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20th Population Census Conference 19 21 June, 2002 Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Utilization and Analysis of the 2000 Round of Censuses

DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN MALAYSIA WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON WOMEN


Rabieyah Mat & Roszaini Omar Department of Statistics, Malaysia
http://www.statistics.gov.my

20th Population Census Conference 19 21 June, 2002 Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Utilization and Analysis of the 2000 Round of Censuses

DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS IN MALAYSIA WITH SPECIAL FOCUS ON WOMEN


Rabieyah Mat & Roszaini Omar Department of Statistics, Malaysia Table of Contents
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 INTRODUCTION____________________________________________________1 BACKGROUND _____________________________________________________2 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION________________________________________5 CHANGING AGE STRUCTURE________________________________________6 DIFFERENTIAL AGE DISTRIBUTION TRENDS _______________________14 AGE PATTERNS BY SEX RATIO _____________________________________15 TRENDS IN THE DEPENDENCY RATIO ______________________________17 MARITAL STATUS _________________________________________________18 MEAN AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE ___________________________________21

10 CONCLUSION _____________________________________________________23

20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

INTRODUCTION 1.1 The examination of the demographic trends in Malaysia from a gender perspective is imperative given the increasing concerns of the Malaysian government to address womens issues. The National Policy for women formulated in 1989 which reflected the governments commitment towards the advancement of women will continue to be operationalized which

included the implementation of gender sensitive and awareness training programmes. Data base by gender is being developed to provide input for planning and implementation of programmes for women. Growing

importance is being given to the production of statistics by gender.

1.2

As in most countries around the world, women make up for almost half of the total population of Malaysia. In view of the current concern and commitment of the Malaysian Government towards its development and in the spirit of sharing of information during this seminar, this paper sets out to shed some light on Malaysian womens demographic trends in Malaysia based on the 1970, 1980 and 1991 Population Census and present trend based on the 2000 Population Census. It examines the changing demographic p attern of the population by age group and sex. With the aim to focus on women, this paper provides basic data on the disribution of women by age group and marital status.

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20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

BACKGROUND 2.1 History of Census

The 2000 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia was the fourth decennial census to be conducted since the formation of Malaysia in 1963. The 2000 Census collected data on the characteristic of the living quarters, households and population in Malaysia. The three earlier censuses were conducted in 1970, 1980 and 1991. Prior to the formation of Malaysia, the census was conducted as early as 1901.

2.2

Legal Basis

Under

the

Constitution

of

Malaysia,

census

taking

is

federal

responsibility and the legal basis for the census is provided by the Census Act of 1960, which empowers the government to conduct a census from time to time. The responsibility for conducting the 2000 Population and

Housing Census was vested upon the Department of Statistics, which implemented the project in collaboration with the state governments of Malaysia.

2.3

Census Organisation

The entire Population and Housing Census Malaysia 2000 project was under the direct purview of the Census Steering Committee (CSC) chaired by the Chief Secretary to the Government. Technical support was provided

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20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

by the Census Technical Committee chaired by the Director-General of the Economic Planning Unit. The Chief Statistician of Malaysia was appointed the Commissioner of Census who was responsible for the entire 2000 Census operation.

2.4

Census Reference Date and Survey Period

In selecting the census reference day, due consideration was given to a variety of factors. The census reference date should fall on a day whereby population movement is at its minimal. The selected date should not fall on public holidays, school holidays, festive seasons or on any major eventtaking place such as the performance of the Haj where a sizable number of persons would be performing the pilgrimage and this may not be counted. The monsoon period and the fasting month should a be avoided for field lso operational reasons.

The Census reference date for the three Censuses of 1980, 1991 and 2000 were on 10th June, 14th August and 5th July respectively. In the 2000 Census the enumeration was carried out over a period of sixteen days beginning from 5th July until 20th July 2000. Consistent with usual practice, mopping-up activities were also undertaken after the enumeration period, that is, from 21st July until 30th July.

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20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

2.5

Enumeration Procedure

The de jure approach was adopted for the first time in the 2000 Census whereby all persons on Census Day (5th July 2000) were enumerated according to their place of usual residence. This differed from the de facto approach used in the previous censuses whereby all persons were enumerated at the place where they physically were on Census Night.

2.6

Areas Covered

The whole of Malaysia was divided into small census geographic units known as enumeration blocks (EB). Each EB was assigned an enumerator and a combination of 7 EBs formed a census circle (CC) which was the responsibility of a supervisor. A District Superintendent was responsible for each census district (CD) comprising about 15 CCs. All District Superintendents in one administrative district (AD) came under the responsibility of the Assistant Commissioner of Census who, in most cases was the District Officer in the administrative district concerned. All Assistant Commissioners of each state were under the control of the Deputy Commissioner for that state. The Deputy Commissioner of each state was in turn responsible directly to the Commissioner of Census.

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20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

2.7

Persons Covered

All persons including foreigners who stayed or intended to stay in Malaysia for six months or more in the year 2000 were included in the Census. They were counted at their place of usual residence in line with the de jure approach adopted in Census 2000.

2.8

Topics Enumerated

The list of topics canvassed in the 2000 Census was arranged under three broad headings namely Population, Household and Housing. Comparisons were made with those canvassed in the three previous Malaysian censuses in 1970, 1980 and 1991 as encapsulated in Appendix 1.

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

3.1

In the year 2000, the population of Malaysia was 23.3 million after taking into account census under-enumeration. The population increased more than two folds over the 30 year period from 10.3 million in 1970 to 23.3 million in the year 2000. The increase had resulted in an average annual growth rate of about 2.6% per annum for the 1980-1991 period and the 1991-2000 period.

3.2

Population density in Malaysia continued to increase over the census period. From 31 persons per square kilometre in 1970 the density has

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increased to 42 in 1980, leaping to 56 in 1991 and further to 71 in the year 2000. Likewise the level of urbanization in Malaysia is on the increase.

The percentage of population living in urban areas increased from 26.9% in 1970 to 34.2% in 1980 and 50.6% in 1990. By the year 2000, more than two thirds of the population (61.8%) reside in the urban areas of Malaysia.

3.3

Historically, the censuses in Malaysia provide, among other socioeconomic characteristic, information on ethnicity. This information is vital as major input in the formulation and monitoring of government policies and programmes spelt out in the 5 year Development Plans. Malaysia is a multi-racial country with more than 70 identified ethnic groups. These ethnic groups are broadly classified into 4 major groups namely Malays/Bumiputera, Chinese, Indians and others. Of the total number of Malaysians in the year 2000, Malays/Bumiputera comprised 65.1%, Chinese 26.0%, Indians 7.7% and the others 1.2%. These proportions saw a marked increase in the Malays/Bumiputera group which were 60.6% in 1991, 59.3% in 1980 and 55.6% in 1970.

CHANGING AGE STRUCTURE

4.1

The age structure of the population largely depends on the changing trends in fertility, mortality and migration. The transition from high fertility and mortality rates to low rates causes predictable shifts in the age structure of the population in Malaysia. The age pyramid (Chart 1, 2 and 3 ) show the

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20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

changes that took place during the 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 in the age/sex compositions of the Malaysian population.

4.2

It is clear that in the 1970s, Malaysia had typical age structures produced by relatively high birth and death rates which are reflected by the high percentage of young children and the regular shape of the pyramid. By 1990, Malaysia experienced a more rapid decline in birth and death rates (Table 1). The proportion of the young population continued to decline while the older age group increased. This trend continued to the present era in the year 2000.

Table 1: Crude Birth Rates (CBR) and Crude Death Rates (CDR)

Crude Birth Rate Total Male Female

Crude Death Rate Total Male Female

1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

40.9 32.4 30.6 27.9 24.5

40.7 32.8 31.4 28.4 25.0

41.0 31.9 29.9 27.4 24.0

9.5 6.7 5.3 4.6 4.4

10.2 7.5 6.0 5.2 5.0

8.7 5.8 4.5 4.1 3.8

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Chart 1: MALAYSIA Population by Age Group and Sex 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000

70 74

FEMALE

MALE

60 64

2000 1991

Age Group

40 44

50 54

1980 1970

04 6000000

10 14

20 24

30 34

4000000

2000000

2000000

4000000

6000000

Population (Stacked)

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Chart 2: Percentage of Population by Age Group 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000

70 - 74 60 - 64

FEMALE
Age Group 50 - 54 40 - 44

MALE

2000 1991

1980

30 - 34
1970

20 - 24 10 - 14 0-4 60 40 20 0 20 40 60

Percentage Population (Stacked)

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Chart 3: Population by Age Group & Sex 2000

70 - 74 60 - 64 50 - 54 Age Group 40 - 44 30 - 34 20 - 24 10 - 14 0-4 1500000 1000000 500000 0 Population 500000 1000000 1500000

FEMALE

MALE

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4.3

In a normal situation, the age distribution by sex for a growing population resembles the shape of a pyramid where the number of persons in any age group is normally larger than that in the immediate older age group. This regular pattern may be modified by changes in any component such as age, selective migration or continuous reductions in fertility. In 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 the age structure of the population in Malaysia reflected this shape.

4.4

Table 2a (percentage) & Table 2b (absolute values), shows that overall, the share of the population below the age of 4 years declined from 15.9% in 1970 to 13.6% in 1980 and further to 12.8% in 1991. By the year 2000, the percentage decreased further to 11.1%. For the males under the same age, the proportion fell from 16.1% in 1970 to 11.3% in 2000. The share of the females in the same age category fell by 4.7% percentage points in the corresponding period from 15.7% in 1970 about 11.0% to 22.2% in 2000.

4.5

The number and percentage of the population in the 25 and above age group increased in the 1970-2000 period. While the natural progression of the population surviving from one age cohort to the following age cohort is always smaller in number to the effects of mortality, any increase in the corresponding age group would suggest a net inflow of population attributed to external migration. For example, the population in the age groups 15-24 and 25-34 in 1970 survived approximately to the age groups 25-34 and 35-44 respectively in 1991 and 35-44 and 45-50 in the year 2000. This results in the rise in proportion for the age group for example in the 25-44 from 21.5% in 1980 to 29.7% in 2000.

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TABLE 2a: PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION BY AGE GROUP AND SEX THE POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS MALAYSIA 1970, 1980, 1991 AND 2000 AGE GROUP TOTAL MALE TOTAL 100.00 100.00 1970 SEX FEMALE 100.00 100.00 TOTAL MALE 100.00 1980 SEX FEMALE 100.00 100.00 TOTAL MALE 100.00 1991 SEX FEMALE 100.00 100.00 TOTAL MALE 100.00 2000 SEX FEMALE 100.00

0-4 5-9 10 - 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75+

15.86 15.66 13.43 10.90 8.29 6.31 6.04 4.86 4.26 3.54 3.13 2.49 2.15 1.33 0.91 0.84

16.06 15.87 13.53 10.69 8.06 6.22 5.96 4.71 4.24 3.48 3.17 2.61 2.23 1.45 0.93 0.79

15.65 15.45 13.33 11.12 8.52 6.41 6.13 5.01 4.28 3.60 3.09 2.37 2.08 1.20 0.89 0.89

13.55 13.57 12.44 11.37 9.63 8.06 6.66 5.11 4.75 3.60 3.16 2.43 2.05 1.43 1.12 1.07

13.85 13.83 12.62 11.20 9.24 7.87 6.69 5.20 4.82 3.56 3.15 2.39 2.01 1.44 1.11 1.03

13.24 13.31 12.25 11.54 10.02 8.24 6.63 5.02 4.68 3.65 3.16 2.48 2.09 1.43 1.13 1.11

12.77 12.82 11.20 9.95 8.92 8.68 7.95 6.65 5.33 3.82 3.47 2.56 2.14 1.39 1.11 1.25

13.02 13.05 11.34 9.89 8.80 8.55 7.90 6.65 5.39 3.91 3.48 2.51 2.05 1.32 1.03 1.12

12.50 12.59 11.05 10.00 9.05 8.80 8.00 6.65 5.27 3.73 3.46 2.61 2.23 1.47 1.19 1.39

11.13 11.48 10.86 10.14 8.64 8.13 7.71 7.36 6.45 5.10 3.99 2.70 2.41 1.50 1.14 1.25

11.29 11.65 10.99 10.07 8.52 8.03 7.66 7.33 6.50 5.17 4.09 2.77 2.37 1.42 1.07 1.09

10.97 11.31 10.74 10.22 8.76 8.23 7.76 7.39 6.41 5.02 3.89 2.64 2.45 1.59 1.22 1.42

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TABLE 2b: TOTAL POPULATION BY AGE GROUP AND SEX THE POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS MALAYSIA 1970, 1980, 1991 AND 2000 1970 AGE GROUP TOTAL MALE FEMALE TOTAL 1980 MALE FEMALE TOTAL 1991 MALE FEMALE TOTAL 2000 MALE FEMALE

10,319,324 5,198,418 5,120,906 13,136,109 6,588,756 6,547,353 17,498,091 8,828,580 0-4 5-9 10 - 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75+ 1,636,244 1,616,043 1,386,024 1,125,011 855,677 651,349 623,741 501,368 439,562 365,119 323,095 256,944 222,289 136,756 93,635 86,467 834,724 825,025 703,514 555,511 419,210 323,351 309,815 245,040 220,533 180,924 164,804 135,571 116,023 75,426 48,115 40,832 801,520 791,018 682,510 569,500 436,467 327,998 313,926 256,328 219,029 184,195 158,291 121,373 106,266 61,330 45,520 45,635 1,779,564 1,782,782 1,633,536 1,493,464 1,265,133 1,058,434 874,744 671,303 624,041 473,354 414,754 319,848 269,745 188,166 146,563 140,678 912,497 911,412 831,730 737,713 608,779 518,755 440,840 342,508 317,324 234,297 207,698 157,209 132,581 94,581 72,881 67,951 867,067 871,370 801,806 755,751 656,354 539,679 433,904 328,795 306,717 239,057 207,056 162,639 137,164 93,585 73,682 72,727 2,233,649 2,243,666 1,959,516 1,740,361 1,561,527 1,518,279 1,390,755 1,163,706 933,012 668,750 606,986 448,308 373,735 243,509 193,705 218,627 1,149,819 1,152,009 1,001,121 873,259 776,862 754,937 697,434 586,998 475,833 345,623 306,871 221,870 180,700 116,117 90,598 98,529

8,669,511 22,198,276 11,262,136 10,936,140 1,083,830 1,091,657 958,395 867,102 784,665 763,342 693,321 576,708 457,179 323,127 300,115 226,438 193,035 127,392 103,107 120,098 2,471,108 2,549,311 2,411,581 2,251,565 1,917,252 1,804,016 1,710,728 1,633,946 1,432,771 1,131,445 885,662 600,433 534,248 333,274 253,722 277,214 1,270,988 1,312,400 1,237,519 1,134,431 959,086 904,154 862,286 825,390 731,770 582,645 460,501 311,720 266,597 159,559 120,776 122,314 1,200,120 1,236,911 1,174,062 1,117,134 958,166 899,862 848,442 808,556 701,001 548,800 425,161 288,713 267,651 173,715 132,946 154,900

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DIFFERENTIAL AGE DISTRIBUTION TRENDS

5.1

The trend of age distribution of Malaysia changed its direction around the 1960s when it started experiencing fertility decline (from 6.0 total fertility rate (TFR) in 1960 to 4.0 in 1980 and down to 3.2 in 2000). The age distribution was younger in the 1970s but became increasingly older in the 1990s. Table 3: Age Distribution by broad Age Group, 1970-2000 Broad Age Group (Years) 0-14 15-64 65+ above Total 44.9 52.0 3.1 100.0 39.6 56.8 3.6 100.0 36.8 59.5 3.7 100.0 35.4 62.6 3.9 100.0 1970 1980 1991 2000

5.2

The proportion under age 15 saw a rapid decline from 44.9% in 1970 to 35.4% in the year 2000. The proportion aged 65 and over pointed at a different direction. From 3.1% in 1970, it has increased to almost 4.0% in the year 2000. The proportion of the elderly was on the increase while the proportion of children decreased reflecting the decline in both birth and

death rates beginning in the 1970s. The upwards trends of the 15-64 age group (52.0% in 1970 to 62.6% in 2000) reflects the baby boom observed after the second world war. Table 3 shows the dominant direction of age distribution towards the working age group (15-64 years). This is also reflected by the increasing median age from 15.5 years in 1970 to 20.5 years in the year 2000.

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Table 4: Mean Age and Median Age by Males and Females Malaysia 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 1970 Mean Age Male Female Total Median Age Male Female Total 15.4 15.5 15.5 15.9 16.1 16.0 20.2 20.3 20.3 20.6 20.6 20.6 22.2 22.2 22.2 23.4 23.8 23.6 24.5 25.2 24.9 26.1 26.3 26.6 1980 1991 2000

5.3

The increase in the median age from 1970 to 2000 was in line with the decline in fertility alongside increases in life expentancy. The median age of the population increased for both males and females. There were marginal differentials in the overall median age between both sexes. It was however noted that the median age of females were slightly higher than the males throughout the 30 year period.

AGE PATTERNS BY SEX RATIO 6.1 The sex ratio defined as the number of males per 100 females tends to reduce at older ages. Overall, the sex ratio has increased. From 102 in 1970 the sex ratio increased to 103 in 2000. Over the years the excess of females over males is most marked in the older age groups as shown in Table 5. Although, more males are born than females , the ratio changes as they age. It is interesting to note that both males and females have

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experienced increasing life expectancy over the years. However, current levels show that on average the life expectancy of females at birth is about 5 years longer than the males as reflected in Table 6. Table 5 :Sex Ratio by age groups, 1970-2000 Age Groups 0-14 15-19 20-54 55-64 65+above Total 1970 104 98 98 111 108 102 1980 105 98 98 97 98 101 1991 105 101 101 96 87 102 2000 106 102 103 104 87 103

Table 6: Life expectancy at birth by sex , 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000 Sex Male Female 1970 61.6 65.6 1980 66.5 71.0 1991 69.2 73.4 2000 70.2 75.0

6.2

At the young age group ( 0 years) the sex ratio increased from 104 in -14 1970 to 106 in 2000. There is a marked increase in the 15-19 age group from 98 in 1970 to 102 in 2000. Likewise, in the 20-54 age group the sex ratio is reversed from excess females over males in 1970 and 1980 to excess males over females in 1991 and 2000. In the older age group particularly the 55 64, the sex ratio over the years appeared to be somewhat eratic from more males in 1970 to less males compared to females in 1980 and 1991 and to the same situation as in 1970 by the year

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2000. The 65 and over age group saw a steady decline of the sex ratio from 108 in 1990 to 98 in 1980 and stabilised at 87 in 1991 and 2000.

TRENDS IN THE DEPENDENCY RATIO

7.1

The dependency ratio is presented in three ways: the under age 15 dependency ratio, the aged 65 and above and the total dependency ratio which is the sum of these two ratios. It is seen as shown in Table 7 that the under-age 15 dependency ratio declined rapidly while the age 65 and over dependency ratio remained stable. The downward trends of the under-age 15 dependency rate overides the aged 65 and our depedency ratio thereby causing the total dependency ratio to decline from 92.4% in 1970 to 59.7% in the year 2000. This change clearly reflected the overall marked improvement of the well-being of the population in Malaysia over the years. The significant decline of the overall dependency ratio was mainly attributed by the sharp decline of the young who were dependant on the working age group. This also reflected the marked increase of the working age group.

Table 7: Age Dependency Ratio (%) 1970-2000 Dependency Ratio Under Aged 15 Aged 65 + above Total 1970 86.5 5.9 92.4 1980 69.6 6.4 76.0 1991 61.9 6.3 68.2 2000 53.5 6.2 59.7

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MARITAL STATUS 8.1 Marriage undoubtedly has an effect on the overall fertility levels and thus on the size and age structure of the population. A classification of the Malaysian population aged 15 years and above by marital status is given in Table 8 for the years 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000. It is observed that change in the structure and composition of families are closely related to trends marriage in and marital status of the population. The distribution of population (aged 15 years and over) by marital status categorised by never married, currently married, widowed and divorced/permanently separated show marginal differences between 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000.

8.2

Basically all marital status categories recorded a slight reduction in percentages except for those never married which showed a small increase from 31.3% in 1970 to 35.0% in the year 2000. However, it is interesting to observe that in the never married category, the proportion among the males was much higher than the proportion of never married women. The difference was almost 10 percentage points, between the sexes throughout the census period.

8.3

The proportion of never married males in 1970 was 36.7% while the females registered 26.0% In 2000, the proprotion of males in this category increased to 39.%. The percentage of unmarried females increased at the same rate to 30.9% in the year 2000.

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Table 8: Percentage Distribution of the Population aged 15 years and over by Marital Status and by Sex, Malaysia 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000. Total Marital Status Never Married Currently Married Widowed Divorced or permanently separated Total Number (000) Male Marital Status Never Married Currently Married Widowed Divorced or permanently separated Total Number (000) Female Marital Status Never Married Currently Married Widowed Divorced or permanently separated Total Number (000) 1970 26.0 61.0 11.5 1.5 1980 30.5 58.2 9.2 2.1 1991 30.0 60.2 8.2 1.5 2000 30.9 60.6 7.2 1.3 1970 36.7 59.3 2.9 1.1 1980 39.7 57.5 2.1 0.7 1991 39.2 58.6 1.7 0.5 2000 39.0 58.9 1.7 0.4 1970 31.3 60.2 7.2 1.3 1980 35.0 57.9 5.7 1.4 1991 34.6 59.4 5.0 1.0 2000 35.0 59.8 4.4 0.8

100.0 5,681.4

100.0 7,881.2

100.0 11,061.3

100.0 14,766.3

100.0 2,835.2

100.0 3,885.6

100.0 5,525.6

100.0 7,325.1

100.0 2,846.2

100.0 3,995.6

100.0 5,535.6

100.0 7,325.0

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8.4

Chart 3 illustrates the stable pattern in the proportion of married women over the last 3 decades. Between 1970 and 1980 the proportion of married women slightly dropped from 61.0% in 1970 to 58.2% in 1980 but stabilised at around 60% in 1991 and 2000. Along with the trend towards later mariages, there have been slight decreasing divorced categories. rates of widowed and

Chart 3 Marital Status of Women 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000.

Marital Status of Women, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000


70 60 50 Percentage 40
Never married

61

Currently married

58.2

60.2

60.6

30 26 20 10 0 11.5 1.5 1970

30.5

30

30.9

9.2 2.1 1980 Year

8.2 1.5 1991

Widowed

7.2
Divorced

1.3 2000

8.5

As Table 9 suggests, amongst the married women, the highest proportion married are in the 30-34 age group. The percentage unmarried remained at about 16-17% for the past three decades. It is obvious that amongst the younger age group (15-19), the rates has declined over the 30 year period

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from 5.4% in 1970 to 1.2% in 2000. The marriage rate showed a marked increase in the 35-39 age group. This pattern is in line with the increasing mean age at marriage. The shift of the increasing proportion of married women in the older age group over the 1970-2000 period reflects the overall improvement in the well-being of the women. The proportion of women in the 65 and above who remained married increased almost two folds from 2.5% in 1970 to 4.3% in 2000.

Table 9:

Percentage distribution of currently married females (aged 15 years and above) 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 1970 5.4 14.2 15.7 16.3 13.2 10.8 8.5 6.4 4.2 2.8 2.5 100.00 1,736,936 1980 3.2 13.3 17.8 16.1 12.6 11.5 8.5 6.5 4.5 2.9 3.1 100.00 2,326,319 1991 1.9 9.2 16.6 17.7 15.2 12.0 8.3 7.1 4.9 3.3 3.8 100.0 3,335,086 2000 1.2 6.7 14.0 16.3 16.2 14.0 10.7 7.8 4.9 3.9 4.3 100.0 4,438,432

Age Group 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65 above Total Total numbers

MEAN AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE 9.1 In a community where almost all births occur in marriage, the age at first marriage would have a strong influence on the level of fertility which in

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turn will affect the age structure of the population. Between 1970 and 2000, the mean age at first marriage in Malaysia increased for both sexes. Overall, the mean age increased form 23.8 years in 1970 to 26.9 years by the year 2000 as shown in Table 10. Table 10: Mean Age at Marriage by Sex 1970,1980,1991 and 20001 Males 25.6 26.6 28.2 28.6 Females 22.1 23.5 24.7 25.1 Total 23.8 25.0 26.4 26.9

Years 1970 1980 1991 2000

9.2

In 1970, males were marrying at an average age of 25.6 years, some three and a half years older than their female counterparts, that is, 22.1 years. The corresponding average age at marriage for males and females in 1980 was 26.6 and 23.5 years respectively. The increase in the postponement of marriage for males and females was more noticeable in the rural areas than in the urban areas. In the rural areas, an increase of 1.9 years for males and 1.1 years for females was observed. A rise in the average age at first marriage would be a contributory factor in the decline of fertility levels which subsequently would lead to a smaller proportion of the population at the younger ages.

The calculation is based on those in the 15-54 age group

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10 CONCLUSION Official statistics play an important role in monitoring womens demographic trends within the country. The demographic trends explored from this report has looked at patterns which is characterised by marginal differences between men an women of varying ages. It also looked at birth rates, death rates, fertility, mean and median ages, sex ratio, dependency ratio and marital status.

It is recognised that Malaysia will continue to grow at a gradual rate of 2.0% per year. With women forming half of the total population of the country, these are some of the important aspects that need to be monitored for the countrys continued development, growth and progress.

Rabieyah Mat & Roszaini Omar Department of Statistics Putrajaya, Malaysia June, 2002.

Demographic Trends In Malaysia With Special Focus On Women

23

20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

APPENDIX 1

TOPICS COVERED IN THE POPULATION AND HOUSING


CENSUSES OF MALAYSIA, 1970, 1980, 1991 AND 2000

CENSUS TOPICS

1970

1980

1991 2000

(A)

POPULATION GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Place where person was found on Census Day Place of usual residence at time of Census DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS Sex Age Date of Birth Marital Status Ethnicity Religion Citizenship/residence status Identity Card (Colour) Language Spoken Disability FERTILITY AND MORTALITY Number of children born alive Number of children living Age at first marriage Number of times married Number of years married MIGRATION CHARACTERISTICS Birthplace Period of residence in Malaysia Period of residence in present locality Place of last previous residence Reason for migration Place of residence five years ago Year of first arrival in Malaysia (for foreign-born) 4 4 4 X X X X 4 4 4 4 4 X X 4 X X X X 4 X 4 X X X X 4 4 4 4 X 4 4 4 4 4 4 X X X X X X 4 4 X X X 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 X X X 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 X X 4 4 X 4 X 4 4 4 4

Demographic Trends In Malaysia With Special Focus On Women

20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

APPENDIX 1

CENSUS TOPICS

1970

1980 1991

2000

EDUCATION CHARACTERISTICS
Literacy School attendance Highest level of schooling attained Highest educational certificate obtained Vocational training Field of study ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS Type of economic activity (during previous week) Number of hours worked (during previous week) Type of economic activity (during last twelve months) Occupation Industry Employment status Employment Sector (Government/Private/Own) (B) HOUSEHOLD HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS Relationship to head of household Number of persons in household Type of occupancy Rent (furnished/unfurnished) Main cooking fuel Household equipment Household income
(a)

4 4 4 4 X X

4 4 4 4 4 X

X 4 4 4 X X

4 4 4 4 X 4

4 X 4 4 4 4 X

4 X 4 4 4 4 X

4 4 X 4 4 4 X

4 4 X 4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 4 X X X 4 4
(a)

4 4 X X X 4 X
(a)

4 4 X 4 X 4 X
(a)

This topic was canvassed in the household section of the questionnaire in the Population Census.

(C)

LIVING QUARTERS Location of living quarters Type of living quarters Type of foundation Construction material of outer walls Construction material of roof Condition 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 X 4 4 4 4 4 X 4 X X 4 4 X 4 X X

Demographic Trends In Malaysia With Special Focus On Women

20th Population Census Conference,19 21 June, 2002,Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

APPENDIX 1

CENSUS TOPICS

1970

1980

1991

2000

Occupancy status
Year (period) of construction Type of ownership (tenure) Rent (furnished/unfurnished) Type of water supply Type of lighting Type of toilet facility Bathing facility Cooking facility Main cooking fuel No of bedrooms Garbage collection facility Number of persons (occupants) Number of households

4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 X 4 4

4
4 4 X 4 4 4 4 4 X 4 X 4 4

X 4 4 4 4 4 4 X X X X X 4 4

4
X 4 4 4 4 4 X X X 4 4 4 4

Demographic Trends In Malaysia With Special Focus On Women