Coaching Process

Lesson 8: Types of Feedback and Delivering Feedback

Aims
To revise the coaching process in order to highlight the need for feedback Examine what feedback is and the types of feedback Examine different methods of delivering feedback

What is the Coaching Process?
The essence of the coaching process is to instigate observable changes in behaviour The coaching and teaching of a skill depends heavily upon analysis to effect an improvement in athletic performance Informed and accurate measures are necessary for effective feedback and improvement of performance In most athletic events, analysis of performance is guided by a series of qualitative assessments made by the coach Franks et al, (1983) defined a simple flow chart of the coaching process. This outlines the coaching process in its observational, analytical and planning phases

The Coaching Process (Franks et al, 1983)

Cotes et al, 1995

Cotes et al, 1995

Cotes et al, 1995

The Coaching Process
The game is watched and the coach will form a conception of positive and negative aspects of the performance Often the results of previous games and often performances in practices are considered before planning in preparation of the next match The next game is played and the process repeats itself

There are however problems associated with the coaching process, such as it relies heavily upon the subjective assessment of game action During a game many occurrences stand out – officials decisions/ exceptional technical achievements by individual athletes Whilst easily remembered they tend to distort the coaches assessment of the game as a whole Most of the remembered features of a game are those that can be associated with highlighted features of play/ competition

Feedback
Feedback is a crucial element of the coaching process Gilbert (2001) suggested only 7% of sports coaching/ science articles in past 32 years have been on feedback Solomon (1998) suggests feedback in the coaching context is extensive Feedback is myriad in nature including- various media, differing times, for a variety of reasons, from different people and therefore has varying consequences Two types of feedback - Augmented and Intrinsic

Augmented feedback
Augmented: to make bigger/better by adding too.... Often technical, knowledge performance, knowledge results, praise, scold, target learning preference Also encourage, guide, aid exploration, introduce strategic concepts, educate athlete as to where and what to place attention on Almost always verbal feedback but could also be kinaesthetic, visual etc

Verbal Feedback
Coaches need to know athletes as people in order to tailor feedback Feedback and perceived ability Coaches perception Athletes perception

Visual feedback

Demo Video

Intrinsic Feedback
Information that is immediately available to the athlete via sensory receptors Not easy for the coach to identify Strategies the coach can adopt to encourage Intrinsic feedback: Video Designing Drills Verbally encourage using cues - ask how “it feels” Ask athlete to describe

Any Questions?

Delivering feedback

Delivering feedback
Don’t feel it has to be verbal

Delivering feedback
Don’t feel it has to be verbal Plan feedback

Delivering feedback
Don’t feel it has to be verbal Plan feedback Aids- video, performance profiles, evaluation and physical

Delivering feedback
Don’t feel it has to be verbal Plan feedback Aids- video, performance profiles, evaluation and physical Denison (2007): Verbalisation needs to be related to the physical experience of the game in order to connect the sequence events

Delivering feedback
Don’t feel it has to be verbal Plan feedback Aids- video, performance profiles, evaluation and physical Denison (2007): Verbalisation needs to be related to the physical experience of the game in order to connect the sequence events Lack of attention to non-verbal feedback such as body language, facial expressions and gestures can cause misinterpretation (Allen & Howe, 1998)

Considerations for delivering feedback
According to Markland & Martinek (1988): Amount Time (duration) Type Timing (when) Cross & Lyle (2003) recommend the coach asks four questions before giving feedback:

1. Are the majority of feedback statements I make to my athletes value statements? That is, do i say things such as “well done”, “good shot”, “that’s great” rather than any other type of statement? 2.When I give corrective feedback, such as “you failed to keep you wrist cocked” or “your feet were in the wrong place” is it phrased negatively, as in these examples or positively? 3.When coaching more than one athlete at a time, do i usually give feedback to the individual so that others can hear what I'm saying? 4.Do I usually give feedback to my athletes while they are actually working/practising?

Recommendations
Cox, 1991 gives 4 recommendations for the delivery of feedback: Give praise (value-laden feedback) only when athletes clearly understand the reason for it Phrase corrective feedback positively, such as “try to do this” rather than “don’t do that” Impart criticism privately so that athletes do not suffer the added embarrassment of having their weaknesses exposed Give feedback immediately after the performance , rather than during or some time after

Giving Feedback
Beginner coaches are schooled to give positive feedback to bolster athletes self esteem. Competent coaches know that praise in certain instance may communicate low expectations and that, at times, constructive criticism serves as a more effective tool. Craft Knowledge allows more experienced coaches to know what to say and when, this is developed, often through trial and error. Therefore coaches need to do three things...

Gain Experience Use reflective coaching Experiment

More experienced coaches strive to give feedback that is challenging, specific and positive Jones, 2006; Berliner, 1994

Any Questions?

In Conclusion
Feedback is an integral part of the coaching process Feedback can be delivered in a variety of ways We should be cautious of feedback being subjective and consider how we can make it objective We should also consider the athletes learning styles

Franks, I.M., Goodman, D., & Miller, G. (1983). Analysis of performance: Qualitative or Quantitative. SPORTS, March. Franks, I.M. (1993) The effect of experience on detection and location of performance differences in a gymnastics technique. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 64, 2 227-231. Hughes, M., Evans, S. and Wells, J. (2001) Establishing normative profiles in performance analysis. International Journal of Performance Analysis of Sport. 1, 4 27. Hughes, M.D., Franks, I.M. and Nagelkerke, P. (1989) A video-system for the quantitative motion analysis of athletes in competitive sport. Journal of Human Movement Studies. 17, 212-227. Hughes, M & Franks, I.M. (2004) Notation Analysis: Systems for better coaching and performance in sport. (2nd Ed) Routledge. Printed in UK Jones....??? 2006 slide 22 McMorris, T & Hale, T. (2007) Coaching Science. Theory into Practice. Wiley. Printed in UK

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