DC-DC Converters

Modern electronic systems require high-quality, small, lightweight, reliable, and efficient power supplies. Linear power regulators, whose principle of operation is based on a voltage or current divider, are inefficient. This is because they are limited to output voltages smaller than the input voltage, and also their power density is low because they require low frequency (50 or 60 Hz) line transformers and filters. Linear regulators can, however, provide a very high-quality output voltage. Their main area of application is at low power levels. Electronic devices in linear regulators operate in their active (linear) modes, but at higher power levels switching regulators are used. Switching regulators use power electronic semiconductor switches in on and off states. Because there is a small power loss in those states (low voltage across a switch in the on state, zero current through a switch in the off state), switching regulators can achieve high energy conversion efficiencies. Modern power electronic switches can operate at high frequencies. The higher the operating frequency, the smaller and lighter the transformers, filter inductors, and capacitors. In addition, the dynamic characteristics of converters improve with increasing operating frequencies. The bandwidth of a control loop is usually determined by the corner frequency of the output filter. Therefore, high operating frequencies allow for achieving a faster dynamic response to rapid changes in the load current and=or the input voltage. High-frequency electronic power processors are used in dc-dc power conversion. The functions of dc-dc converters are:  to convert a dc input voltage into a dc output voltage ;  to regulate the dc output voltage against load and line variations;  to reduce the ac voltage ripple on the dc output voltage below the required level;  to provide isolation between the input source and the load (isolation is not always required);  to protect the supplied system and the input source from electromagnetic interference (EMI); and  to satisfy various international and national safety standards. A buck converter is a step-down DC to DC converter (fig 1a). It is a switched-mode power supply that consists of dc input voltage source , controlled switch S, diode D, filter inductor L, filter capacitor C, and load resistance R. The operation of the buck converter is fairly simple, with an inductor and two switches (usually a transistor and a diode) that control the inductor. It alternates between connecting the inductor to source voltage to store energy in the inductor and discharging the inductor into the load. Typical waveforms in the converter are shown in Fig. 1b under the assumption that the inductor current is always positive. The state of the converter in which the inductor current is never zero for any period of time is called the continuous conduction mode.

Fig 1. Specifications for each element and input voltage along with output voltage which should be maintained will be given in the lab. . Buck converter: (a) circuit diagram. (b) waveforms. Your job now is to draw a circuit in Pspice Schematics and check out the waveforms across each element as shown in the theoretical graphs.

The output voltage should be 80V .

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