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國立成功大學 資訊工程系 蔣榮先教授
1. Network Design 2. Network Cabling– the Physical Media 3. The OSI and 802 Networking Models 4. Introduce TCP/IP protocol 5. Managing your Local Area Network – Introduce SNMP
Lesson 1 : Network Design
Standard Topologies Topology is the standard term that most network professionals use when they refer to the network’s basic design All network designs stem from three basic topologies: Bus Topology
Star Topology Ring Topology
Variations on the Major Topologies: Star Bus Star Ring
Lesson 2: Network Cabling– the Physical Media
Primary Cable Types 1. Coaxial Cable there are two types of coaxial cable:
Copper wire mesh or aluminum sleeve
A device called a transceiver connects the thinnet coaxial to the larger thicknet coaxial cable
Unshielded twisted-pair Shielded twisted-pair
Fiber-Optic Cable Optical fibers carry digital data signals in the form of modulated puleses of light. No electrical impulses are carried over the fiber-optic cable About 100Mbps up to 100000Mbps Summarized table
Lesson 3: The OSI and 802 Networking Models
In 1978, the International Standards Organization(ISO) released a set of specifications that described a network architecture for connecting dissimilar devices. In 1984, the ISO released a revision of this model and called it the Open Systems Interconnection(OSI) reference model. This revision has become an international standard and serves as a guide for networking Venders design network products based on the specifications of the OSI model Consists of seven separate by related layers, each of which defines a segment of the process of moving information across a network
The seven-layer OSI Networking Models
Functions of Application Layer Functions of Presentation Layer Functions of Session Layer Functions of Transport Layer Functions of Network Layer Functions of Data Link Layer Functions of Physical Layer
It serves as the window for application processes to access network services Presenting the services that directly support user applications, such as software for file transfers, and for e-mail The lower levels support these tasks performed at the application level Handling general network access, flow control, and error recovery. Back to OSI Layer
This layer translates data from a format sent down fro the application layer into a commonly recognized, intermediary format. Responsible for protocol conversion, translating the data, encryption the data, changing or converting the character set, and expanding graphics commands Manage data compression to reduce the number of bits that need to be transmitted
Back to OSI Layer
Allowing tow applications on different computers to establish, use, and end a connection called a session This layer performs name recognition and the functions, such as security, needed to allow two applications to communicate over the network Providing synchronization between user tasks by placing checkpoints in the data steam
Back to OSI Layer
This layer ensures that packets are delivered error free, in sequence, and with no losses or duplications Repackages messages, dividing long messages into several packets and collecting small packets together in one package The transport layer also provides flow control, error handling, and is involved in solving problems concerned with the transmission and reception of packets
Back to OSI Layer
Network layer is responsible for addressing messages and translating logical addresses and names into physical addresses Determining the route from the source to the destination computer Determining which path the data should take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors Also manages traffic problems on network, such packet switching, routing, and controlling the congestion of data Back to OSI Layer
Data Link Layer
The data link layer sends data frames from the Network Layer to the Physical layer. On the receiving end, it packages raw bits from the Physical layer into data frames Including the Cyclical Redundancy Check( CRC) Responsible for providing the error-free transfer of these frames from one computer to another through the Physical layer
Back to OSI Layer
This layer transmits the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium The Physical later relates the electrical, optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the cable.
Back to OSI Layer
OSI model and corresponding devices
The IEEE 802 Project Model
IEEE802 defined network standards for the physical components of a network---the interface card and the cabling--- which are accounted for in the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model Theses standards, called the 802 specifications, have several areas of responsibility including: Network adapter cards Wide area network components Components used to create twisted-pair and coaxial cable networks
IEEE 802 CATEGORIES
802.1 Internetworking 802.2 Logical Link Control (LLC) 802.3 Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection ( CSMA/CD ) LAN ( Ethernet ) 802.4 Token Bus LAN 802.5 Token Ring LAN 802.6 Metropolitan Area Network ( MAN ) 802.7 Broadband Technical Advisory Group 802.8 Fiber-Optic Technical Advisory Group 802.9 Integrated Voice / Data Networks 802.10 Network Security 802.11 Wireless Networks 802.12 Demand Priority Access LAN, 100BaseVG-AnyLAN
802.3 is an IEEE standard for a CSMA/CD LAN access method, which is widely implemented in Ethernet. Ethernet is normally a shared media LAN. All the computers on the same segment share the total bandwidth, which can be 10Mbps (Ethernet), 100Mbps (Fast Ethernet) or 1Gbps (Gigabit Ethernet). A switched Ethernet can provide the full bandwidth between the sender and the receiver. 10Base5 is also called Standard Ethernet or ThickNet. Here '10' means 10Mbps transmission rate and '5' means that it has a limitation of 500 meters (1640 feet) per segment without using the repeater. 10Base5 uses a thick coaxial cable as the communication media.. 10Base2 is also called ThinNet or CheapterNet. It uses a thinner and less-expensive coaxial cable for the connection. 10Base2 has a limitation of 185 (rounded to 200 as represented by "2" in 10Base2, while 10 still means 10Mbps speed limitation) or 607 feet per segment.
Back to OSI Layer
802.5 is an IEEE standard for a token ring LAN access method, which is widely implemented in Token Ring network. It connects up to 255 computers at 4 or 16Mbps transmission speed. There are two kinds of Token Ring networks. Type 1 allows up to 255 stations per network and uses shielded twisted pair wires. Type 3 allows up to 72 devices per network and uses unshielded twisted pair such as category 3, category 4 (16Mbps) or category 5 with RJ-45 connectors. Back to OSI Layer
Lesson 4: Introduce TCP / IP protocol
The TCP/IP protocols were adopted as Military Standards (MIL STD) in 1983 Open protocol standards, freely available and developed independently from any specific computer hardware or operating system. Independence from specific physical network hardware. Standardized high-level protocols for consistent, widely available user services TCP/IP can be run over an Ethernet, a token ring, a dial-up line, an FDDI net, and virtually any other kind of physical transmission medium
TCP/IP protocol architecture
Reference from : TCP/IP Network Administration, O’REILLY By Craig Hunt; ISBN 1-56592-322-7, Second Edition, December 1997.
Network Access Layer
the lowest layer of the TCP/IP protocol hierarchy this layer provide the means for the system to deliver data to the other devices on a directly attached network. defines how to use the network to transmit an IP datagram The TCP/IP Network Access Layer can encompass the functions of all three lower layers of the OSI reference Model (Network, Data Link, and Physical).
The Internet Protocol(IP), is the heart of TCP/IP and the most important protocol in the Internet Layer. IP provides the basic packet delivery service on TCP/IP Introduce Internet Protocol Defining the datagram Defining the Internet addressing scheme Routing datagrams to remote hosts fragmentation and re-assembly of datagrams
The two most important protocols in the Transport Layer are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP provides reliable, connection-oriented data delivery service with end-to-end error detection and correction. Using Acknowledgment Segment (ACK) performs two functions: positive acknowledgment and flow control. UDP provides low-overhead, connectionless, and unreliable datagram delivery service
This layer includes all processes that use the Transport Layer protocols to deliver data. There are many applications protocols: telnet :The Network Terminal Protocol, which provides remote login over the network. FTP : The File Transfer Protocol, which is used for interactive file transfer. SMTP : The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, which delivers electronic mail. HTTP : The Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which delivers Web pages over the network. Domain Name Service (DNS)
Lesson 5: Managing your Local Area Network
Overview of SNMP ( RFC2261 ) The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is now used as an integral part of the network management framework for TCP/IPbased internets. a management protocol, used to convey management information between the SNMP entities. SNMP entities executing command generator and notification receiver applications monitor and control managed elements. Managed elements are devices such as hosts, routers, terminal servers, etc., which are monitored and controlled via access to their management information.
Overview of SNMP
SNMP allows you to monitor:
Computers Routers Wiring Hubs Minicomputers or mainframe computers Any device that support SNMP ( called SNMP Agents ) Status Information
An SNMP management system contains: several (potentially many) nodes, each with an SNMP entity containing command responder and notification originator applications, which have access to management instrumentation (traditionally called agents); at least one SNMP entity containing command generator and/or notification receiver applications (traditionally called a manager) and, a management protocol, used to convey management information between the SNMP entities.
Define an architecture that allows for longevity of the SNMP Frameworks that have been and will be defined. Keep SNMP as simple as possible Make it relatively inexpensive to deploy a minimal conforming implementation. Make it possible to upgrade portions of SNMP as new approaches become available, without disrupting an entire SNMP framework Make it possible to support features required in large networks, but make the expense of supporting a feature directly related to the support of the feature.
Management System and Agents
SNMP Management System
Get, get-next, get-bulk, set
SNMP uses a distributed architecture. This architecture consists of two components: Management System: A management system is any computer running SNMP management software. The primary function of any management system is to request information from an agent. Agents: An agent is any device running SNMP agent software, such as a server or router. The primary function of an agent is to send information that the management system requests.
SNMP management system information request
A management system can request information through the get, get-next, get-bulk, and set operations. The get operation is a request for a specific value, such as the amount of hard disk space available. The get-next operation is a request for the “next” value. Using this operation to request data that follows the current data. The get-bulk operation is a request for a large amount of management data. Using this request to minimize the number of protocol exchanges. The set operation changes a value. You rarely use this operation, because values have read-only access and connot be set. SNMP Agent Trap Messages The notify operation, alerts management systems to unusual event
The Management Information Base
A management information base ( MIB ) defines what data a management system can request from an agent, how the management system must request the data, and how the agent formats the information that it returns. A MIB serves as a set of manageable objects that represent information about a network device. SNMP management systems and agents must share a common understanding of MIB objects in order to operate.
Device Device Data Data
Management Management System System
Defining SNMP Communities
Agent1 Agent1 Community name: Community name: Community2 Community2 Trap destination: Trap destination: Manager2 Manager2 Agent2 Agent2 Community name: Community name: Community1 Community1 Trap destination: Trap destination: Manager1 Manager1 Manager1 Manager1 Community name: Community name: Community1 Community1 Accept traps from: Accept traps from: Agents2-4 Agents2-4 Router Agent3 Agent3 Community name: Community name: Community1 Community1 Trap destination: Trap destination: Manager1 Manager1 Agent4 Agent4 Community name: Community name: Community1 Community1 Trap destination: Trap destination: Manager1 Manager1 Manager2 Manager2 Community name: Community name: Community2 Community2 Accept traps from:: Accept traps from:: Agents1 Agents1
Source: Microsoft MCSE course 2153
Defining SNMP Communities ( Cont.)
SNMP agents and management systems belong to groups called communities. The use of a community name provides primitive security and context checking for agents and for management systems Only agents and managers that are members of the same community can communicate with each other