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行 銷 管 理


講 授: 黃 恆 獎

國立臺灣大學國際企業學系(所) 教授

課 程 大 綱
◆ Overview of Marketing
Why Do We Need “Marketing?”
Marketing’s Role in the Contemporary World
Core Marketing Concepts & Processes
Evolution of Marketing Philosophies
Marketing’s Role Within An Organization

◆ How Various Dimensions of Environment
Affect Marketing

◆ Examples of Vital Trends
Brand Equity

◆ Marketers’ Responses to Future Challenges
Scanning the Environments
Strategic Thinking
The Principle of “Selectivity”
“Savvy” Marketing
Information Technology
Analytical Tools
Organization, Coordination & Implementation
—Strategic Planning
Strategic Planning Process
purpose → SBU → portfolio → new/mature
objectives evaluation businesses
Corporate Planning
Define Corporate Mission
Establishing SBUs
Allocating SBU Resources
Planning for New/Old Businesses
Business Unit Planning
Business Strategic Planning Process (8 Steps)
McKinsey 7-S Framework

—Marketing Process
Value Creation & Delivery Process

Marketing Management Process
Analyzing Marketing Opportunities
Developing Marketing Strategies
Planning Marketing Programs: Marketing Mix (4Ps) & Customer 4Cs
Managing Marketing Efforts

—Competitive Analysis
Who Are Our Competitors?
Porter’s Five Forces
Industry Concept of Competition: ESCP Framework
Market Concept of Competition
What Are Their Strategies?
Product/Market Battlefield
Strategic Groups
What Are Their Objective?

What Are Their Strengths & Weaknesses?
Market/Mind/Heart Share
What Are Their Reaction Patterns?
Categorizing Competitors
Designing Competitive Intelligence System

Selecting Competitors to Attack or Avoid

Balancing Customer & Competitor Orientation

—Strategies for Leaders, Challengers, Followers &
Leader Strategy
Expand Total Market
Defend Market Share: General Defense Strategy
Expand Market Share
Challenger Strategy
General Attack Strategy
Specific Attack Strategy
Follower Strategy
Counterfeiter/Cloner/Imitator/Adapter Strategies
Nicher Strategy
Nicher Specialization: Specialist Roles
—Creating Customer Value
Customer Delivered Value

= Total Customer Value — Total Customer Cost

—Creating Customer Satisfaction
Complaint Management

Tracking Customer Satisfaction

Ghost Shopping

Lost Customer Analysis

—Delivering Customer Value
Value Chain & Value-delivery Network

Attracting & Retaining Customers
Cost of Lost Customers
The “Beauty” of Customer Loyalty/Retention
Relationship Marketing
Customer-Development Process
Levels of Relationships
Adding Financial Benefits
Adding Social Benefits
Adding Structural Ties
Customer Profitability
—Total Quality Marketing
Market-driven Quality

—Factors Influencing Buyer Behavior


social class

reference groups: reference groups, opinion leaders

membership groups

aspirational groups

family: family of orientation & procreation
roles & status

age & life-cycle stage: family life cycle


economic situation

lifestyle: psychographics

personality & self-concept (self-image)


perception: selective attention

selective distortion

selective retention


learning: drives, stimuli, cues, responses, reinforcement

beliefs & attitudes
—Consumer Buying Roles
initiator, influencer, decider, purchaser, user

—Types of Consumer Buying Behavior




—Buyer Decision Process
need recognition

information search

evaluation of alternatives

purchase decision

postpurchase behavior

—New Product Adoption Process
Adoption Stages
Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, adoption

—Adopter Categorization
innovators, early adopters, early majority
late majority, laggards

—Influence of Personal & Product Characteristics
relative advantage




—Characteristics of Business Markets
Market Structure & Demand

Nature of Buying Unit

Decision Types & Process

Others:Direct Purchasing,Reciprocity,Leasing

—Business Buyer Behavior
Business Market vs Consumer Market

3 types of Buying Situations:straight rebuy,modified rebuy,new task

—Participants in Business Buying Process
System Buying & Selling

Buying center

—Major Influences on Business Buying
Environmental Factors

Organizational Factors
Interpersonal Factors

Individual Factors

—Purchasing/Procurement Process
Problem recognition

General need description

Product specification

Supplier search

Proposal solicitation

Order-routine specification

Performance review
—Steps in Segmentation-Targeting-Positioning (STP)

—Market Segmentation
Levels of Segmentation
Mass Marketing
Segment Marketing
Niche Marketing
Local Marketing
Individual Marketing
Bases for Segmentation: Multi-attribute Segmentation
Consumer Markets
Business Markets
Criteria for Effective Segmentation

—Market Targeting
Evaluating Segments

Selecting Segments

—Differentiation & Positioning
Value Orientation

Opportunities for Competitive Differentiation

—Differentiation Variables





—Designing Positioning Strategy
Criteria for Differentiation

—How Many Differentiation?
Single-benefit Positioning (Unique Selling Proposition, USP)

Double- & Triple-benefit Positioning

Errors in Positioning
Under- / Over- / Confused / Doubtful Positioning

—Options for Market Position
Attribute Positioning

Benefit Positioning

Use/Application Positioning

User Positioning

Competitor Positioning
Product Category Positioning

Quality/Service Positioning

—Degree of “Newness”
New-to-the-world products

New-product lines

Additions to existing product lines

Improvements and revisions to existing products


Cost reductions

—Organizing for NPD
Product managers

New-product managers

New-product committees

New-product departments

New-product venture teams

—Managing NPD Process
Idea generation: sources & techniques

Idea screening: idea rating

Concept development and testing

Marketing strategy development

Business analysis: estimating sales/costs/profits

Product development

Market testing

Commercialization: when, where, to whom, how

—Consumer Adoption Process
◆Stages in Adoption Process
Awareness → communicate availability
Interest → communicate benefits
Evaluation → emphasize advantages
Trial → motivate consumers
Adoption → ensure satisfaction
◆Categorizing Consumer Adoption
Early adopters
Early majority
Late majority
◆Factors Affecting Rate of Adoption
Relative advantage
Product Life Cycle (PLC) Strategies

—What is PLC?
Rationales for PLC
A limited life
Sales pass through distinct stages
Profits rise and fall at different stages
Products require different marketing strategies in each stage

—Various Forms/Shapes of PLC
Product categories, product forms, products, brands

growth-slump-maturity, cycle-recycle, “scalloped,” style-fashion-fad

—PLC Marketing Strategies
◆ Introduction → create awareness, induce trial, secure distribution
Introductory strategies: penetration vs skimming
Market pioneering: First Mover Advantage
Inventor/Product Pioneer/Market Pioneer
Competitive Cycle
◆Growth → maximize market share
improve quality/add new features & styling
add new models & flanker products
enter new segments
increase distribution coverage/enter new channels
advertising from product-awareness → product-preference
lower prices
◆Maturity → maximize profit & defend market share
market modification: increase users/encourage volume
product modification: quality, feature, style
marketing-mix modification
◆Decline → reduce expenditure and milk the brand
strengthen position
decrease investment selectively/strengthen niches
harvest (“milk”)

Product-related Strategies

—Definition of “Product”
◆ 5 Product Levels: Core→Extended→ancillary/supporting
Core Benefits
Basic Product
Expected Product
Augmented Product
Potential Product
◆Product Hierarchy
Need Family
Product Family
Product Class
Product Line
Product Type

—Product Classifications
◆Durable / Nondurable / Service

◆Consumer Goods: Convenience / Shopping / Specialty / Unsought

◆Industrial Goods: Materials/Parts, Capital Items, Supplies/Service

—Product-Mix Decisions
◆Product Line Analysis
Sales & Profits
Market Profile: Product Map
Length Decision
◆Product Line “Length” Decisions

Stretching: Downward / Upward / Two-way

Filling: Just Noticeable Difference

Modernizing: Customer Migration

Featuring: Traffic-builders / Flagships


—Branding Decisions
◆ 6 Levels of Meaning

◆Brand Equity: Awareness/Association/Perceived Quality/Preference/Loyalty
Competitive Weapons

◆Challenges in Branding

△To Brand or Not To Brand

△Brand Sponsor Decision: Manufacturer / Private / License

△Brand Name Decision: A Brand Should………
Blanket Family
Separate Family
Company + Individual

△Brand Strategy Decision
Line Extensions; innovative / me too / filling in / branded variants
Brand Extensions: brand fit / brand dilution
Multibrands: major / flanker
New Brands
Co-brands: component / same-company / joint venture / multiple-sponsor

△Brand Re-positioning Decision

Managing Service Businesses
—Nature and Classification of Services
◆Product-Service Spectrum (goods-to-service mix)
◆Distinction of Services Types

—Characteristics of Services
◆Intangibility → “tangiblize” services

◆Inseparability → appropriate use service provider

◆Variability → quality control/standardization/monitoring CS

& complaints

◆Perishability → match demand & supply

—Marketing Strategies for Service Firms
◆3 Ps: People, Physical Evidence, Processes

◆Service Encounters

◆Service Triangle

External Marketing

Internal Marketing

Interactive Marketing

◆ Definition of Quality

Technical Quality, Functional Quality
Search Qualities, Experience Qualities, Credence Qualities

◆ Service Challenges

Competitive Differentiation

Service Quality


—Managing Differentiation
Offer, Delivery, Image

—Managing Service Quality
◆ 5-Gap Model (SERVQUAL)
1. Gap Between Consumer Expectation and Management Perception
2. Gap Between Management Perception and Service-Quality Specification
3. Gap Between Service–Quality Specifications and Service Delivery
4. Gap Between Service Delivery and External Communications
5. Gap Between Perceived Service and Expected Service
◆ Five Determinants of Service Quality
Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy, Tangibles
◆ Strategic Management of Services
Strategic Concept
A History of Top-Management Commitment to Quality
The Setting of High Standards
Systems for Monitoring Service Performance
Systems for Satisfying Complaining Customers
Satisfying Both Employees and Customers
—Managing Productivity
◆ Have Service Providers Work More Skillfully

◆ Increase the Quantity of Service by Surrendering Some Quality

◆ “Industrialize the Service” by Adding Equipment and Standardizing


◆ Reduce or Make Obsolete the Need for a Service by Inventing a Product

◆ Design a More Effective Service

◆ Present Customers with Incentives to Substitute Their Own Labor for

Company Labor

◆ Harness the Power of Technology

—Managing Product Support Services
◆ Customer Worries
Failure Frequency, Downtime Duration, Out-of-Pocket Costs of Maintenance And
Repair Service
◆ Remedies
Warranties, Guarantees, Facilitating Services, Value-augmenting Services
◆ Postsale Service Strategy
Distribution and Channel Strategies

—Channel-Design Decisions
◆ Analyzing Service Output Levels Desired by Customers
Lot size

Waiting time

Spatial convenience

Product variety

Service backup

◆ Establishing the Channel Objectives and Constraints
◆ Identifying the Major Channel Alternatives
Types of Intermediaries

Number of Intermediaries
Exclusive, Selective, Intensive
Terms and Responsibilities of Channel Members
Price policy, Conditions of sale, Territorial rights,
Mutual services and responsibilities
◆ Evaluating the Major Channel Alternatives
Economic Criteria, Control Criteria, Adaptive Criteria
—Channel-Management Decisions
◆ Selecting Channel Members
◆ Motivating Channel Members
Producer Power: Coercive, Reward, Legitimate, Expert, Referent
◆ Evaluating Channel Members
◆ Modifying Channel Arrangements

—Channel Dynamics
◆ Vertical Marketing Systems
Conventional marketing channel

Vertical marketing system
Corporate VMS
Administered VMS
Contractual VMS: Wholesaler-Sponsored Voluntary Chains
Retailer Cooperatives
Franchise Organizations
Retailing Competition: between Centrally Programmed Network Systems
◆ Horizontal Marketing Systems
◆ Multichannel Marketing Systems

—Channel Cooperation, Conflict, and Competition
◆ Types of Conflict and Competition
Vertical, Horizontal, Multichannel conflicts
◆ Causes of Channel Conflict
Goal incompatibility Unclear roles and rights
Differences in perception Great dependence
◆ Managing Channel Conflict
Superordinate goals Exchange of persons
Cooptation Joint membership in and between trade
associations Diplomacy
Mediation Arbitration

—Types of Retailers
◆Store Retailing
Retail Life Cycles Wheel of Retailing,
Service Levels Retail Position Map

◆Nonstore Retailing

◆Retail Organization

—Retailer Marketing Decision
◆Target Market

◆Product Assortment & Procurement

◆Service & Store Atmosphere





—Trends in Retailing
◆New retail forms
◆Shortening retail life cycles

◆Nonstore retailing

◆Increasing intertype competition

◆Polarity of retailing

◆Giant retailers

◆Changing definition of one-stop shopping

◆Growth of vertical marketing systems

◆Portfolio approach

◆Growing importance of retail technology

◆Global expansion of major retailers

◆Retail stores as community centers or “hangouts”

◆Upgrading of Asian retailers

—Wholesaler Functions
◆ Selling and promoting

◆ Buying and assortment building

◆ Bulk breaking

◆ Warehousing

◆ Transportation

◆ Financing

◆ Risk bearing

◆ Market information

◆ Management services and counseling

—Types of Wholesalers
◆ Merchant wholesalers

◆ Brokers and agents

◆ Manufacturers’ and retailers’ branches and offices

◆ Miscellaneous wholesalers
—Wholesaler Marketing Decision
◆Target Market

◆Product Assortment & Service




—Trends in Wholesaling
Threats of Being Bypassed and Replaced

Adjustments of Wholesalers
Market Logistics

—Evolution of Logistics
Physical Distribution

Supply Chain Management

Demand Chain Management

—Logistics Activity

—Market Logistics Objectives

—Market Logistics Decisions
◆Order Processing



—Organizational Issues
Designing Pricing Strategies

Setting the Price

—Selecting the Pricing Objectives
◆ Survival

◆ Maximum Current Profit

◆ Maximum Current Revenue

◆ Maximum Sales Growth → penetration pricing

◆ Maximum Market Skimming → skimming pricing

◆ Product-Quality Leadership

◆ Other Pricing Objectives

—Determining Demand
◆ Price Elasticity of Demand

◆ Factors Affecting Price Sensitivity

◆ Methods of Estimating Demand Schedules

—Estimating Costs
◆ Types of Costs

◆ Cost Behavior at Different Levels of Production Per Period
Long-term vs. short-term costs
Experience Curve Pricing
Activity-based Cost (ABC)
◆ Target Costing

—Analyzing Competitors’ Costs, Prices, and Offers

—Selecting a Pricing Method
◆ Markup Pricing

◆ Target-Return Pricing

◆ Perceived-Value Pricing

◆ Value Pricing

◆ Going-Rate Pricing

◆ Sealed-Bid Pricing

—Selecting the Final Price
◆ Psychological Pricing
Image Pricing
Reference Prices
Odd Pricing
◆ The Influence of Other Marketing-Mix Elements On Price

◆ Company Pricing Policies
◆ Impact of Price On Other Parties

Adapting the Price

—Geographical Pricing

—Price Discounts and Allowances
◆ Cash Discounts

◆ Quantity Discounts

◆ Functional (Trade) Discounts

◆ Seasonal Discounts

◆ Allowances: trade-in/promotional

—Promotional Pricing
◆ Loss-leader Pricing

◆ Special-event Pricing

◆ Cash Rebates

◆ Low-interest Financing

◆ Longer Payment Terms

◆ Warranties and Service Contracts
◆ Psychological Discounting

—Discriminatory Pricing
◆ Customer-segment Pricing

◆ Product-form Pricing

◆ Image Pricing

◆ Location Pricing

◆ Time Pricing

—Product-Mix Pricing
◆ Product-Line Pricing

◆ Optional-Feature Pricing

◆ Captive-Product Pricing

◆ Two-Part Pricing

◆ Byproduct Pricing

◆ Product-Bundling Pricing

Initiating and Responding to Price Changes

—Initiating Price Cuts
Reasons & “Traps”

—Initiating Price Increases
Reasons & Solutions

—Reactions to Price Changes
◆ Customers’ Reactions

◆ Competitors’ Reactions

—Responding to Competitors’ Price Changes
◆ Maintain Price

◆ Raise Perceived Quality

◆ Reduce Price

◆ Increase Price and Improve Quality

◆ Launch Low-Priced Fighter Line
Integrated Marketing Communication Strategies

—Marketing Communications Mix
◆ Advertising

◆ Sales Promotion

◆ Public Relations and Publicity

◆ Personal Selling

◆ Direct Marketing

The Communication Process

—Elements of Communication Process





—Factors Affecting Effectiveness of Communications
Selective Attention/Distortion/Recall (Retention)


Developing Effective Communications

—Identifying the Target Audience
◆ Image Analysis
Familiarity-Favorability Analysis
Semantic Differential (Profile) Analysis
Image Management

—Determining the Communication Objectives
◆ Cognition, Affective, Conative (Behavioral) Responses

◆ Response Hierarchy Models

—Designing the Message
◆ Message Content (What to say)
Appeals: Rational, Emotional, Moral


Unique Selling Proposition (USP)
◆ Message Structure (How to say it logically)

One- or two-sided Arguments

Order of Presentation

◆ Message Format (How to say it symbolically)
headline, copy, illustration, color, words, voice, body language, etc.

◆ Message Source (Who should say it)
Source Credibility: expertise, trustworthiness, likability

Principle of Congruity

—Selecting the Communication Channels
◆ Personal Communication Channels
Advocate/Expert/Social Channels
Word-of-Mouth Effects
◆ Nonpersonal Communication Channels
◆ Two-Step Flow of Communication Process

—Establishing the Total Promotion Budget
◆ Affordable Method

◆ Percentage-of-Sales Method
◆ Competitive-Parity Method

◆ Objective-and-Task Method

—Deciding on the Promotion Mix
◇The Promotional Tools

 Advertising

 Sales Promotion

 Public Relations and Publicity

 Personal Selling

 Direct marketing

◇Factors in Setting the Promotion Mix

 Type of Product Market

 Push Versus Pull Strategy

 Buyer-Readiness Stage

 Product-Life-Cycle Stage

 Company Market Rank

—Measuring the Promotion’s Results

—Managing/Coordinating Integrated Marketing
 Audit all communications-related spending throughout the organization
 Create shared performance measures
 Use database development and issues management to understand your
 Identify all contact points for the company and its products
 Analyze internal and external trends affecting your company’s ability to do
 Create business and communications plans for each local market and
integrate these into a global communications strategy
 Appoint a director responsible for the company’s persuasive communications
 Create compatible themes, tones, and quality across all communications
 Hire only team players
 Link IMC with management processes, such as participatory management
Managing Advertising, Sales Promotion,
& Public Relations

Developing & Managing Advertising Programs

—Mission: Setting the Advertising Objectives
◆ Information advertising

◆ Persuasive/Comparative advertising

◆ Reminder/Reinforcement advertising

◆ Others: Offset, Correct, Induce

—Money: Deciding on the Advertising Budget
◆ Stage in the product life cycle

◆ Market share and consumer base

◆ Competition and clutter

◆ Advertising frequency

◆ Product substitutability

◆ Market characteristics
—Message: Choosing the Advertising Message
◆ Message Generation: inductive/deductive

◆ Message Evaluation and Selection
Desirability, exclusiveness, believability
Utilitarian / hedonic
◆ Message Execution
Rational / emotional
◆Social Responsibility Review
Legal, Ethical, Social, Cultural Issues

—Media: Deciding on the Media
◆ Deciding on Reach (R), Frequency (F), and Impact (I)
Gross rating points (GRP) = R ╳ F
Weighted No. of exposure = R ╳ F ╳ I
◆ Choose Among Major Media Types
Target-audience media habits
◆ Selecting Specific Media Vehicles
“Cost-per-thousand” criterion
◆ Deciding on Media Timing
Macroscheduling problem
seasonal & business cycle trends
carryover & habitual effects
Microscheduling problem
Continuity, concentration, flighting, pulsing
◆ Deciding on Geographical Media Allocation

—Measurement: Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness
◆ Pretesting & postevaluating

Communication-Effect Research
Awareness, knowledge, preferences, etc.
Sales-Effect Research
voice share, mind share, market share
◆Advertising Effectiveness: A Summary of Current Research
The impact of advertising on brand switching
The effect of surroundings
The effect of positive versus negative messages
Sales Promotion

—Consumer Promotion
Trade Promotion
Business & Salesforce Promotion

—Growth of Sales Promotion
“Promotion Clutter”

—Purpose of Sales Promotion
Stimulate trial

Encourage repurchase

Increase stocking

Strategic Thinking


—Major Decisions in Sales Promotion
◆ Establishing the sales-promotion objectives

◆ Selecting the sales-promotion Tools
Consumer-Promotion Tools
Trade-Promotion Tools
Business- and Sales Force Promotion Tools
◆ Developing the sales-promotion program
Distribution vehicle
Total budget
◆ Pretesting the sales-promotion program

◆ Implementing and controlling the sales-promotion program

◆ Evaluating the sales-promotion results

Public Relations

—PR Activities
Press relations

Product publicity

Corporate communication


—Recent Roles of Marketing Public-relations (MPR)

—Major Tools of MPR




Public-service Activities

Identity Media

—Major Decisions in Marketing PR
◆ Establishing the marketing objectives
Build awareness
Build credibility
Stimulate the sales force and dealers
Hold down promotion costs
◆ Choosing the PR messages and vehicles

◆ Implementing the MPR plan

◆ Evaluating the MPR results
Awareness/Comprehension/Attitude Change
Sales-and Profit contribution

Managing the Sales Force

—Sales Force Objectives
◆ Prospecting

◆ Targeting

◆ Communicating

◆ Selling

◆ Servicing

◆ Information gathering

◆ Allocating

—Sales Force Strategy
◆ Sales representative to buyer

◆ Sales representative to buyer group

◆ Sales team to buyer group

◆ Conferencing selling

◆ Seminar selling
—Sales Force Structure
◆ Territorial-structured Sales Force

◆ Product-Structured Sales Force

◆ Market-Structured Sales Force

◆ Complex-Structured Sales Force

—Sales Force Size
workload approach

—Sales Force Compensation
◆ Fixed amount

◆ Variable amount

◆ Expense allowance

◆ Fringe benefits

—Recruiting and Selecting Sales Representatives
◆ What makes a good sales representative?

◆ Recruitment procedures

◆ Applicant-Rating Procedures
—Training Sales Representatives
◆ Knowledge of and identification with the company

◆ Knowledge of the company’s products

◆ Knowledge of customers’ and competitors’ characteristics

◆ Knowledge of how to make effective sales presentation

◆ Understanding of field procedures and responsibilities

—Supervising Sales Representatives
◆ Developing norms for customer calls

◆ Developing norms for prospect calls

◆ Using sales time efficiently

—Motivating Sales Representatives
◆ Motivation →Effort →Performance →Rewards →Satisfaction

◆ Sales quotas

◆ Supplementary motivators
—Evaluating Sales Representatives
◆Source of information

◆Formal Evaluation of Performance
Current-to-past sales comparisons
Customer-satisfaction evaluation
Qualitative evaluation of Sales Representatives
Managing Direct and Online Marketing

Direct Marketing

—The Growth and Benefits of Direct Marketing
◆ The Growth of Direct Marketing and Electronic Shopping

Market “demassification”

e-market revolution

◆ The Benefits of Direct Marketing

—Customer Databases and Direct Marketing
◆Mass marketing → one-to-one marketing

◆Database Usages

Identifying Prospects

Deciding particular offer for each customer

Deepening customer loyalty

Reactivating customer purchases
—Major Channel for Direct Marketing
◆ Face to face selling

◆ Direct mail marketing: traditional mail, fax mail, e-mail, voice mail
Target markets and prospects
Offer elements
Testing-direct-marketing elements
Managing the campaign’s success
◆ Catalog Marketing

◆ Telemarketing

◆ Television and other major media direct-response marketing
Direct-response advertising or infomercials
At-home shopping channels
◆ Kiosk marketing

◆ Online channel

Marketing in 21st Century: Online Marketing

—Commercial online channels (e.g., Compuserve)
The Internet

—The benefits of online marketing
◆ Convenience

◆ Information

◆ Fewer hassles

◆ Quick adjustments to market conditions

◆ Lower costs

◆ Relationship building

◆ Audience sizing

—Online marketing channels
◆ Creating an electronic storefront

◆ Participating in forums, newsgroups & bulletin boards sys. (BBS)

◆ Placing ads online

◆ Using e-mail

—The growing use of integrated direct marketing
◆ IMC, Integrated direct marketing (IDM) or maximarketing

Campaign: Single-vehicle multiple-stage → multiple-vehicle multiple-stage

Response compression

—Public and ethical issues in the use of direct
◆ Irritation

◆ Unfairness

◆ Deception and fraud

◆ Invasion of privacy
Relations Marketing
Marketing Planning Market Driving
Teach Buyers
Lifetime Value

Data Marketing
Mining Customer
Value Added

Micro- Macro-
Analytical Aggregation
Heterogeneity Homogeneity

Comany-Orientied Qualitative
Marketing Intuitive
Firm's Lens
Market Driven
Buyers Learn
Savvy Making Deals
Creativity and
Nothing Else
Marketing Distribution (I)
Channel Channel Channel
Management Management
Distribution Strategy
Channel Intermediary
Environment Channel General Channel
Overview Design Decisions Practices

Economic Why Length Services output Selecting Channel roles Retailing
development Channels? levels channel members
Width Channel Wholesaling
Consumption Channel Objectives and Motivating cooperation
patterns functions Types constraints channel members Logistics
Channel conflicts (Physical
Demographics Channel Dynamics Major channel Evaluating  Power distribution)
flows  VMS alternatives channel members Structure
Consumer  HMS  Vertical
behavior Channel  Multichannel Evaluation of Modifying  Horizontal
levels Marketing channel Channel  Multichannel
Competition system alternatives Arrangements
Channel in
Technology services

Marketing Distribution (II)

Retailing Wholesaling Management logistics
Types of retailers Wholesaler functions Evolution of logistics
Store retailing
 Retail life cycle Types of wholesalers Logistics activity
 Wheel-of-retailing
 Service levels Wholesaler marketing decisions Market logistics objectives
 Breath of product line Target-market decision
 Value added Product-assortment / Service Market logistic decisions
Nonstore retailing decision  Order processing
Retail organizations Price decision  Warehousing
Promotion decision  Inventory
Retailer marketing decisions Place decision  Transportation
Target-market decision
Product-assortment / Procurement Trends in wholesaling Organizational
decision issues
Service / Atmosphere decision
Price decision
Promotion decision
Place decision
Partnership decision

Trends in retailing