R U N N I N G PRESS

GEM

MEASUREMENTS

& CONVERSIONS
A Complete Guide

The Diagram Group

Running Press
I’hilailelphia

London

First published in the United States of America in 1994 by
Running Press Book Publishers.
Copyright 0 1993. 1994 by Diagram Visual Information Ltd
All rights reserved under the Pan-American and International
Copyright Convention.
Originally published by HarperCollins Publishers Limited under the
title Collitis Gem Ready Reference
This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form or
by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording. or by any information storage and retrieval system now
known or hereafter invented. without written permission from the
publisher.

9
Digit on the right indicates the number of this printing.
ISBN: 1-56]38-466-6
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationNumber: 94-65 I09
Cover design by Toby Schmidt
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M m v m m m t s & Comwsrons

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Meuxirenienrs & Conversions

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Contents
6 HOW TO USE
THIS BOOK
7 Unit conversion index
10 Glossary
26 Unit systems
1: NUMBERS
28 Named numbers
29 Numerical prefixes
32 Historic number
systems
34 Roman number
system
36 Mathematical
symbols
37 Arithmetic
operations
38 Binary numbers
39 Computer coding
systems
42 Fractions, decimals,
and percentages
46 Prime numbers
47 Fibonacci sequence
48 Square and cube
roots
50 Multiplication
tables
54 Multiplication grid
55 Interest
2: LENGTH AND
AREA
60 Formulas: length

62 Conversion tables:
length
70 Formulas: area
72 Conversion tables:
area
78 Geometry of area
79 Geometry of
surface area

3: VOLUME
Formulas
Conversion tables
Geometry of volume
Cooking measures
100 Beverage measures
4: WEIGHT
102 Formulas
104 Conversion tables
110 Periodic table
I12 Chemical elements
124 Scales of hardness
5: ENERGY
I26 Formulas
127 Conversion tables
130 Electromagnetic
spectrum
132 Earthquakes
134 Decibels
136 Energy needs by
activity
137 Energy values of
selected foods
80
83
97
98

CONTENTS 6: TEMPERATURE 138 143 7: 'TIME 144 145 148 149 150 5 208 210 212 213 214 2 15 218 219 220 11: ASTRONOMY 222 224 226 153 184 - 228 229 186 12: EAKTH 8: SPEED 188 232 233 of 196 9: GEOMETRY 198 200 201 234 236 237 238 239 10: EVERYDAY MEASURES 240 202 203 204 206 207 244 246 247 248 250 25 seas .

Unit conversion index In this book. These are particularly handy if you do not have a calculator. The Unit Conversion Index enables you to refer quickly to the tables in which a particular unit is converted. If you know which category you wish to explore. Conversion tables Each group of units has its conversion tables: pages of quick-reference tables for all US units/UK imperial and metric measurements from meters to feet. so the material included is not exhaustive. It would be impossible to accommodate tables listing every possible conversion.. although many are simple. you will need to use a calculator for most of them. and for converting one type of unit to another within the same system. merely turn to the table of contents to find the relevant page number.536 . you will find a selection of conversion formulas.6 ~~~~~ How to use this book Measurements & Conversions is divided into 12 sections. These are easy-to-use formulas for common conversions. approximate conversions. each of which is devoted to a particular category of facts and figures. there are tables for converting units from the US units/UK imperial system of measurement to the metric system (and vice versa). Formulas Within each section. You can use the following to convert figures larger than those in the table: (a) separate the total into its parts: e. grains to grams. to convert 1.g.

9 I . 128-129 Celsius ("C) 138-143 centimeter (cm) 60.76 circular milli-inch see milli-inch cubic units see individual units listed dry volume measurements see individual units listed Fahrenheit (OF) 138-143 fathom (fm) 61. Then move the decimal point the same number of places in the opposite direction to give an approximate conversion of your original number. or (b) move the decimal point in your original figure until it is at the same decimal place as those in the table.64. 62.63. 96 square centimeter (cm2) 70. 75 centimeters per second (cm/s) 188. 191 feet per second (ft/s) 189.68 square chain (ch2) 70.77 calorie (cal) 126. 192 chain (ch) 6 1. 194-195 . 73. 66 cubic centimeter (cm3) 80. first convert the largest part in the table ( 1. 74. Look for the nearest number to this in the table and record the appropriate conversion. Then add these separate conversions together to find the total conversion.000)and then each remaining part (500. Unit conversion index acre 7 I . 67 feet per minute (ft/min) 188. Note also that the figures in the conversion tables are rounded up or down to the third decimal place. 30.UNIT CONVERSION INDEX 7 units of something. and 6). and so are not always exact. 72.

98. 194-195 kilowatt (kW) 126-127 knot international knot (kn) 189.8 UNIT CONVERSION INDEX fluid volume measurements see individual units listed foot (ft) 60. 108 kilojoule (kJ) 126.76 meters per minute (m/min) 188.90 UK gallon (UK gal) 80. 190-191 meters per second (m/s) 189. 64.73. 75 inches per second (in/s) 188.92.64-65.95. 88. 128-129 kelvin (K) 138-142 kilocalorie (kcal/Cal) 126. 77 kilometers per hour (km/s) 188-190.90 fluid gallon (fl gal) 80.85. 91. 82.63. 195 . 72.66 cubic inch (in3) 80.83. 82.192 joule (J) 126. 82. 100 magnum 100 meter (m) 60-6 I .73.62.96 square inch (in2) 70.81. 105. 104.91-92.85. 74.68 gallon dry gallon (dry gal) 82. 63-64.91. 69 square kilometer (km2) 71. 95 square foot (ft2) 7 1. 76 furlong (fur) 6 1. 88.108 kilograms per square centimeter (kg/cm2) 103. 128-129 kilometer (km) 6 1.90. 128-129 kilogram (kg) 103. 67-68 cubic meter (m3) 8 1. 107. 89-90.88. 106 gram (8) 102-104.74. 106-107 hectare (ha) 7 1. 193 liter (I) 8 1. 192-194 UK knot (UK kn) 189.82.95-96 square meter (m2) 70-7 1.82.77 horsepower (hp) 126-1 27 inch (in) 60. 105.87-88.92-93. 100 grain (gr) 102.67 cubic foot (ft3) 81.

8 1.87.94.69 nautical mile (n mi) 6 1.86. 109 short (US) ton (sh t) 103.75 micron see micrometer mile (mi) 6 1. 84. 107 pounds per square inch (PSI) 103.93. 98. 192-195 milli-inch (mil) 60.89.61. 84. 66 square micrometer (pm2) 70. 75 nautical mile see mile ounce (oz) 102-104. 96. 66 circular milli-inch (cmil) 70.UNIT CONVERSION INDEX micrometer (pm) 60. 109 pint dry pint (dry pt) 100 fluid pint (fl pt) 80.94. 107. 105. 105. 72.62. 87. 83.1 0 0 square units see individual units listed stone (st) 103. 89. 73. 106. 106.98.85.85. 96 square yard (yd2) 7 I . 82. 190-191 .72.65. 1 0 0 ounce troy (oz tr) 102-104.77 miles per hour (mph) 188-190.62.89. 100 UK quart (UK qt) 80.75 milliliter (nil) 8 1-82.76 yards per minute (ypm) 188. 8 1.83. 8 1. 86.66 square millimeter (mm2) 70. 98.9 1. 74. 62. 106.68 cubic yard (yd3) 8 1. 108 tonne (t) 103.64. 89.94 millimeter (mm) 60. 107.100 pound (Ib) 98. 65.84.69 square mile (mi2) 7 1. 108 ton long (UK) ton (1 t) 103. 67.92. 109 fluid ounce (fl oz) 8 0 .93. 108-109 yard (yd) 60. 87. 108 quart dry quart (dry qt) 100 fluid quart (fl qt) 80.63.93. 82.87. 105. 100 9 UK pint (UK pt) 80.82. 72. 103.93.86.

meaning a trillionth (10-'8). 1 amu physical = 1. Angstrom (A) A unit of length. in . a prefix meaning a quintillionth ( 10-IR). amu see Atomic mass unit. Equal to 10-I0m ( 10-8 cm). Approximately equal to 1. apothecaries' system A system of weights used.660 x 10-27kg. especially by pharmacists.00005) x 10-27 kg. atto.5 X I 0 8 km. international A unit of mass equal to Yi2 of the mass of a neutral carbon. See also Hectare (ha): 100 a = 1 ha. Angstrom (1814-74).66033 k 0. Equal to 4. used mainly to measure the wavelength of light.12 atom.00005) X 10-27 kg. atomic mass unit (amu) chemical A unit of mass equal to 1/16 of the weighted mass of the three naturally occurring neutral oxygen isotopes. For example. in the UK. Named for the Swedish physicist A. astronomical unit (au or AU) A unit of measure based on the distance between the Earth and the Sun. 1 amu chemical = (1.660k 0. ampere (A)oTheunit for measuring electric current.J. I amu international = (1.10 Glossary acre A measure of land: originally the amount of land that a yoke of oxen could plough in a day. Formerly called the atomic weight unit.840 yd?.In the US. physical A unit of mass equal to 8 6 of the mass of an oxygen atom. are (a) A unit of measure equal to an area of 10 X 10 m (1 a = 100 m2).

equal to 10'*. in the UK. In the US.in UK. centi. See also Joule. British thermal unit (Btu) Measure of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 Ib of water by 1 "E Equal to 252 calories. . a bolt of wallpaper equals 16 yd and a bolt of cloth equals 40 yd. barleycorn A unit of measure of length equal to '/I in.g.03 US bu = 1 UK bu. carat A unit of weight equal to 200 mg (3. The measures are not to be confused: 1. bushel (bu) A measure of dry volume. in the UK 1 attometer = 1 trillionth of a meter.Prefix meaning a 100 or h o . In the US. Also used as a measure of gold purity (per 24 parts gold alloy). avoirdupois system A system of weights based on the 16-ounce pound and the 16-dram ounce. Kilocalorie.01)liter.1 grains). bolt A measure of length. 1 attometer = 1quintillionth of a meter. baker's dozen A counting unit equal to 13. caliber A unit of length used to measure the diameter of a tube or the bore of a firearm. Commonly now also used in the UK to mean 109. calorie (cal) A measure of heat energy representing the amount of heat needed to raise 1 g of water by 1 "C. usually for fabric.GLOSSARY 11 the US. a bolt of cloth equals 42 yd.000 cal = 1 kcal or Cal. Also called "small calorie": 1. e.. 1 bu = 8 gal (64 US pt). equal to 109. billion (bil) In the US. a centiliter (cl) is a unit of volume equal to %00(0. in the UK. in 900in or %ooo in increments. 1bu = 8 gal (64 UK pt).

In the US. With a three dimensional object. In the US. The two should not be confused: 1 b5 US cups = I UK cup. which is measured in cubic units. century A measure of time equal to 100 years. . 1 cup = M UK pt (16 tbsp). in the UK. 1 chaldron = 36 US bu. Originally based on the distance from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow. chaldron A measure of volume. width. especially used to measure the angular deviation of light through a prism. Equal to 128 ft3. cord A unit of dry volume. especially used for timber.01)radian. chain A measure of length equal to 22 yd.12 G LOSSARY centrad A measure of a plane angle. cubic units (cu or 3) These are arrived at by multiplying a number by itself twice. 1 cup = M US pt (I6 tbsp). day mean solar day A measure of time representing the interval between consecutive passages of the Sun across the meridian. 1 centrad = Moo (0. 1 chaldron = 36 UK bu (288 gal). engineer’s chain A measure of length equal to 100 ft. averaged over 1 year. and length are multiplied togther to give its volume. the height. square chain A measure of area equal to 484 yd2. cubit A unit of length approximately equal to 18 in. Also known as Gunter’s chain. nautical chain A measure of length equal to 15 ft. cup A measure of volume (either liquid or solid) used especially in cooking. in the UK.

1 fldr=l.. 56 min.Prefix meaning ten.Ol) liter.intheUK. sidereal day A measure of time approximately equal to 23 hr. fluid dram A unit of liquid volume.400 s).GLOSSARY 13 I day = 24 hr (86. the Fahrenheit scale has 2 12 equal degrees. In the US. The centigrade scale has 100 equal degrees.. 1 drachm = l. douzierne A unit of length equal to !42 line. digit One of ten Arabic symbols representing numbers 0 to 9. decade A measure of time equal to 10 years. 4.09 s. e.k apothecaries' ounce (60 grains).Prefix meaning Mo. drachm A unit of mass in the apothecaries' system.fm of the circumference of a circle ( 1 circle = 360").960759 US fl dr = 1 UK fl dr. temperature A measure of temperature difference representing a single division on the temperature scale. decibel (dB) A measure of relative sound intensity. deca.g. 1 f l d r = % U K f l o z . a decameter is a measure of length equal to 10 m. degree (") geometrical A unit of measure of plane angle equal to 5. The two should not be confused: 0. dozen A counting unit equal to 12.kUSfloz. deci. Also used in astronomy as a unit of measure equal to !42 the diameter of the Sun or Moon. Used in ancient Egypt as a measure of length: 1 digit = 1 finger width. deka. A sidereal day represents the time needed for one complete rotation of the Earth on its axis.see Deca-. .g. e. dram (dr) A unit of mass equal to M6 oz. a deciliter (dl) is a measure of liquid volume equal to !Ao(O.

1 firkin = 9. For example. in the US. Replaced by the joule. used especially to measure beer or ale. erg A unit of energy measurement equal to the energy produced by a force of 1 dyne through a distance of 1 cm. femto. in the UK. 1 firkin = 9 UK gal. feet per minute A unit of velocity representing the number of feet traveled in 1 min. a prefix meaning 1 quadrillionth (10-15). 1 dry pt = !&I US bu. firkin A unit of volume. 1 fm = 6 ft. meaning 1 thousand billionth (10-15). in the UK. In the UK.6+0. in the UK.969 UK pt = 1. a prefix meaning 1 quintillion (1018). fluid Used to distinguish units of liquid (fluid) volume as opposed to dry (solid) volume. the pint measures both dry and liquid volume. 1 erg = 10-7 J.00007) x IO-IVJ. Replaced by the newton (N): 1 dyne = 10-5 N. . electronvolt (eV) A unit of energy measurement representing the energy acquired by an electron in passing through a potential difference of 1 volt. exa. 1 eV=(1. fathom (fm) Unit of length. 1 fl pt = !4 US gal. 1 US dry pt = 0.14 GLOSSARY dry Used in US to distinguish measures of dry (solid) volume as opposed to liquid (fluid) volume.In the US. In the US.163 US fl pt.8 US gal. fluid dram see Dram. Originally based on the span of two outstretched arms. dyne A unit of force equal to that needed to produce acceleration of 1 cm per second in a mass of 1 g. meaning 1 trillion (1018). especially used to measure marine depth.In the US.

83 UK gal. honey. 6-gauge equals 23. For example. grain (gr) A unit of mass measurement. or other liquids. in the UK. a prefix meaning 1 billion (109). gram (g) A unit of mass or volume measurement. I g = 0. Ib ~~ (avoirdupois). 1 gal = 8 UK pt. in the UK. 24 grains = 1 pennyweight. 1 gal = 8 US pt. contained in 1 lb of shot. . In the US (gi). furlong (fur) Unit of length equal to M mi (660 ft). gross A counting measure equal to 144 (or 12 dozen). The two should not be confused: 1. gill A unit of liquid volume. of certain size.001 kg.GLOSSARY 15 fluid ounce see Ounce.34 mm. 1 gigameter = 1 thousand million meters. 19 = 0. in the UK.g. in the US.In the US. foot (ft) A unit of length equal to 12 in. gauge A unit of length used to measure the diameter of a shotgun bore. Originally based on the number of balls. 1 gi = !4 US fl pt. Equal to 0. gallon (gal) A unit of liquid volume. 480 grains = 1 ounce troy. The two should not be confused: y2 US gi = 1 UK gill. 1 gill = !4 UK pt. used especially in the apothecaries' system.9". in UK. Winchester wine gallon (WWG) A unit of volume used for wine. 1 grain = l / f . giga. 1 gigameter = 1 billion meters. e.2 US gal = 1 UK gal.. meaning 1 thousand million ( I 09). grade (9) A measure of plane angle in geometry. In the US.

hecto. inch (in) A unit of length equal to H2 ft. keg A unit of volume. Joule ( 1818-89).16 GLOSSARY hand A unit of length. horsepower (hp) A unit of work representing the power needed to raise 550 lb by 1 ft in 1 s.239 cal. 1 hand = 4 in. metric horsepower A unit of power representing that needed to raise a 75-kg mass 1 m in 1 s. hundredweight (cwt) A unit of mass. hour (hr) A unit of time measurement equal to 60 min (3. 1 hundredweight troy = 100 pounds troy long (UK) hundredweight (cwt) 1 hundredweight =112 lb. usually of land. a hectometer (hm) is a unit of length equal to 100 m.P.. used especially for beer. . e. equal to 10.000m2. inches per second A unit of velocity representing the number of inches traveled in 1 s. Named for J. joule (J) A unit of energy equal to the work done when a force of 1 newton is moved through a distance of 1 m. short (US) hundredweight (sh cwt) 1 short hundredweight = 100 lb. used especially to measure horses’ height. 1 hundredweight = 4 quarters.g. Used instead of calorie: 1 J = 0.Prefix meaning 100.600 s). hectare (ha) A measure of area. hertz (Hz) A unit of frequency measurement equal to 1 cycle per second.

16 of the interval between 0 K (absolute zero) and the triple point of water.076 ft per hour.g. Lord Kelvin ( 1824-1 907). kilo. See also Calorie.000 watts (W).GLOSSARY 17 approximately equal to 30 gal. 1 kiloparsec = 3.” 1 kcal = 1. 1 A = 1 microliter (10-6 liter).000 m. light year (ly) A unit of length (distance) representing the distance traveled by electromagnetic waves (light) . Also called the “international calorie. league A unit of length equal to 3 mi.000.16.. lambda (A) A unit of volume measurement. Named for William Thomson. a kilogram (kg) is a unit of volume measurement equal to 1. 1 kn = 6.260 light years OY). e. equal to 100 Ib. kilogram see Kilokilometer (km) A unit of length equal to 1. kilowatt-hour (kWh) A unit of energy equal to the energy expended when a power of 1 kW is used for 1 hr. kelvin (K) A scale of temperature measurement in which each degree is equal to M73.000 g.OOO. Also used as a measure of weight for nails. K = “C + 273. kiloparsec A unit of distance used to measure distance between galactic bodies. kilowatt (kW) A unit of power equal to 1. knot (kn) A nautical unit of speed measurement equal to the velocity at which 1 n mi is traveled in 1 hr. lakh An Indian counting unit equal to 100. kilocalorie (kcal or Cal) A unit of energy measurement representing the amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of water by 1 “C.000 cal.Prefix meaning 1.

magnum A measure of volume. a megaton is a unit of weight equal to 1million tons. when 1line = 4/40 in. micron (km) A unit of length equal to !4. . 1 n mi (international) = 1.852 m. 1 n mi = 6. 4 lines = 1barleycorn. nautical mile (n mi) A unit of length used in navigation.Prefix meaning 1 million. millionth.OOO cm3. in the UK. a microliter is a unit of volume equal to 1 millionth of a liter. line A unit of length equal to M2 in.. mega.GLOSSARY 18 ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~ through space in 1 year. in the UK.4605 X 1012 km (or.080 ft. micro. used especially for wine or champagne. It can also be used to measure button diameters. mile (mi) A unit of length equal to 1. 1light year = 9. e.001) mm. megahertz (MHz) A unit of frequency (for radio) equal to 1 million cycles per second. meters per minute (m/min) A unit of velocity measurement representing the number of meters traveled in 1min.Prefix meaning 1. metric system A system of measurement based on the meter. 1 magnum = UUK gal.g.m (0.760 yd. liter (I) A unit of volume measurement equal to the volume of 1kg of water at its maximum density. 6 billion miles).. 1magnum = ZX US gal. In the US. Also called the statute mile in the UK. 1 liter = 1. meter (m) A unit of length equal to 100 cm. in the metric system. In the UK. Also called the micrometer. 6 trillion miles. e. in the US.g.

1 nanometer = 1 thousand millionth of a meter. minim A unit of volume..g.001)m. I ’ = goo.OOO years. e.419. meaning 1 thousand millionth (10-9). newton (N) A unit of force equal to that creating an acceleration of 1 m per second when applied to a mass of 1 kg. sidereal. in the UK. in the UK. in the US. 1 minim = %xo US fl oz. millennium A period of time equal to 1. This unit has replaced the dyne: .ooo. 1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter.961 US minim = 1 UKminim.000 fathoms (6.000 (0. nautical mile see Mile. In the US.000 ft).200 s). I sea mile = 1. 1 minim = H8o UK fl oz. milk Prefix meaning 1 thousandth or I/i. nano. in the UK. time (m or min) A unit of time measurement equal to 60 s. sidereal see Year. tropical. usually for liquids.GLOSSARY 19 Also called the geographical mile. miles per hour (mph) A unit of velocity representing the number of miles traveled in 1 hr. The two should not be confused: 0. sea mile A unit of length distinguished from the nautical mile. 1 millimeter (mm) is a unit of length equal to !4. 60 min = 1 hr. month lunar A unit of time equal to 4 weeks (2.In the US. minute geometric (’) A unit of measure for plane angles. For example. tropical see Year. a prefix meaning 1 billionth (10-9).

1 peck = 2 US gal. One ohm equals the resistance across which a potential difference of 1 volt produces a current flow of 1 ampere. In the US. The two should not be confused: 1. .26 light years (ly). ounce troy A unit of mass in the troy system. ohm (Q) A unit of electrical resistance. pace A unit of length/distance equal to 5 ft.032 US peck = 1 UK peck. pascal (pa) A unit of pressure equal to the force of 1 N acting over an area of 1 m*. Equal to %Z pound troy. Also called a Mounce. ounce ( 0 2 ) A unit of mass equal to 516 lb. pennyweight (dwt) A unit of weight in the troy system equal to MOounce troy (25 grains). peta. used in ancient Rome. Named for Isaac Newton (1642-1727). parsec (pc) A unit of length used for measuring astronomical distances. metric ounce A unit of mass equal to 25 g. Named for G. equal to the width of an average palm of the hand (4 digits). 1 peck = 2 UK gal. In the US.20 GLOSSARY 1 N = 105 dynes. I parsec = 3. palm A unit of length used in ancient Egypt. in the UK. perch A unit of length equal to 5 M yd. peck (pk) A unit of dry volume.In the US. in the UK. Ohm ( 1787-1 854). I fl oz = !4o UK pt. 1 fl oz = Mb US pt. a prefix meaning 1 quadrillion (1015). fluid ounce A unit of liquid volume measurement.S. Also called a pole or a rod.

For example.59 g. In the UK.In the US.14. in the UK. a pint measures either dry or liquid volume: 1 pt = X UK gal. point A unit of length. 1 picometre = 1 trillionth of a metre. pica A unit of length. I qt = 2 UK pt.03 US dry pt = 1 UK pt. a prefix meaning 1 trillionth (10-12).2 US fl pt = 1. quart (qt) A unit of volume. 1 qt = 2 US fl pt. usually for liquids. 1 pound troy = 12 ounces troy. two kinds of pint are used: 1 tl pt = % US gal. pint (pt) A unit of volume. 1 picometre = 1 billionth of a metre.174 poundals. in the UK. Its value is approximately 3. Also called pound-force. a prefix meaning 1 billionth (10-12). See also Perch. in the UK. The . pole Unit of length equal to 5 % yd. pico.GLOSSARY 21 in the UK. In the US. meaning 1 thousand billion (1015). force pound A unit of force equal to 32. See also Pound. in the US. Rod. In the US. approximately equal to 16 in. PSI Pounds per square inch: a unit for measuring pressure. pi (n)Symbol and name representing the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. used by printers. poundal A unit of force equal to that needed to give an acceleration of 1 ft per second to a mass of 1 lb. used especially by printers. These two should not be confused: 1. 1 PSI equals the pressure resulting from a force of I force pound acting over an area of 1 in2. pound troy (Ib tr) A unit of mass in the troy system. pound (Ib) A unit of mass equal to 453. %4 US bu = 1 dry pt. approximately equal to IJ12 in.

2 US qt = 1 UK qt. In the US. quarter troy (qr tr) A unit of weight equal to 25 troy pounds. 1 quarter = % UK hundredweight (28 Ib). Called the short hundredweight in the US. scruple A unit of mass in apothecaries’ system equal to 20 grains. Winchester quart A unit of fluid volume equal to 2. in the US. Also called a square perch or a square pole. used to measure paper in bulk. In the UK. quintal (9) A unit of mass equal to 100 kg or 100 lb. rad A short form of radian. used especially for wine. Pole. . rood A unit of area equal to % acre (1210 yd2). 1 quarter = % US ton (500 Ib). See also Centrad. rod area rod A unit of area equal to 30%yd2. equal to 8 UK bu.22 GLOSSARY two should not be confused: 1. dry quart (dry qt) A unit of measure for dry (solid) volume in US. 1 ream equals about 500 sheets. reputed quart A unit of volume. in the UK.5 liters. equal to 8.24 US bu. quarter (qr) mass quarter A unit of mass. score A counting unit equal to 20. length rod A unit of length equal to 5 % yd. a unit of measure for plane angles. ream A unit of volume. See also Perch. equal to % of a Winchester wine gallon. volume quarter A unit of volume.

geometric (') A measure of plane angle equal to H6o0and %err orbital A unit of time equal to 451. 1 stere = 1 m3.5 centiliter. 1 st = 14 Ib. 1 ton = 2. tonne (t) A unit of mass equal to 1. a prefix meaning 1 trillion ( 1 0 1 2 ) . which is measured in square units. 1 ton = 2. stere A unit of volume. For example.000 pounds troy. ton A unit of mass. meaning 1 billion (10'2). Called a short ton in the UK. 16 tbsp = 1 cup. Also called Ephemeris second. Called a long ton in the US. e. . sidereal A unit of time equal to %6. 1 terameter = 1 trillion meters: in the UK. in the US. tera. 3 tsp = 1 tbsp.000 Ib. tablespoon (tbsp) A unit of volume used in cooking and equal to 1.557 of the tropical year 1900.g.GLOSSA RY 23 second A unit of time equal to 160minute. in the UK.240 Ib. teaspoon (tsp) A unit of volume used in cooking and equal to 0. In the UK. length and width are multiplied together to give the area.In the US.400 of the interval needed for one complete rotation of the Earth on its axis. ton troy (ton tr) A unit of mass equal to 2. stone (st) A unit of mass used in the UK. I terameter = 1 billion meters. Also called a metric ton. a square or rectangle.000 kg. To find the area of. square units (sq or 2) These are arrived at by multiplying a number by itself once. In the US.5 centiliters ( 3 tsp). especially used for measuring timber.

1 W = 1 volt-ampere. Named for James Watt (1 736-1 8 19). 6 hr. when the power released between the points is 1 watt (W). watt (W) A unit of power equal to that available when 1 J of energy is expended in 1 s. equal to 1012. year A unit of time measurement determined by the revolution of the Earth around the Sun. Equal to the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire carrying a constant current of 1 ampere (A). troy system A system of mass measurement based on the 20-ounce pound and the 20-pennyweight ounce. L- yard (yd) A unit of length equal to 3 ft (36 in). X-unit (x or XU) A unit of length used especially for measuring wavelength. . volt (V) A unit of electromotive force and potential difference. yards per minute (ypm) A unit of velocity representing the number of yards traveled in 1 min. anomalistic year Equals the time interval between two consecutive passages of the Earth through its perihelion (365 days. 1 x-unit 10-3 angstrom (10-13 m). in UK.000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy. 53 s).GLOSSARY 24 tonne of coal equivalent A measure of energy production/consumption based on the premise that 1 tonne of coal provides 8. trillion In US. equal to 1018. 746 W = 1 horsepower (hp). Named for Alessandro Volta (1 745-1 827). 13 min.

. through the Earth’s equatorial plane (or from vernal equinox to vernal equinox. 48 min. 5 hr. in one direction. 365 days. tropical year Equals the time interval between two consecutive passages of the Sun. 9 min. 9 s). 6 hr.GLOSSARY 25 sidereal year Equals the time in which it takes the Earth to revolve around the Sun from one fixed point (usually a star) back to the same point (365 days. 46 s).

science. the SI system is increasingly used in education. and in everyday life.SI) is the current form of the metric system that has been in use since 1960.26 Unit sytems International System of Units The International System of Units (or Systkme International d’Unit6s . Base units There are seven base units in SI: Unit Symbol Quantity meter m length/distance kilogram kg mass ampere A electric current kelvin K thermodynamic temperature candela cd luminosity s (or sec) time second mole mol amount of substance Prefixes to use with SI units Prefixes are added to each of the base units to indicate multiples and submultiples of ten: Submultiple/ multiple Prefix Symbol 10” micror 10-3 millim 10-2 centiC 10-1 decid 10 decada 102 hectoh 103 kilok 106 megaM . The table opposite shows the common conversions from the metric to the US system of units. In the US.

039 in.061 in.264 fl gal Weight 1 gram (9) 0.102 tons = 2204.034 fl oz 1 centiliter (cl) 0.020 dry gal = 264 fl gal 1 milliliter (rnl) 0. velocity is given in meters per second (m/s.3 35.621 mi 0.00386 mi2 0. Common conversions Length Metric US 1 millimeter (mm) 1 centimeter (cm) 1 meter (m) 1 kilometer (km) Area 1 square rnillirneter (rnmz) 1 square centimeter (cmz) 1 square meter (rn2) 1 hectare (ha) 1 square kilometer (km2) Volume 1 cubic centirneter (cm3) 1 cubic meter (rn3) 0. the SI system uses derived units.308 yd3 = 227. the joule (J) is a unit of energy.315 ft3 = 1.196 yd2 2.338 fl oz 1 liter (I) 2.471 acres = 0. 0.623 Ib .2 0.UNIT SYSTEMS 27 Derived units In addition. For example.394 in.035 oz 1 kilogram (kg) 2.386 mi2 0. and the newton (N) is a unit of force.281 ft = 1.056 fl qt = 0.015 in. Other derived units in SI are referred to by special names: the watt (W) is a unit of power.2 10.28 oz 1 tonne (t) 1.1 13 fl pt = 1.764 f t 2 = 1. 3.094 vd 1094 yd = 0.155 in.205 Ib = 35. ms-l).

two bits $1 Buck . brace 6 Half a dozen 12 Dozen 13 Baker’s dozen 20 Score 50 Half century 100 Century 144 Gross Musicians 1 Soloist 2 Duet 3 Trio 4 Quartet 5 Quintet 6 Sextet 7 Septet 8 Octet Multiple births 2 Twins 3 Triplets 4 Quadruplets (quads) 5 Quintuplets (quints) 6 Sextuplets Slang for money 16 Penny 5 t Nickel 106 Dime 256 Quarter. Some names for specialized numbers have the same first part (prefix). Some of these names are in everyday use. Everyday use Tithe 2 Pair. couple. These prefixes indicate the number to which the name refers.28 1: Numbers Named numbers Many numbers have names. others apply in more specialized areas such as music and multiple births and for sums of money.

deka. hemi-. septiSex-. tessera-. undec-.10 Quadr-. quadri-.. hexaIcos-. icosa-. penta-. hex-. ter- 4 Tetra-. hepta-. octa-. tetraTriUndec-. octa-. septi-. quinqu-. icosi~ ~~ Prefixes in alphabetical order BI-. octo9 Non-.i. demi- 1 Uni2 Bi-. deka11 li. icosa-.NUMERICAL PREFIXES 29 Numerical prefixes Prefixes in numerical order l/10 Deci1/2 Semi-. nonaOct-. sept-. 12 Dodeca15 Quindeca20 Icos-. pentaDec-. ennea10 Dec-. quadriDeciDemiDIDodecaEnneaHemiHendecaHept-. quinque-.. quint6 Sex-. icosiNon-. tetr-. undecaUni- 5 4 15 5 5 I12 7 6 3 4 4 3 11 1 . hexa- 7 Hept-. deca-. quadr5 Pent-. sexi-. deca-. octo- '/to I12 2 12 9 112 11 7 6 20 9 8 QuindecaQuinqu-.-a-. quinqueQuintSemiSept-. HeptaHex-. septem-. 2 Pent-. nona-.. sextTe rTesseraTetr-. di- 3 Tri-. septem8 Oct-.

hex-.000000001 *Micro- 0. hepta-.6 Hept-. sept-. quinqu-.000000000000000001 ‘Femto- 0. ter- 3 Tetra-.01 ‘Deci- 0.1 Semi-. quint5 Sex-. tessera-. quadri-. quadr- 4 Pent-. septi-. tetr-.000000000001 ‘Nano- 0. penta-.001 *Centi- 0.000001 *Milli- 0. septem- 7 approved for use with the SI system . di- 2 Tri-. hexa. sexi-.NUMBERS 30 Prefixes and their values Prefixes in order of value Value *Atto- 0. demi- 0. hemi-. quinque-.000000000000001 *Pico- 0.5 Uni- 1 Bi-.

000.000.000. octo- a Non-.000.000 *Tera- 1.000.000 'Mega- 1.000.000 31 'Giga- 1.000.000.000.000. ennea- 9 Dec-. deca-.000. undeca- 11 Dodeca- 12 Quindeca- 15 Icos-. octa-. deka- 10 Hendeca-. hecto- 100 'Kilo- 1. icosa-. nona-.NUMERICAL PREFIXES Prefixes in order of value Value Oct-.000. undec-.000 *Peta- 1.000 *Exa- 1. icosi- 20 Hect-.000 Myria- 10.000.000.000.000 .

NUMBERS 32 Historic number systems Different civilizations have developed their own systems for writing numbers. Roman 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 50 100 500 1000 I I1 111 IV V VI VII VIII IX X L C D M . Here we show numerals from eight such systems.

HISTORIC NUMBER SYSTEMS BabyIonian Egyptian Hebrew 7 I N YY II 4 m YYY Y YYY YY 111 Ill1 Ill II YYY YYY Ill YYY Y YY 1111 Y YY Y YY YY Y YY YYY Y YY IIII Ill Ill IIII 111 111 111 n nnn nn 3 y AY+ %%) i 33 - Japanese .

The numerals are represented by seven capital letters of the alphabet: I V X L C D M one five ten fifty onehundred five hundred one thousand These letters are the foundation of the system.. . the value of the combined form is the difference between the values of each letter (e.NUMBERS 34 Roman number system The Roman numeral system is a method of notation in which the capitals are modeled on ancient Roman inscriptions. then add these to the values of the other letters in the string: MCMXCI = M+CM+XC+I = l. IX = X (10) ..000). To determine the value of a string of Roman numbers (letters). If a letter is preceded by another of lesser value (e.g. IX). find the pairs in the string (those beginning with a lower value) and determine their values.I (1) = 9).g. they are combined in order to form all numbers.O00+900+90+1= 1991 A cash over a letter multiplies the value by 1.g.000 (e. V = 5.

qz ROMAN NUMBER SYSTEM 100 1 I XI1 xxxv c XL cc 200 2 XI11 PI 14 3 XLV 50 15 H V O 1111 XV v 300 45 XIV 111 4 5 35 16 CCC 400 k CD 500 55 D Lv XVP 6 17 60 600 7 18 65 700 DC VII XVHIP LXV 19 8 70 DCC 800 DCCC 900 9 CM 80 10 1000 M L 11 30 XI 2000 90 XC MM .

NUMBERS 36 Mathematical symbols + plus or positive - minus or negative k plus or minus. positive or negative x - equal to # not equal to > < > 4 S divided by identically equal to rv / greater than orequal to less than or equal to greater rnnh multiplied by - +- =. not identically equal to approximately equal to of the order of or similar to greater than lessthan not greater than not less than square root 00 infinity proportional to C n A 0 1) sumof product of difference therefore angle parallel to _L perpendicular to : is to .

and division. Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division 29 Addend +6 Addend 35 Sum 46 Multiplicand X 9 Multiplier 41 4 Product 74 Minuend -1 6 Subtrahend 5 8 Difference /T 13 )44Dividend 39 5 Fraction 51 5 Numerator /8 8 Denominator Divisor Quotient Remainder Simple (or vulgar) fraction Denominator .ARlTHMET1C 0PERATIONS 37 Arithmetic operations The four basic arithmetic operations are addition. subtraction. multiplication. Each part of an arithmetic operation has a specific name.

For example.000 5. or on a sum of powers of 2.000 100.000 2.048.NUMBERS 38 Binary numbers The binary system is formulated on a base of 2. the number 101011 is equal to 25 + 0 + 23+ 0 + 2' + 2".576bytes. in the decimal system. The system is used frequently in computer applications.000 10. The table below shows other decimalbinary equivalents. 1 bit = 1 binary digit.000 Binary 10101 11110 101000 110010 111100 1011010 1100100 11001000 100101100 110010000 111110100 1001011000 1110000100 1111101000 11111010000 111110100000 1001110001000 10011100010000 100111000100000 11000011010100000 . In describing computer storage. Decimal Binary 1 1 2 10 11 3 4 100 5 101 6 110 7 111 8 1000 9 1001 10 1010 1011 11 12 1100 1101 13 14 1110 15 1111 16 10000 17 10001 18 10010 19 10011 20 10100 Decimal 21 30 40 50 60 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 900 1.000 20.000 4. 1 byte = 8 bits in most systems. 1 megabyte (MB) = 1. this number equals 43.

and hexadecimal systems are used in computer programming. Binary. ASCII. hexadecimal. The table below shows Character equivalents in decimal. Hexadecimal is a system of numbering based on 16 digits (as opposed to 10 in the decimal system): 1 to 9 and A to F. Its 256 codes represent computer commands and letters of the alphabet. Dec 000 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 Hex 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 OA OB oc OD OE OF ASCII NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR so Dec 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 Hex ASCII 10 DLE 11 DCl 12 DC2 13 DC3 14 DC4 15 NAK 16 SYN 17 ETB 18 CAN 19 EM 1A SUB 1B ESCAPE 1C FS 1D GS 1E RS SI 031 1F us . and ASCII systems.COMPUTER CODING SYSTEMS 39 Computer coding systems ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is an international coding system of character representation.

I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ASCII 9 1 c = > ? @ A B C D E F G H 1 J K L M N 0 P Q . .NUMBERS 40 Dec Hex ASCII Dec Hex 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 20 2E 2F 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 39 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 50 51 SPACE ! ” # $ Oo / & ’ ( ) * + .

COMPUTER CODING SYSTEMS Dec Hex 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 5A 58 5C 50 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 6A ASCII R S T U v W X Y Z [ \ ] A - . a b C d e f g h i j 41 Dec Hex 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 6B 6C 6D 6E 6F 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E 7F ASCII k I m n o p q r S t U V w X y z { 1 } DEL .

42 NUMBERS .

DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES 43 .FRACTIONS.

44 NUMBERS .

FRACTIONS.DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES 45 .

NUMBERS 46 Prime numbers These are whole numbers that have only two factors the number itself and the number 1. The largest prime known in 1983 has 39.75 1 digits. There are an infinite number of prime numbers. The number at the foot of the table is the largest prime known in 1952. 2 47 109 191 269 353 439 523 617 3 53 113 193 271 359 443 541 5 59 127 197 277 367 449 547 631 7 61 131 199 281 373 457 557 641 11 67 137 211 283 379 461 563 643 13 71 139 223 293 383 463 569 647 17 73 149 227 307 389 467 571 19 79 151 229 311 397 479 23 83 157 233 313 401 29 89 163 239 317 409 491 593 31 97 167 241 331 419 499 599 677 37 101 41 173 251 337 421 619 653 577 659 487 587 661 503 601 673 683 103 179 257 347 431 509 607 691 43 107 181 263 349 433 521 613 701 170141183460469231731687303715884105727 . The first 126 are given below. The only even prime number is 2: all other prime numbers are odd.

181 3t2=5 4.229 377 t 233 = 610 514.269 .393 121.657 t 17.811 = 832.346.811 233t144 = 377 317. ot1=1 987 t 610 = 1.229 = 1.418+121.181 = 10.946 8+5 = 13 10.946+6.393+75.657 28.025 t 46.711 t 10.040 t 514.765 = 17.229 t 317. Below is an example of a Fibonacci sequence.181 t2.584t 1.418 = 514.711 = 46.765 5t3=8 6.368 3 4 t 2 1 =55 46.393 = 317.368 = 121.657 = 75.946 = 28. The sequence can therefore be built up using simple addition.025 = 196.765+4.711 1 3 t 8 = 21 21+13=34 17.FlBONACCl SEOUENCE 47 Fibonacci sequence Each number in a Fibonacci sequence is the sum of the two numbers preceding it.811 t196.040 610 t 377 = 987 832.584 2.025 5 5 t 3 4 = 89 8 9 t 5 5 = 144 144t89 = 233 75.597 t 987 = 2.368 t 28.418 196.597 1t1=2 2t1=3 1.584 = 6.597 = 4.

036 3.476 3.082 6.174 3.802 2. I ? 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 5. Square and cube* roots of 1 to 25 .449 2.530 3.556 3.708 6.714 2.873 4.587 1.464 3.442 1.123 4.259 1.236 2.690 4.NUMBERS 48 Square and cube roots *Accurate to 3 decimal places .000 3.154 2.410 2.072 3.000 4.000 2.000 3.245 6.758 2.000 1.782 6.291 5.391 3.744 5. ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 1.289 2.they have not been rounded up or down.351 2.242 4.884 2.000 1.916 6.000 1.684 .448 3.080 2.605 3.107 3.071 2.567 5.141 3.223 2.466 2.164 6.668 2.656 5.477 5.828 3.633 6.645 2.385 5.557 6.843 2.472 4.000 7.928 7.358 4.332 3.419 3.361 3.316 3.000 2.324 6.831 5.855 6.709 1.732 2.795 4. .608 3.000 6.571 2.634 3.924 Square and cube* roots of 26 to 50 .239 3.962 3.620 2.659 3.162 3.271 3.582 4.912 2.414 1.899 5.741 3.480 6.519 2.196 5.503 3.403 6.207 3.099 5.583 3.301 3.817 1.

717 8.055 9.530 4.546 4.746 7.362 4.366 8.434 9.643 9.870 3.327 9.936 3.273 9.000 9.578 4.848 3.944 9.660 Square and cube* roots of 76 to 100 .831 8.280 7.626 4.000 4.160 4.695 9.000 ? 4.913 3.549 7.544 8.179 4.020 4.937 8.447 4.380 9.562 4.062 8.775 8.957 3.235 4.254 4.246 8.426 8.594 4.779 3.SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS Square and cube* roots of 51 to 75 .893 3.I 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 7.848 9.140 4.081 4.681 7.514 4.396 4.497 4.949 10.211 7.641 .431 4.041 4.802 3.344 4.141 7.591 9.756 3.306 8.464 4.825 3.000 8.101 4.219 9.810 7.746 9.888 8.110 9.I 9 3.348 7.485 8.198 4.414 4.217 49 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 8.539 9.272 4.602 8.379 4.165 9.486 9.326 4.481 4.708 3.124 8.615 7.483 7.798 9.121 4.899 9.979 4.610 4.185 8.874 7.732 3.416 7.061 4.308 4.290 4.

NUMBERS 50 Multiplication tables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 x2 x3 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 1 3 2 6 3 9 4 12 5 15 6 18 7 21 8 24 9 27 10 30 11 33 12 36 13 39 14 42 15 45 16 48 17 51 18 54 19 57 25 75 35 105 45 135 55 165 65 195 75 225 85 255 95 285 x4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 100 140 180 220 260 300 340 380 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 x5 x6 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 125 175 225 275 325 375 425 475 1 6 2 12 3 18 4 24 5 30 6 36 7 42 8 48 9 54 10 60 11 66 12 72 13 78 14 84 15 90 16 96 17 102 18 108 19 114 25 150 35 210 45 270 55 330 65 390 75 450 85 510 95 570 -..-- .

045 ----85 95 55 95 .MULTlPLlCAT1ON TABLES x7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 25 35 45 55 65 75 x9 x8 7 i a 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 a4 91 98 105 112 119 126 133 175 245 315 385 455 525 595 665 2 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 25 35 65 55 65 75 ao aa 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 200 280 360 440 520 600 680 760 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 9 ia 27 36 45 54 63 72 a1 90 99 ioa 117 126 135 144 153 162 171 225 315 405 495 585 675 765 a55 51 X I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ao 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 16 17 18 i a o 19 190 25 250 35 350 45 450 55 550 65 650 75 750 85 a50 95 950 XI1 1 11 2 22 33 44 55 66 77 3 4 5 6 7 8 aa 9 99 10 110 11 121 12 132 13 143 14 154 15 165 16 176 17 187 18 198 19 209 25 275 35 385 45 495 55 605 65 715 75 825 85 935 95 1.

425 1 16 2 32 3 48 4 64 5 80 6 96 7 112 8 128 9 144 10 160 11 176 12 192 13 208 14 224 15 240 16 256 17 272 18 288 19 304 25 400 35 560 45 720 55 880 65 1.140 1 13 2 26 3 39 4 52 5 65 6 78 7 91 8 104 9 117 10 130 11 143 12 156 13 169 14 182 15 195 16 208 17 221 18 234 19 247 25 325 35 455 45 585 55 715 65 845 75 975 B5 1.520 ---- .360 95 1.330 1 15 2 30 3 45 4 60 5 75 6 90 7 105 8 120 9 135 10 150 11 165 12 180 13 195 14 210 15 225 16 240 17 255 18 270 19 285 25 375 35 525 45 675 55 825 65 975 75 1.020 95 1.275 95 1.190 95 1.050 85 1.200 85 1.235 1 14 2 28 3 42 4 56 5 70 6 84 7 98 8 112 9 126 10 140 11 154 12 168 13 182 14 196 15 210 16 224 17 238 18 252 19 266 25 350 35 490 45 630 55 770 65 910 75 1.125 85 1.040 75 1.NUMBERS 52 Multiplication tables (continued) x12 x13 x14 x15 x16 1 12 2 24 3 36 4 48 5 60 6 72 7 84 8 96 9 108 10 120 11 132 12 144 13 156 14 168 15 180 16 192 17 204 18 216 19 228 25 300 35 420 45 540 55 660 65 780 75 900 85 1.I 05 95 1.

615 95 1.235 75 1.805 1 1 53 x 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 I6 17 18 19 25 35 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 500 700 65 900 55 1.105 75 1.425 85 1.275 B5 1.300 75 1.530 95 1.785 95 1.615 18 2 36 3 54 4 72 5 90 6 108 7 126 8 144 9 162 10 180 11 198 12 216 13 234 14 252 15 270 16 288 17 306 18 324 19 342 25 450 35 630 45 810 55 990 65 1.045 65 1.700 95 1.MULTIPLICATION TABLES x17 x18 x19 1 17 2 34 3 51 4 68 5 85 6 102 7 119 8 136 9 153 10 170 11 187 12 204 13 221 14 238 15 255 16 272 17 289 18 306 19 323 25 425 35 595 45 765 55 935 65 1.995 2 3 4 5 6 7 ----- .900 x21 1 21 42 63 84 105 126 147 8 168 9 189 10 210 11 231 12 252 13 273 14 294 15 315 16 336 17 357 18 378 19 399 25 525 35 735 45 945 55 1.170 75 1.365 15 1.445 95 1.155 65 1.575 85 1.100 65 1.500 B5 1.350 85 1.710 19 2 38 3 57 4 76 5 95 6 114 7 133 8 152 9 171 10 190 11 209 12 228 13 247 14 266 15 285 16 304 17 323 18 342 19 361 25 475 35 665 45 855 55 1.

for example. 54. I Column 41516 8 110112 12115118 24 I 3 0 I 3 6 Multiplication To multiply 6 by 9. Division To divide 56 by 8. scan down column eight to find 56 (the dividend) then scan across to find the row number.NU MBERS 54 Multiplication grid Below is a quick-reference grid giving products and quotients. . The number in the square where column six intersects row nine is the product. scan down column six until you reach row nine. It can be used for either multiplication or division. 7. This is the quotient.

Simple interest This type of interest is calculated on the amount of money originally loaned (the principal). P is principal.is figured using the formula: Compound interest Unlike simple interest. There are two types of interest: simple interest and compound interest. compound interest is paid also on the previous interest earned. The formula used to calculate simple interest is: I =. The final sum . "n" is the number of periods. and T is the length of time (measured in units) over which the money is invested or loaned. Compound interest is figured using the formula: S = P(1 + i)" The "i" represents the periodic interest. Thus the sum . which is paid only on the principal. It is usually expressed in terms of percentage rates.P x R x T 100 1 is interest.or amount to which the principal will grow .INTEREST 55 Interest Interest refers to the charge made for borrowing money or to payment given for investing money. R is the percentage rate per unit time.increases at a much faster rate than with simple interest.or amount of money to which the principal will grow . .

56

NUMBERS

Simple interest
Simple interest rates (in dollars) to add to $1000
percent per annum
3.5%
4%
Period
2.5% 3%
0.068 0.082 0.096 0.110
1 day
0.137 0.164 0.192 0.219
2 days
0.205 0.247 0.288 0.329
3 days
0.274 0.329 0.384 0.438
4 days
0.342 0.411 0.479 0.548
5 days
0.411 0.493 0.575 0.658
6 days
2.055 2.466 2.877 3.288
30 days
4.110 4.932 5.753 6.575
60 days
6.164 7.397 8.630 9.863
90 davs
12.329 14.795 17.260 19.726
180 days
360 days
24.658 29.589 34.521 39.452
1 year
25.000 30.000 35.000 40.000
Simple interest (in dollars) added on to
percent per annum
a principal of $100
7%
8%
9%
10%
Period
1 year
107.00 108.00 109.00 11 0.00
135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00
5 years
10 years
170.00 180.00 190.00 200.00
20 years
240.00 260.00 280.00 300.00
30 years
31 0.00 340.00 370.00 400.00
40 years
380.00 420.00 460.00 500.00
50 years
450.00 500.00 550.00 600.00

INTEREST

57

percent per annum

0.370 0.411 0.452 0.493 0.534 0.575
0.493 0.548 0.603 0.658 0.712 0.767
0.616 0.685 0.753 0.822 0.890 0.959
0.740 0.822 0.904 0.986 1.068 1.151
3.699 4.110 4.521 4.932 5.342 5.753
7.397 8.219 9.041 9.863 10.685 11.507
11.096 12.329 13.562 14.795 16.027 17.260
22.192 24.658 27.123 29.589 32.055 34.521
44.38449.315 54.247 59.178 64.110 69.041
45.00050.000 55.000 60.000 65.000 70.000

11%

111.00
155.00
21 0.00
320.00
430.00
540.00
650.00

percent per annum
12%
13%
14%
112.00 113.00 114.00
160.00 165.00 170.00
220.00 230.00 240.00
340.00 360.00 380.00
460.00 490.00 520.00
580.00 620.00 660.00
700.00 750.00 800.00

15%
115.00
175.00
250.00
400.00
550.00
700.00
850.00

NUMBERS

58

Compound interest
The table below shows the compound interest paid (in
dollars) on a principal of $100. The interest rate is in
percent per annum.
Period
1 day
1 week
6months
1 year
2years
3 years
4years
5 years
6years
7years
8 years
9years
10years

4%

0.011
0.077
2.00
4.00
8.16
12.49
16.99
21.67
26.53
31.59
36.86
42.33
48.02

5%

0.014
0.096
2.50
5.00
10.25
15.76
21.55
27.63
34.01
40.71
47.75
55.13
62.89

6%
0.016
0.115
3.00
6.00
12.36
19.10
26.25
33.82
41.85
50.36
59.38
68.95
79.08

7%
0.019
0.135
3.50
7.00
14.49
22.50
31.08
40.26
50.07
60.58
71.82-83.85
96.72

Comparing the two
Money grows much more quickly with compound
interest than with simple interest. Compare, for
example, the amount of time required for an amount of
money to double itself with simple interest and with
compound interest:

INTEREST

8%
0.022
0.154
4.00
8.00
16.64
25.97
36.05
46.93
58.69
71.38
85.09
99.90
115.89

Rate
7%
SO%

59

9%

10%

0.025
0.173
4.50
9.00
18.81
29.50
41.16
53.86
67.71
82.80
99.26
117.19
136.74

0.027
0.192
5.00
10.00
21.00
33.10
46.41
61.05
77.16
94.87
114.36
135.79
159.37

12%

14%

0.033 0.038
0.231 0.269
6.00 7.00
12.00 14.00
25.44 29.96
40.49 48.15
57.35 68.90
76.23 92.54
97.38 119.50
121.07 150.23
147.60 185.26
177.31 225.19
210.58 270.72

Simple
14 yrs, 104 days
SO yrs

16%

0.044
0.308
8.00
16.00
34.56
56.09
81.06
110.03
143.64
182.62
227.84
280.30
341.14

Compound
10 yrs, 89 days
7 yrs, S O 0 days

60

2: Length and area
Formulas: length
Below are listed the multiplication/division factors for
converting units of length from US units/UK imperial
units to metric, and vice versa. Note that two kinds of
factors are given: quick, for an approximate conversion
that can be made without a calculator; and accurate, for
an exact conversion.

-

Milli-inches (mils) Micrometers (brn)
I

mils +pm
pm -m mils

Quick

Accurate
x 25.4

x 25
+ 25

x 0.0394

Inches (in) Millimeters (mm)

-in

I

mm

+mm

+in

Inches (in) Centimeters (cm)
in -m cm

I

cm

+in

x25

x 25.4
x 0.0394

x 2.5
2.5

x 2.54

+ 25

x 0.394

s
~

~~

~~

Feet (ft) Meters (m)

ft

I -

m

-m m
+ft

Yards (yd) Meters (rn)
yd - + m
m
-myd

-+ 3.3

x 3.3

x 0.305
x 3.281

s l
xl

x 0.914
x 1.094

83 x 0.151 x 0.621 x 1.5 + 1.869 x 2 +2 x 1.5 x 1.) km yd Miles (mi) Kilometers (km) mi km +km + mi Nautical miles (n rni) Miles (mi) nmi+ rni mi + n m i Nautical miles (n mi) Kilometers (km) -nmi+km km + n m i .) --.54 m Chains (ch) Meters (rn) -ch I m +ch Furlongs (fur) Meters (m) I fur +m m +fur Yards (yd) Kilometers (km) I yd km --.6 x 1.FORMULAS: LENGTH - 61 Fathoms (fm) Meters (m) Quick Accurate -fm .00091 x 1093.17 x 0.1.0497 x 200 + 200 x201.005 + 1000 x 1000 x 0.852 x 0.108 x 0.2 x 1.m m +fm x 2 t 2 x 1.2 +.609 x 0.547 +m x20 + 20 X 20.

778.00 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 --- .8 203.0 1.0 2.524.270.0 2.0 508.8 76.78 20.0 152.016.LENGTH AND AREA 62 Conversion tables: length The tables below can be used to convert units of length from one measuring system to another. The first group of tables converts US units/UK imperial units to Milli-inches to Micrometers Inches to Millimeters Inches to Centimeters mils km in mm in cm 1 2 3 25.6 127.270.00 152.80 203.40 177.0 762.540.2 101.4 177.86 25.0 1 2 2.4 50.6 254.0 2.62 10.778.54 5.0 508.4 50.0 152.016.40 50.20 101.0 1 2 3 25.0 1.0 1.60 127.6 254.0 1.032.20 228.286.80 76.0 762.8 203.16 12.0 1.286.0 1.032.0 2.24 17.2 101.2 228.4 177.32 22.08 7.524.0 2.70 15.0 2.0 1.6 127.540.0 1.2 228.60 254.8 76.

288 21.438 2.720 54. the second.432 36.CONVERSION TABLES: LENGTH 63 metric.914 1. Yards to Meters Feet to Meters ft m Yd m fm m 1 2 3 0.743 3.80 14.87 73.008 73. beginning on page 66.864 64.90 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 Fathoms to Meters 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -- .305 0.219 1.83 3.144 18.16 91.61 182.432 30.315 8.658 4.296 91.048 6.32 164.152 82.66 5.58 54.610 0.134 2.743 3.46 18.480 1 2 3 0.486 6.524 1.829 2.03 146.288 27.572 5.384 27.230 9.401 7.14 10.576 45.49 7.240 18.29 36. converts metric to US units/UK imperial.096 9.829 2.440 1 2 3 1.32 9.336 24.45 109.74 128.97 12.914 1.63 16.144 12.192 15.

005.023.046.864 180.549 0.274 0.04 8.000 4.800 1 201.572 5.743 3.457 0.035.000 10.756 160.480 1.72 10.324 80.648 140.01 1.091 0.000 2.80 100 200 300 0.093.08 14.- .000 6.LENGTH AND AREA 64 US units/UK imperial and metric units of length (continued) Chains to Meters Furlongs to Meters Yards to Kilometers ch m fur m yd km 1 2 3 20.070.17 402.829 2.108 40.44 18.914 1.320 1.230 9.540 120.640 1.206.84 1.810.011.400 1.972 201.50 804.081.010.000 8.12 20.000 5.40 12.640 0.68 4.240 804.658 4.408.18 1.76 16.608.823 0.080 402.005.207.486 6.731 0.720 2.401 7.36 6.116.000 -.34 603.34 1.183 0.144 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 400 500 600 700 800 900 1.366 0.105.609.216 60.67 1.058.51 2.000 3.407560 1.160 603.000 7.809.432 100.000 9.315 8.

200 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 .561 112.151 2.560 74.748 144.219 4.016 34.078 1 2 3 1.816 16.523 46.600 111.302 3.187 48.437 8.120 129.452 4.668 18.852 3.680 185.031 57.374 80.206 10.539 69.841 160.408 9.570 115.656 11.265 12.CONVERSION TABLES: LENGTH Miles to Kilometers Nautical miles to Miles mi km ~ m i 1 2 3 1.554 92.047 80.080 92.260 11.047 9.905 8.754 6.280 64.040 55.654 128.112 12.520 37.484 16.704 5.875 14.062 103.603 5.934 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 65 Nautical miles to Kilometers mi nmi km 1.467 96.828 6.093 32.055 9.508 23.640 148.357 11.556 7.160 166.609 3.964 14.

079 0.181 1.236 0.969 2.118 0.433 39.756 3.543 3.039 0.276 0.787 1.575 1.969 2.362 2.236 0.157 0.559 31.969 2.496 35.039 0.874 11.622 27.685 23.543 3.LENGTH AND AREA 66 US units/UK imperial and metric units of length Micrometers to Milli-inches Centimeters to Inches pm mils mm in cm in 1 2 3 0.575 1.575 1.362 2.150 3.181 1.197 0.394 0.756 3.181 1.394 0.197 0.811 15.787 1.937 1 2 3 0.362 2.748 19.276 0.394 0.543 3.354 0.756 3.315 0.150 3.937 1 2 3 0.370 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 - Millimeters to Inches 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -100 .937 7.079 0.315 0.118 0.354 0.787 1.157 0.150 3.

685 22.489 98.843 13.921 5.402 21.843 10.084 4 5 6 7 0 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 00 90 100 67 Meters to Fathoms Yd m fm 1.467 295.207 54.281 6.361 1 2 3 0.042 196.617 98.935 16.827 4.CONVERSION TABLES: LENGTH Meters to Feet Meters to Yards m ft 1 2 3 3.966 26.681 65.425 131.234 164.467 10.655 8.404 19.547 1.187 2.425 109.659 262.374 5.281 4.553 87.094 2.870 27.745 54.850 229.187 3.617 76.640 2.093 1.123 16.805 38.936 21.749 9.808 65.808 43.247 29.337 32.528 32.562 7.276 328.280 3.272 43.674 4 5 6 7 0 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 .734 3.562 9.872 32.740 49.468 6.374 4.

199 0.010 0.1491 0.6 2.025 0.6 7.0497 0.9731 1 2 3 0.616.020 0.8 9.0 109.035 0.9893 2.0 98.936.149 0.655.680.488.0 87.748.0 21.4 5.040 0.187.3979 0.561.468.4919 1.0 32.1989 0.249 0.4758 4.348 0.447 0.398 0.015 0.424.298 0.0 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 - Kilometers to Yards 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -- .9785 4.9839 3.0 76.808.0 43.045 0.360.0 65.099 0.374.0994 0.3481 0.8 4.LENGTH AND AREA 68 US units/UK imperial and metric units of length Meters to Furlongs Meters to Chains m ch m fur tm yd 1 2 3 0.2 8.030 0.497 1 2 3 1.4 10.2983 0.744.005 0.2487 0.4476 0.4866 2.842.2 3.552.872.4973 0.280.093.0 6.4812 3.050 0.0 54.9946 1.

40 37.86 5.592 6.476 4.069 37.518 78.380 26.62 2.137 1 2 3 0.350 4.00 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - Miles to Nautical miles 69 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 -70 80 90 100 70 80 90 100 .20 21.427 18.60 27.214 12.759 43.32 4.641 24.40 10.80 43.139 60.20 48.107 3.728 4.CONVERSIONTABLES: LENGTH Kilometers to Miles Kilometers to Nautical miles km mi mi nmi km nmi 1 2 3 0.78 4.923 62.208 86.900 1 2 3 0.70 3.621 1.607 3.869 1.449 52.24 3.485 3.496 49.282 43.855 31.80 16.00 32.16 2.60 54.08 1.069 34.54 1.864 2.710 55.214 6.971 5.243 1.349 5.083 6.828 69.738 2.690 17.821 8.952 7.

5 x 6.5 + 6.2 -+ 650 x 0.686 x 0. for an exact conversion.452 x 0. Note that two kinds of factors are given: quick.0025 .15 Square chains (ch’) Square meters (m2) ch2 rn2 -w m2 -w chz x 400 t 400 x 404. and accurate. and vice versa.0015 mm2 in2 Square inches (in2) Square centimeters (cm2) inz -b cm2 cm2 -e in2 x 6.7 x 0.LENGTH AND AREA 70 Formulas: area Below are listed the multiplicatiotddivision factors for converting units of area from US units/UK imperial units to metric. Circular mils (cmil) Square micrometers Quick Accurate (pd) x500 + 500 cmil -w pm2 pm2 -+cmil x 506.002 Square inches (in2) Square millimeters (mm2) in2 mm2 -b -+ x 650 x 645. for an approximate conversion that can be made without a calculator.

590 .25 x 0.764 x 0.471 x 0.FORMULAS: AREA 6 71 Square miles (rni’) Quick Square kilometers (krn2) mi2 km2 +k m 2 +mi2 x 2.999 X 0.5 Square meters (m2) Square yards (yd2) rn2 +yd2 yd2 -b m2 x 1 f 1 x 1.386 x 250 f 250 x 258.0039 x 2.093 .5 x 2.836 Square meters (m2) Square feet (ft2) -w ft2 x 11 + 11 x 10.405 Square miles (mi2) Hectares (ha) mi2 ha -b ha -b miz R Hectares (ha) Acres ha +acre acre -w ha t 2.196 x 0.5 Accurate x 2.

8 2.616.4 1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 Square inches to Square centimeters in2 cmz 1 2 3 6.2 7 4.935.2 3.161 51.452.0 40.6 4 2.546.201.644 645.2 1.161.0 10.903 19.0 50.516.096 451.164.0 50 32.612 516.026.469.1 2.904.134.516 129.0 25.4 8 5.548 258.402.8 10 6.712.806 32.0 80 51.536.040.0 40 25.0 645.0 45.0 20.5 3.064 64.0 15.260.520.9 4.806.290.710 45.128 580.160 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 --70 80 90 100 .8 5 3.268.580.0 70 45.356.032 193.613 58.068.808.0 20 12.871.670.226.452 12.0 35.0 6 3.0 30.6 4.4 1.580 387.533.LENGTH AND AREA 72 Conversion tables: area The tables below can be used to convert units of area from one measuring system to another.603.6 9 5.7 1.0 90 58.335.064 322.053. The first group of tables converts US units/UK imperial units to Circular mils to Square micrometers cmil kmz Square inches to Square millimeters in2 mmz 506.3 5.0 100 64.520.067.355 25.0 60 38.0 30 19.258 38.013.560.

186 0.645 5.858 2.432 8.174 4.503 7.929 1.832.525 8.650 0.116 2.880 36.600 .613 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Square chains to Square meters ch2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 m2 404.345 4.574 6.361 9.300 24.723 25.529 66.237.618.CONVERSION TABLES: AREA 73 metric.787 3.374.802 3.234.672 2.187.428.890 75.214.689 7.508 3.372 1.046.468.058 1.580 16.168 58.017 5.084 33.279 0. the second.093.740 40.836 0.488 3.860 8.290 1 2 0.806 50.430 2.023.853 6.020 32. beginning on page 75.716 4.093 0. Square feet to Square meters ftZ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Square yards to Square meters mz yd2 m* 0.557 0.421.328.445 41.251 83.281 .720 12.361 16.181 5.836 1.686 809.140.744 2. converts metric to US units/UK imperial.440 20.642.372 0.I 60 28.743 0.465 0.

141 16.994 1.LENGTH AND AREA 74 US units/UK imperial and metric units of length (continued) acre ha 1 2 3 0.214 1.770 10.590 5.995 1.719.980 7.999 517.991 2.993 2.800 77.998 776.428 2.299 207.359.187 20.281 28.071.930 20.812.540 18.809 1.199 233.047 8.328 32.539.996 1.499 155.399 181.129.700 103.970 10.619 2.422 40.920 23.900 1 2 2.405 0.023 2.720 23.035.950 15.589.094 12.642 4.960 12.469 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 L Square miles to Square kilometers Square miles to Hectares Acres to Hectares mi2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 00 ha mi2 km’ 258.910 25.553.310 25.294.360 12.833 3.330.997 1.375 36.950 15.099 258.940 18.130 20.234 24.600 129.900 51.949.769.309.179.180 7.992 2.990 5.899.237 3.999 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 loo .

0620 0.0109 0.310 0.CONVERSION TABLES: AREA 75 Square micrometers to Circular mils Square millimeters to Square inches Square centimeters to Square inches pm’ cmil mm’ in2 cm2 1 0.930 1.008 0.085 1.160 0180 0.100 4.0155 0.1085 0.0062 0.010 0.550 3.395 1.0775 0.1240 0.0031 0.950 15.300 10.020 0.002 0.500 .080 0.0930 0.040 0.1550 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 in2 0.200 7.006 0.004 0.060 0.0310 0.240 1.100 0.120 0.155 0.0015 0.016 0.750 9.465 0.0124 0.775 0.140 0.850 12.200 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.400 13.650 6.0093 0.620 0.0140 0.014 0.018 0.0078 0.0047 0.012 0.1395 0.0465 0.

040 0.679 107.196 2.014 0.002 0.196 60 645.278 30 322.056 5 53.200 mz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ioa .140 0.016 0.347 8 86.076.020 0.391 1 2 1.820 6 64.556 50 538.639 20 215.LENGTH AND AREA 76 US units/UK imperial and metric units of length (continued) Square meters to Square yards Square meters to Square feet Square meters to Square chains ft’ m2 yd2 m2 ch2 10.759 83.764 11.008 0.176 8.588 4.010 0.568 10.100 0.880 47.060 0.292 4 43.180 0.764 21.474 80 861.528 3 32.917 40 430.639 119.800 71.392 3.080 0.012 0.960 23.875 10 107.835 70 753.752 100 1.583 7 75.111 9 96.160 0.719 95.372 9.018 0.006 0.599 1 2 3 0.784 5.980 7.113 90 968.120 0.004 0.840 59.920 35.

132 40 98.749 38.02703 0.03861 0.15444 0.413 4 9.861 7.305 23.544 1.772 1.02317 0.942 7.03475 0.684 90 222.105 1 2 3 0.768 9 22.11583 0.34749 0.27027 0.CONVERSION TABLES: AREA Hectares to Acres ha Hectares to Square miles 77 Square kilometers to Square miles acre ha mi’ km’ mi2 2.931 2.01544 0.07722 0.355 6 14.158 1.01158 0.884 5 12.421 30 74.297 8 19.826 7 17.01931 0.38610 1 2 3 0.027 30.842 50 123.317 2.239 10 24.610 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 - 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 .395 100 247.583 15.23166 0.711 20 49.444 19.703 3.166 27.974 80 197.19305 0.00386 0.553 60 148.03089 0.888 34.471 4.263 70 172.089 3.475 3.00772 0.30888 0.386 0.722 11.

78 Geometry of area LENGTH AND AREA ~ ABBREVIATIONS a= length of top b= length of base h= perpendicular height r = length of radius 7T = 3.1416 Circle n: x r 2 i I h D b b A Rectangle bxh Parallelogram bxh Triangle ’ b 1/2xbxh .

GEOMETRY OF SURFACE AREA 79 Geometry of surface area ABBREVIATIONS b= breadth of base h=perpendicular height I = length of base r =length of radius ’@ A& ! = 3. 14 16 Cube hxbx6 Prism (bxh)+(3xlxb) b Pyramid (2xbxh)+(b2) Sphere .

Note that two kinds of factors are given: quick.961 x 16.387 16 x 0. US fluid gallons (fl gal) UK gallons (gal) Quick Accurate 1 US fl gal + UK gal UKgalUSfl gal US fluid quarts (11 qt) UK quarts (qt) + 1 US fl qt +UK qt UKqt +USfJqt US fluid pints (fl pt) UK pints (pt) 1 11 1 US fl pt + UK pt UKpt USfl pt US fluid ounces 11 oz UK fluid ounces [fl oz] 1 1 1 16 - USfloz + UKfloz UK fl oz US fl oz Cubic inches (in3) Cubic centimeters (cm3) in3 cm3- cm3 in3 1 x1 +1 X 1 +1 X 1 il x1 x 16 + x 0.201 X x 1.061 .80 3: Volume Formulas Below are listed the multiplication/division factors for converting units of volume from one measuring system to another.201 x 0.833 1. for an approximate conversion that can be made without a calculator.833 X 1. and accurate.041 x 0. for an exact conversion.201 x 0.833 x 1.

765 - 1 30 US fluid ounces (fl 02) Milliliters (rnl) 14 US fluid gallons (fl gal) Liters (I) 12 Liters (I) US fluid pints (fl pt) 11 Liters (I) US fluid quarts (fl qt) 1 x 35 + 35 USfloz+ml x 30 ml USfl oz + 30 USflgal-.004 .308 x 0.056 x 0.028 x 1 +1 x 1. I I x4 US 11 gal + 4 I-USflptx2 us fl pt -w I I-USflqtxl us fl qt + I Cubic meters (m3) x 29.FORMULAS 81 1 Cubic meters (m3) Cubic feet (P) 1 Cubic meters (m3) Cubic yards (yd3) m3- 1 m3yd3- ft3 yd3 m3 x 35. US fl gal x 264 x 264.173 m3 t 264 x 0.113 x 0.473 1 x1.315 x 0.264 +2 x2.947 t US fluid gallons (fl gal) 264 m3US 11 gal-.785 x 0.034 x 3.572 x 0.

734 xO.760 x 0.568 i< Cubic meters (m?) UK gallons (gal) m3UK gal UK sal+ m3 x 220 x 219.035 UKat +1 UK quarts (qt) Liters (I) UKqt-l I x 1 x 1.VOLUME 82 1 1 227 Cubic meters (m3) US dry gallons (dry gal) Quick Accurate m3dry gal dry gal -+ m3 x 227 x 227.546 + 4.5 x 4.5 x 0.004 UK fluid ounces (fl 02) Cubic inches (in3) 2 UK fl oz -+ in3 in3-UKfloz 1 1 1 4.880 UK gallons (gal) Liters (I) UKgal-I I UK gal x 4.413 + 28 x 0.220 Liters (I) UK pints (pt) I UKpt-I I ' 220 UK pt x 2 -1- 2 1.137 x 0.5 1 2 1 x2 t 2 x 1.577 UK fluid ounces (11 02) Milliliters (ml) 28 UK fl oz+ ml ml UKfloz x 28 x 28.970 220 x 0.005 .020 t 227 x 0.

US fluid gallons to UK gallons us fl gal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK gal 0.635 49. converts US units to UK imperial units.654 24.662 7.943 83.270 US fluid quarts to UK quarts US UK fl qt qt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.833 1. converts UK imperial units to US units.665 2.164 4.308 41.829 6.829 6. the second.327 16.616 74.498 3.962 58.981 33.498 3.289 66.962 58.998 5.665 2.270 - .494 8. beginning below.327 16.833 1.996 5.981 33.CONVERSION TABLES 83 Conversion tables The tables below can be used to convert units of volume from one measuring system to another.616 74.662 7.331 4. beginning on page 85.635 49.943 83.308 41.494 8.164 4.331 4. The first group of tables.289 66.654 24.

080 .327 16.632 52.494 8.VOLUME 84 US units to UK imperial units conversions (continued) US fluid pints to UK pints us fl Pt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 US fluid ounces to UK fluid ounces UK Pt 0.662 7.163 5.204 6.122 4.498 3.672 104.448 72.962 58.164 4.829 6.308 41.833 1.270 us fl oz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK fl 02 1.264 93.408 20.040 62.81 6 31.981 33.041 2.943 83.289 66.996 5.331 4.654 24.61 6 74.856 83.665 2.327 9.286 8.082 3.635 49.224 41.245 7.367 10.

804 6.809 12.060 84.070 96.407 9. tables beginning on page 87 convert US units to metric units.100 UK qt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 us fl qt 1.407 9.402 3.01 0 24.040 60.608 10. UK gallons to US fluid gallons UK gal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK quarts to US fluid quarts us fl gal 1.050 72.050 72.206 8.608 10.010 24.603 4.040 60.603 4.804 6.100 .060 84.201 2.080 108.030 48.809 12.090 120.030 48.090 120.201 2.070 96.005 7.CONVERSION TABLES 85 UK imperial units to US units conversions The conversion tables below are used to convert UK imperial units of volume to US units.020 36.005 7.206 8.020 36.402 3.080 108.

005 7.432 48.804 6.010 24.961 1.206 8.647 9.100 UK fl oz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 us fl oz 0.201 2.402 3.407 9.070 96.080 .648 67.216 28.472 96.686 8.882 3.864 86.020 36.603 4.256 76.050 72.030 48.080 108.922 2.804 5.843 4.VOLUME 86 UK imperial to US units conversions (continued) UK pints to US fluid pints UK Pt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK fluid ounces to US fluid ounces us fl Pt 1.824 38.040 60.040 57.726 7.608 10.765 6.060 84.090 120.608 19.809 12.

854 42.894 2.420 1.894 50 1.341 56.681 6.CONVERSION TABLES 87 US units to metric conversions The conversion tables below are used to convert US units of volume to metric units.862 6 177.365.289 5 147.659 28.873 47.366 2.839 3.774.572 2 59.810 66.586 47.661.746 85.145 3 88.070.618 60 1.235 fl Pt I flqt i 1 2 0. tables beginning on page 95 convert metric units to US units.937 28.785 4.478. US fluid ounces to Milliliters US fluid pints to Liters 'loz ml 1 29.195 18.182.278 75.947 1.788 90 2.724 20 591.840 3.468 18.259 4.312 3.405 37.683 us - US fluid quarts to Liters us us 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 - .893 2.464 14.215 94.732 9.447 30 887.628 7.473 0.434 7 207.579 9 266.521 9.512 100 2.734 5.318 1 2 0.341 70 2.787 4.957.065 80 2.717 4 118.123 37.006 8 236.946 1.575 8.391 33.927 23.152 10 295.171 40 1.

559 40 151.008 0.044 0.497 8 30.853 20 75.013 0.088 0.356 4 15.396 0.530 1 2 3 0.176 0.015 0.031 0.341 0.018 0.1 18 70 264.927 6 22.076 0.011 0.004 0.034 0.040 0.677 100 378.265 60 227.824 90 340.038 0.308 0.265 0.785 2 7.030 0.379 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 dry gal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 m3 0.035 0.264 0.023 0.227 0.189 0.022 0.026 0.026 0.068 10 37.220 0.352 0.141 5 18.571 3 11.019 0.971 80 302.VOLUME 88 US units to metric conversions (continued) US fluid gallons to Cubic meters US fluid gallons to Liters us flgal US dry gallons to Cubic meters us us 1 flgal m3 3.114 0.004 0.412 50 189.303 0.706 30 113.440 --- .009 0.712 7 26.132 0.151 0.282 9 34.

353 1.794 16.616 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 --70 a0 90 100 .034 0.201 211.101 0.705 3.169 0.203 0.112 3.123 31.53f 105.676 1.281 6.33f 1 1.369 73.22i 6.382 1 2 2.562 21.068 0.168 4.66s 126.029 2.054 105.691 2.056 2.367 2.401 84.304 0.393 8.043 3.337 7.454 10.9oi 19.262 63.56i 12.34C 8.493 95. 169.93.505 10.13L 42.CONVERSION TABLES 89 Metric to US units conversions The tables below convert metric units to US units.931 84.338 0.685 42.449 9.808 63.225 5.237 0.014 1.80: 147. Milliliters to US fluid ounces Liters to US fluid pints Liters to US fluid quarts us us us ml floz I flpr I flqt 1 2 3 0.11: 4.246 52.271 0.135 0.68( 14.07( 190.02( 21.

585.849 2.566.492 21.081 1.362.308 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cubic meters to US dry gallons us m3 dry gal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 227.642 5.849.775 26.192 10.850.056.113.378 2.204 4.810.621.431.793 1.041 681.816.113 2.283 7.038 1.567 13.585 1.653 15.320.540.846 23.036 -- .209 15.115 21.417 1 2 3 264.578 26.161.692 1.850 18.425 18.143 1.731 5.492.135.020 454.462 7.173 528.832 22.061 908.133.264 0.057 1.183 2.611 9.346 792.270.134 23.122 1.080.558 2.519 1.925 10.628 20.208.814 11.407 6.528 0.377.321 1.043.283.589.702.641.417.221 15.102 1.351.163 2.VOLUME 90 Metric to US units conversions (continued) Liters to US fluid gallons us 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cubic meters to US fluid gallons us flgal m3 flgal 0.383 18.925.891.211 2.865 1.775.01 8 13.385 2.923 13.

416 1.227 0.548 81.605 17.094 1.741 491.283 0.387 32.474.057 0.266 2.016 69.612 655.310.832 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 --- .403 12.085 0.835 1.549 2.371 138.137 13.566 0.096 147.935 8.224 1.353 983.133 1.965 1.198 0.255 0.170 0.032 121.CONVERSION TABLES 91 UK imperial to metric conversions The conversion tables below are used to convert UK imperial units of volume to cubic units and metric units.484 163.694 104.935 98.706 1 0.482 819.699 1.982 2.142 0.339 34.028 0.113 0.468 5.147.669 10.850 1.322 114.161 65.638.871 327.774 49.202 6.734 3. tables beginning on page 94 convert metric units to UK imperial units. UK fluid ounces to Cubic inches UK floz in.355 86.677 52.871 15.' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1.709 131.048 173.710 156.387 Cubic inches to Cubic centimeters Cubic feet to Cubic meters inJ cm3 ft' m3 1 2 3 16.

765 70 318.352 6.045 0.273 0.116 6.638 4 18.587 5.937 30.018 0.873 53.027 0.226 80 363.823 8 36.023 0.844 50 227.409 0.227 0.730 6 27.277 7 31.519 61.369 9 40.036 0.687 90 409.VOLUME 92 UK imperial to metric conversions (continued) Cubic yards to Cubic meters yd.383 40 181.455 i 4.032 0.091 0.041 0.582 38.3 m’ 1 2 0.184 5 22.294 3.228 45.546 9.148 100 454.823 4.009 0.005 0.529 2.291 22.182 0.092 3 13.164 68.136 0.881 7.609 1 2 - .810 76.014 0.305 60 272.915 10 45.058 3.318 0.461 20 90.646 15.364 0.922 30 136.455 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 - UK gallons to Cubic meters UK gallons to Liters UK gal UK gal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 m’ 0.765 1.

826 85.365 22.273.778 45.273 3.461 56.273 2.652 142.365 17.784 1.826 68.841.143 56.191 79.704.683 6.229 11.CONVERSIONTABLES UK quarts to Liters UK qt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 93 UK pints to Liters I 1.096 45.413 56.239 113.915 2.046 2.261 852.654 1.718 284.568 1.652 UK Pt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK fluid ounces to Milliliters UK 1 0.137 1.392 1.096 39.413 34.065 170.730 34.420.131 568.546 5.826 floz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ml 28.305 255.891 227.557.137 2.307 - .048 22.819 7.410 4.523 1.988.978 4.705 2.114 5.410 3.136.177 2.092 10.287 113.841 3.922 102.956 9.478 198.461 51.730 28.546 5.683 11.556 90.

919 8.035 0.189 87.520 4.183 140.039 8.799 17.390 87.520 Liters to UK pints I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 g 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK Pt 1.408 1.396 35.880 1.799 10.760 2.520 5.988 .464 2.VOLUME 94 Metric to UK imperial conversions The tables below convert metric units to UK imperial units.352 0.598 35.039 7.056 1.640 3. Milliliters to UK fluid ounces ml 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK floz 0.780 158.760 2.793 70.760 3.246 0.591 70.279 6.598 26.168 3.112 2.141 0.399 5.282 0.559 12.816 3.176 0.211 0.975 Liters to UK quarts 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK qt 0.793 61.195 43.078 15.318 14.279 7.106 0.378 175.070 0.988 105.159 7.994 52.390 79.317 0.838 17.195 52.585 123.704 1.

517 9 317.198 15.880 70 2.944 4 141.818 1.879 1.319.485 13.412.220 0.697 4.440 0.199.178.100 1.797.399 6.759.059.174 90 3.467 1 2 3 .397.398 17.200 4.573 19.269 21.315 70.660 0.203 8 282.765.727 2.599 8.181 15.789 10.788 1.399.757 1.099.832 10 353.531.472.599.118.440 40 1.629 105.598 19.259 5 176.760 1.734 60 2.888 7 247.970 439.CONVERSION TABLES Liters to UK gallons I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK gal 0.539.587 50 1.797 21.909 879.027 80 2.798.573 6 211.997 95 Cubic meters to UK gallons m3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UK gal 219.849 1.540 1.880 1.998.597.999 13.198.965 - Cubic meters to Cubic feet m3 ft’ 35.799 10.940 659.825.320 1.979.293 30 1.396 6.147 20 706.320 100 3.996.093 8.980 2.877 17.

673 .730 2.906 57.604 40.661 4.061 0.232 5 6.244 0.371 46.477 70 91.831 2.271 4.464 9 11.220 1.051 3.VOLUME 96 Metric to UK imperial conversions (continued) Cubic meters to Cubic yards ma 1 2 Cubic centimeters to Cubic inches yd3 1.080 20 26.138 51.305 0.239 40 52.540 6 7.122 0.535 17.427 0.492 6.191 5.102 Cubic inches to UK fluid ounces UK in3 fl oz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.441 3.716 100 130.318 50 65.460 4.549 0.156 8 10.636 90 117.308 2.610 1.767 11.884 3.307 2.882 5.772 10 13.302 23.924 4 5.037 4.398 60 78.577 1.183 0.557 80 104.837 34.488 0.-- .366 0.153 1.614 5.848 7 9.069 28.159 30 39.616 3 3.795 cm" 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 in3 0.

14 16 bxhxl Pyramid 3 Cylinder zxr2xI 4xnxra 3 Icxr2xh 3 Sphere Cone .GEOMETRY OF VOLUME 97 ~~~~ Geometry of volume ABBREVIATIONS b = width of base h = perpendicular height I = length of base r = length of radius & = 3.

US measures are slightly different from UK imperial measures . a fluid ounce is equal to a dry ounce. US cooks use different measures for liquids and solids. in the imperial system used in the UK. US units are roughly 415 the size of UK units.for example. and the UK imperial pint is 20 ounces. except milliliters for small liquid amounts.- VOLUME Cooking measures Although the names of the units are often the same. the US pint is 16 ounces. Metric measures are rarely used for cooking in the US or UK. On average. US liquid measures 60 minims = 1 fl dram 8 fl drams = 1 fl oz 4 fl oz = 1 gill 4 gills = 1 pint 2 pints = I quart 4 quarts = 1 gallon US dry measures I dry pint = 'h dry quart 2 dry pints = I dry quart 8 dry quarts = 1 peck 4 pecks = I bushel 36 bushels = I chaldron UK liquid and dry measures 60 minims = I dram 4 quarts = 1 gallon I gallon = 10 Ib (weight 8 drams = 1 fl oz 5 fl oz = 1 gill in water) 1 gill = 114 pint 2 gallons = 1 peck 4 pecks = 1 bushel 1 pint = 20 fl oz 2 pints = I quart 36 bushels = 1 chaldron Water weights 1 fl oz water = 1 oz 1 pint water = 1 Ib 1 quart water = 2 Ib 1 gallon water = 8 Ib .

5 ml 60 drops AA 1 teaspoon Fpoon 2 7 5 ml 1 fl dram 5 ml 2 fl drams 10 ml rtspoon Fo)n) SF)>)W2 15 rnl 4 fl drams 1 floz 30 rnl 2 fl oz 60 ml 1 wine glass W 4 fl oz (1 gill) 120 rnl 8 fl oz ( V z pint) 240 ml 1 cup Yf .COOKING MEASURES 99 ~ ~~ Handy measures Object 1 thimbleful A US units Metric 30 drops 2.

8 gallons 1 barrel = 3 1 112 gallons 1 hogshead = 2 barrels 1 butt = 2 hogsheads 1 tun = 2 butts 252 gallons Handy measures small jigger = 1 fl oz small wine glass = 2 fl oz sherry glass = 2 fl oz cocktail glass = 1/4 pint large wine glass = 114 pint tumbler = 1/2 Dint Wine measures 10 gallons = 1 anker I hogshead = 63 gallons 2 hogsheads = 1 pipe 2 pipes = 1 tun I puncheon = 84 gallons 1 butt = 126 gallons US spirits measures 1 shot = 1 fl oz 1 pony = 1 shot 1 jigger = 1112 shots 1 pint = 16 shots 1 fifth = 25.758 liter 1 quart = 32 shots 11/4 fifths 1 magnum of wine = 2 fifths 2 bottles .100 VOLUME Beverage measures Beer measures I nip = 114 pint 1 small = 1/2 pint I large= 1 pint I flagon = 1 quart 1 anker = 10 gallons 1 firkin = 9.6 pints 0.8 quart 0.6 shots 1.

BEVERAGE MEASURES ~ ~~~ Champagne bottle sizes 101 .

apart from the pressure units kg/crn’ and PSI. All units that follow arc strictly units of mass rather than weight. In science. . for an exact conversion. The term “weight” differs in everyday use from its scientific use. Note that two kinds of factors are given: quick. In everyday terms. we use weight to describe how much substance an object has. for an approximate conversion that can be made without a calculator. the term “mass” is used to describe this quantity of matter. In scientific terms. and accurate. mass remains constant but weight varies according to the strength of gravity. Weight is used to describe the gravitational force on an object and is equal to its mass multiplied by the gravitational field strength.I02 4: Weight Formulas Below are listed the multiplication/division factors for converting units of weight from one measuring system to another.

350 x 0.FORMULAS 0 103 Ounces troy (02 tr) Grams (9) - o z t r 6 g g oz tr 0 033333 0 0 0 0) 0 0 0 0 Quick Accurate + 31 x 31.6 x 6.911 - Ounces troy (02 tr) Ounces ( 0 2 ) oz tr 6oz oz oz tr +1 +1 .157 x 1 t 1 x 1.032 x6 +.205 x 0.097 x 0.454 x 31 Stones (st) Kilograms (kg) st kg kg st Long (UK) tons (I t) Tonnes (t) It-t tIt - Kilograms (kg) Pounds (Ib) kgIb Ib kg X t Kilograms per square centimeter (kg/cm2) Pounds per square inch (PSI) kg/cm2 + PSI x 14 PSI & kg/cm2 t 14 x 14.070 Tonnes (t) Short (US) tons (sh t) -t sh t sht .907 x1 x 1.984 2 2 x 2.102 x 0.223 x 0.103 x 0.016 xO.t x1 x 1.

517 186.990 850.324 0.455 2.048 113.133.417.259 0.832 6.184 5.454 0.648 1.555.097 198.207 93.900 - .699 85.145 283. Grains to Grams gr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ounces troy to Grams g 0.495 566.070 933.970 1.621 217.829 279.747 170.944 2.488.980 1.296 1.724 248.700.WEIGHT 104 Conversion tables The tables below can be used to convert units of weight from one measuring system to another.931 311.130 0.551.313 3. The units included in the tables are troy.174 1.485 1.035 622.398 141.446 226.414 155.244.110.240 3.209 2.104 1.796 255.583 0.799.348 oz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 g 28.536 5.518 0.139 1.834.177.866.278 2.389 0.465 2.480 )z tr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ounces to Grams g 31.984.349 56.267.243 2. US units/UK imperial.592 3.194 0.065 0.310 124.888 4.475 1. and metric.960 2.103 62.

986 2.CONVERSION TABLES Pounds to Kilograms Ib kg 1 0.268 2.547 1.700 19.361 1.828 1.406 1.006 190.703 1.287 40.109 2.814 2.072 13.152 63.216 31.350 12.175 3.502 127.055 1.823 45.671 2.802 57.751 38.629 4.608 18.536 9.359 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 - 105 Pounds per square inch to Kilograms per square centimeter PSI kg/cmz 10 15 0.023 571.521 508.515 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 Stones to Kilograms st kg 1 6.082 4.164 3.452 50.401 31.050 25.454 0.907 1.526 635.029 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 - .390 2.101 44.012 317.515 381.531 2.250 2.680 27.018 444.751 36.687 1.722 3.812 3.509 254.144 22.

123 81.647 462.350 7.912 1.128 9.729 77.942 1.096 7.432 30.535 5.971 617.359 54.891 154.294 771.080.048 4.543.287 45.814 2.320 30.444 101.574 81.080 6.162 92.594 108.502 72.324 308.718 1 2 3 1.064 5.604 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 a0 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 43 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 gr 15.481 40.388.236 .071 18.297 61.628 4.962 71.215 36.016 2.721 3.164 9.641 50.431 63.WEIGHT 106 US units/UK imperial and metric units of weight (continued) Short (US) tons to Tonnes Grams to Grains Long (UK) tons to Tonnes sh t t It t 1 2 3 0.618 925.032 3.283 91.160 20.907 1.459 138.144 10.589 1.112 8.027 123.265 1.802 60.234.143 27.865 46.257 8.646 90.443 6.

058 1.161 0.322 0.289 0.409 6.215 1 2 0.139 88.225 0.228 15.193 0.212 0.035 0.096 0.842 22.185 110.705 1.176 0.608 1.247 0.046 44.CONVERSION TABLES Grams to Ounces troy 107 Kilograms to Pounds Grams to Ounces g oztr g 02 kg Ib 1 0.023 13.032 0.432 17.822 3.071 0.251 2.572 2.764 2.324 176.462 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 --- .894 3.353 0.411 1.129 0.205 4.818 11.416 220.092 66.106 0.257 0.637 19.469 2.929 2.231 132.064 0.277 154.614 8.286 1.175 3.527 1 2 2.370 198.282 0.965 1.643 0.141 0.317 0.116 2.

472 0.307 4.409 5.2 3.614 7.223 17.6 2.208 110.818 9.315 0.6 1.824 42.446 31.574 3.757 25.260 1.945 1.378 14.023 22.716 8.598 14.747 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 - .4 2.139 77.149 4.0 2.980 39.874 9.162 88.724 6.231 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.157 0.912 22.069 44.023 12.6 0.781 Tonnes to Short (US) tons Kilograms to Stones t sh t kg st 1 1.601 28.669 45.205 3.2 1.WEIGHT 108 US units/UK imperial and metric units of weight (continued) Kilograms per square centimeter to Pounds per square inch w cm2 PSI 0.417 1.534 11.2 2.514 49.921 11.8 2.135 36.068 19.5 8.8 3.116 66.4 1.046 33.102 1.291 34.512 6.092 55.0 3.102 2.448 11.8 1.630 0.299 7.787 0.185 99.0 1.173 15.

583 7.802 72.714 oz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 a0 90 100 oz tr 0.211 59.229 27.894 78.344 36.421 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 a0 90 100 109 Ounces troy to Ounces )z tr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Ounces to Ounces troy oz 1.680 8.889 7.468 6.953 3.380 7.291 8.771 98.146 --ao 90 100 .734 3.389 5.291 4.031 91.917 82.526 39.368 49.194 3.646 4.905 6.486 6.937 4.CONVERSION TABLES Tonnes to Long (UK) tons t It 1 2 0.968 2.911 1.858 9.573 54.800 87.914 43.458 45.777 9.984 1.921 5.874 10.687 63.684 29.579 98.828 76.097 2.857 65.052 68.971 21.943 32.886 54.557 5.874 8.823 2.203 9.842 19.743 109.737 88.114 18.

gas) is almost totally nonreactive. or inert. . while the last element (a noble. calcium. Substances as different as hydrogen. For example. each has distinctive properties and cannot be split chemically into a simpler form. have similar properties. and gold are all elements. the first element in any period (called an alkali metal) is reactive. Elements in the vertical columns. The table groups elements into seven rows or periods.110 WEIGHT Periodic table The periodic table is a means of classifying and comparing chemical elements. or groups.

.PERIODIC TABLE 111 The elements are listed in the table in order of their atomic numbers. The atomic number represents the number of protons the element has in its nucleus. from 1 to 109 (appearing in the upper left-hand corner of each box). The two bottom rows are the lanthanides (57-71) and the actinides (89-103). These are separate because they have such similar properties that they fit the space of only two elements in the main table.

97376 Sulfur 16 S 32.81 12. and atomic weight (or relative atomic mass ) of each element. Each listing includes the atomic number.011 Carbon C 6 N 7 Nitrogen 14. 1 BY ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic No. symbol.981 54 14 Silicon Si 28. element name.1 79 Neon Ne 11 Sodium Na 22. 2 by element name.0079 Hydrogen 2 Helium 4.0026 He Lithium Li 3 6.112 WEIGHT Chemical elements On the following pages.948 19 K Potassium 39.0067 Oxygen 8 0 15. and 3 by letter symbol. the elements are listed in three separate ways: 1 by atomic number.9984 10 20. * Indicates atomic weight of the isotope with the longest known half-life.9994 Fluorine 9 F 18.0983 20 Calcium Ca 40.941 Beryllium 4 Be 9.01218 B 5 Boron 10.453 18 Argon Ar 39.0855 Phosphorus P 15 30.064 17 Chlorine CI 35.98977 12 Magnesium 24.305 Mg Aluminum AI 13 26. Name Symbol Atomic weight 1 H 1.08 .

62 88.904 83.9216 78.4 107.22 92.847 58.07 102.9064 95.9332 58.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Atomic No.868 112.9064* 101.9 50.9559 47.938 55.41 114.4678 87.96 79. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Name Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Moly bdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium lndium 113 Symbol sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe CO Ni cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb MO Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Atomic weight 44.71 63.996 54.59 74.94 96.9055 106.941 4 51.72 72.8 85.381 69.9059 91.82 .546 65.

85 186.9077 144.49 180.26 168.3 132.69 121.6 126.33 138. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 Name Tin Antimony TelIurium Iodine Xenon Cesium Barium Lanthanum Caerium Praseodvmium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Symbol Sn Sb Te I Xe cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb DY Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta w Re OS Ir Pt Atomic weight 118.12 140.96 157.75 127.25 158.2 192.9054 137.22 195.207 190.24 144.04 174.97 178.905 131.5 164.9254 162.WEIGHT 114 Atomic No.9055 140.9479 183.9342 173.9128* 150.09 .9304 167.35 151.

0703* 251.0880* 257.0951* 258.0197* 226. Name 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Act inium Thorium Protoactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Unnilquadium Unnilpentium Unnilhexium Unnilseptium 115 Symbol Atomic weight Au Hg TI Pb Bi PO At Rn Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U NP Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Unq UnP Unh Uns 196.109* 262.0614* 247.105* 261.9804 208.9824* 209.0796* 254.017 6* 223.099* 259.120* 262* .59 204.114* 263.029* 237.9665 200.19 208.0482* 244.37 207.0254* 227.0703* 247.038 1 231.0278* 232.0359 238.0642* 243.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Atomic No.101 260.9870* 222.

33 247.0278* 26.9054 35.0796* 12.41 40.81 79.9804 10. Name 108 Unniloctium 109 Unnilennium 2 BY ELEMENT NAME Atomic No.996 58.01218 208.921 6 209.75 39.0614* 121. Name Actinium 89 Aluminum 13 Americium 95 Antimony 51 Argon 18 Arsenic 33 Astatine 85 Barium 56 Berkelium 97 Beryllium 4 Bismuth 83 Boron 5 Bromine 35 Cadmium 48 Calcium 20 Californium 98 Carbon 6 Cerium 58 Cesium 55 Chlorine 17 Chromium 24 Cobalt 27 Symbol Uno Une Symbol Ac AI Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi B Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce cs CI Cr CO Atomic weight 265 266* Atomic weight 227.011 140.12 132.453 51.948 74.WEIGHT 116 Atomic No.0703* 9.904 112.9870* 137.08 251.9332 .981 54 243.

0026 164.0880" 167.1 05* 207.49 4.546 247.72 72.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Atomic Name No.9304 1.703* 162.97 24. Copper 29 Curium 96 Dysprosium 66 Einsteinium 99 Erbium 68 Europium 63 Fermium 100 Fluorine 9 Francium 87 Gadolinium 64 Gallium 31 Germanium 32 Gold 79 Hafnium 72 Helium 2 Holmium 67 Hydrogen 1 lndium 49 Iodine 53 Iridium 77 Iron 26 Krypton 36 Lanthanum 57 Lawrencium 103 Lead 82 Lithium 3 Lutetium 71 Magnesium 12 117 Symbol cu Cm DY Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Atomic weight 63.82 126.305 .0197* 157.941 174.9984 223.25 69.9055 260.19 6.5 254.22 55.9665 178.0951* 18.26 151.0079 114.96 257.59 196.847 83.9045 192.8 138.

07 150.9994 106.0176* 186.4 30.94 144. Manganese 25 Mendelevium 101 Mercury 80 Molybdenum 42 Neodymium 60 Neon 10 Neptunium 93 Nickel 28 Niobium 41 Nitrogen 7 Nobelium 102 Osmium 76 Oxygen 8 Palladium 46 Phosphorus 15 Platinum 78 Plutonium 94 Polonium 84 Potassium 19 Praseodymium 59 Promethium 61 Protoactinium 91 Radium 88 Radon 86 Rhenium 75 Rhodium 45 Rubidium 37 Ruthenium 44 Samarium 62 Symbol Mn Md Hg MO Nd Ne NP Ni Nb N No OS 0 Pd P Pt Pu PO K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Sm Atomic weight 54.207 102.0254* 222.1 79 237.WEiGHT 118 Atomic Name No.24 20.0067 259.97376 195.59 95.09 244.9064 14.0359 226.9824* 39.71 92.0642* 208.9055 85.35 .4678 101.9077 144.0482* 58.938 258.099* 200.0983 140.101* 190.9128* 231.2 15.

0381 168.98977 87.85 266* 263.9559 78.6 158.9414 131.62 32.04 88.9254 204.9059 .9342 118.69 47.120* 265 262.114* 261.37 232.868 22.96 28.3 173.029* 50.9479 96.0855 107.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Atomic Name No. 21 Scandium Selenium 34 Silicon 14 47 Silver 11 Sodium Strontium 38 Sulfur 16 Tantalum 73 Technetium 43 TelIurium 52 Terbium 65 Thallium 81 Thorium 90 Thuliurn 69 Tin 50 22 Titanium 74 Tungsten Unnilennium 109 Unnilhexium 106 Unniloctium 108 Unnilpentiurn 105 Unnilquadium 104 Unnilseptiurn 107 Uranium 92 23 Van adium 54 Xenon Ytterbium 70 Yttrium 39 119 Symbol sc Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb TI Th Tm Sn Ti w Une Unh Uno UnP Unq Uns U V Xe Yb Y Atomic weight 44.064 180.9 183.109* 262* 238.9064* 127.

30 40 Symbol Zn Zr Atomic weight 65.868 26.33 9.0796* 35.011 40.81 137.0278* 107.996 .904 12.41 140.12 251.01 218 247.WEIGHT 120 Name Zinc Zirconium Atomic No.9870* 196.381 91.98154 243.948 74.9332 51. 89 47 13 95 18 33 85 79 5 56 4 97 83 35 6 20 48 58 98 17 96 27 24 Name Actinium Silver Aluminum Americium Argon Arsenic Astatine Gold Boron Barium Beryllium Berkelium Bismuth Bromine Carbon Calcium Cadmium Cerium Californium Chlorine Curium Cobalt Chromium Atomic weight 227.0703* 208.08 112.9804 79.0614* 39.22 3 BY LETTER SYMBOL Symbol Ac Ag AI Am Ar As At Au B Ba Be Bk Bi Br C Ca Cd Ce Cf CI Cm CO Cr Atomic No.921 6 209.0703* 58.9665 10.453 247.

55 29 66 68 99 63 9 26 100 87 31 64 32 1 2 72 80 67 53 49 77 19 36 57 3 103 71 101 12 Name Cesium Copper Dysprosium Erbium Einsteinium Europium Fluorine Iron Fermium Francium Gallium Gadolinium Germanium Hydrogen Helium Hafnium Mercury Holmium Iodine lndium Iridium Potassium Krypton Lanthanum Lithium Lawrencium Lutetium Mendelevium Magnesium 121 Atomic weight 132.26 254.847 257.0983 83.8 138.941 260.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS Symbol cs cu DY Er Es Eu F Fe Fm Fr Ga Gd Ge H He Hf Hg Ho I In Ir K Kr La Li Lr Lu Md Mg Atomic No.72 157.82 192.97 258.22 39.5 167.0197* 69.59 164.105* 174.0026 178.305 .0951* 223.9304 126.9984 55.099* 24.25 72.088* 151.96 18.9045 114.9054 63.59 1.49 200.0079 4.9055 6.546 162.

WEIGHT 122 Symbol Mn MO N Na Nb Nd Ne Ni No NP 0 OS P Pa Pb Pd Pm PO Pr Pt Pu Ra Rb Re Rh Rn Ru S Sb Atomic No.19 Palladium 106.94 Nitrogen 14.0482* Oxygen 15.0359 Lead 207.0176* Ruthenium 101.0067 Sodium 22.98977 Niobium 92.179 Nickel 58.9128* Polonium 208.9077 Platinum 195.9064 Neodymium 144.97376 Protoactinium 231.938 Molybdenum 95.71 Nobelium 259.9824* Praseodymium 140.24 Neon 20.0254* Rubidium 85.9055 Radon 222.101 Neptunium 237.4 Promethium 144.207 Rhodium 102.75 . 25 42 7 11 41 60 10 28 102 93 8 76 15 91 82 46 61 84 59 78 94 88 37 75 45 86 44 16 51 Name Atomic weight Manganese 54.2 Phosphorus 30.09 Plutonium 244.0642* Radium 226.07 Sulfur 32.9994 Osmium 190.064 Antimony 121.4678 Rhenium 186.

9059 173.9 204.6 232.69 87.04 65.9479 15a.109* 262* 50.9559 78.114* 261.9254 96.37 168.9064* 127.3 88.0855 150.029* 266* 263.120* 265 262.96 28.9342 238.85 131. 21 34 14 62 50 38 73 65 43 52 90 22 81 69 92 109 106 108 105 1 04 107 23 74 54 39 70 30 40 Name Scandium Selenium Silicon Samarium Tin Strontium Tantalum Terbium Technetium TelIurium Thorium Titanium Thallium Thulium Uranium Unnilennium Unnilhexium Unniloctium Unnilpentium Unnilquadium Unnilseptium Vanadium Tungst en Xenon Yttrium Ytterbium Zinc Zirconium Atomic weight 44.35 1 1 8.CHEMICAL ELEMENTS 123 Atomic Symbol sc Se Si Sm Sn Sr Ta Tb Tc Te Th Ti TI Tm U Une Unh Uno UnP Unq Uns V w Xe Y Yb Zn Zr NO.62 180.22 .9414 183.0381 47.381 91.

124 WEIGHT .

but the intervals between minerals and levels of hardness differ greatly from scale to scale. the harder the mineral. C Common-object scale A simple way of measuring hardness uses common objects.000. which indicates their resistance to being scratched or cut. Minerals with values between I and 7 on Mohs’ scale fall below 1 .SCALES OF HARDNESS 125 Scales of hardness Solids vary in their degree of hardness. and between 8 and 9 fall below 2. the higher the number the harder the substance. B Knoop scale Another system of measuring the hardness of minerals is the Knoop scale. Again. The Knoop scale gives absolute rather than relative measurements. Order is determined by the ability of a mineral to scratch all those that have a lower number and to be scratched by those with a higher number. Once this is established.OOO on the Knoop scale. whose hardness on the Mohs’ scale is known: a) fingernail (2-2.talc to diamond .shown in the scale. but diamond falls at 7. it is possible to place all other minerals on the scale by means of the same scratching procedure.5 Mohs’) c ) knife blade ( 5 4 ) b) coin (4) d) knife sharpener (8-9) . Readings on this scale are made by measuring the size of the indentation made by a diamond-shaped device dropped on the material. The framework uses the 10 minerals . Each of these minerals is assigned a numerical value from 1 to 10: the higher the number. A Mohs’ scale Mohs’ scale is used to measure the relative hardness of minerals.000.

126

5: Energy
Formulas
Below are listed the multiplication/division factors for
converting units of energy from one measuring system
to another. Note that two kinds of factors are given:
quick, for an approximate conversion that can be made
without a calculator; and accurate, for an exact
conversion.

Kilowatts (kW)
Horsepower (hp)

kW -b hp
hp -+ kW

Quick Accurate

x 1.5 x 1.341
f

1.5

X

0.746

Calories (cal)
Joules (J)

-

cal -+ J
cal
J

x4

x 4.187

+4

x 0.239

x4

X

Kilocalories (kcal)
Kilojoules (kJ)

kcal -+ kJ
kJ + kcal

+4

4.187

x 0.239

CONVERSION TABLES

127

Conversion tables
The tables below can be used to convert units of energy
from one measuring system to another.
Horsepower
to
Kilowatts

hP

1
2

3
4

5
6
7
8
9
10
20

30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Kilowatts
to
Horsepower

kW

kW

0.746
1.491
2.237
2.983
3.729
4.474
5.220
5.966
6.71 1
7.457
14.914
22.371
29.828
37.285
44.742
52.199
59.656
67.113
74.570

1
2

3
4

5
6
7
8
9
10
20

30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

hP

I .341
2.682
4.023
5.364
6.705
8.046
9.387
10.728
12.069
13.410
26.820
40.231
53.641
67.051
80.461
93.871
107.280
120.690
134.100

ENERGY

128
Metric units of energy

Kilojoules
to
Kilocalories
international

Calories
international

J

cal

kJ

kcal

1

0.239
0.478
0.71 6
0.955
1.194
1.433
1.672
1.91 1
2.150
2.388
4.777
7.165
9.554
11.942
14.330
16.719
19.108
21.496
23.885

1
2
3

0.239
0.478
0.716
0.955
1.194
1.433
1.672
1.91 1
2.150
2.388
4.777
7.165
9.554
11.942
14.330
16.719
19.108
21.496
23.885

2
3
4
5
6

7
8
9
10
20

30
I

40
50
60
70
80
90
100

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20

30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

CONVERSION TABLES

Calories
international
to
Joules

129

Kilocalories
international
to
Kilojoules

cal

J

kcal

kJ

1
2
3
4
5
6

4.187
8.374
12.560
16.747
20.934
25.121
29.308
33.494
37.681
41.868
83.736
125.604
167.472
209.340
251.208
293.076
334.944
376.81 2
41 8.680

1
2
3

4.187
8.374
12.560
16.747
20.934
25.121
29.308
33.494
37.681
41.868
83.736
125.604
167.472
209.340
251.208
293.076
334.944
376.812
41 8.680

7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20

30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

130
Electromagnetic spectrum

ENERGY

Measuring energy
Light and radio waves, X-rays, and other forms of
energy are transmitted through space as
electromagnetic waves. These waves have alternating
high and low points - crests and troughs - like actual
waves. The distance between wave crests is called the
wavelength; this is measured in meters. Frequency
refers to the number of waves per second passing a
certain point; this is measured in hertz (Hz).
Above is an electromagnetic spectrum, showing the
different forms of energy in order of frequency and
wavelength. The top part of the diagram shows the
frequency in hertz; the lower part measures the
wavelength in meters.
1 Radio waves
These waves transmit television and radio signals. This
section of the spectrum is divided into bands, from
VLF (very low frequency) - used for time signals -to
SHF (super-high frequency) - used for space and
satellite communication.

. 6 X-rays Used to photograph the internal structures of the body.ELECTROMAGNETICSPECTRUM 131 2 Radar and microwaves Radar bounces waves off objects. 4 Visible light The band of visible light from red to violet. microwaves can cook food quickly. 5 Ultraviolet light In small amounts. these waves produce vitamin D and cause skin to tan. 3 Infrared waves These waves are emitted by all hot objects. 8 Cosmic rays Caused by nuclear explosions and reactions in space. allowing unseen objects to be seen. in larger amounts they can damage living cells. 7 Gamma rays Emitted during the decay of some radioisotopes. these waves can be very damaging to the body. nearly all of these waves are absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere.

5 or higher occurs about every 5 to 10 years. parked cars rock) V rather strong (felt generally. No. ground cracks) X disastrous (buildings destroyed.9. Characteristic I instrumental (detected only by seismograph) I1 feeble (noticed only by pcople at rest) I11 slight (similar to vibrations from a passing truck) IV moderate (felt indoors. some damage) VII very strong (general alarm. walls crack) VIII destructive (walls collapse) IX ruinous (some houses collapse. the numbers refer to an earthquake’s effect at a specific place on the Earth’s surface. waking sleepers) VI strong (trees sway. Each year there are more than 300. Below are listed numbers on the Mercalli scale and the characteristics of each. which measures the amount of energy released. Intensity The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Mercalli scale.132 ENERGY Earthquakes Earthquake magnitude is measured in units on the Richter scale. An earthquake of 8.000 earth tremors with Richter magnitudes of 2 to 2. few buildings survive) XI1 catastrophic (total destruction) . rails bend) XI very disastrous (landslides.

I < I .4 6.2 4. and a table comparing the Richter x a l e with jouLs.0 .inia ( 1977) San Fr:uiciwo.EARTHQUAKES I33 Listed below are the Mercalli and Richter scales. USA ( I 964) Concepcilin. Roni.8 2.7 2. with eauivalents in ioules.5 6.5 8. 6 ~I O J 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 10 4.7 x >l.9 7. I ZX.5 3. I 6.3 x 10-zJ 1 1 .9 7.5 4.2 6.6 7. Chile (1960) San Fnlncirco. Mercalli Richter Joules I II I11 IV V v1 VII Vlll IX X XI XI1 13.3 x I W 2 J Aclual earthquakes The table below lists the year of: lected earthquakes in different parts of the worid and where they occurred.s 4. Italy ( I 908) Vrancea.1 5.3 x 2.6 x 1.0 x IO'J 1. as well as the Richter magnitude o f each.1-5 8. China (1976) Messina.3 x 10"'J 1. U S A ( IY89) 8.5 x IO-"'J 6.6 x 10"J 4.0 2.5 x x J 1071 IOXJ IOq J I0"'J 10" J 10" J 1011J 10" J I0"'J 1OIx J 107 x x x 2. USA (1006) Mexico City.0 x 10hJ 2.5 x 10"J 6.5 1.8 5.0 x J I .1 x 1.h 8. Mexico ( 1085) Guatemala ( 1976) Tangshan. India ( I X97) Alaska.5 4.7 8.3 x.7 x I V K J Richter Joules 0 6.0 x 1 0 l n J 2. Earthquakes Richter Abwn.6 x x 7. I 7.

The dB ratings (at certain distances) of some common noises are listed on page 135. this is measured in decibels (dB). higher levels can cause permanent ear damage. . the greater is the wave’s amplitude and the louder the sound heard. Noises at the level of 120-130 dB can cause pain in humans. A 20 dB sound is 10 times louder than a 10 dB sound.134 ENERGY Decibels The loudness of a sound is measured by the size of its vibrations. a 30 dB sound is 100 times as loud as that. Wave amplitude Amplitude (a) is the distance between a wave peak or trough and an intermediate line of equilibrium. beginning with the smallest sound change that can be heard by humans (0-1 dB). Decibel scale The dB scale is relative and increases exponentially. The greater the amount of energy transmitted in a sound wave.

000 ft inside full-volume disco airplane take-off at 200 ft pain threshold for humans airplane take-off at 100 ft 135 .DECIBELS A 0 dB B 30 dB C 50 dB D 55 dB E 60 dB F 85 dB G 90 dB H 100 dB I 105dB J 117 dB K 120 dB L 130 dB M 140 dB human minimum audibility soft whisper at 15 ft inside urban home light traffic at 50 ft conversation at 3 ft pneumatic drill at 50 ft heavy traffk at 50 ft loud shout at 50 ft airplanetake-off at 2.

420 kcal 2.ENERGY 136 Energy needs by activity A B C D E F Activity 0 Women W Men Sleeping 230 kJ. 100 kcal 502 kJ.000 2.500 2.842 kJ.507 kJ. and because women usually have more body fat and so need less energy to retain body heat. 55 kcal 272 kJ. 65 kcal Sitting 293 kJ. 360 kcal 1. 70 kcal 377 kJ. 90 kcal Standing 41 9 kJ. 600 kcal 0 A B 500 Kilojoules (kJ) per hour 1.000 1. 220 kcal Walking (uphill) 1. 180 kcal 921 kJ.759 kJ. . 440 kcal Running 1.500 E n C D E F I I I I I I I 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Kilocalories (kcal) per hour Men use more kilocalories than women for all activities because men have more weight to carry around. 120 kcal Walking 754 kJ.512 kJ.

ENERGY VALUES 137 .

Celsius ("C).67)+1.16 OF -OC a boiling point of water c absolute zero b freezingpoint of water .67 '(2.16 OCm0F ("Cx1.8 OF K ("F+459.8)-459.138 6: Temperature Systems of measurement Below.K OC+273.8)+32 O R @ K ORtl.25)+273. the different systems of temperature measurement are compared: Fahrenheit (OF). Also listed are the formulas for converting temperature measurements from one system to another. and Kelvin (K). Rankine (OR).RCaumur (Or).273.8 O r K("rx1.16 K w 0 C K.8 Kw°F (KX1. Formulas - ("F-32)+-1.

2 -18.6 10.4 21.4 -25.8 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 O F -4.0 6.6 -32.0 15.CONVERSION TABLES 139 Conversion tables The tables below list the equivalent units of temperature in the Fahrenheit.2 -9.4 1.8 8.4 -34.6 -5.6 28. and Kelvin systems. Celsius.4 12.8 26.2 5.0 24.8 -13.8 -31.4 3.0 -29.6 19.8 17.4 -16.0 -2.2 -0.2 -36.2 23.2 "C K -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 .6 -14.0 -38.2 -27. Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin OF "C K -40.6 -23.8 -22.4 30.0 -20.4 -7.2 14.0 -11.

2 95.8 89. and Kelvin unit equivalents (continued) Fahrenheit to CeI si us to Kelvin Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin OF "C K OF "C K 32.0 33.6 64.6 100.4 39.2 59.8 71.6 91.2 77.2 50.6 73.0 51.6 37.8 98.0 69.0 87.4 57.6 55.8 35.4 84.0 60.0 96. Celsius.4 66.0 42.6 46.4 48.2 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 .8 53.TEMPERATURE 140 Fahrenheit.2 86.8 80.0 78.2 41.2 0 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 68.8 44.8 62.4 93.6 82.4 102.4 75.

0 123.6 109.0 141.2 167.8 107.0 168.6 145.2 158.6 118.6 154.0 114.8 134.8 116.6 136.6 163.4 129.CONVERSION TABLES Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin 141 Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin O F "C: K OF "C K 104.4 147.8 125.0 150.2 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 140.2 131.4 174.6 172.6 127.8 161.4 138.8 170.2 149.4 165.4 156.0 132.0 159.8 143.2 113.2 122.4 111.4 120.2 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 34 1 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 .0 105.8 152.

4 210.0 213.4 201.6 217.8 242.6 208.0 195.6 244.6 235. and Kelvin unit equivalents (continued) Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin Fahrenheit to Celsius to Kelvin OF "C K OF "C K 176.8 188.4 219.0 204.2 194.8 206.6 199.2 230.6 226. Celsius.2 203.6 181.8 215.8 197.2 185.0 186.0 222.2 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 .6 190.4 183.4 192.2 239.0 177.0 240.2 221.2 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 212.8 233.4 228.TEMPERATURE 142 Fahrenheit.8 179.8 224.4 246.4 237.0 231.

"F "C Oven 225 110 very cool 250 130 275 140 cool 300 150 325 170 moderate 350 180 375 190 moderately hot 400 200 425 220 hot 450 230 475 240 very hot For other conversions.6 Heat wave 104 Water boils 212 "C 0 10 20 30 37 40 100 Oven temperatures Below is a table of FahrenheitKelsius conversions for common oven temperatures.8. use the following formulas: "F to "C Subtract 32. then add 32. then divide by 1.8.USEFUL TEMPERATURES 143 Useful temperatures Quick temperature reference Condition "F Water freezes 32 Mild winter day 50 Warm spring day 68 Hot summer day 86 Body temperature 98. "C to "F Multiply by 1. .

000years half-millennium 500 years century 100 years half-century 50 years decade 10 years half-decade 5 years Name leap year year year year month week Period 366 days 365 days 12 months 52 weeks 28-31 days 7 days .144 7 : Time Name Period millennium 1.

00OOOooOo000001 10-'*s O. in fact.00OOOOOOOOOOOOO001 Astronomical time Time can be measured by motion. months. days Sidereal times are calculated by the Earth's position according to fixed stars. the motion of the Earth. Moon. The synodic month is based on the phases of the Moon. The anomalistic year is measured according to the Earth's orbit in relation to the perihelion (Earth's minimum distance to the Sun).ASTRONOMICAL TIME 1 microsecond (ps) 1 nanosecond (ns) 1 picosecond (ps) 1 femtosecond (fs) 1 attosecond (as) 145 10-6s O. Sun. Years.OOOOO1 109s 0.000000000001 10-Iss 0.000000001 10-'2s 0. Tropical times refer to the apparent passage of the Sun and the actual passage of the Moon across the Earth's equatorial plane. Solar time (as in a mean solar day refers to periods of darkness and light averaged over a year. Time sidereal year anomalistic year tropical year sidereal month tropical month synodic month mean solar day sidereal day Days 365 365 365 27 27 29 0 0 Hours 6 6 5 7 7 12 24 23 Minutes 9 13 48 43 43 44 0 56 Seconds 10 53 45 11 5 3 0 4 . and stars provided humans with the first means of measuring time.

23 3 Dec. which shows the Earth at four points in its orbit. days are longest and nights are shortest. the Sun appears overhead at midday at the Equator. at these times. At the summer solstice. this is reversed at the winter solstice.TIME 146 Equinox and solstice The inclination of the Earth to its plane of rotation around the Sun produces variations in the lengths of day and night at different times of the year. Date 1 June 21 2 Sept. Equinoxes are when day and night are equal everywhere. 22 4 March 21 Northern summer solstice autumnal equinox winter solstice vernal equinox Southern winter solstice vernal equinox summer solstice autumnal equinox . keyed by number to the diagram above. Solstices are when the Sun appears to be overhead at midday at the maximum distances north and south of the Equator. -63 4 7- The table lists the dates of the solstices and equinox in each hemisphere.

Parts of the globe tilted away from the Sun receive less radiant energy per unit area than those receiving rays more directly.0 hours daylight The diagram above illustrates the variety in the length of the day (21 June) at different latitudes ( O = degrees. the northern hemisphere receives the maximum hours of daylight.12 hours daylight d 49O 3’s. the southern hemisphere. . ’ = minutes). The table below lists the seasonal equivalents in the two hemispheres. the minimum.24 hours daylight - b 49O 3” 16 hours daylight c The Equator: Oo .ASTRONOMICAL TIME 147 Years and seasons Seasonal variations are another result of the inclination of the Earth’s axis to its plane of rotation around the Sun. On this day. keyed by number to the diagram on the previous page.8 hours daylight e Antarctic Circle: 66O 33’s. Northern Southern 1 summer winter 2 fall spring 3 winter summer 4 spring fall Length of days a Arctic Circle: 66O 33” .

01 Pliocene 7-2 Cenozoic 65-present F l Miocene 26-7 Tertiary 65-2 Oligocene 38-26 Eocene 54-38 I Paleocene65-54 Cretaceous 136-65 Mesozoic 248-65 Jurassic 193-136 I 1 1 Permian 280-225 Paleozoic 590-248 Devonian 395-345 1 Silurian 440-395 1 Ordovician 500-440 1 I Cambrian 590-500 Precarnbrian before 590 1 .TIME 148 Geological timescale Era millions of years ago Epoch Period Holocene Quaternary 2-present Pleistocene 2-0.

::ember 2I January 19) Aquarius w Water-bearer (January 20February 18) Pisces Fish (February 19Murch 20) .iuly 21) 62 z 2 2 Lion August 21) Virgo Virgin (August 22September 21) November 21) Sagittarius Archer (November 22December 20) Capricorn .iune 20) Cancer a \c3 Crab (June21.THE ZODIAC YEAR 149 The zodiac year I Aries Erch2IApril 20) Libra - f i Scales (Sepember 22October 22) Scorpio (October Scorpion 23(April 2 I May 20) Gemini Twins (May 21.

In this system. January February March April May June 31 28* 31 30 31 30 July August September October November December 31 31 30 31 30 31 * 29 in leap years. otherwise. 1 1 . . Gregorian The Gregorian calendar is a 16th-century adaptation of the Julian calendar devised in the 1st century BC. which lasts about 365 '/4 days. 14. 6 . as do centennial years unless the figures before the zeros are divisible by 4. these are leap years. 8 . All other years have 366 days. 3 . Its precise number of days is fixed with reference to particular festivals that must not fall on certain days of the week. The year in this calendar is based on the solar year. Jewish A year in the Jewish calendar has 13 months if its number. years whose number is not divisible by 4 have 365 days. it has 12 months. Below are the names of the months and number of days for a non-leap year. leaves 0 .TIME 150 Types of calendar The number of days in a year varies among cultures and from year to year. The year is based on the lunar year. or 17. but its number of months varies to keep broadly in line with the solar cycle. when divided by 9.

a 12-month year (1 980 AD in Gregorian). t In 13-month years.TYPES OF CALENDAR 151 Below are the names of the months and number of days in each for the year 547 1 . with 29 days. or 29. falls between Adar and Nisan. 21. 7 . 16. Rajab Sha'ban Ramadan Shawwal Dhu I-Qa'dah Dhu I-Hijja 30 29 30 29 30 30* . 13. As in the Jewish calendar. years are based on the lunar cycle. Muslim A year in the Muslim calendar has 355 days if its number. leaves 2 . 10. Muharram Safar Rabi'I Rabi'II JumadaI JumadaII 30 29 30 29 30 29 * 29 in some years. the month Veadar. 26. 24. Below are the names of the months and number of days in each for the Muslim year 1401 (1980 AD in Gregorian). Tishri Cheshvan Kislev Tevet Shevat Adar 30 29* 29* 29 30 29t Nisan IYar Sivan Tammuz AV Elul 30 29 30 29 30 29 * 30 in some years. otherwise it has 354 days. when divided by 30. 18. 5 .

accessories 12th Silk (linen) Pearls or colored gems 13th Lace 14th Ivory Textile. glass 4th Linen (silk. brass) Desk sets 8th 9th Bronze (electrical appliances) Linen.TIME 152 Wedding anniversaries Year Traditional (alternative) 1st Paper (plastics) Modern Clocks 2nd Cotton (calico) China 3rd Leather Crystal. furs Gold jewelry 15th Crystal (glass) Watches 20th China Platinum 25th Silver Sterling silver jubilee 30th Pearl Diamond 35th Coral (jade) 40th Ruby (garnets) Jade Ruby 45th Sapphire (tourmalines) Sapphire 50th Gold Gold 55th Emerald (turquoise) Emerald 60th Diamond (gold) Diamond . lace Pottery (china) Leather 10th Tin (alurninum) Diamond jewelry 11th Steel Fashion iewelw. synthetics) Electrical appliances 5th Wood 6th lrnn Silverware Wood 7th Wool (copper.

Key: N F 1780 1805 C 1830 B G 1781 1806 D 1831 H C E 1832 1782 1807 D M 1833 C 1808 1783 L D 1834 A 1784 1809 E G B 1835 1785 1810 A M 1811 C 1836 1786 A B 1787 K 1837 1812 B 1838 F J 1813 1788 E C 1814 G 1839 1789 K F 1840 A 1790 1815 F 1841 G I 1816 1791 H D 1842 G 1792 1817 A C E 1843 1818 1793 I D F 1844 1794 1819 D E N 1845 1820 1795 E M B 1846 1821 1796 F A 1847 1822 C 1797 N B D 1848 1823 1798 B 1824 L 1849 C 1799 C D G 1850 1800 1825 D 1851 E A 1826 1801 L F B 1852 1827 1802 G 1853 G J 1828 1803 A 1854 H E 1829 1804 . look up the year in the key and the letter shown to the right will indicate which of the calendars A-N you should consult.PERPETUAL CALENDAR 153 Perpetual calendar How to use the calendar To discover on which day of the week any date between the years 1780 and 2046 falls.

TIME 154 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 B J E F G H C D E M A B C K F G A I D E F N B C D L G A B J E F 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 G H C D E M A B C K F G A B C D E M A B C K F G A I D E F N B C 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 D L G A B J E F G H C D E M A B C K F G A I D E F N B C D L G A .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 B J E F G H C D E M A B C K F G A I D E F N B C D L G A B J E F 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 155 G H C D E M A B C K F G A I D E F N B C D L G A B J E F G H C D 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 202 1 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 203 1 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 E M A B C K F G A I D E F N B C D L G A B J E F G H C D E M A B .

TIME 156 A 1786 1797 1809 1815 1826 1837 1843 1854 1865 1871 1882 1893 1899 1905 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 157 1911 1922 1933 1939 1950 1961 1967 1978 1989 1995 2006 2017 2023 2034 2045 A JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 13141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

TIME 158 B 1781 1787 1798 1810 1821 1827 1838 1849 1855 1866 1877 1883 1894 1900 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11121314151617 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 159 1906 1917 1923 1934 1945 1951 1962 1973 1979 1990 2001 2007 2018 2029 2035 2046 B JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11121314151617 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

TIME 160 c 1782 1793 1799 1805 1811 1822 1833 1839 1850 1861 1867 1878 1889 1895 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1213141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 161 c 1901 1907 1918 1929 1935 1946 1957 1963 1974 1985 1991 2002 2013 2019 2030 2041 JULY AUGUST S M T W T F S S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 7 8 910111213 4 5 6 7 8 910 14151617181920 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

TIME 162 ~~ D 1783 1794 1800 1806 1817 1823 1834 1845 1851 1862 1873 1879 1890 1902 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 111213 14151617 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 163 D 1913 1919 1930 1941 1947 1958 1969 1975 1986 1997 2003 2014 2025 2031 2042 JULY AUGUST S M T W T F S S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 7 8 9101112 10111213141516 13141516171819 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 27 28 29 30 31 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

TIME 164 E I 1789 1795 1801 1807 1818 1829 1835 1846 1857 1863 1874 1885 1891 1903 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 165 E 1914 1925 1931 1942 1953 1959 1970 1981 1987 1998 2009 2015 2026 2037 2043 JULY AUGUST S M T W T F S S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 1 5 6 7 8 91011 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12131415161718 9101112 131415 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 26 27 28 29 30 31 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

TIME 166 F 1790 1802 1813 1819 1830 1841 1847 1858 1869 1875 1886 1897 1909 1915 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 14 15 16 17 21 22 23 24 28 MARCH S M T W 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 14 15 16 17 21 22 23 24 28 29 30 31 T F S 4 5 6 11 12 13 18 19 20 25 26 27 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11121314151617 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 T F S 4 5 6 11 12 13 1819 20 25 26 27 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 167 1926 1937 1943 1954 1965 1971 1982 1993 1999 2010 2021 2027 2038 F JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W 1 2 3 7 8 910 14 15 16 17 21 22 23 24 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 T F S 4 5 6 11 12 13 18 19 20 25 26 27 .

TIME 168 G 1785 1791 1803 1814 1825 1831 1842 1853 1859 1870 1881 1887 1898 1910 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 MARCH S M T W 1 2 6 7 8 9 13 14 15 16 20 21 22 23 27 28 29 30 T F S 3 4 5 1011 12 17 18 19 24 25 26 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1213141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 169 1921 1927 1938 1949 1955 1966 1977 1983 1994 2005 2011 2022 2033 2039 G JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 14 15 16 17 21 22 23 24 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 T F S 4 5 6 11 12 13 18 19 20 25 26 27 .

TIME 170 I* 1792 1804 1832 1860 1888 1928 1956 1984 2012 2040 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 '29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 171 JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 14 15 16 17 21 22 23 24 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 T F S 4 5 6 11 12 13 18 19 20 25 26 27 .

TIME 172 I 1816 1844 1872 1912 1940 1968 1996 2024 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 173 JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

TIME

174
I

J

1788 1828 1856 1884 1924
1952 1980 2008 2036

JANUARY
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9101112
13141516171819
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 31

FEBRUARY
S M T W T F S
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1011 1213141516
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29

MARCH
S M T W T F S
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
91011 12131415
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31

APRIL
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9101112
13141516171819
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30

MAY
S M T W T F S
1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 910
11 12 13 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31

JUNE
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 91011121314
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30

PERPETUAL CALENDAR

175

J
JULY
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9101112
13141516171819
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 31

AUGUST
S M T W T F S
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1011 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

SEPTEMBER
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 910111213
14151617181920
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30

OCTOBER
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 91011
12131415161718
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31

NOVEMBER
S M T W T F S
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9101112131415
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30

DECEMBER
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 910111213
14151617181920
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30 31

TIME

176

K

I

1812 1840 1868 1896 1908
1936 1964 1992 2020

JANUARY
S M T W T F S
1-2 3 4
5 6 7 8 91011
12131415161718
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31

FEBRUARY
S M T W T F S
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 1 0 1 1 12131415
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29

MARCH
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 1 0 1 1 121314
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30 31

APRIL
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 91011
12131415161718
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30

MAY
S M T W T F S
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
101112 13141516
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30

JUNE
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 910111213
14151617181920
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30

31

PERPETUAL CALENDAR

177

JULY
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8 91011
12131415161718
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31

AUGUST
S M T W T F S
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9101112131415
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31

SEPTEMBER
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9101112
13141516171819
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30

OCTOBER
S M T W T F S
1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 910
11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31

NOVEMBER
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 91011 121314
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30

DECEMBER
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9101112
13141516171819
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 31

TIME

178

L

1784 1824 1852 1880 1920
1948 1976 2004 2032

JANUARY
S M T W T F S
1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
11121314151617
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31

FEBRUARY
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 91011121314
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29

MARCH
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 910111213
14151617181920
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30 31

APRIL
S M T W T F S
1 2 3
4 5 6 7 8 910
11121314151617
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30

MAY
S M T W T F S
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9101112131415
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31

JUNE
S M T W T F S
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9101112
13141516171819
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 179 1 JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 1112 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

TIME 180 M 1796 1808 1836 1864 1892 1904 1932 1960 1988 2016 2044 ' JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1213141516 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 181 NI JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11121314151617 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

TIME 182 I 1 N 1780 1820 1848 1876 1916 1944 1972 2000 2028 JANUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 FEBRUARY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 MARCH S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12131415161718 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 APRIL S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 MAY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910111213 14151617181920 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 JUNE S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .

PERPETUAL CALENDAR 183 JULY S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 AUGUST S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 13141516171819 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 SEPTEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 OCTOBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 12 1 3 1 4 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 213 29 30 31 NOVEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 DECEMBER S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

including the US. adopt Daylight Saving Time (DST) in order to receive more daylight .184 TIME Time zones of the world Some countries.

The maps below do not reflect DST adjustments. . Clocks are put forward 1 hour in spring and back 1 hour in fall.TIME ZONES OF THE WORLD 185 ~~~~~ ~ in summer.

Toronto Copenhagen Paris Athens Milan Tokyo < Amsterdam Oslo Lisbon Dublin Riyadh Johannesburg Madrid Stockholm Geneva Frankfurt 8:OOam I .186 TIME Office times The table shows the usual office hours (local time) in various cities around the world compared to New York NewYorktime 10 11 12 IAM 2 3 4 5 6 7 New York London 9:OOam < 3:OOam Sydney Brussels 5:OOpm 8:30am 1 12:OOpm Rio de Janeir.

OFFICE TIMES (east coast time). 187 . Los Angeles (west coast time) is three hours behind.

5 x 2.8: Speed Formulas Below are listed the multiplication/division factors for converting units of speed from one measuring system to another.609 x 0. for an approximate conversion that can be made without a calculator: and accurate.305 Feet per minute (Wmin) Meters per minute (m/min) Wmin m/min 4 m/min ft/min x3 x 3.394 . - Quick Accurate Miles per hour (mph) Kilometers per hour (km/h) mph km/h km/h mph X 1.094 f 3 x 0. for an exact conversion.621 +1 Yards per minute (ypm) Meters per minute (m/min) ypm m/min m/min ypm X 1 x 0.5 + 1.5 x 0.914 x 1.5 x 1.54 + 2. Note that two kinds of factors are given: quick.281 Inches per second (in/s) Centimeters per second (cm/s) inls cm/s cmls ink x 2.

151 x 0.5 x 0.FORMULAS 189 -- International knots (kn) Miles per hour (rnph) Quick Accurate kn mph x 1 +1 mph kn ~1.540 Miles per hour (mph) Feet per second (Ws) mph ft/s ft/s ___) mph x 1.599 .682 Kilometers per hour (krn/h) Meters per second (rn/s) km/h m/s m/s km/h + 3.5 X 0.999 International knots (kn) Kilometers per hour (krnih) kn km/h km/h kn x2 +2 x 1.467 + 1.5 x 3.001 x 0.5 x 1.869 British knots (UK kn) International knots (kn) UKkn kn kn UK kn x 1 f 1 x 1.852 x 0.278 x 3.

068 37.467 96.187 48.219 4.728 4.047 9.709 55.864 64.641 24.592 6.SPEED 190 ~ ~~~~ Conversion tables The tables below can be used to convert units of speed from one measuring system to another.970 5.914 1.282 43.654 128.485 3.748 144.374 80.440 -- .093 32.572 5.230 9.864 2.288 27.828 6.658 4.875 14.242 1. The first group Miles per hour to Kilometers per hour Kilometers per hour to Miles per hour Yards per minute to Meters per minute mph km/h km/h mph fpm m/min 1 2 3 1.432 36.152 82.609 3.486 6.401 7.106 3.934 1 2 3 0.280 64.427 18.923 62.495 49.743 3.349 4.315 8.561 112.008 73.484 16.437 8.829 2.720 54.144 18.265 12.656 11.576 45.841 160.854 31.621 1.137 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.296 91.213 12.

134 2.914 1.281 6.281 4 4.CONVERSION TABLES 191 of tables converts US units/UK imperial units to metric.842 13.094 2.808 65.562 9.848 229.743 3.432 30.680 60 65.685 22.080 --- .562 7 7.524 1.808 40 43.219 1.438 2.272 328.655 8 8.305 0.192 15. and vice versa.096 9.360 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.048 6.616 70 76.336 24.468 6 6. and metric units.424 131.527 32.966 26.374 5 5.656 262. The tables beginning on page 192 convert knots.288 21.829 2.872 30 32.384 27.123 16.424 100 109.610 0.464 295.187 3.552 80 87.842 10 10.404 19.246 29.488 90 98.936 20 21.144 12.744 50 54.232 164. Meters per minute to Yards per minute Feet per minute to Meters per minute Meters per minute to Feet per minute d m i n ypm ft/ min m/min m/ min ft/min 1.616 98.749 9 9.040 196.480 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3. imperial.240 18.

20 228.70 15.302 3.937 7.362 2.54 5.031 57.543 3.905 8.40 177.SPEED 192 US units1UK imperial and metric units of speed (continued) Inches per second to Centimeters per second Centimeters per second to Inches per second International knots to Miles per hour inls cmls cmls inls kn 1 2 3 2.394 0.452 4.62 10.047 80.206 10.603 5.150 3.357 11.78 20.86 25.748 19.579 1.24 17.433 39.60 254.078 --- .32 22.370 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 mph 1.969 2.00 1 2 3 0.555 92.20 101.08 7.80 76.151 2.062 103.523 46.508 23.753 6.181 1.559 31.540 69.40 50.622 27.685 23.00 152.760 3.80 203.016 34.787 1.16 12.60 127.055 9.874 11.811 15.570 115.496 35.

828 69.003 6.003 5.738 2.997 4.690 17.139 60.981 39.476 4.869 1.214 6.208 86.999 1.004 8.069 34.026 50.058 100.032 60.345 5.995 8.994 19.936 --- .013 30.002 4.CONVE RSI0N TABLES Miles per hour to [nternational knots mph 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 kn 0.004 7.038 70.949 89.962 69.942 99.045 80.955 79.001 2.006 10.001 3.987 29.449 52.518 78.968 59.999 2.380 26.759 43.821 8.974 49.952 7.994 9.997 5.006 20.083 6.996 7.898 193 UK knots to International knots UK kn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 kn 1.996 6.607 3.064 [nternational knots to UK knots kn UKkn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0.998 3.019 40.051 90.005 9.

336 132.62 2.816 16.734 13.334 8.260 11.852 3.867 7.73 43.203 14.669 117.SPEED 194 US units/UK imperial and metric units of speed (continued) International knots to Kilometers per hour kn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Kilometers per hour to Internationa knots Miles per hour to Feet per second km/h km/h kn mph ft/s 1.704 5.267 11.90 1 2 3 1.800 10.556 7.964 14.120 129.408 9.112 12.540 1.77 4.08 1.670 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 --- .16 2.30 10.34 37.001 58.600 111.70 3.334 44.667 29.31 4.520 37.668 18.17 21.335 88.23 3.560 74.12 48.85 5.680 185.467 2.002 102.080 92.160 166.95 32.040 55.933 4.640 148.668 73.56 26.400 5.003 146.51 53.200 1 2 0.78 16.

389 1.668 19.640 20.820 13.556 0.222 2.940 251.920 47.797 14.280 34.500 2.728 3.780 1 2 3 3.200 1 2 3 0.198 10.778 5.046 2.446 22.945 2.224 25.970 143.834 1.112 13.995 21.111 1.CONVERSION TABLES Feet per second to Miles per hour 195 Kilometers per hour to Meters per second Meters per second to Kilometers per hour ft/s mph km/h m/s m/s km/h 1 0.560 61.334 11.990 71.740 54.456 6.980 107.002 27.960 179.792 32.556 8.594 25.669 1.092 4.460 27.900 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 --loo .890 16.391 35.278 0.930 287.380 68.910 359.682 1.100 40.396 17.920 323.950 215.138 6.193 28.599 7.774 5.364 2.410 4.

based on easily observable factors such as tree movement. and damage incurred.SPEED 196 The Beaufort scale The speed of wind is measured by using the Beaufort Scale. smoke behavior. Number Description Speed range mph Force 0 Force 1 Force 2 Force 3 Force 4 Force 5 Force 6 Force 7 Force 8 Force 9 Force 10 Force 1 1 Force 12 Calm Light air Light breeze Gentle breeze Moderate breeze Fresh breeze Strong breeze Moderate gale Fresh gale Strong gale Whole gale Storm Hurricane Below 1 1-3 4-7 8-12 13-1 8 19-24 25-31 32-38 39-46 47-54 55-43 64-75 Over 75 . Sir Francis Beaufort. It was devised by a 19th-century British admiral.

THE BEAUFORT SCALE 197 As air moves across the surface of the Earth. Number Characteristics Force 0 Force 1 Force 2 Force 3 Force 4 Force 5 Force 6 Force 7 Force 8 Force 9 Force 10 Force 11 Force 12 Smoke rises straight up Smoke shows wind direction Wind felt on face Flag extends Dust and paper blow in wind Small trees sway in wind Umbrellas are difficult to use Difficult to stand up in wind Twigs break off trees Chimney tops and tiles are dislodged Trees are uprooted Extensive damage Extremely violent . air pressure. variations in temperature. and the range of speeds to which they apply. the variety of winds that are measured. its direction is determined by such factors as the Earth’s rotation. Listed below are examples showing the effects of wind as measured on the Beaufort Scale. and land features such as mountains.

.

POLYGONS A Triangle B Square C Pentagon D Hexagon E Heptagon 199 F Octagon G Nonagon H Decagon I Undecagon J Dodecagon .

All the sides are the same length but 3 Rhombus none of the angles are right angles. . 4 Parallelogram Opposite sides are parallel to each other and of the same length. One pair of the opposite sides is 5 Trapezoid parallel. All the sides are the same length and 1 Square all the angles are right angles.200 GE 0M€TRY Quadrilaterals Quadrilaterals A quadrilateral is a four-sided polygon. Adjacent sides are the same length 6 Kite and the diagonals intersect at right angles. Opposite sides are the same length 2 Rectangle and all the angles are right angles.

. D Right angle A triangle that contains one right angle . F Acute angle A triangle with three acute angles.TRIANGLES 20 1 Triangles I \ \~ - \ \ \ E \ Triangles A Equilateral F \ \ All the sides are the same length and all the angles are equal. All the sides are of different length C Scalene and all the angles are of different sizes. Two sides are of the same length and B Isosceles two angles are of equal size. E Obtuse angle A triangle that contains one obtuse angle.

189mm 841 mm 420 mm 420 mm 210 mm 210mm 105 mm 105 mm 52 mm .202 10: Everyday measures A0 AI A2 A3 A4 AS A6 A7 A8 33112 x 23% x 16112 x 11314 x 46314 in 33118 in 23318 in 16'12 in 8114 x 11314 in 5718 x 8114 in 4118 x 6 in 3 x 4118 in 2x3in 841 x 594 x 594 x 297 x 297 x 148 x 148 x 74 x 74 x 1.

5 x 7’/x 5318 x 8 5112 x 8114 5‘18 x 8318 . Sheet size 35 x 45 in 38 x 50in 41 x 6 1 in 44 x 66 in 45 x 68 in 45 x 69in No. as is the “A series” given on the previous page. Stock sizes for book paper In the US. These standard sizes are measured in the metric system used in Europe. the grades of paper that are most popular in the US are provided in standard sizes.PAPER SIZES 203 Stock paper sizes Although special paper sizes may be ordered from paper merchants. the sizes of the presses used for book printing and the most popular book trim sizes dictate the stock sizes for book paper. of pages per sheet 64 64 Folded size before trimming 5518 x 128 6114 x 9 \ 1 2 5\18 x 7518 5112 x g3/4 5 5 1 8 x 8‘12 128 s3/4 128 128 x 8518 Trim size 5’12 x 8112 6\/x x 911. The figures for some of these sizes are given below.

etc. currency. there are as many variations of style and size as there are uses. Smallest: 1 11/16 x 23/4 in Largest: 3112 x 6112 in . booklets. Within these two categories. and catalogs. with a metal clasp or string and button. Here. pay. used for mailing bulky material.EVERYDAY MEASURES 204 Envelope sizes and styles There are two basic styles of envelope: open-end and open-side. together with the smallest and largest sizes in which they are available. Smallest (glove): 37/x x 7'12 in Largest (catalog): 12 x 15112 in Clasp/string and button A strong. a selection of styles is given. reports. reusable catalog envelope. Smallest: 21/2 x 4114 in Largest: 12 x 15112 in m Coin Used for coins. Open-end envelopes Catalog A strong envelope used for magazines.

sales literature. Smallest (commercial): 3 1 / 1 6 x 5112in Largest (official): 5 x 11 1/2 in Banker’s flap Stronger than a commercial envelope. brochures.E N V E L O P E SIZES AND STYLES 205 Open-side envelopes Booklet Used for direct mailing. etc. ~ . annual reports. Smallest: 3l/4 x 63/4 in Largest: 9%x 12% in Commercial/official Used for all types of correspondence. Smallest: 3718 x 7112 in Largest: 6 x 12 in Baronial Used for invitations and greetings cards. both personal and official. Smallest: 3518 x 51/x in Largest (card): 45/8 x 6114 in Window envelopes These are available in many different sizes and styles.

206 EVERYDAY MEASURES A Running Press Gem 31/s x 45/8in 117 x 79 mm Octavo formats B 5114 x 8l/? in 133 x 216 mm C 51/2 x S1/2 in 140 x 216 mm D 6x9in 152 x 229 mm E 6l/8 x 91/4 in 156 x 235 mm Quarto formats F 7x9in 178 x 229 mm G 8 x loin 203 x 254 mm H 81/4 x lO7/sin 210 x 276mm I 81/2 x 11 in 216 x 279 mrn .

WINE BOTTLE SHAPES ~~ ~~~ ~ Wine bottle shapes 207 .

208 EVERYDAY MEASURES Clothing sizes US clothing sizes are equal to UK sizes for some items. ~ Men’s shoes USA UK Europe 7 6112 39 7‘12 7 40 a 7’12 41 8112 a 42 9 a112 43 g1/2 9 43 10 9112 44 10’/2 10 44 11 101/2 45 Women’s shoes USA UK Europe 5 3’12 36 6 4’12 37 7 5‘12 3a a 6112 39 9 7112 40 Children’s shoes USNUK Europe 0 15 1 17 2 ia 3 19 4 20 4112 21 5 22 6 23 7 24 a 25 8112 26 9 27 10 2a 11 29 12 30 12’/2 31 13 32 . Below are listed the European equivalents of US and UK clothing and shoe sizes. such as children’s shoes. for others. the two vary slightly. Remember also that sizes vary depending on the manufacturer.

CLOTHING SIZES Men’s suits/overcoats USNUK Europe 36 46 38 48 40 50 42 52 44 54 46 56 Men’s shirts USNUK Europe 12 30-31 12112 32 13 33 13112 34-35 14 36 14112 37 15 38 15llZ 39-40 41 16 42 16’12 17 43 17lI2 44-45 Men’s socks USNUK Europe 9 38-39 10 39-40 101/2 40-41 11 41-42 11112 42-43 209 Women’s clothing USA UK Europe 8 36 6 10 38 8 12 40 10 14 42 12 16 44 14 18 46 16 20 48 18 50 22 20 24 52 22 Children’s clothing USA UK Europe 2 16-18 40-45 4 20-22 50-55 6 24-26 60-65 7 28-30 70-75 8 32-34 80-85 9 36-38 90-95 .

EVERYDAY MEASURES 210 A height B head C neck D chesubust E waist F F hips G thigh H calf I arm J wrist U K arm length L armpit to hip M outside leg N inside leg 0 back U .

g. usually 7-9 in below. Waist Tie a string around the thinnest part of your body (the waist) and leave it there as a point of reference for other measurements. the other is at the fullest part. . Neck Measure at the fullest part.BODY MEASUREMENTS 211 Body measurements The standard body measurements shown on the diagram on the opposite page are those needed for garment fitting. Hips There are two places to measure hips. e. the hips. Arm length Start at the shoulder bone and continue past the elbow to the wrist. at the top of the hipbones. depending on the garment: one is 2-4 in below the waist. Back Measure from the prominent bone in the back of the neck down the center to the point at which you want the garment to end. with the arm slightly bent. Below are a few tips on taking some of these measurements. Arm Measure at the fullest part. Chest/bust Measure at the fullest part of the bust or chest and straight across the back. usually about 1 in below the armpit.

212 EVERYDAY MEASURES .

AVERAGE HEIGHTS 213 .

214 EVERYDAY MEASURES .

LAUNDRY CODES 215 Laundry codes Most garments contain a label giving laundering instructions (the International Textile Care Labeling Code [ITCL]). and the types of fabric that should be washed according to that code. usually shown in terms of symbols. A Machine or hand wash B Can be bleached C Do not bleach D Iron E Do not iron F Dry cleanable G Do not dry clean H Tumble dry I Do not tumble dry . recommended temperatures (for machine. The codes are listed below. and other machine settings. The table on the following pages lists the old and new codes. that tell you if any item is washable (or should be drycleaned) and how to wash it.or hand-washing).

EVERYDAY MEASURES 216 OLD 1 NEW CODE m /M MACHINE WASH HAND WASH TEMP1 IATURE Very hot 95 "C (203 "F to boil Hand hot 50 "C (1 22 "F or boil Hot 60 "C (140 "F) Hand hot 50°C (122°F Hand hot 50 "C (122 "F Hand hot 5OnC(122"F Warm 40 "C (104 "F) Warm 40 "C (104 "F) Warm 40 "C (104 "F) Warm 40 "C (104 "F) Warm 40 "C (104 "F) Warm 40 "C (104 "F) Cool 30 "C Cool 30 "C (86O F ) (86O F ) .

and viscose with special finish Maximum Normal Normal Cotton.LAUNDRY CODES AGITATION RINSE 217 SPlN FABRIC I Maximum Normal Normal White cotton and linen with no special finish Maximum Normal Normal Cotton. viscose. acetate. color-fast with no special finish Medium Cold Short spin or drip dry Colored nylon. linen. Wool and wool do not mixtures hand wring Minimum: do not rub Minimum Cold . and mixtures with wool Normal Normal. color-fast to 40 "C (104 "F) Minimum Cold Short spin Acrylics. viscose. linen. polyester. cotton.

in a pound.90 . Gauge was originally determined by the number of round lead balls .34 19. A B C D E F Gauge 6 10 12 14 16 20 Bore (mm) 23.5 gauge.81 15.410 in diameter.67 18. The exception is the 410 bore. The table below shows gauge and equivalent bore size.60 16.52 17. which is measured in inches: .218 EVERYDAY MEASURES Gun gaugelcaliber A shotgun bore (diameter) is expressed in terms of gauge. using 67. For example.each the size of the shotgun bore . The most popular size today is the 12-gauge. a 10-gauge shotgun was one that used balls that were 10 to the pound.

Height is expressed in “hands high” (hh).15.2. Height is given to the nearest inch . the average width of a person’s hand.2 15-17 . The table below shows recommended heights of ponies for young riders.2 13-15 1 4. Pony’s height (hh) Child’s age (years) 11-12 7-9 12-13 10-1.a pony measuring SO in ( 127 cm) is said to measure 12.HORSE MEASUREMENTS 219 Horse measurements The height of a horse or pony is measured to its withers (on the highest point on its back at the neck base). One hand is 4 in (10 cm).3 13-1 4. as shown above.2 hands.

Combination Chances Combination . For results with two possible combinations. The table below shows the odds for each possible combination. you have six possible results -one for each side of the die. With one die.220 EVERYDAY MEASURES Odds in dice and cards Dice Odds in dice-throwing are determined by comparing favorable results with unfavorable. the chances are 35 to 2. Thus the odds against throwing a 12 or 2 are 35 to 1.a 12 or a 2 -you have only one chance to achieve. you have 36 possible results. Some results . with two die. or 17 to 1.

or 649.598. Two-card total Chances 21 21 to I 20 9to 1 16. or 21 to 1.739 to 1 straight flush 72.326 combinations in blackjack.5 to 1 19 18 15 to 1 17 14 to 1 I5 to 1 16 15 I4 to 1 14 13 to 1 13 1 1 to 1 .960. the odds of reaching 21 with two cards from a 52-card deck (64possible combinations) are thus 1.164 to 1 693 to I full house flush 508 to 1 straight 254 to 1 three of a kind 46 to 1 two pairs 20 to 1 one pair 2.739 to 1.598.326 to 64. Hand Chances royal flush 649.960 to 4. Thus.ODDS IN DICE AND CARDS 22 I Poker Odds in poker are figured against a total number of possible combinations of 2.192 to 1 four of a kind 4. the odds of getting a royal flush (4 possible combinations) are 2.4 to 1 nil 2to 1 Blackjack (Pontoon) There are a possible 1.

222 11: Astronomy .

680.795 142.0 Saturn 72.0 223 km 4.0 Uranus 30.077.8 Venus 7.0 Neptune 29.480.800 120.926.4 Earth 7.0 Jupiter 85.PLANETARY FEATURES Diameter at equator Planet mi Mercury 2.104 12.000 Rotation period Mercury 58 days 15 hr Venus 243 days Earth 23 hr 56 rnin Mars 24 hr 37 min Jupiter 9 hr 50 rnin Saturn 10 hr 14 rnin Uranus 16 hr 10 rnin Neptune 18 hr 26 rnin Pluto 6 days 9 hr Average surface temperatures Solid surface Cloud surface 662 OF (day) Jupiter Mercury { -274 OF (night) Saturn Venus 896°F Uranus Earth 72°F Neptune Mars -9 OF Pluto -238 -292 -346 -364 -382 OF OF OF OF OF .100.262.000 50.800 48.500 3.653.878 12.0 Pluto 1.756 6.6 Mars 4.000.800.

224 ASTRONOMY .

427.000.(K)O.796.297.000.000.000 227.000 4.000.000.PLANETARY DISTANCES 225 Mean distance from the Sun Planet mi Mercury 36.000 Saturn 887.000.198.000 778.670.000.000.000.869.000.000 Jupiter 484.000 2.000.000 km 80.000 Uranus 1.000 Neptune 2.000 1.800.000 4.000.000.000.000 2.000.400. .000.000.000 Pluto 3.000 1.678.000 Venus 67.89 1.000.000.000.000.000 Neptune 2.784.000 59 1.000.000. Mars 141.000 Venus 25.000 Saturn 744.000 Earth 93.000 *Between 1979 and 1999 Pluto will be closer to the Earth than Neptune because of the unusual shape of its orbit.000 56.OOO km 58.000 Jupiter 367.000.497.000.000 108.000.308.000 150.000 5.000.000 40.000 Closest distance to the Earth Planet mi Mercury 50.800.000.607.000.000.000 Pluto" 2.000.000 Mars 35.66 l.000 4.s 85.000 Uranus 1.

226 ASTRONOMY The solar system .Orbits and rotation .

97 mi/s 4. A Mercury B Venus C Earth D Mars E Jupiter F Saturn G Uranus H Neptune I PlUto mils 0 Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Average orbital speed 28.3 days 687.86 years 29.7 mi/s 18. The diagram shows how far each planet travels in its orbit during the time it takes the Earth to complete one orbit (approximately 1 year).0 days 224.8 years 247.46 years 84.0 days 11.5 mi/s 14. so these periods are different for each planet.36 mi/s 2.01 years 164.14 mi/s 5.7 days 365. as does their distance from the Sun. Planets’ orbital speeds vary.7 years 5 10 15 20 25 30 .ORBITS AND ROTATION 227 Sidereal period Sidereal period is the time it takes a planet to orbit the Sun.75 mi/s 21.92 mi/s Sidereal period 88.97 mi/s 8.23 mi/s 3.

228

ASTRONOMY

Light years
The table below lists standard abbreviations and
equivalents for the units used in measuring
astronomical distances. These are very large units and
are related to the Earth’s orbit.
A light year (ly) is the distance light travels - at its
speed of 186,282 mi/s - through space over a tropical
year.
An astronomical unit (au) is the mean distance
between the Earth and the Sun.
A parsec (pc) is the distance at which a baseline of
1 au in length subtends an angle of 1 second.
I au =
I ly =
1 pc =
1 ly =
1 PC =

93,000,000 mi = 149,600,000 km
5,878,000,000,000 mi = 9,460,500,000,000 km
19,174,000,000,000 mi = 30,857,200,000,000 km
63,240au
206,265 au = 3.262 ly

PLANETARY DATA

229

Planetary data
Mercury
Mean distance
from Sun 0.39 au
Distance
at perihelion 0.31 au
Distance
at aphelion 0.47 au
Closest
distance to Earth 0.54 au
Average
orbital speed 28.75 rni/s
Rotation period 58 days 15 hr
Sidereal period 88 days
Diameter at equator 3,030 mi
Mass
(Earth's mass=l) 0.06
Surface temperature 662 (day)

Venus

Earth

0.72 au

1.00 au

0.72 au

0.98 au

0.73 au

1.02 au

0.27 au
21.7 mi/s 18.5 mi/s
243 days 23 hr 56 rnin
224.7 days 365.3 days
7,520 rni 7,926 rnj

0.82
896 "F
-274 "F (night)
O F

Gravit
(Earth's gravity = 15 0.38
Densit
(density of water = 15 5.5
Number of
satellites known 0
Number of
rings known 0
Main ases no
in a t m u s h e r e atmosphere

1
72

OF

0.88

1

5.25

5.517

0

1

0

0

Carbon
dioxide

Nitrogen,
oxygen

ASTRONOMY

230
Planetary data (continued)
Mean distance
from Sun
Distance
a t perihelion
Distance
at aphelion
Closest
distance to Earth
Average
orbital speed
Rotation period
Sidereal period
Diameter a t equator
Mass
(Earth’s mass=l)
Surface temperature
(Earth’s graY
: !3
Densit
density of water = 15
Number of
satellites known
Number of
ringsknown
Main ases
in a t m o s h e r e

Mars

Jupiter

1.52 au

5.20 au

1.38au

4.95 au

1.67au

5.46 au

0.38 au

3.95 au

14.97 mi/s
24 h r 37 min
687 days
4,222 mi

8.14 mi/s
9 h r 50 min
1136 years
88,734 mi

0.11
-9

317.9
-238

0.38

2.64

3.94

1.33

2

16

OF

OF

0

1

Carbon
dioxide

Hydrogen,
helium

PLANETARY DATA

23 1

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune

Pluto

9.54 au

19.18 au

30.06 au

39.36 au

9.01 au

18.28 au

29.80 au

29.58 au

10.07 au

20.09 au

30.32 au

49.14 au

8.01 au

I 7.28 au

28.80 au

28.72 au

5.97 mils
10 hr 14 min
29.46 years
74,566 mi

4.23 mi/s
16 hr 10 min
84.01 years
31,566 mi

3.36 mi/s
18 hr 26 min
164.8 years
30,137 mi

2.92 mi/s
6 days 9 hr
247.7 years
3,725 mi

95.2
-292

14.6
-346 "F

17.2
-364

0.002-0.003
-382 OF

1.15

1.17

1.2

not known

0.71

1.7

1.77

not known

19

5

2

1

1,ooot
Hydrogen,
helium

9
0
0
Hvdrooen.
Hvdrooen,
Methane
helium-, methane helium, methane

O F

O F

232

12: Earth
Earth’s interior
A Crust (under oceans) 4 mi (6 km) deep; made of
basalt (a type of rock). Crust (continental): average
22 mi (35 km) deep; made of granite
B Mantle 1,810 mi (2,9 12 km) deep; probably
containing peridotite (a heavy, dark rock), dunite
(olivine rock), and ecologite (a dense form of basalt)
C Outer core 1,242 mi (1,999 km) deep; probably
liquid iron with some dissolved sulfur and silicon
D Inner core 842 mi (1,354 km) deep; probably solid
iron

ATMOSPHERIC LAYERS AND DEPTHS Atmospheric layers and depths of the Earth 233 .

the air pressure. . and the rainfall.234 EARTH Climate The climate of a region is primarily the result of location (latitude and longitude). the wind patterns. altitude (height above sea level).

l Temperature "F 5 60 40 JFMAMJJASOND C Cool temperate (marine) London (UK) Total: 23 in 40 J FMAMJ J ASOND D Warm temperate Athens (Greece) Total: 16 in Rainfall in. 235 Temperatye F I Rainfall in.'iB:: CLIMATE Rainfall In.'oh. Temperaty e F 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 E Tropical (desert) Cairo (Egypt) Total: 1 in F Tropical (rnonsoon) Yangon (Myanmar) Total: 103 in .

000mi2 11.000 mi2 6.825.EARTH 236 Continents A Asia B Africa C N.000 km2 30.000km2 24.793.870.100.420.534.000 mi2 9.907.264.085.398.000 mi2 44.000 km2 8. America D S.000mi2 3.000km2 .000 km2 9.209.000 mi2 3.250.000km2 17.000 km2 13.685. America E Antarctica F Europe G Australasia 17.000 mi2 5.295.

000 km' 2.000 km' 3.676.000 mi2 905.000 mi' 1.288.506.LARGEST COUNTRIES 237 Largest countries 1 Russian Federation 2 Canada 3 China 4 USA 5 Brazil 6 Australia 7 India 8 Argentina 9 Sudan 10 Zaire 6.593.966.692.000 mi? 3.269.852.000 km' 2.286.000 km2 2.976.000 mi2 17.345.000 mi2 1.5 12.000 miL 968.520.07S.000 mi2 2.000 mi? 3.000 km' 9 3 6 I .682.000 mi2 3.000 km2 7.072.000 km2 .000 km' 9.000 km? 8.000 mi' 3.777.OOO km' 9.

000 km' 165.505.000 .000 3 IndianOcean 4 Arctic Ocean 5.149.000 82.000 1.975.238 EARTH Oceans and seas mi' 63.000 8 Bering Sea 596.000 876.000 28.544.269.000 2.800.000 73 .000 2.400.000 6 Caribbean Sea 1.986.063.000 1 Pacific Ocean 2 Atlantic Ocean 3 1.000 5 South China Sea 1.528.000 1.000 9 Gulf of Mexico 10 Sea of Okhotsk 590.000 2.753.362.400.242.000 2.000 7 Mediterranean Sea 967.000 13.800.556.

LARGEST (SINGLE) ISLANDS Largest (single) islands 239 .

885 m 6.896 m 5.853 ft 18.EARTH 240 Volcanoes and mountains Highest volcanoes 25.000 6.590 ft 22.000 5.758 m 5. America S. America 5 McKinley N.892 ft 18.194 m 5.895 m 5. America 3 Llullaillaco* S.739 m 6. America 9 Citlaltepetl N. America 4 Chimborazo S.703 ft 20.580 ft 22. America 10 Elbrus Europe *Quiescent +Active 2 Pissis m 22.3 10 m 6.344 ft 19.320 ft 19.480ft 6.000 ft 1 Ojos del Salado S.110 ft 20.633 m .340 ft 18.000 20.746 m 5. America 6 Cotopaxi+ S . America 7 Kilimanjaro Africa 8 Antisanat S.882 m 6.000 7.

748 ft 26.000 m Himalayas Himalayas Himalayas Himalayas Himalayas Himalayas Himalayas Himalayas Himalayas Himalayas 29.000 9.000 25.000 ft 1 Everest 2 K2 (Godwin Austen) 3 Kanchenjunga 4 Lhotse 5 Yalung Kang 6 Makalu 7 Dhaulagiri 8 Manaslu 9 ChoOyu 10 Nanga Parbat 3.000 20.611 m 8.VOLCANOES AND MOUNTAINS 24 1 Highest mountains 30.000 8.5 11 m 8.208 ft 27.000 15.811 ft 26.660 ft 8.172 m 8.029 ft 28.481 m 8.758 ft 26.000 10.000 6.156 m 8.848 m 8.502 m 8.000 5.824 ft 26.923 ft 27.000 7.000 4.598 m 8. I26 m .153 m 8.893 ft 27.25 1 ft 28.

000 ft a Everest b Aconcagua c McKinley d Kilimanjaro e Elbrus f Vinson Massif g Cook Asia S .340 ft 18.895 m 5.000 20.140 m 3.863 ft 12.000 6.000 8.000 25.000 15.000 7.000 10.480 ft 16.000 4.834 ft 20.320 ft 19.194 m 5.764 m . America N.960 m 6.633 m 5. America Africa Europe Antarctica Australasia 29.349 ft 3.EARTH 242 Highest mountain in each continent 30.848 m 6.029 ft 22.000 m 8.000 5.000 9.

388 ft 12.6.418 m 3.2.320 ft 14.ooa .764 rn 1.3.000 .194 m 4.000 .VOLCANOES AND MOUNTAINS 243 Highest mountain in selected countries 20.000 .5.000 .1.776 m 3.343 m .349 ft 4.406 ft m 6.494 ft 12.000 4.000 1 AMcKinley B Whitney C Fujiyama (Fuji) D Cook E Ben Nevis USA USA Japan New Zealand UK 20.000 - 10.

509 km 4.903 mi 2.000 3. America 3.000 mi 6.430 mi 2. America Asia Asia Asia Africa Asia Asia N. America 4.437 km N.900 mi 2.000 7.000 I I J I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I I I km 1.000 I 5.461 mi 3.635 mi 6.000 4.650 km 6.570 km 5.24 1 km 1.000 .000 2.270 km 4.2 12 km 5.132 mi 4.672 km 4.000 4.000 2.520 km 4.653 mi 2.802 mi 2.000 I 1 6.667 km 4.000 I I 3.EARTH 244 Longest rivers 1 Nile 2 Amazon 3 MississippiMissouriRed Rock 4 Ob-Irtysh 5 Yangtze (Chang) 6 HuangHe 7 Congo (Zaire) 8 Amur 9 Lena 10 Mackenzie mi I Africa S.860 mi 3.

690 km 3.212 km 5.000 mi 6.000 .000 I I I I 1 5. America Amazon C N.000 I I I I I I 1.000 I I km 2.860 mi 3.570 km 3.000 mi 6.132 mi 4.000 4.437 km 3.000 4.000 7.293 mi 2.000 3.000 2.000 4.000 6.461 mi 2.LONGEST RIVERS 245 Longest in its continent A Africa Nile B S.219 km 3. America MississippiMissouriRed Rock D Asia Ob-Irtysh E Europe Volga F Australasia Murray mi 1.650 km 6.

400 km’ 28.000 km2 3 1.900 mi’ 82.400 mi2 12.500 km2 28.EARTH 246 Largest lakes 1 Superior 2 Victoria 3 Huron 4 Michigan 5 GreatBear 6 Baykal 7 Great Slave 8 Tanganyika 9 Malawi 10 Erie 3 1.800 km’ 3 1.200 mi2 11.300 mi2 12.000 mi2 22.500 km’ 59.400 km2 28.000 mi2 11.400 km2 69.700 km’ .800 mi’ 26.800 mi’ 23.600 km’ 58.900 mi2 9.000 mi’ 10.200 km2 25.

2 12 ft (979 m) 1 c 2 c 2 Tugela.841 ft (561 m) -6 -7 -8 -9 P 10 . Norway 2. Norway 2.540 ft (774 m ) 5 Yosemite.625 ft (800 m) 4 Mongefossen. Africa 3. Norway 2.110 ft (948 m) 3 Utigbrd. S.904 ft (580 m) 10 Kjellfossen.425 ft (739 m) 6 0stre Mardsla Foss. Zealand 1.120 ft (646 m) 8 Kukenaom.000 ft (610 m) 9 Sutherland.154 ft (657 m) 7 Tyssestrengane. Norway 2. USA 2. Norway 1. Venezuela 3. Venezuela 2.LARGEST WATERFALLS 247 Largest waterfalls 1 Angel. N.

000 mi‘ 254.000 km’ 360.000 km2 311.000 mi’ 401.242.549.248 Largest deserts A Sahara B Australian C Arabian D Gobi E Kalahari F Turkestan G Takla Makan H Sonoran I Namib J Thar EARTH 3.039.000 km2 521.000mi2 100.000 mi2 598.000 km2 1.000 km’ The sizes of the largest deserts are compared (opposite) to the size of Wyoming.000 mi’ 502.000km2 1.000 mi’ 139.000 kmz 321.000mi2 8.000 km’ K Wyoming 98.000 km2 1.000 mi2 201.000mi2 120.000mi2 120.397.000 km2 259.000 mi2 124.300. .000 km2 311.

LARGEST DESERTS 249 .

200 1.439 5 Schwersystem Austria 3.000 4.970 7 Veliko Fbrego Former Yugoslavia 3.200 .999 6 Abisso Olivifer Italy 3.943 1 Reseau Jean Bemard .441 1.1.210 I .020 897 .159 1. 198 1.400 .1.802 9 Siebenhengste System Switzerland 3.600 .219 1.508 1.000 .600 m 1.000 .000 .353 1.1.728 4 San Agustin Mexico 4.346 10 Jama U Vjetrena brdd Former Yugoslavia 2.000 2.602 1.400 5.800 3.947 3 Sistema del Trave Spain 4.930 8 Anou Ifflis Algeria 3.256 2 Shakta Pantjukhina Russian Caucasus 4.000 - ft France 5.250 Deepest caves Oft EARTH -0m .

CAPITALS OF THE WORLD Capitals of the world Africa ALGERIA Algiers ANGOLA Luanda BENIN PO~~O-NOVO BOTSWANA Gaborone BURKINA FASO Ouagadougou BURUNDI Bujumbura CAMEROON YaoundC CAPE VERDE Praia CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC Bangui CHAD N’Djamena COMOROS Moroni CONGO Brazzaville DJIBOUTI Djibouti EGYPT Cairo EQUATORIAL GUINEA Malabo ERITREA Asmara ETHIOPIA Addis Ababa GABON Libreville GAMBIA Banjul GHANA Accra GUINEA Conakry GUINEA-BISSAU Bissau IVORY COAST (COTE D’IVOIRE) Yamoussoukro/Abidjan KENYA Nairobi 25 1 LESOTHO Maseru LIBERIA Monrovia LIBYA Tripoli MADAGASCAR Antananarivo MALAWI Lilongwe MALI Bamako MAURITANIA Nouakchott MAURITIUS Port Louis MOROCCO Rabat MOZAMBIQUE Maputo NAMIBIA Windhoek NIGER Niamey NIGERIA Abuja RWANDA Kigali S A 0 TOME AND PRfNCIPE Silo Tom6 SENEGAL Dakar SEYCHELLES Victoria SIERRA LEONE Freetown SOMALIA Mogadishu SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town/ Pretoria SUDAN Khartoum SWAZILAND Mbabane TANZANIA Dodoma TOGO LomC TUNISIA Tunis UGANDA Kampala ZAIRE Kinshasa ZAMBIA Lusaka .

SOUTH Seoul KUWAIT Kuwait City LAOS Vientiane LEBANON Beirut MALAYSIA Kuala Lumpur MALDIVES MalC MONGOLIA Ulan Bator EARTH MYANMAR(Burma) Yangon (Rangoon) NEPAL Kathmandu OMAN Muscat PAKISTAN Islamabad PHILIPPINES Manila QATAR Doha SAUDI ARABIA Riyadh SINGAPORE Singapore SRI LANKA Colombo SYRIA Damascus TADZHIKISTAN Dushanbe THAILAND Bangkok TURKMENISTAN Ashkhabad UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Abu Dhabi UZBEKISTAN Tashkent VIETNAM Hanoi YEMEN Sana'a Europe ALBANIA Tirana ANDORRA Andorra la Vella ARMENIA Yerevan AUSTRIA Vienna AZERBAIJAN Baku BELARUS Minsk BELGIUM Brussels .252 ZIMBABWE Harare Asia and Middle East AFGHANISTAN Kabul BAHRAIN Manama BANGLADESH Dhaka BHUTAN Thimphu BRUNEI Bandar Seri Begawan CAMBODIA Phnom Penh CHINA Beijing INDIA New Delhi INDONESIA Jakarta IRAN Tehran IRAQ Baghdad ISRAEL Jerusalem JAPAN Tokyo JORDAN Amman KAZAKHSTAN AlmaAta KIRGHIZIA Frunze KOREA. NORTH PY OngYang KOREA.

CAPITALS OF THE WORLD BOSNIAHERZEGOVINA Sarajevo BULGARIA Sofia CROATIA Zagreb CYPRUS Nicosia CZECH REPUBLIC Prague DENMARK Copenhagen ESTONIA Tallinn FINLAND Helsinki FRANCE Paris GEORGIA Tbilisi GERMANY Berlin GREECE Athens HUNGARY Budapest ICELAND Reykjavk IRELAND (Eire) Dublin ITALY Rome LATVIA Riga LIECHTENSTEIN Vaduz LITHUANIA Vilnius LUXEMBOURG Luxembourg MACEDONIA Skopje MALTA Valletta MOLDOVA Kishinev MONACO Monaco-Ville NETHERLANDS The Hague/Amsterdam NORWAY Oslo POLAND Warsaw 253 PORTUGAL Lisbon ROMANIA Bucharest RUSSIA Moscow SAN MARINO San Marino SLOVAKIA Bratislava SLOVENIA Ljubljana SPAIN Madrid SWEDEN Stockholm SWITZERLAND Bern TURKEY Ankara UKRAINE Kiev UNITED KINGDOM London VATICAN CITY Vatican city YUGOSLAVIA Belgrade Australasia AUSTRALIA Canberra FIJI Suva KIRIBATI Twawa MARSHALL ISLANDS Dalap-Uliga-Darrit MICRONESIA Kolonia NAURU Yaren NEW ZEALAND Wellington PALAU Koror PAPUA NEW GUINEA Port Moresby .

VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES Kingstown TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Port of Spain UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Washington D. . George’s GUATEMALA Guatemala City HAITI Port-au-Prince HONDURAS Tegucigalpa JAMAICA Kingston MEXICO Mexico City NICARAGUA Managua PANAMA Panama City ST.C. John’s BAHAMAS Nassau BARBADOS Bridgetown BELIZE Belrnopai EARTH CANADA Ottawa COSTA RICA San Jose CUBA Havana DOMINICA Roseau DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Santo Domingo EL SALVADOR San Salvador GREENLAND Nuuk GRENADA St. CHRISTOPHER AND NEVIS Basseterre ST.254 SOLOMON ISLANDS Honiara TONGA Nuku’alofa TUVALU Funafuti VANUATU Port-Vila WESTERN SAMOA Apia South America ARGENTINA Buenos Aires BOLIVIA La Paz/Sucre BRAZIL Brasilia CHILE Santiago COLOMBIA Bogota ECUADOR Quito FRENCH GUIANA Cayenne GUYANA Georgetown PARAGUAY Asuncion PERU Lima SURINAME Paramaribo URUGUAY Montevideo VENEZUELA Caracas North and Central America ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA St. LUCIA Castries ST.

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