be burnt directly to generate electricity and is currently (Aug 2011) the cheapest method of generating electricity. with it getting mostly negative press about it being considered as a “dirty” fuel. As the price of crude oil continues to increase. direct liquefaction. This is because the main products when under combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapour. The environmental impact of Coal over the years has been widely publicised. Natural Gas – In its purest form. Ethane. It is the cleanest of the fossil fuels. Ultra-clean petrol and diesel can be then made from CTL. It is one of the cleanest. The two methods used for CTL are. butane and propane are also associated with natural gas. Oil – The derivatives start with Fuel Oil.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels firstly. safest. this works by dissolving the coal in a solvent at high temperature and pressure. the process of CTL produces more emissions. this gasifies the coal to form a „syngas‟ (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide). There are also the derivatives of coal such as CTL (Coal to Liquid). but the liquid products require further refining to achieve high grade fuel characteristics. indirect liquefaction. These are: Coal. This process is highly efficient. it is almost pure methane. Natural gas is a vital component of the world's supply of energy. These can then be broken down in to their derivatives. ultra-clean products. The second method is. the capture of emissions and particulates created from the process of generating electricity or CTL has improved and there is also the possibility of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) which would further offset the co² emissions. Diesel Oil and Kerosene. having fewer emissions. overall. the demand for cheaper and cleaner alternatives will surely increase. Oil and Natural Gas. fall in to 3 main categories. Gasoline (Petrol) and Refinery Gases. These continue to Naphtha. Page 14 of 23 .6% of global primary energy needs and generates 42% of the world's electricity. Coal provides 29. the same as which we breathe out. With technological advances.

Nuclear fission is increasingly becoming “outdated”. a Russian word for a ring-shaped magnetic chamber. Page 15 of 23 . Nuclear fission . The last such problem is the threat of terrorism. This alone causes alarm to many about the potential catastrophe of such an attack taking place. There is also the problem with the safety of Nuclear reactors following accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The most promising device for this is the „tokamak'. rivers and the ocean. All nuclear reactors produce radioactive waste. Fusion scientists and engineers are developing the technology to use this process in tomorrow's power stations. Nuclear power stations use the fission of uranium-235 to heat water. produce waste material that currently has no viable long term solution for safe disposable. whilst being largely unpopular and extremely expensive. Nuclear Fusion – This is the process that heats the Sun and all other stars. At present the most dangerous waste is sealed in glasslike blocks which are buried deep within rocks. Such incidents have highlighted the safety concerns and forced some governments into “abandoning” use of their reactors. Careless disposal of waste in the past has led to pollution of land. gas from a combination of types of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium – is heated to very high temperatures (100 million degrees Celsius). Nuclear reactors. One way to achieve these conditions is a method called „magnetic confinement' – controlling the hot gas (known as a plasma) with strong magnets. To get energy from fusion.This is the splitting of an atom's nucleus to release heat. The cons far outweigh its only pro of it producing carbon free energy.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Nuclear Energy There are 2 types of Nuclear energy. Fission and Fusion. where atomic nuclei collide together and release energy (in the form of neutrons).

nuclear fusion does propose an interesting way forward for potentially supplying the future of our world‟s energy demands. but in theory. The outcome remains to be seen. Page 16 of 23 . ITER is a large-scale scientific experiment that aims to demonstrate that it is possible to produce commercial energy from fusion.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 A Nuclear Fusion Reactor. called the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently being built in the South France.

digestate and liquid liquor. This will actually allow the site to export electricity back to the grid. The gas is extracted and is used to power the generators (which under their project scheme are being upgraded from 2 to 5). United Utilities are a FTSE100 listed company and with regards to the schemes they are involved in. The algae can be mixed with diesel to create biodiesel thus cutting carbon emissions. then putting the sludge through anaerobic digesters which break down the sludge. They are the water utility service provider for the North West and Cumbria.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Research whilst on work experience at United Utilities Wastewater Treatment Plant and analysis/conclusions I observed whilst on work experience with United Utilities in Oct ‟11 that they were not only treating the waste water but also making use of the by-products of the process. They are involved in a scheme called SUPRABIO. This coupled with the carbon credits scheme makes this kind of renewable energy lucrative. This includes upgrading their on-site generators powering the plant from 2 to 5. Such innovative ideas of rethinking how we manage our waste and by products are not only kinder to the environment but also potentially lucrative. which in turn produces byproducts such as gas. albeit initially not in such detail. Their involvement in schemes such as SUPRABIO. Page 17 of 23 . 16 partner organisations will be undertaking research with the aim of developing sustainable and competitive bio-refinery processing schemes for a range of geographical and social conditions. They are actually underway with a project to extend their waste water capabilities at their Davyhulme WWT site. They also are involved in making biodiesel from the algae during the waste treatment process. which has become the new standard for sewage sludge treatment in the UK delivering enhanced biogas production and superior pathogen control capability. Learning about these things. United Utilities Water has been responsible for many innovative developments in the water industry. Between February 2010 and January 2014. ultimately led me to create this “beginners guide” report on alternative energy sources etc. aiming to produce biodiesel shows initiative to be at the forefront of future technology aimed at improving the use of by-products of waste water treatment. it isn‟t hard to see why. A notable recent development is Enzymic Hydrolysis. The process starts with treating the sludge.

Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 This diagram shows the SUPRABIO model process (which includes United Utilities) for sustainable and competitive biofuels. Page 18 of 23 .

5% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012) and the Climate Change Act 2008 requirement (to cut emissions of greenhouse gas emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050). All the energy sources have their different pros and cons. thereby assisting them to reduce the carbon footprint of their homes. the need for alternative energy sources is rising. Although again. However. Page 19 of 23 . The Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) requires all domestic energy suppliers with a customer base in excess of 250.75°C on average since around 1900 and by around 0. If you look at it from the angle of tackling climate change. but to open the door of possibility to developing the technology for other purposes. Suppliers meet this target by promoting the uptake of low carbon energy solutions to household energy consumers. and. CERT will also help: reduce energy demand. and others believe it is responsible for many of the changing patterns in the weather system. for me is the future. this depends on which side of the argument you stand on with regards to global warming.000 customers to make savings in the amount of CO2 emitted by householders. enhance the UK‟s security of supply. Such as: • The Earth‟s surface has warmed by about 0. If they can achieve their research goals on fusion. • More than 30 billion tonnes of CO2 are emitted globally each year by burning fossil fuels. reduce energy bills for those receiving measures. The following diagram from New Scientist explains the “global warming” effect. From my research I have come to the conclusion that when all things are considered. then you would tend to lean towards green sources of energy.4°C since the 1970s. reduce fuel poverty. Some people believe it is a myth.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Analysis & Conclusions of Research In a world with an ever increasing demand for energy. There are truths and facts in the climate change debate. secure jobs in energy efficiency industries. The primary aim of CERT is to make a contribution to the UK‟s legally binding target under the Kyoto protocol (to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 12. But it really depends on your reason for looking at alternative energy. then it has the potential to not only provide a new “virtually carbon free” energy source. This coupled with the environmental challenge of reducing carbon emissions means a lot of research and development of current and new technologies to try and find an “abundant” energy source that fits the bill. nuclear fusion.

Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 Page 20 of 23 .

Perhaps then. as fossil fuels are a limited source. that on a large enough scale. Renewable energy sources can also affect the climate.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 So it would seem that using any energy that does not derive from the sun‟s heat will increase the warming effect on the planet. carbon was captured and stored underground and particulates collected preventing pollution. another approach would better suit our needs. It is possible. Nuclear fusion is in development already and the idea (although needing more research) of geo-engineering seems a distinct possibility. nuclear fusion is the way forward. Whatever you add or Page 21 of 23 . This in turn though. can cause other potential problems. This idea hints at artificially inducing the planets weather systems to reduce the warming effect created by “free energy”. it seems that harnessing the green energies can bring with it complications. Lastly. but as much as 4°C lower by day. Surface temperatures behind the wind turbines were higher than in front during the night. What if. For example. Personally. I find that my own approach to energy sources is that of an ethical one. Would this idea ever work? Well in theory you would have to say it would. trying to harness the winds power will alter the patterns thus altering the movement of the different weather fronts that bring the heat. is it possible to offset the warming effect on the planet of creating energy. hydro and wave power to supply energy without altering the balance of the planet. Solar Power could also affect the climate of the planet by making it less reflective. would depend proportionally on the efficiency of the solar power technology. So looking at some of the options. They can affect the local climate where they are situated. It is thought that this is caused by turbulence which sucks air down from above. Farmers in California and Florida are already using strategically placed turbines to combat frost by sucking down warmer air. cold and rainfall with it. Wind farms are one such potential problem. Would this satiate the energy demand? I think the answer may lie somewhere else. Perhaps with CCS (Carbon Capture & Storage) offsetting other carbon emissions. I think having numerous energy sources would keep the market competitive for consumers and reduce the demand on any particular source. I believe in recycling waste materials and not in land fill sites. existing fossil fuel methods of electricity generation were developed to be more efficient. like I said earlier. This leaves wind. we could utilise geo-engineering to return the planet to equilibrium thus avoiding climate change. If. The effects of this however. I think that updating and making more efficient technologies alongside introducing long term energy options is the best solution. farmers and drought regions getting rain when needed. This could also lead the way to manipulating the weather patterns to suit the needs of farmers etc.

So whilst the choice to take action regarding energy sources is here. Ultimately once nuclear fusion is mastered. Such an example of this would be the treatment of waste water.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 take from this planet must be balanced either way. This oil can be mixed with diesel to create biodiesel. viable option. These processes are already implemented in places. we should do our upmost to address it. So the benefits of this are there to be seen. because sooner or later if we don‟t. The sludge has algae which contains oil. I believe fusion will power space travel. Life has a cycle. then there would be less dumping of sludge out at sea and more benefits to be had from the by-products. biodiesel is ever increasingly looking like a sound. It not only makes transport kinder to the environment with the carbon emission savings. this will allow us to harness the power of a star and although an entirely different subject altogether. The final digestate when dried can be used as compost alternative and liquid liquor used as a fertilizer. reducing the demand on the need for diesel. If we can recycle virtually everything and find uses for their by-products. through evolution we have mastered many skills to become the dominant species on the planet. which can then be used to power generators which in turn create electricity. not just for us. As a human race. as this will surely lead to a brighter future for us all. I believe nuclear fusion and geo-engineering will return the planet to equilibrium in regards to carbon emissions & the “global warming effect”. but financially. We now need to master harnessing energy sources. but with the constant rising price of diesel also makes financial sense. not only environmentally. There is a fine balance that we must try and work to. This will bring us to become a type-I civilization (type-I civilization refers to work by Dr Michio Kaku). Nowadays companies are becoming more environmentally conscious and want to be environmentally sustainable. Recycling also has a bearing on the demand for energy sources. by utility waste water treatment companies. then surely this can help reduce the demand on fossil fuel derived energy sources. but for every other species on the planet including animals and plants. To conclude. When the sludge is then put through anaerobic digesters. With the constantly rising price of oil and government‟s targets of carbon emission saving. If these processes were more wide scale. this gives off a gas. Other companies are also looking at ways of implementing biodiesel. Page 22 of 23 . we will have a problem that we may not be able to do anything about. There is a process which finds excellent uses for these by-products of waste.

uk suprabio.Daniel Ireland Energy Sources 2011/2012 References                    Wikipedia Scienceonline.co.org.com newscientist.com clickgreen.com pelamiswave.uk tidalenergyltd.com stockporthomes.uk decc.uk energy-saving-trust.org naturalgas.org iter.uk iea.gov.ac.org.org conserve-energy-future.org ccfe.ee United Utilities Page 23 of 23 .gov.uk edenproject.org ofgem.com worldcoal.

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