PROVISORY RELEASE

Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion
Reference: Version: Release Date: EDMS UID: Produced: Owner: Author: Private InTouch content ID#4133663 5.0 Provisory 275030441 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 WS Training Bernadette Gomez
WBT, IT Modules, Inter well com pletion, SWBT, Basic, density, drilling,face, WCS, WPC, CTS, T BT

PROVISORY RELEASE
Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

To ensure proper duplex reproduction

REMOVE THIS PAGE AND for publishing by
● ●

Sophia - remove the previous (Schlumberger) cover ALL other channels - remove the following (Sophia) cover
When the document is ready for reproduction, it should have only 1 cover and should NOT have this page.

PROVISORY RELEASE

Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion
Reference: Version: Release Date: EDMS UID: Published: Owner: Author: Private InTouch content ID#4133663 5.0 Provisory 275030441 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 WS Training Bernadette Gomez
WBT, IT Modules, Inter well com pletion, SWBT, Basic, density, drilling,face, WCS, WPC, CTS, T BT

PROVISORY RELEASE
Copyright © 2008 Sophia, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

transferred.com WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.slb.PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Legal Information Legal Information Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. in whole or in part. custom graphics.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. page headers. In addition. Trademarks & Service marks Schlumberger. and other words or symbols used to identify the products and services described herein are either trademarks. trade names or service marks of Schlumberger and its licensors. . and other design elements may be service marks. in whole or in part. All rights reserved. without the express prior written permission of Schlumberger. the Schlumberger logotype. distributed. and/or trade dress of Schlumberger. translated or retransmitted in any form or by any means. icons. used. imitated or used. These marks may not be copied. Unpublished Work. without the express written permission of the copyright owner. Unpublished Work. and may not be copied. or are the property of their respective owners. or used. without the express prior written permission of Schlumberger. covers. imitated. This work contains the confidential and proprietary trade secrets of Schlumberger and may not be copied or stored in an information retrieval system. trademarks. electronic or mechanical. A complete list of Schlumberger marks may be viewed at the Schlumberger Oilfield Services Marks page: http://markslist. in whole or in part. All rights reserved.

PROVISORY RELEASE Document Control Owner: Author: Reviewer: Approver: WS Training Bernadette Gomez Bernadette Gomez Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Document Control Torsten Braun. .0 Effective Date 18-Jul-2008 25-Oct-2006 Description Updated exercises link-url to the perception-resp server. All rights reserved.1 5. Changed label content. Exercises and test may be launched from perception-ws server via LMS or taken online.0 12-Apr-2006 30-Sep-2005 Torsten Braun Luisa Attaway. Alice Lee WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Changed instructions for taking module test online.Added captions Prepared by Beena Hemkar Stuart Averett 4. Torsten Braun PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Contact Information Name: LDAP Alias: WS Training IPC-DOC Revision History Rev 5. . and revision dates updated graphics and text. Unpublished Work.1 4.

. Unpublished Work.PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Document Control WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

4 8 Drilling Preparations Exploration __________________________________________________ Site Selection ________________________________________________ Drilling Contracts ____________________________________________ Preparation of the Rig Site ____________________________________ Rig Setup ___________________________________________________ Rigging Up __________________________________________________ Exercise _____________________________________________________ 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 Drilling Rig Components Rig System __________________________________________________ 4-1 Drilling Mud _________________________________________________ 4-9 Mud Surface Equipment _____________________________________ 4-10 Exercise ____________________________________________________ 4-13 Well Control “Kick” animation _____________________________________________ Primary Well Control _________________________________________ Secondary Well Control ______________________________________ Exercise _____________________________________________________ Rig Operations Rate of Penetration __________________________________________ Adding New Pipe Joints ______________________________________ Trip Equipment In and Out of Hole ____________________________ Optimum Quality and Cost ____________________________________ Exercise _____________________________________________________ Completions Bottomhole Completions _____________________________________ Tubing ______________________________________________________ Wellhead and Chokes ________________________________________ Artificial Lift __________________________________________________ Casing 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-4 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-4 7-1 7-4 7-8 7-9 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.1 6. Unpublished Work.3 3.4 3.3 7.3 4.v PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Table of Contents v Table of Contents 1 2 2.5 3.6 3. .3 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.2 4.2 3.7 4 4.1 7.2 2.2 6.1 4.4 6.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Objectives Drilling History Drilling History Drilling History Drilling History _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 2-1 2-2 2-2 3 3.1 2.5 7 7.2 5.1 5.3 6.1 3.4 6 6.3 5.4 5 5.2 7.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 11 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.1 9.3 10 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Table of Contents vi Function _____________________________________________________ Casing Types ________________________________________________ Special Operations Offshore Operations __________________________________________ Directional Drilling ____________________________________________ Exercise _____________________________________________________ Summary Take the module test 8-1 8-1 9-1 9-2 9-5 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.2 9 9. . Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.1 8.vi PROVISORY RELEASE 8.2 9.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.D. . Unpublished Work. _______________________________________________ Timeline: 1859 ____________________________________________________ Timeline: 1500 A. until 1863______________________________________ Timeline: 1500 A.D. until today _____________________________________ Seismic exploration ________________________________________________ Township and range lines __________________________________________ Cleared and leveled future rig site __________________________________ Conductor pipe ____________________________________________________ Land-based rig site setup __________________________________________ Rigging up ________________________________________________________ Completed rig-up _________________________________________________ SCR: Silicon-controlled rectifiers____________________________________ Hoisting system components _______________________________________ Derrick ___________________________________________________________ Rotary system _____________________________________________________ Downhole motor ___________________________________________________ Mud circulation system_____________________________________________ Mud going to mud pit returns _______________________________________ Mud pit and mixing hopper _________________________________________ Mud pumped from pit to standpipe __________________________________ Drillstring__________________________________________________________ Mud return line ____________________________________________________ Shale shaker _____________________________________________________ De-gasser unit____________________________________________________ De-silter _________________________________________________________ Decanting centrifuge ______________________________________________ Secondary well control _____________________________________________ Annular preventer _________________________________________________ Pipe rams _________________________________________________________ Blind rams ________________________________________________________ Weight of string and bit_____________________________________________ Openhole completion ______________________________________________ Cased hole completion_____________________________________________ Perforation phasing ________________________________________________ Methods of perforating _____________________________________________ Free or unlimited motion ___________________________________________ Limited motion_____________________________________________________ No motion_________________________________________________________ Buckling effect_____________________________________________________ Ballooning effect___________________________________________________ Temperature effect_________________________________________________ Bubble flow _______________________________________________________ Slug flow __________________________________________________________ Annular or mist flow________________________________________________ 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-2 3-2 3-3 3-5 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-7 4-8 4-8 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-12 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-4 6-3 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-5 7-6 7-6 7-7 7-7 7-7 7-8 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.vii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / List of Figures vii List of Figures 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-13 4-14 4-15 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 6-1 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 Timeline: 1500 A.D.

.viii PROVISORY RELEASE 7-14 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-5 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / List of Figures viii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Transition or churn flow ____________________________________________ Types of casing and lithology _______________________________________ Conductor casing __________________________________________________ Surface casing ____________________________________________________ Intermediate casing ________________________________________________ Liner ______________________________________________________________ Production casing _________________________________________________ Drilling ship. semi-sub and fixed platforms ___________________________ Kick-off point and deviation _________________________________________ Drilling motor-bit ___________________________________________________ Whipstock_________________________________________________________ Kick-off point (KOP)________________________________________________ 7-8 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-4 8-5 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-4 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

ix PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / List of Tables ix List of Tables WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

Unpublished Work.0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. .x PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / List of Tables x WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.

Unpublished Work.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.1-i PROVISORY RELEASE 1 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Objectives 1-i Objectives WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. . All rights reserved.

Unpublished Work.1-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Objectives 1-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . All rights reserved.

In this training module. well completion. drilling. . TBT WBT. • Identify characteristics of special drilling operation methods. Unpublished Work. • Put the stages of the drilling preparation process in order.1-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Objectives 1-1 1 Objectives IT Modules. de-sanders. CTS. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. • Identify characteristics of primary and secondary well control. WCS. de-silters. Basic. Interfac e. density. • Discriminate between the three basic types of drilling contracts. • Put the stages of the process of adding new pipe joints in order. WPC. the students will learn to do the following: • Identify the most common drilling method in use today. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. All rights reserved. • Discriminate between types of casings and liners. • Identify the parts of the hoisting system and the mud circulation system. • Put the stages of the exploration process in order. • Identify the main components of the BOP stack. SWBT. • Discriminate between de-gassers. and centrifuges.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 • Identify three of the most important methods used to find oil. • Identify three of the most important items to control during a drilling operation. • Discriminate between the three possible systems used to determine proprietorship of a specific drilling location. • Identify the functions of drilling mud.

0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . Unpublished Work.1-2 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Objectives 1-2 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.

3 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling History 2-i Drilling History Drilling History Drilling History Drilling History _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 2-1 2-2 2-2 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. .1 2. Unpublished Work.2-i PROVISORY RELEASE 2 2.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.2 2.

All rights reserved.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . Unpublished Work.2-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling History 2-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.

well completion. Interfac e.. . Basic. The falling bit strikes the ground with a heavy blow. Repeated lifting and dropping allow the bit to drill. workers have to stop drilling.D. WCS. SWBT. CTS. the well was drilled PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Using the cable-tool method. density.2-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling History 2-1 2 Drilling History IT Modules. To make a hole. punching its way into the rock. Rig machinery lifts the cable and bit and drops them. which was used as late as the 1940s. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. This is done using a bailing tool.000 feet using this method. Drake’s well became the first known commercial oil well. however. From time to time. 2. Unpublished Work. The Chinese are credited with developing the cable-tool principle in drilling. Drilling originated in China with the drilling of brine wells to produce salt with primitive cable-tool rigs. All rights reserved. TBT WBT. sharply pointed bit.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 2-1: Timeline: 1500 A. planned and drilled solely to search for oil in the United States (Asians and Europeans had been drilling oil wells before). pull the bit from the hole.D.1 Drilling History Figure 2-2: Timeline: 1859 In 1859. WPC. drilling. and remove the pieces of rock or cuttings that the bit produces. By 1500 A. the rigs use a cable to which workers attach a heavy. it is believed that the Chinese were drilling as deep as 2.

equipment removes the cuttings. or rotates. Unpublished Work. and the clean fluid is recirculated back down the pipe. the driller starts rotating it using a rotating machine called the rotary table. A series of pipes are added to lower the bit to the bottom. they gouge or scrape the rock away. At the surface. a French civil engineer named Leschot became the first person to use rotary drilling to drill a water well. A powerful pump can move fluid down the pipe to the bit and back through the annulus space to the surface. drilling does not have to stop in order to bail cuttings. This small project in Titusville. 2. When the bit is at the bottom. A rotary drilling rig turns. A rotary rig circulates fluid while the bit drills.2-2 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling History 2-2 to a depth of 65 feet and produced 2. with rotary drilling. which drills and creates the hole.000 bbl of oil in its first year. rotate over the formation.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 2-3: Timeline: 1500 A.3 Drilling History Figure 2-4: Timeline: 1500 A. As the bit’s teeth. a bit on the bottom. All rights reserved.2 Drilling History WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. 2. or cutters. Pennsylvania marked the beginning of the Petroleum era in the United States. until 1863 In 1863. until today PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.D.D. Thus. .

2-3 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling History 2-3 The advantage of being able to circulate drilling fluid has all but made cable-tool drilling disappear. All rights reserved. In 1901. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Today. except for special applications or the setting of conductor casing. 10% of all oil wells were drilled using rotary drilling. rotary drilling is used almost exclusively. marking the beginning of the modern petroleum industry. By 1914. this method of drilling was introduced in the oil field in Spindletop. Unpublished Work.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Texas. .

2-4 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling History 2-4 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. All rights reserved. . Unpublished Work.

1 3.3 3.5 3.3. All rights reserved.3.3-i PROVISORY RELEASE 3 3. Unpublished Work.4 3.7 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations 3-i Drilling Preparations Exploration _____________________________________________________ Seismic survey animation ____________________________________ Site Selection __________________________________________________ Drilling Contracts ______________________________________________ Day-Work Contract ___________________________________________ Footage Contract ____________________________________________ Turnkey Contract ____________________________________________ Preparation of the Rig Site _____________________________________ Rig Setup ______________________________________________________ Rigging Up _____________________________________________________ Exercise ________________________________________________________ 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. .3.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.1 3.1 3.3 3.6 3.1.2 3.2 3.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. All rights reserved. .3-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations 3-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work.

density. SWBT. a series of trends must exist so that hydrocarbons are present. Interfac e.1 Exploration Almost as important as how to drill is where to drill. A seismic survey is conducted using: • a shooting truck or special sound generator for offshore exploration PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. which is used by geologists to define possible reservoir shapes or traps. • geological mapping. which use physical geology and seismic information as the base material to guess where to drill. Basic. To improve the opportunity to find oil. All rights reserved. CTS. 3.3-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations 3-1 3 Drilling Preparations IT Modules. It involves seismic surveys that are analyzed by knowledgeable personnel. Exploration for oil is a difficult and risky process. based on indirect methods to view the subsurface. TBT WBT. only one out of nine exploratory wells ends in an oil strike. WCS. drilling. To define the actual location where the well is to be drilled. In fact. due to the deformation in the rock layer that contains hydrocarbons. or configuration. Many techniques have been developed. well completion. Among the most important are • seismology. geologists apply earth science to the search for oil. which is the study of the sound waves that bounce off buried rock layers. This section will address the preparatory steps prior to drilling the well: • exploration WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 • site selection • drilling contracts • preparation of the rig site • rig setup • rigging up. WPC. Unpublished Work. A hydrocarbon reservoir has a distinctive shape. . Exploration (or "wildcat") wells are often not successful in their search for oil. that prevents the escape of hydrocarbons that migrate into it. • educated guesses.

3-2

PROVISORY RELEASE
• geophones or hydrophones

Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations

3-2

• recording devices in a truck or on a boat.

WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29

Figure 3-1: Seismic exploration

Here are the stages of the exploration process: 1. The shooting truck uses compressed air or explosive charges to send a seismic signal into the earth. (Searches often use compressed air because explosions in water can kill marine life.) 2. This signal is reflected back via various formations underground. 3. The returned signals are picked up by the geophones or hydrophones. 4. The information received by the geophones is then recorded using sophisticated recording devices in a truck or boat. 5. The results are analyzed by geologists to determine the likelihood of oil-bearing formations beneath the surface of the ground.

3.1.1

Seismic survey animation
Multimedia 3-1: Signals emitted and captured. Animation NOTE: Multimedia is currently available only in HTML publications.

3.2

Site Selection
In addition to exploration data, the drill site, selected by the operating company, must also take into account financial, legal, and practical considerations. The ability to establish a lease agreement and drilling rights to a specific location is necessary before drilling can begin. The proprietorship of a specific location to be used for drilling is determined by one of three possible systems in the United States:

PROVISORY RELEASE
Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

3-3

PROVISORY RELEASE

Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations

3-3

• Township and range lines: Township and range lines are used to block off a 36-square-mile block of land called a township. That township is then subdivided into 36 sections, each one square mile in area. • Metes and bounds: Metes and bounds means "measurements and boundaries" and describes a tract of land in straight-line segments of length and bearing. • UTM: The UTM system (Universal Transverse Mercator) is used offshore to define nine-square-mile tracts across open water spaces.
WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29

Figure 3-2: Township and range lines

3.3

Drilling Contracts
Before moving equipment onto a site to drill, a drilling contract must be agreed upon by the drilling company and the oil or gas producer. There are three basic contract types currently being used: • day-work contract • footage contract • turnkey contract.

PROVISORY RELEASE
Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

3-4

PROVISORY RELEASE
3.3.1

Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations

3-4

Day-Work Contract
A day-work contract is the most beneficial to the drilling company. Under this type of contract, the drilling company is paid an agreed-upon fee for each day that the drilling rig is on site making the hole. If problems occur, and a job that was thought to take 20 days in fact takes 50 days, the added expenses fall entirely on the oil or gas producer. This contract can be very problematic for the producer, since the total cost for drilling cannot be determined until the well is complete.

WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29

3.3.2

Footage Contract
A footage contract is usually used in a developed (or production) field where the depths to be drilled are already determined. In this type of contract, there is a fixed number of feet to be drilled, and a cost-per-foot-drilled is determined. This system allows the producer to control costs under normal drilling conditions. It also allows the drilling company to set a price that will be profitable if the drilling team is efficient in meeting the footage requirements of the contract.

3.3.3

Turnkey Contract
A turnkey contract is a type of financing arrangement for the drilling of a wellbore that places considerable risk and potential reward on the drilling contractor. Under such an arrangement, the drilling contractor assumes full responsibility for the well to some predetermined milestone such as the successful running of logs at the end of the well, the successful cementing of casing in the well or even the completion of the well. Until this milestone is reached, the operator owes nothing to the contractor. The contractor bears all risk of trouble in the well, and in extreme cases, may have to abandon the well entirely and start over. In return for assuming such risk, the price of the well is usually a little higher than the well would cost if relatively trouble free. Therefore, if the contractor succeeds in drilling a trouble-free well, the fee added as contingency becomes profit. Some operators, however, have been required by regulatory agencies to remedy problem wells, such as blowouts, if the turnkey contractor does not.

PROVISORY RELEASE
Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

Figure 3-4: Conductor pipe PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Onshore. All rights reserved. One important concern at a wellsite is establishing a sufficient water supply to meet drilling needs. this means that a water well is dug before drilling for oil can begin. Often.3-5 PROVISORY RELEASE 3. Unpublished Work. access roads and turnarounds for trucks and heavy equipment must be built and the site cleared and leveled. Offshore.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 3-3: Cleared and leveled future rig site Before drilling begins. buoys are set to mark the site.4 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations 3-5 Preparation of the Rig Site WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. the rig site must be prepared. .

3-6 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations 3-6 When the water supply is established. the conductor hole is dug with a special bit.5 Rig Setup Figure 3-5: Land-based rig site setup Offshore. or drill ships) are used. a cellar or rectangular pit is dug. For remote. It also conducts the drilling fluid back to the surface when regular drilling begins. The conductor hole is shallow in depth. but large in diameter. Current land-based drilling rigs are very portable. Onshore. mobile offshore rigs (like jack-ups. the diameter can be 36 inches or more. typically 10 feet on a side and 10 feet deep. The conductor pipe or casing is then run into the hole and cemented to keep the hole from caving in. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. helicopters and large cargo planes can be used. and drilling operations can be started within 24 to 48 hours. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Unpublished Work. a more-permanent platform is usually used for drilling boats to move the rig from one site to another. For production (or development) wells. For exploration (or wildcat) wells. All rights reserved. semis.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 3. . inaccessible locations. the type of drilling to be done determines the type of rig to be used. Inside the pit. be set up. trucks are usually used to transport the drilling equipment to the location. depending on the surface condition. A land-based rig can be moved on location.

This cable is also referred to as a drilling line or wire rope.3-7 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations 3-7 3. Unpublished Work. All rights reserved. or "rig up. Inside this large hoist is a drum on which a braided-steel cable is wrapped around. the next step is for the drilling crew to put the rig together. including a steel-and-wood rig floor on which to work. and the drawworks. The exact height of a substructure depends on the space needed to clear the high-pressure valves and other equipment that is connected to the top of the well’s casing. many pieces of equipment are set on the substructure. ." For land rigs. The substructure raises the rig floor anywhere from about 10 to 45 feet above ground level.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 3-6: Rigging up Once the contractor gets the rig to the site. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Then.6 Rigging Up WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. the crew first brings in the rig’s substructure.

Rigging-up operations offshore vary with the type of rig. stairways and walkways. pumps. steel tanks. or pits for drilling fluid.3-8 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Preparations 3-8 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 3-7: Completed rig-up Rig-up involves the assembly of lots of additional equipment such as engines. electricity generators. Unpublished Work.7 Exercise Drilling Preparations Exercise (online) Drilling Preparations Exercise (offline) PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. 3. All rights reserved. . and water supply pumps.

4 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-i Drilling Rig Components Rig System _____________________________________________________ Power System _______________________________________________ Hoisting System _____________________________________________ Rotary System _______________________________________________ Mud Circulation System ______________________________________ Drilling Mud ____________________________________________________ Mud circulation animation ____________________________________ Mud removing cuttings animation ____________________________ Mud Surface Equipment _______________________________________ De-Gassers ________________________________________________ De-Silters and De-Sanders __________________________________ Centrifuges _________________________________________________ Exercise _______________________________________________________ 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-9 4-9 4-10 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-12 4-13 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.3 4.2 4.1.1.4-i PROVISORY RELEASE 4 4.2.2 4.3.3 4.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.2.1.1 4.1.1 4.1 4.4 4.3. .1 4.3. All rights reserved.2 4.2 4.3 4. Unpublished Work.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.4-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work. All rights reserved. .

which is divided into four basic systems: • the power system • the hoisting system • the rotary system • the mud circulation system. SWBT. Basic. well completion. WPC. . Interfac e. WCS. All rights reserved.4-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-1 4 Drilling Rig Components IT Modules. CTS. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. TBT WBT. a drilling rig needs a multitude of equipment. Unpublished Work. drilling. density. Components of a drilling rig include the following: • rig system WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.1 Rig System To make hole. 4.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 • drilling mud • mud surface equipment.

etc.4-2 PROVISORY RELEASE 4. hoists.). etc. A normal drilling rig usually requires from 1.000 to 3. rotary table. mud mixers.1.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 4-1: SCR: Silicon-controlled rectifiers The power system is the heart of the entire operation: without power.1 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-2 Power System WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. The bigger the rig.000 horsepower. A rig may need from two to four prime movers. . top drive. accommodations. Unpublished Work. depending on its size. solids control equipment. mud pumps. called prime movers. the deeper it can drill. This powers electrical motors to operate all the rotating equipment (like the drawworks. where the electric power is distributed among all the rig’s components: Hoists. and the more power it needs. All rights reserved. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. pumps. Shown in the figure above is the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifiers) room. The horsepower is delivered by diesel engines. nothing on a rig operates. Electrically powered rigs use turbines or generators to produce electrical power.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 4-2: Hoisting system components The hoisting system is used to raise and lower pipe into the hole.2 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-3 Hoisting System WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.4-3 PROVISORY RELEASE 4.1. . it can be used to maintain weight on the bit. Illustrated here are the principal components of the hoisting system. All rights reserved. Figure 4-3: Derrick PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. In addition. Unpublished Work.

In some cases. the longer the section of pipe that can be handled when going in or pulling out of the hole. The drawworks consists of a large spool of cable and a brake driven by the rig engines. Unpublished Work. 4. All rights reserved.4-4 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-4 The most striking feature of a drilling rig is the derrick.3 Rotary System Figure 4-4: Rotary system PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. his can allow for the adding of two or three joints of pipe at the same time (called doubles and triples). • The lines that run from the drawworks are called fast lines. moving set of pulleys.1. • The lines between the crown block and the traveling block are called drilling lines. which reduces downtime during the drilling process. The dead line allows for the changing of line in the pulley system when wear or fatigue requires it. It provides the cable used by the pulleys hung in the derrick. the derrick can be over 150 feet tall. • The dead line is a portion of line that is tied down after running from the drawworks and through the pulleys. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. • The traveling block is the lower. . The taller the derrick.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 The remainder of the hoisting system consists of blocks and lines that do the actual hoisting: • The crown block is a stationary set of pulleys attached to the top of the derrick that gives mechanical advantage in handling large loads.

1. 4.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 4-5: Downhole motor In highly deviated and horizontal wells. this rotary force is applied by the rotating equipment. a bent motor assembly is used to start deviation from vertical. Also. Some rigs have replaced the conventional swivel. the mud is used like hydraulic fluid to supply power to the hydraulic motor. Unpublished Work.4 Mud Circulation System Figure 4-6: Mud circulation system PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. which causes the bit to cut into the rock and earth.4-5 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-5 To make hole. the torque required to turn the drillstring makes rotary-table drilling impractical or impossible. . WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. a special length of pipe known as the kelly. which includes a swivel. All rights reserved. a downhole motor is used to rotate the drill bit. In these situations. the rotary table. the drillstring turns. the kelly. and a kelly bushing. When a downhole motor is used. The depth in which the deviation is started is commonly referred to as the kick off point (KOP). Instead. and the kelly bushing with a powered swivel called the top drive. the drillstring does not rotate. In a vertical well. which is placed in the drillstring between the bit and the drill collar.

PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. down the drillstring. All rights reserved. and back to the surface tanks. Here are the major components of the mud circulation system. Unpublished Work. through the standpipe. the mud circulation system moves the drilling fluid (or mud) through the system. Figure 4-7: Mud going to mud pit returns The mud is pumped from the surface tank.4-6 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-6 Rotary drilling has two fundamental characteristics: • rotation • the circulation of drilling fluid. . As the name implies. up the annulus. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. out of the jet or bit nozzles.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Mud is used to do the following: • remove the cuttings made by the drillbit from the hole • cool and lubricate the bit • keep the hole filled with fluid to provide primary well control. The annulus is the space between the wellbore and the drillstring.

and maintained in the surface tanks or mud pits while drilling. while the swivel or top drive allows the drillstring to rotate. very strong. treated.4-7 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-7 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. runs from the standpipe to the swivel. All rights reserved. A flexible.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 4-8: Mud pit and mixing hopper Mud is circulated. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. reinforced rubber hose called the kelly hose. While historically these pits were just earthen holes. or the top drive. so that materials can be added to the mud to meet changing requirements for density and other mud properties. A mud-mixing hopper is attached to the pit. . or rotary hose. environmental concerns now require that the pits most often be aboveground containers that protect the environment from contamination. The standpipe is a section of steel pipe mounted vertically to one leg of the derrick that transports the mud up the rig. The kelly hose allows the drillstring to move up and down. Figure 4-9: Mud pumped from pit to standpipe A suction line attached to a triplex pump pulls the mud from the pit and pushes it out the discharge line to the standpipe. Unpublished Work.

All rights reserved. Unpublished Work. Drill collars are heavy. Mud passing through shale shaker When mud leaves the drill bit. a square. which improves drilling performance. thick-walled joints of pipe inserted between the drill pipe and the drill bit. the mud passes through a shale shaker.4-8 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-8 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.or hexagonal-shaped pipe joint that can be turned by the rotary table. which is a vibrating screen that separates out the cuttings from the mud before the mud is returned to the mud pit to be used again. The heavier weight of the drill collars add weight to the drill bit. Below the kelly is the drill pipe. where it is taken back to the mud pit. Figure 4-11: Mud return line.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 4-10: Drillstring Below the swivel is the kelly. Before entering the mud pit. without the slippage that might occur with a round joint of pipe. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. it moves up the annulus to the mud return line. . and below the drill pipe are the drill collar and the drill bit. This specially shaped joint of pipe allows torque to be applied efficiently to the drilling.

The filter cake protects against these problems. Since fluid loss changes the density and viscosity of the mud. The first and most important function is to remove cuttings from the hole as it is being drilled. Unpublished Work.2. The mud must also cool and lubricate the drill bit to increase drilling efficiency. significant fluid loss can result in stuck equipment or formation damage. In addition to these functions.2 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-9 Drilling Mud Drilling mud has many functions. the greater the hydrostatic pressure created by the mud. the mud must have sufficient viscosity to hold the cuttings in suspension as they move up the annulus. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Also. drilling mud is also used to deposit a thin impermeable filter cake on the wellbore surface.1 Mud circulation animation Multimedia 4-1: Mud flow. To accomplish this task. This filter cake blocks the pores of the formation and reduces fluid loss from the mud into the formation. The density of the mud must often be adjusted to match the changing pressures of the wellbore.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Also. The greater the mud density. All rights reserved. mud is used for primary well control by establishing hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore that controls underground-formation pressures. 4. Animation NOTE: Multimedia is currently available only in HTML publications. the drilling fluid is used to transmit hydraulic power to mechanical power for downhole motors. Hydrostatic pressure is maintained via the column of mud balancing the formation or pore pressure.4-9 PROVISORY RELEASE 4. .

4. de-gassers. Animation NOTE: Multimedia is currently available only in HTML publications.3 Mud Surface Equipment Figure 4-12: Shale shaker In addition to the shale shaker discussed earlier. All rights reserved. and centrifuges are also used to clean mud before it is returned down-hole. de-silters.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Multimedia 4-2: Cutting removal. Unpublished Work. de-sanders.2 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-10 Mud removing cuttings animation WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.2. . The shale shaker uses a vibrating screen to remove large cuttings from the mud.4-10 PROVISORY RELEASE 4.

4-11

PROVISORY RELEASE

Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components

4-11

4.3.1

De-Gassers

WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29

Figure 4-13: De-gasser unit

Since gas trapped in the drilling mud can significantly change the density of the fluid and, therefore, its ability to maintain well control, it is important that this gas be removed from the mud before it goes back downhole. The two kinds of de-gassers currently in use are • Gas buster, which is a gravity driven device. The mud is pushed from a small pipe into a large cylinder, where the liquid mud falls to the bottom. The gas rises to the top where it is vented off or otherwise removed. • Vacuum device that exposes the gas-filled mud to a vacuum, which draws off the gas. This is more efficient, but also more costly, than the gravity method.

PROVISORY RELEASE
Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

4-12

PROVISORY RELEASE
4.3.2

Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components

4-12

De-Silters and De-Sanders

WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29

Figure 4-14: De-silter

De-silters and De-sanders remove smaller particles or cuttings than does the shale shaker. They do not, however, remove the particulates of the mud that must remain to keep mud density correct for a given well application.

4.3.3

Centrifuges

Figure 4-15: Decanting centrifuge

PROVISORY RELEASE
Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

4-13

PROVISORY RELEASE

Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components

4-13

A Decanting Centrifuge is a solids control equipment device that uses the principle of acceleration and separation of particles. It is primarily used to eliminate or process fine particles from the drilling fluid (<4 microns). The processing capacity is much smaller compared to hydrocyclones (de-sander and de-silter).

4.4
WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29

Exercise
Drilling Rig Components Exercise (online) Drilling Rig Components Exercise (offline)

PROVISORY RELEASE
Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved.4-14 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Drilling Rig Components 4-14 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work.0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

All rights reserved.3.1 5.3.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.1 5. .3 5.2 5.3 5.5-i PROVISORY RELEASE 5 5. Unpublished Work.4 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Well Control 5-i Well Control “Kick” animation _______________________________________________ Primary Well Control ___________________________________________ Secondary Well Control ________________________________________ Annular Preventer ____________________________________________ Pipe Ram ___________________________________________________ Blind Rams and Shear Rams _________________________________ Exercise ________________________________________________________ 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-4 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.2 5.3.

Unpublished Work.5-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Well Control 5-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. .

Well control is divided into • primary well control • secondary well control. oil. there is an increase in return circulation and return pressure. Unpublished Work. All rights reserved. or water from a well. a "blow out" can result. 5. A blowout is an uncontrolled escape of drilling fluid. the density of the mud must be adjusted to maintain well control. WCS. an underbalance condition exists. if it is not controlled.2 Primary Well Control The hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid provides primary well control. gas. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. When formation fluid enters the wellbore.5-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Well Control 5-1 5 Well Control IT Modules. formation fluids cannot enter the wellbore and cause a loss of well control. Basic. . well completion. drilling. This increase is called a "kick" and. caused by the formation pressure being greater than the hydrostatic head of the fluid in the hole. As long as this pressure is greater than the formation pressure.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 When the pressure in a formation is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column. WPC. 5. Animation NOTE: Multimedia is currently available only in HTML publications. As formation pressures change at different depths in the drilling process. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. density. CTS. TBT WBT. SWBT.1 “Kick” animation Multimedia 5-1: Formation fluid enters the wellbore. Interfac e.

Unpublished Work.3 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Well Control 5-2 Secondary Well Control WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Here are typical components of the BOP stack.5-2 PROVISORY RELEASE 5.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 5-1: Secondary well control Secondary well control is provided by a series of valves and cutoffs at the wellhead. . • the annular preventer • pipe rams • blind rams • shear rams. called the BOP (or blowout preventer) stack. All rights reserved.

3. All rights reserved.3.5-3 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Well Control 5-3 5. Unpublished Work. but it is static and fits only one specific size of pipe.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 5-2: Annular preventer The annular preventer is a dynamic seal. As pipe sizes change. which can seal the annulus between the drill pipe and the side of the hole. the drillstring can still be rotated with the annular preventer closed. The annular preventer works with various sizes of pipes or casing and does not have to be changed as pipe entering the hole changes diameter.2 Pipe Ram Figure 5-3: Pipe rams The pipe ram is also an annular seal. the pipe rams must be changed to match the diameters of the drill pipe. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.1 Annular Preventer WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Additionally. . 5.

. 5. These units are controlled from a remote-control unit on the rig floor. and blind-shear rams cut or shear the pipe and then seal the hole. and the blind rams seal off the hole.3. The shear rams cut the pipe.4 Exercise Well Control Exercise (online) Well Control Exercise (offline) PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.3 Blind Rams and Shear Rams WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved. which is stored under pressure in several steel cylinder units called accumulators.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 5-4: Blind rams Blind rams seal only on open hole.5-4 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Well Control 5-4 The drillstring cannot be rotated with the pipe rams closed. Unpublished Work. Both annular and ram preventers operate with hydraulic fluid. 5.

1.2.3 6.4. .4.5 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Rig Operations 6-i Rig Operations Rate of Penetration _____________________________________________ Adding New Pipe Joints ________________________________________ Addition of new pipe joints to drillstring animation ______________ Trip Equipment In and Out of Hole ______________________________ Optimum Quality and Cost _____________________________________ Important Items to Control ____________________________________ Weight on the Drill Bit _____________________________________ Torque ___________________________________________________ Bit Wear _________________________________________________ Exercise ________________________________________________________ 6-1 6-1 6-2 6-2 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-3 6-4 6-4 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.2 6.1 6.3 6. Unpublished Work.1 6.4.1.1 6.1 6.1.6-i PROVISORY RELEASE 6 6.2 6.4 6. All rights reserved.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.4.

6-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Rig Operations 6-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved. . Unpublished Work.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

TBT WBT. then the kelly is removed.1 Rate of Penetration The most important operation in drilling is to make hole. the drillstring is held and suspended by slips so that it cannot fall into the hole. a sharp bit must be kept rotating at the bottom of the hole. Unpublished Work. the drillstring is lowered to the bottom of the hole. 6. Interfac e. 4. WCS. or whether weight on bit. The rate of penetration is a record of how efficient the drilling team is at making hole. WPC. well completion. Variations on the drilling rate can indicate bit wear. Basic. To maintain an optimum ROP. 6.2 Adding New Pipe Joints As the depth of the hole increases.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 • adding new pipe joints • trip equipment in and out of the hole • optimum quality and cost. When the kelly reaches its lowest point. and hydraulic are being properly handled. and drilling is resumed. formation changes. Here is the process of adding new pipe joints to the drillstring: 1. drilling. 3. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. A joint of pipe is then placed in the mousehole to hold it in a vertical position so that it can be attached to the kelly. density. All rights reserved.6-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Rig Operations 6-1 6 Rig Operations IT Modules. The new joint is then lifted by the hoist and attached to the drillstring. . pipe joints must be added to keep the bit on the bottom. CTS. rotary speed. 2. This section on rig operations will address • rate of penetration WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. SWBT. The slips are then released.

. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. 6. the drillstring must at times be removed completely from the wellbore. each joint must be removed or added as described above. but also with minimum risk of damaging equipment.1 Important Items to Control Important items to control are • weight on the drill bit • torque • bit wear.2.3 Trip Equipment In and Out of Hole Throughout the drilling operation. Animation NOTE: Multimedia is currently available only in HTML publications. which can increase costs. During trips in and out of the hole.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Multimedia 6-1: Drillpipe pick up and addition to drillstring. emphasis must be placed on both optimizing the rate of penetration and minimizing costs.4 Optimum Quality and Cost Throughout a drilling operation. this must be done to change the diameter of the drillstring. Unpublished Work.6-2 PROVISORY RELEASE 6.4. Every effort should be made to drill efficiently. At other times. Drilling too quickly can result in damaged or broken drillstrings. All rights reserved.1 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Rig Operations 6-2 Addition of new pipe joints to drillstring animation WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. 6. Sometimes this must be done to change the drill bit. or to run special tools or equipment down the wellbore. which could lead to costly downtime at the drilling site. 6.

1. Somewhere along the drillstring. . PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.4. Unpublished Work. Both the friction of the wellbore on the drillstring and the buoyancy of the drillstring in the mud to reduce the force at the drill bit. 6. All rights reserved.6-3 PROVISORY RELEASE Weight on the Drill Bit Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Rig Operations 6-3 6.1. it is also important to control torque (or twisting) on the drillstring. the load goes from compression to tension and the axial force is zero. Excessive torque can result in broken joints.2 Torque In addition to weight on the drill bit. Enough heavyweight pipe (Drill Collars) are added above the bit to keep the drill pipe in tension all the time.4.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 6-1: Weight of string and bit One important consideration in maintaining optimum drilling parameters is the weight on the drill bit. which can fall into the wellbore and be very difficult to remove. When the drill bit is on bottom and weight is applied on the bit. this weight may not be the same as the weight on the drill bit. The Neutral point location is affected by frictional and bouyancy forces. the section of pipe immediately above the bit is in compression. The pipe hanging from the hook at surface is still under tension.1 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. While weight is measured by a scale at the crown block. This point is called the Neutral point.

4. but it will not cut rock or earth and allow for continued penetration. A worn drill bit will turn easily in the wellbore. A decrease in ROP and a change in torque on the bit are some indicators of a worn out bit.3 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Rig Operations 6-4 Bit Wear Also.6-4 PROVISORY RELEASE 6. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. bit wear must be monitored.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 6. .1. Unpublished Work.5 Exercise Rig Operations Exercise (online) Rig Operations Exercise (offline) PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.

2 7.1 7.2.3 7.1 7.2 7.4 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-i Completions Bottomhole Completions _______________________________________ Perforating __________________________________________________ Methods of Perforating _______________________________________ Tubing _________________________________________________________ Tubing Design Requirements _________________________________ Multi-Phase Flow Regimes ___________________________________ Wellhead and Chokes __________________________________________ Artificial Lift ____________________________________________________ 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-7 7-8 7-9 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.2. All rights reserved.1.1 7.2 7.1. Unpublished Work. .7-i PROVISORY RELEASE 7 7.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

Unpublished Work. .7-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

An openhole completion is one where there is no casing or liner across the producing formation. drilling.7-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-1 7 Completions IT Modules. 7. TBT WBT. All rights reserved. SWBT. Basic. density.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 • Bottomhole Completions • Tubing • Wellhead and Chokes • Artificial Lift. Topics discussed in this section will be: • Casing WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. .1 Bottomhole Completions Many factors affect whether a well is cased or left as an openhole completion. WCS. Unpublished Work. well completion. CTS. Interfac e. Figure 7-1: Openhole completion PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. A cased hole completion has casing across the producing formation. WPC.

All of this information can be gathered from the company that does the perforating or the operator. The length of penetration (also called the perforation tunnel length) can be estimated. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. All rights reserved. The perforation scheme depends on many factors.7-2 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-2 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. The first is shots per foot (SPF). This pathway is called a perforation. there must be a pathway created from the wellbore through the casing and cement sheath to the reservoir. The second is perforation phasing.1. . Unpublished Work. This describes the angle (in degrees) between the perforations. There are two important terms that describe the perforations in a completion.1 Perforating In order for the formation fluid to enter the wellbore in a cased hole completion. The diagram below shows 90 degrees phasing. including the type of stimulation treatment needed.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 7-2: Cased hole completion 7. This is the number of perforations per vertical foot of casing.

7-3 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-3 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. The most common perforation phasing configurations are 0° . 90°. These methods of perforating are dependent on the bottomhole pressure at the time of perforating. • Underbalanced perforating – In this method of perforating. All rights reserved.1. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. 60°. the bottom hole pressure in the casing is less than the reservoir pressure.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 7-3: Perforation phasing. 120°. This requires special equipment to control the well during perforation operations. This allows for a surge of formation fluid to enter the wellbore cleaning up the debris. Unpublished Work. .2 Methods of Perforating Figure 7-4: Methods of perforating There are three ways that perforating is done. 7. and 180°.

WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.2 Tubing Tubing is small diameter pipe that is run inside the casing to protect the casing from corrosion. • Extremely overbalanced perforating – This method of perforating requires that the bottomhole pressure be greater than the closure pressure (or fracturing pressure) of the reservoir. There is usually a tubing or production packer set near the end of the tubing string. All rights reserved. There are three classifications: Figure 7-5: Free or unlimited motion. Tubing can move both up and down. unlike casing. The packer seals the casing tubing annulus to prevent produced fluids from contacting the casing and helps to centralize the tubing. It can be pulled and replaced when necessary. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . Tubing is typically run to a depth right above the producing zone. Packers can be classified depending on how freely the tubing can move.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 7. This method is simple and does not require special equipment. Unpublished Work. This allows for the wellbore fluid to surge into the formation compacting the debris in the perforation tunnels.7-4 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-4 • Overbalanced perforating – In this method of perforating the bottomhole pressure is greater than the reservoir pressure of the zone being perforated. The initial surge of wellbore fluid into the reservoir will cause many small fractures.

. 7.2. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. temperature changes. There are four principle effects that can cause length and force changes in the tubing string. They are the piston effect. usually up. many things must be taken into consideration. completion components.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 7-6: Limited motion. The forces and stress that will be exerted on the tubing by fluids.1 Tubing Design Requirements When selecting a tubing string for a completion. Production rate and fluid must also be accounted for in the design. All rights reserved. buckling effect.7-5 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-5 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work. Tubing is limited to movement in one direction. These factors can change throughout the life of the completion. Figure 7-7: No motion. ballooning effect and temperature effect. pressure changes and friction must be evaluated. Tubing cannot move up or down.

7-6 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-6 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 7-8: Buckling effect Figure 7-9: Ballooning effect PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . All rights reserved.

2. . Series of gas pockets (called Taylor bubbles) unevenly distributed throughout continuous liquid phase PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.7-7 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-7 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Figure 7-11: Bubble flow. All rights reserved. Unpublished Work. Small evenly distributed gas bubbles in a continuous liquid phase Figure 7-12: Slug flow.2 Multi-Phase Flow Regimes There are four principal multi-phase flow regimes recognized in oil and gas wells.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 7-10: Temperature effect 7.

Chaotic flow pattern where neither phase is continuous. liquid can appear to move both up and down in the tubing. The smaller the orifice the lower the production rate. Entrained liquid in continuous gas phase. Therefore. the tubing head. Unpublished Work. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. A choke has a small hole in it that the fluid flows through called an orifice. large.3 Wellhead and Chokes A wellhead is a permanent.7-8 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-8 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. 7. . forged or cast steel fitting on top of the well at surface. gas bubbles can form due to the large pressure drop in the near wellbore area blocking reservoir rock pores and thus causing production to decrease. A well is rarely allowed to produce at an unlimited rate because this can result in a rapid decrease in production and ultimately reduce the total recovery. Chokes can either be positive (fixed orifice size) or adjustable (orifice size can be changed). Christmas tree. stuffing box and pressure gauges.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 7-13: Annular or mist flow. Wellhead equipment includes the casing head. annular film of liquid along sides of tubing/casing Figure 7-14: Transition or churn flow. All rights reserved. Also. production is controlled by surface and subsurface chokes.

7-9 PROVISORY RELEASE 7. Common methods include sucker rod pumps. gas lift and electric submersible pumps (ESP). however many oil wells are not able to flow to the surface due to the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column.4 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-9 Artificial Lift Gas wells flow to the surface unassisted. Unpublished Work. a method of artificial lift is utilized. . All rights reserved. These methods help lift the column of oil to the surface. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Only 4% of oil wells in the United States have sufficient reservoir pressure to produce on their own. In cases where the oil cannot flow by itself.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . All rights reserved.7-10 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Completions 7-10 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work.

1 8.2. Unpublished Work.2.1 8.3 8. All rights reserved. .2 8.2.2 8.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.2.8-i PROVISORY RELEASE 8 8.4 8.2.5 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Casing 8-i Casing Function _______________________________________________________ Casing Types ___________________________________________________ Conductor Casing ____________________________________________ Surface Casing ______________________________________________ Intermediate Casing __________________________________________ Liners _______________________________________________________ Production Casing or Liners __________________________________ 8-1 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-4 8-5 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.

8-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Casing 8-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. . All rights reserved. Unpublished Work.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

WPC. drilling.2 Casing Types There are several types of casings.8-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Casing 8-1 8 Casing IT Modules. Interfac e. 8. well completion. CTS. Casing is large pipe run into the wellbore to protect the integrity of the hole and to isolate various formations from each other and the surface. All rights reserved. 8. Basic. density. each with its own specific function. SWBT.1 Function Figure 8-1: Types of casing and lithology A series of casing strings is necessary to complete a well. TBT WBT. WCS. This section will address the • functions WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Casing design is determined by the following: • well depth • completion procedures to be used PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. .0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 • types of well casing. Unpublished Work.

. Its primary function is to keep the earth under the drilling rig from caving into the wellbore during later drilling operations.2. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Unpublished Work. Conductor casing is driven or drilled to 100 to 300 feet. Types of casings include the following: • conductor casing • surface casing WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.8-2 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Casing 8-2 • the existence of lost circulation or high-pressure zones in the formation • existence of corrosive waters or gases in the formation • government regulations.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 • intermediate casing • liners • production casing/liners.1 Conductor Casing Figure 8-2: Conductor casing Conductor casing is run into the hole from the surface to below the topsoil or other unconsolidated earth. 8.

Unpublished Work. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . It is used to isolate these freshwater zones to prevent contamination of fresh water by formation fluids. Very often. the surface casing is the first string to which BOPs are connected. All rights reserved.2 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Casing 8-3 Surface Casing WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.8-3 PROVISORY RELEASE 8.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 8-3: Surface casing Surface casing is run into the hole below any freshwater aquifers found at relatively shallow depths.2.

. plastic formations. high-pressure. These zones may be weak.2. 8.3 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Casing 8-4 Intermediate Casing WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved. This is normally called the long string and is set before the production casing or liner.8-4 PROVISORY RELEASE 8.4 Liners Figure 8-5: Liner PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. fractured.2.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 8-4: Intermediate casing Intermediate casing is run inside the surface casing to isolate hole problems and maintain casing integrity. Unpublished Work.

This string of casing serves to isolate the reservoir from undesirable fluids in the production formation and from other zones penetrated by the wellbore. . PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. While both are used to bring formation fluids up the wellbore. All rights reserved. Liners are used in deep wells to reduce iron costs associated with running iron all the way to the surface. and fluid flows into the wellbore while the wellbore is secured and held open.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 8-6: Production casing Production casing and production liners are often called the long string.5 Production Casing or Liners WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.2. Unpublished Work.8-5 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Casing 8-5 A liner is a string of casing that does not extend all the way to the surface. the difference between production casing and production liner is whether the string reaches all the way to the surface or only as high as an intermediate casing above it. It is hung or seated inside the previous casing string. For production. overlapping and secured within the larger pipe. the liner is perforated. 8.

Unpublished Work.0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. . All rights reserved.8-6 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Casing 8-6 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Unpublished Work.2.1 9.9-i PROVISORY RELEASE 9 9.2 9.3 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Special Operations 9-i Special Operations Offshore Operations ___________________________________________ Directional Drilling _____________________________________________ Air Drilling ___________________________________________________ Fishing ______________________________________________________ Exercise ________________________________________________________ 9-1 9-2 9-5 9-5 9-5 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. .2 9.2.1 9. All rights reserved.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.9-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Special Operations 9-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. . Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 While most drilling has been done onshore in vertical or only slightly deviated wells. or strings can be recovered by "fishing" for these items. WPC. certain well conditions may require drilling with air rather than mud. more and more drilling is being done offshore and in highly deviated or horizontal wells. Interfac e. equipment. Basic. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.9-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Special Operations 9-1 9 Special Operations IT Modules. lost tools. Also. well completion. . logistics. In addition. WCS. All rights reserved. 9. drilling. semi-sub and fixed platforms Here is a drilling ship (used more often on exploratory wells or at the greatest water depths) and a semi-submersible drilling platform (used in deepwater field development). environmental or regulatory issues. TBT WBT. All of these are examples of special drilling operations. SWBT. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. density. Fixed platforms are used when large fields are developed and support facilities are required.1 Offshore Operations Figure 9-1: Drilling ship. Offshore operations require special considerations because of weather. Unpublished Work. CTS.

All rights reserved.9-2 PROVISORY RELEASE 9. Directional drilling can also be used to avoid other previously drilled wells from a busy platform. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. To achieve that objective.g. Unpublished Work.. the well can have a deviation angle from one to ninety degrees (horizontal). This method allows a single drilling platform to be used to open a number of production wells. Directional drilling is used to run several wells from one site into different pay zones or different parts of the same pay zone. the Arctic) • offshore operations • towns and cities. It is also used to correct a well trajectory or sidetrack an obstruction in the well. This is often the case in the following: • environmentally sensitive areas (e.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 9-2: Kick-off point and deviation Controlled directional drilling is defined as deviating a wellbore along a planned course to an underground target located a given horizontal distance from the top of the hole.2 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Special Operations 9-2 Directional Drilling WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. .

Unpublished Work. All rights reserved. Directional drilling can be accomplished by using either of the following: • bent sub • whipstock. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.9-3 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Special Operations 9-3 Directional drilling can also be used to expose more of the wellbore to the pay zone. and thereby increase the production from a specific pay zone. Like a bent needle. a drillstring equipped with a bent sub will deviate from a straight path. The bent sub is run just above the drilling motor-bit combination. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. .0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 9-3: Drilling motor-bit A bent sub is a special piece of equipment that tilts the drilling bit a few degrees (normally between 1 and 3 degrees).

The point where the well deviates from the vertical path is known as the Kick-Off Point (KOP). . Unpublished Work. Figure 9-5: Kick-off point (KOP) PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.9-4 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Special Operations 9-4 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Figure 9-4: Whipstock A whipstock is a slanted guide that forces the toolstring to follow the desired direction.

9-5 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Special Operations 9-5 Here are some examples of deviated wells being used to access a pay zone under an inhabited area and a blown-out well. or pipe may be lost down-hole. spears. equipment. must be removed from the hole before drilling can be resumed.2. compressors are used to pump air down-hole. or hydraulic jars.1 Air Drilling Air drilling is often used in formations where lost-circulation problems make the use of drilling mud impractical. 9. magnets. This "junk.2 Fishing Often. tools. Removing the material is called "fishing. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved. This operation is one of the most expensive and potentially dangerous things that can go wrong in drilling a well." Fishing requires specialized equipment." as it is called. Unpublished Work. it can only be done in zones without high pressure or large amounts of water in the formation. while a special foam or mist is used to lubricate the bit. baskets.2. To perform air drilling. as well as a trained operator. through no fault of the driller. 9. Drilling rates are faster when air is used than when mud is used. 9. .3 Exercise Special Operations Exercise (online) Special Operations Exercise (offline) PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Although air drilling is much less expensive than mud drilling. such as overshots.

. Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.9-6 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Special Operations 9-6 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5.

All rights reserved. Unpublished Work.10-i PROVISORY RELEASE 10 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Summary 10-i Summary WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. .0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.

0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. .10-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Summary 10-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Unpublished Work. Basic.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 • drilling preparation procedures • components of a drilling rig • well control • rig operations • casing • special operations PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. TBT WBT. SWBT. Interfac e. drilling. WCS. density. In this module. . you learned about • the history of drilling WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. well completion.10-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Summary 10-1 10 Summary IT Modules. WPC. CTS.

0\Release Date: Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. .10-2 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Summary 10-2 WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

Unpublished Work.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger.11-i PROVISORY RELEASE 11 Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Take the module test 11-i Take the module test WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. . All rights reserved.

11-ii PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Take the module test 11-ii WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. All rights reserved. Unpublished Work.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 Intentionally Blank PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. .

go to: http://intouchsupport. WCS. Unpublished Work.0\Release Date:Provisory\EDMS UID: 275030441\Produced: 23-Jul-2008 21:12:29 To receive credit for completing this module. Basic. drilling. To take the test online If you do not know how to take a test from the LMS. . To take the test offline If you are viewing this module offline. well completion. print the test results and have your manager enter the results in the LMS.11-1 PROVISORY RELEASE Introduction to Drilling & Well Completion / Take the module test 11-1 11 Take the module test IT Modules. CTS. you must take the test for this module from the Schlumberger Learning Management System (LMS). TBT WBT. WS Training\Bernadette Gomez\InTouch content ID#4133663\5. PROVISORY RELEASE Private Copyright © 2008 Schlumberger. Interfac e. density. If you already know how to use the LMS. All rights reserved. click here to go to the LMS and take the test. A score of 90% or higher is required to pass the test.com/intouch/MethodInvokerpage. you must take and pass the module test. After you take the test. WPC.cfm?caseid=4253433 for instructions. If you are viewing this module online. click here to take the module test offline. SWBT.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful