Name : Priya Shetty Registration Number : Learning Center Name : Halo Technologies and Training Pvt. Ltd Learning Center Code : Course : MBA Semester :1 Subject : Management Process & Organizational Behaviour SET No :1&2 Date of Submission at Learning Center : Marks Awarded :

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Write a note on the functions of management.

Management Functions are as follows:
     Planning Organising Co-ordinating Commanding Controlling

It is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.

It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. According to Henry Fayal, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Organizing as a process involves:      Identification of activities. Classification of grouping of activities. Assignment of duties. Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.



Motivation . Recruitment. supervising. According to Theo Haimann. Commanding: It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Performance appraisal. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the the process of passing information. Remuneration. choose the person and giving the right place). “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection. motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology. Training & development. “Controlling is the process of checking whether 3 . non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose. guiding. Communications . The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i.implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. selection & placement.It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned.may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction. negative. Promotions & transfer. Staffing involves:       Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching. According to Kootz & O’Donell. Positive. opinion etc from one person to another. increase in size of business. complexity of human behaviour etc. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. Direction has following elements:     Supervision Motivation Leadership Communication Supervision . monetary. stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Controlling: It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.means inspiring. It is a bridge of understanding. experience. Leadership . An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing.e.

Social learning has four processes: 1. the watching must be converted to doing. and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Finally. it is required to pay attention. Retention can be affected by a number of factors. 3. it is more likely to dedicate the full attention to learning. Attention processes – People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive. Operant Conditioning and Social Learning. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention processes – A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the it is no longer readily available. If the is model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation. Q. According to Bandura (1977).2 Discuss any two learning theories in detail. attitudes. Corrective action. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. 2. behavioral. you have 4 . In order to learn. Anything that detracts the attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. and environmental influences. Social Learning: The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. Measurement of actual performance. they are Classical Conditioning. to correct any deviation”. Motor reproduction processes – After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model. Reinforcement processes – Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. and emotional reactions of others. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any. Answer: There are three theories of Learning. It recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors. Therefore controlling has following steps:     Establishment of standard performance. but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. 4. most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed. in order for observational learning to be successful. Retention can be affected by a number of factors. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process.or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary.

sociable. response. restrained. Pavlov used a bell before giving food to his dog. This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon. plump. you might start to show up a few minutes early each day. the dog started to salivate in response to the bell. poor non-assertive. Significant stimulus evokes an innate. eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it. after a few repetitions. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism. Ivan Pavlov. if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time. This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS).to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. comfort-loving. fragile. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired. tolerant. buxom. peaceful visceral structure active. Sheldon’s Classification of Personality Types Sheldon's Somatotype Endomorph [viscerotonic] Character Shape developed relaxed. to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs. Thus. vigorous. Classical Conditioning : Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov (1927). a neutral stimulus (bell) became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US – meat). often reflexive. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective. Rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat (a response to food – unconditioned response). For example. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. It is the Conditioned Response (CR). sensitive Mesomorph [somatotonic] Ectomorph [cerebrotonic] Somatotypes 5 . so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. muscular combative quiet. assertive. delicate. Answer: William Sheldon classified personality according to body type. He called this a person‘s somatotype. lean. respectively. Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a Conditioned Response. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR). Classical conditioning was first experimented by Russian physiologist. Q.

Mesophorphy – focused on musculature and the circulatory system (mesoderm). love of comfort and luxury.S. corresponds to Viscerotonia temperament tolerant. Sheldon proposed a theory about how there are certain body types ("somatotypes") that are associated with certain personality characteristics. 1993). He was a keen observer of animals and birds as a child.In the 1940s.He claimed that there are three such somatotypes: endomorphy. aggressive. extravert of hundreds of juvenile delinquent boys and concluded that they were generally mesomorphs (Ornstein. active. Q. energetic. Ectomorphy focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm) – the tendency towards slightness. mesomorphy. and out of his observations he gradually elaborated his typology. and ectomorphy.4 What are the factors influencing perception? Answer: 6 . corresponds to Cerebrotonia temperament artistic. apprehensive. has the tendency towards muscularity. risk taker. has the tendency toward plumpness. introvert. and he turned this talent to good effect by becoming an avid people-watcher. corresponds to the Somatotonia temperament courageous.universities and is best known for his series of books on the human constitution. sensitive. particularly the stomach (endoderm). dynamic. Endomorphy – focused on the digestive system. assertive. William Sheldon (1898-1977) was an American psychologist who devoted his life to observing the variety of human bodies and temperaments. He taught and did research at a number of U.

ii) In the object or target being perceived or iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is mad 1. These factors can reside: i) In the perceiver. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for. that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. Mr X may feel that women are not capable of holding 7 . Through the perceptual process. suppose Mr. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: a) Attitudes: The perceiver's attitudes affect perception. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception.The Situation • • • Time Work setting Social setting • • • Perception • • Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations The Perceiver The Target • • • • • • Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us. most of whom are male. For example. X is interviewing candidates for a very important position in his organization .a position that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers. it allows us to act within our environment.

regardless of the intention of the subordinates. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal i. Greater understanding of self allows us to have more accurate perceptions of others. ii. Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. Because our individual interests differ considerably.their own in tough negotiations. also affects perception. d) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceivers' self-concept. expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. g) Expectations: Finally. If you are preoccupied with a personal problem. we remember information that is consistent with our mood state better than information that is inconsistent with our mood state. For example. such as height. weight. iv. an individual's pattern of thinking. Personal insecurity can be translated into the perception that others are out to "get my job". or personality dispositions. In contrast. In addition. One's own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending to just a few traits. what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive. and appearance. the supervisor who has just been reprimanded by his boss for coming late is more likely to notice his colleagues coming late tomorrow than he did last week. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. more readily. in an organizational context. you may find it hard to be attentive in class. When in a negative mood. e) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. iii. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation. f) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive structure. we tend to evaluate others unfavorably. we form more positive impressions of others. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. For example. a boss who is insecure perceives a subordinate's efforts to do an outstanding job as a threat to his or her own position. Others tend to focus more on central traits. a negative self-concept can lead a perceiver to pick out negative traits in another person. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. 8 . When in a positive mood. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone.

had you met the manager in a restaurant. Solanki. This is the discounting principle in social perception. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. He is having a meeting with Ms. he probably treats all customers in this manner.Characteristics of the Target Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. sound. Solanki is the VP. size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it. individual's behavior can be accounted for by the situation.g. their voice tone. the HR consultant.e. we assume that i. The perceiver will notice the target's physical features like height. If two employees of a department suddenly resign. Motion. We listen to the topics they speak about. has an influence on the perceiver's impression of the target. Verbal communication from targets also affects our perception of them. For example. Can you assume that this behavior reflects the salesperson's personality? You probably cannot. you may encounter an automobile salesperson who has a warm and personable manner. Solanki is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing the job satisfaction amongst employees. weight. they might be totally unrelated. body movements.HR of a leading Financial services company. Mr. we tend to assume their departures were related when in fact.As a result of physical or time proximity. The greater the similarity. Interviewers rate attractive candidates more favorably and attractive candidates are awarded higher starting salaries. asks you about your work and hobbies. Ramani. estimated age. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. The perceiver deciphers eye contact. E. Ramani leading HR consultant. and their accent and make judgments based on this input. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behavior. Assume that you are Ms. employees in a particular department are seen as a group. facial expressions. Physical appearance plays a big role in our perception of others. for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction. Physical attractiveness often colors our entire impression of another person. and in this particular situation. For example. and that it may not reflect the individual's disposition. or that are new or unusual. we often put together objects or events that are unrelated. Perceivers tend to notice physical appearance characteristics that contrast with the norm. Q. People. Characteristics of the Situation The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place. race and gender. In these situations. 9 . the greater the probability we will tend to perceive them as a group. objects or events that are similar to each other also tend to be grouped together. Non-verbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target.5 Mr. and seems genuinely interested in your taste in cars. This person is trying to sell you a car. and posture all in an attempt to form an impression of the target . What suggestions you will give to Mr. that are intense. because of the influence of the situation. meeting a manager in his or her office affects your impression in a certain way that may contrast with the impression you would have formed.

vii) Social Responsibility: Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which it operates. unambiguous. Whistle blowing is important because committed organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behavior in an intense desire to succeed. Temperature. promoting worker safety. iii) Equitable Rewards: Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just. freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. and in line with their expectations. having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisor's leads to increased job satisfaction. and because of this success. Therefore. more responsibilities and increased social status. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility. listen to employees' opinions and show a personal interest in them. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands. v) Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. vi) Whistle blowing: Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings of their companies or co-workers. It is important. viii) Job enrichment : It is a deliberate upgrading of responsibility. 10 .Answer: i) Mentally Challenging Work: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks. therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles. employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. Further. most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction. and challenge in the work itself. Current concerns include protecting the environment. Under conditions of moderate challenge. iv) Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. those who offer praise for good performance. light. Similarly. in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. satisfaction is likely to result. investing in the community. ii) Personality-Job Fit: People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs. Socially responsible actions are expected of organizations. Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth. Managers must encourage both individual ethical behavior and organizational social responsibility. noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. supporting social issues. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction. Clearly delineating wrongful behavior and the appropriate ways to respond are important organizational actions. Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly. and industry pay standards. scope. and opportunities for growth. they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. etc. employees prefer working relatively close to home. recognition. individual skill level.

1. Social. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include AT&T.SET 2 Q. 3. and attention Social needs: Includes affection. includes growth. self-respect.learning. The first general theories of management began to evolve and the 11 .1 Write a note on classical era for evolution of Organization behaviour. It recognizes good performances and give fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company. such as.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of the “VARK-LEARNING” a learning and training solutions company . and achievement. 2. belongingness. Self-actualization needs respectively. and self-fulfillment. acceptance. recognition. status. and friendship Self-actualization needs: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. ASSIGNMENT . 1997). autonomy. and achievement. and General Motors (Daft. ex. Esteem needs: Includes internal esteem factors. What all needs do it takes care off according to maslow’s need hierarchy 4. Colleagues batch mates. IBM. Q. such as. The Classical Era we see this trend to continue in what is called as the classical era which covers the period between 1900 to mid-1930s. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know may be their friends. It offers cash rewards for staff members. relatives. These needs are explained below.What all aspects does it takes care of according to the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy ? According to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy they take care of Esteem. achieving one’s potential. and external esteem factors.

Of course. His scientific approach called for detailed observation and measurement of even the most routine work. Authority and responsibility: authority is the right to give orders and entails enforcing them with rewards and penalties. otherwise authority. Train the worker to do the work efficiently. leaving the workers with the task of implementation. 5. and the judicious application of penalties. managers should do all the thinking relating to the planning and design of work. Discipline: this is essential for the smooth running of business and is dependent on good leadership. 3. the effect was to remove human variability. Frederick Taylor’s main emphasis was on finding one best way of doing each job. 2. order. he laid down what he called 14 principles of management. authority should be matched with corresponding responsibility. Use scientific methods to determine the most efficient way of doing work. Unity of direction: a group of activities concerned with a single objective should be co-coordinated by a single plan under one head. 12 . He favoured wage plans to motivate the workers. Select the best person to perform the job thus designed. 3. Monitor worker performances to ensure that appropriate work procedures are followed and that appropriate results are achieved. With passing time. discipline. Mary parker Follet and Chester Barnard. with productivity increasing significantly. defined the nature and working patterns of the twentieth-century organization in his book. The results were dramatic. His scientific principles of management stressed the following principles: 1. an employee should receive orders from one superior only. and stability are threatened. Hence he lay the ground for the mass production techniques that dominated management thinking in the first half of the twentieth century. This theory is also called the Administrative Theory. General and Industrial Management. a mining engineer and manager by profession. new organizational functions like personnel and quality control were created. Taylor was one of the first to attempt to systematically analyze human behavior at work. 4. Henri Fayol . Shift all responsibility for the organization of work from the worker to the manager. Henri Fayol. assign the worker’s task accordingly. The principles of the theory are: 1. 2. clear and fair arguments. Max Weber. Unity of command: for any action whatsoever. to find the optimum mode of performance. Division of work: tasks should be divided up with employees specializing in a limited set of tasks so that expertise is developed and productivity increased. He insisted the use of time-and-motion study as a means of standardizing work activities. 4.main contributors during this era were Frederick Taylor. He stressed on selecting the right people for the job. specifying the precise way in which the work is to be done. In it. 5. published in 1916. train them to do it precisely in one best way. in breaking down each task to its smallest unit to find what Taylor called „„the one best way‟‟ to do each job.

encourage effort. 7. it is defined in terms of the organization’s hierarchy. co-coordinating and controlling. Command Group: A command group consists of a manager and the employees who report to him or her. 1. 9. Formal Groups: A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. The management functions. Esprit de corps: efforts must be made to promote harmony within the organization and prevent dissension and divisiveness. Equity: personnel must be treated with kindness and justice. Explain. Fayol was also one of the first people to characterize a commercial organization’s activities into its basic components. consisted of planning. 13 .6. A formal group is set up by the organization to carry out work in support of the organization’s goals. Formal groups may be command groups or task groups. 12. Many practicing managers. 8. but sideways communication between those of equivalent rank in different departments can be desirable so long as superiors are kept informed. Write a note on different types of groups. 14. Order: both materials and personnel must always be in their proper place. Initiative: all employees should be encouraged to exercise initiative within limits imposed by the requirements of authority and discipline. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: individual or group goals must not be allowed to override those of the business.2 . people must be suited to their posts so there must be careful organization of work and selection of personnel. commanding. that Fayol stated. organizing. Remuneration of personnel: this may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair. and a product development team. list these functions as the core of their activities. even today. 13. In formal groups. Examples include a book-keeping department. such as size and the capabilities of the personnel. Membership in the group arises from each employee’s position on the organizational chart. Thus. Q. Scalar chain (line of authority): communications should normally flow up and down the line of authority running from the top to the bottom of the organization. 10. an executive committee. Answer: Groups can be either formal or informal. and not lead to overpayment. Centralization: the extent to which orders should be issued only from the top of the organization is a problem which should take into account its characteristics. 11. the behaviours that one should engage in are stipulated by – and directed toward – organizational goals. Stability of tenure of personnel: rapid turnover of personnel should be avoided because of the time required for the development of expertise.

It can cross command relationships. and members of the person’s religious organization. It investigates analyses and debates the problem and makes recommendation. Social alliances. It is a reference group. Stages of Group Development: In interpreting behaviour of a particular group. Committee: A group of people officially delegated to perform a function. the employee’s responsibility to carry out particular activities. informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. Some reference groups serve as a negative reference. such as investigation. one or more persons appointed or elected to consider report on. personalities. 14 . Informal Groups: An organization’s informal groups are the groups that evolve to meet social of affiliation needs by bringing people together based on shared interests or friendship. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact. which frequently extend outside the work situation. Task group may be temporary with an established life span. can be based on similar age. Employees have reference group inside or outside the organization where they work. same political view. Interest Groups: people who may or may not be aligned into common command or task groups may affiliate to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. For most people. reporting. or economic status. Friendship Groups: Groups often developed because the individual members have one or more common characteristics. or they may be open ended. friends. the family is the most important reference groups. considering. Other important reference groups typically include co-workers. depends in part on such variables as the frequency with which group members interact and personal characteristics of group members. Thus. Reference Groups: Sometimes. people use a group as a basis for comparison in making decisions or forming opinions. Many factors explain why people are attracted to one another every day. etc. Committee. The way in which a particular group develops. When a group is used in this way. secretary and others. they are likely to form friendships.Task Group: A task group is made up of employees who work together to complete a particular task or project. Recommendation is sent to the authority that is responsible for implementing them. Committee usually has their own Committee member comprising of advisory authority. This is an interest group. However. An employee’s membership in the group arises from the responsibilities delegated to the employee – that is. We call these formations “Friendship groups”. the employee tries to be unlike members of these groups. 3. 2. or acting on a matter. The employee need not admire a group for it to serve as a reference group. attended the same college. it is important to recognize not only a broad pattern of development but also the unique characteristics of the particular group and the circumstances that contribute to (or detract from) its development. A task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. or take action on a particular matter. it is generally believed that groups pass through a standard sequence of five stages. That likelihood is even greater when people also share similar attitudes.

involves minimizing the importance of the problem at the heart of the conflict in an effort to make the conflict seem pointless. making a decision about the way to move forward. Answer: Approach Problem Solving Description . This approach should be used when time is a critical factor. It is also called the win-lose approach and can increase conflict. Withdrawal Withdrawal involves avoiding or retreating Because this approach involves avoiding 15 .The problem-solving approach involves supporting the individuals involved in the conflict to help them consider all the options and find the best solution. as project manager. or issues that commonalities. and there is time to allow the parties to collaborate and innovate. The forcing approach involves you.3 Explain the approaches of conflict management. This approach should be employed in situations when both parties have a valid but different approach to resolve the problem or complete the task hand. By assuring everyone's perspective is considered and represented. but it does ensure that things get done. For this approach to work. or when there is not a best practice to be followed. this approach will allow a win-win situation to occur. it is also important that the conflicting parties both bring ideas and creativity to the problem. Sometimes referred to as the Confrontation approach.Q. It is imperative that the project manager provides the desired resolution to the conflict. using your influence and power within the project team to simply resolve the issue yourself. Forcing The forcing approach requires others to yield to the point of view of one side or another. When to use This approach should be employed in situations where there is not a clear concise agreed to solution. The compromising approach requires each of the conflicting members to accede in order to achieve a resolution. The smoothing approach are not critical to project success. Smoothing Smoothing de-emphasizes the differences This approach is particularly useful for between points of view and focuses on minor or unimportant issues. This approach doesn't solve the conflict. Comprise Comprise involves working out a middle ground that satisfies all parties to some degree.

This helps HR to decide about giving a bonus or promotion to employees. Some measure of power is conferred on the basis of one’s formal position in an organization. Mr. the marketing manager has little power to influence the decisions that affect the finance department. it should not be used very often. Of course. Dutta belongs to. or it can be used if the issue isn't relevant to the work of the project team. 16 . a marketing manager can influence the decisions that affect the marketing department. He frequently loses his temper. Position. When to use the problem.5 Given below are certain instances observed by the summer trainee – Ritu. 2. An organization dealing with recycling of plastic products waste etc. Knowledge or expertise. Now explain what base of power does Mr. Q. Patnayak – He is a very friendly person and encourages his team members by giving those recommendations and appreciations. Explain the type of power they use often Answer: Ten Types of Power: 1. while making an observational study at GlobalGreen consultants. It is the use of knowledge and expertise that confers power. Dutta . you could be an incredibly bright person and still be powerless. Patnayak and Mr.Approach Description from the conflict or potential conflict and allowing the involved parties to work out the conflict on their own. knowledge in itself is not powerful. Q. Mr.4 The environmental stressors have a great impact on work performance and adjustment of the individual in an organization. Discuss the different categories of environmental stressors. However. The withdrawing approach involves giving in to the conflict by simply refusing to acknowledge that there is a problem and declining to discuss it. Thus. She makes the following observation about two key people in the organization. It can be a temporary solution to deal with heated and emotional conflicts. For example. People who have knowledge or expertise can wield tremendous power. 2. 1.He is an aggressive person. Ritu observes that he frequently punishes the non-performers and also give them warnings regarding suspension etc.

8. Craziness. John F. like anything else. In negotiations. 7. If you are buying a house and you really do not care if you purchase the house you are currently negotiating for or the one down the street. ³What do all three of these leaders have in common?´ participants usually respond. 6. 4. However. but bizarre or irrational behaviour can confer a tremendous amount of power. Kennedy. Those who have the ability to create a negative outcome for a counterpart have the power of punishment. Gender. At the point that the hostage gives up power. Leadership style influence level of motivation. We have videotaped many negotiation case studies in which the turning point came when a woman casually touched a man’s hand or arm to make her point. the kidnapper actually loses power. or control over his own death. as in many other areas of life. When we ask participants in our seminars for examples of leaders who have had charisma or personal power. But money. Powerlessness. ³Passion and confidence in what they believe in. holds very little power if it is not distributed. the side with the least interest in what is being negotiated holds the most power. Charisma or personal power. you will most likely hold more power in the negotiation²unless.´ 9. and Ronald Reagan come up. State troopers and highway patrol officers who have the ability to give out speeding tickets also have this power. Money can have power. Punishment. Rewards. The big issue here is whether they do what they say they are going to do²even when they no longer feel like doing it. Leadership Style versus Motivation Leadership Style Motivation Type Motivation is Based on: Personality Type Efficiency Limited supervision Worker with decision making responsibility Self-motivated Creativity Leader of ideas or people. This may sound funny. Lack of interest or desire. invariably the names of Mother Teresa. hold power over employees. As a result. with their ability to give raises. When we ask. Supervisors. the hostage may just challenge the kidnapper to go ahead and kill him. The more trustworthy individuals are. Dealing with someone of the opposite sex can confer power. man’s motivation is influenced by changing ambitions and/or leadership style he works under or socializes with. Command-and-control leadership drains off ambition while worker responsibility increases ambition. throughout a lifetime. In some instances. Managers who have the authority to reprimand and fire employees hold this type of power. Independent Achiever Thrives on change High Team motivated Mixed styles Goal motivated Opportunity Personality type and 17 . the sellers could care less if they sell the house today or live in it for another ten years! 10. If a kidnapper threatens a hostage with death enough times. 5. Every organization has someone who blows up or behaves irrationally when confronted with problems. Those who have been exposed to this type of behaviour tend to avoid such individuals. Character or ethics. People who are able to bestow rewards or perceived rewards hold power. giving up all power can be very powerful. these individuals are not given many tasks to accomplish because others are afraid to ask them. the more power they have in negotiations.3. of course.

The worker adapts to level three with an occasional trip to level two Worker responsibility is just the opposite. Once acquiring a skill. management takes action only when problems become too big to ignore. Because level one thrives on change. creating a combative environment. they adapt to whatever methods gets things done with the least amount of effort. management considers the opinions or concerns of people on the front line to be trivial. Reaction to Change Command-andcontrol leadership is the primary style in our society. together. Playing catch-up drains motivation while leaders of change inspire motivation. As a result. ‡ In a team-motivated environment. It is accepted because efficiency is created by repetitive action. fear motivated Reacts to force ‡ Self-motivated or visionaries will not accept authority controlled environments. but they don’t have the authority to take action and have learned not to be concerned. Dependency of Authority Elementary are dealt w ith by management when large enough to be recognized. management must find ways to solve all problems and find alternative methods. The leading edge is exciting while the trailing edge is a drag. finding ways to create efficiency. Level one is the leader of changing technology.efficiency depends on leader's skill and/or the work environment he's created. It is up to the individual or business to decide which side of change they want to be on. dependency types will become inspired and strive to be acceptable with independent thinking co-workers. it motivates people to thrive on change by seeking challenges. Front line employees may be aware conflicts. management and front line workers. management and workers unite to prevent or solve problems. an individual must be willing to abandoned old skills and learn new ones. Team Motivated Elementary problems are prevented or solved at the source. This brings us to work habits. they will find ways to increase the magnitude of problems. Reward motivated Materialism Recognition motivated Social status High level of supervision Command-and-control Peer motivated To be like others Status quo Dependency Resist change Low Authority motivated Follows policy Threat. Being able to prevent problems is a motivating force. In level three management makes all decision. Reaction to Efficiency The efficiency of advancing technology is forcing change. Abused Workers 18 . teaching people to resist change. Th e ability to adapt is achieved through self-development programs. they do not want t o learn another. In level one. as a result. Under command-and-control leadership. Under worker responsibility. A downward spiral of management implementing more control and workers resisting control develop. the leading edge or trailing edge. are searching for ways to solve and prevent problems. With today’s changing technology. Supervisors are only concerned with elem ents that management thinks are important. Decisions are made on the front line where alternative methods are analyzed. If w orkers have conflicts with their supervisors. They will find a way to escape if trapped. Getting the job done is the primary goal of management and workers. ‡ Associates influence the level of individual motivation. finding ways to achieve goals.

developing attitudes and learning a professional skill. a challenge is Presented and a goal set. Reaction to Goals Self-motivated people are goal motivated. then asking questions which inspires' the learning process. For this reason. Q. This means they were faced with a challenge. young workers are establishing work habits. ambitions will be associated with opportunity. Getting the job done is down the list. Self-motivated projects are difficult because no one cares if they succeed. First requirement is interest. The exchange of ideas. each member seeks to be a leader of quality input. Reaction to Learning Habits In level two. If the CEO desires control. ambitions will be associated with maintaining the status quo. People. which are required steps to larger projects. As a result. With information. Once they conquer one goal. Self -motivated projects' is the ability to start and finish what one has started. they had the responsibility and authority to take action.Problems are always out of control. They develop skills and confidence. then he will lead in such a way that trains subordinates to lead by control. Team Motivated Projects Everyone can be inspired to achievement in a team-motivated environment. Under worker responsibility. Companies that attract and keep this type of person stay on the leading edge of technology. Out of training and on the job. Reaction to Recognition Recognition is important. Most people. are the winners. As a result. risk. The CEO is a visionary in customer service and employee leadership. do not finish what they start.Lack of leadership skills and the desire for power creates elementary problems. By itself. which is another barrier. fear and failure become a challenge by itself. Under command-and-control leadership. motivation level will depend on the leadership style they work under. With a common goal. This environment is found in level one. adds t o the motivating force. the barriers of persistence. In this environment. who find ways to overcome barriers and hang in there. The ability to finish challenging projects is the secret to being a winner. it builds positive self-esteem. The employees' goals are the same as the CEO’s. Longterm benefits are achieved when the employee feels the job could not have been done without them. which means. They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of window to truth’ 19 . team motivation is extremely powerful. information and testing the results. its benefits are short lived. Workers goal is to find ways to do little as possible.6 “Fashion4Now” is a famous and old magazine. the employees' goals are quitting time and payday. When action is taken. others do care and team members are needed for achieving the goal. Command and Control Leadership . they establish another. Every goal is a learning process that requires all the elements in level one. Managers focus on worker control. They will continually expand their skills as the need or as opportunity arises. The top management decides to start the eedition of the magazine. working alone. This is why most people quit before they get a good start. team members support each other until success is achieved.

either assuming that 1) the future will be like the past or at least predictable. or 5) the only mandate they have is to refine what mission already exists. The levels of organizational change Perhaps the most difficult decision to make is at what "level" to start. Management generates alternate "scenarios" of the future. they frequently call meetings of employees. reengineering focuses on making major structural changes to everyday with the goal of 20 . Some experts refer to organizational transformation. etc. Measurement system etc. More information on this is in the next article. or 3) management doesn't know where else to start. and then under what circumstances a business should use them. etc. 4) management is too afraid to start at level 1 because of the changes needed to really meet future requirements. "rightsizing"." Level 3 . restructuring operations (e. weaknesses. goals. 2) the future is embodied in the CEO's "vision for the future". level three work focuses on fundamentally changing how work is accomplished. and what the future will be like.g. Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission. After a mission has been defined and a SWOT (strengths. There are four levels of organizational change: First let's describe these levels. major collaborations. assesses its strengths and weaknesses in these scenarios changes its mission. the concept of organizational change is in regard to organization -wide change. new programs such as Total Quality Management. an organization can then define its measures. etc. strategies. organizations start out with few assumptions about the business itself. etc. They have also formed groups at different levels to clarify doubts and explain the perspective of change. Answer: Typically.defining what business(es) to be in and their "Core Competencies Many attempts at strategic planning start at this level.Reengineering (Structurally Changing) Your Processes Either as an aftermath or consequence of level one or two work or as an independent action. this change. Level 1. More information on this is in the next article. as opposed to smaller changes such as adding a new person. what it is "good" at. mergers. re-engineering.shaping and anticipating the future At this level. new technologies." Level 2 .. restructuring to self-managed teams. opportunities and threats) analysis is completed. "Moving from the Future to your Strategy.To start implementing. "Moving from the Future to your Strategy. layoffs. defines opportunities based on these possible futures. modifying a program.). Often this term designates a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates. Analyze the situation in the context of organizational change and elaborate why the top management is following the discussed practices and what approach is most evident in the context. Rather than focus on modest improvements.

9. 10. Ask to see references and check the references. Communicate what you're doing about it. but they a re useful in specifying who reports to whom. To read more about level 3 organizational changes. if possible. The process won't be an "aha!" It will take longer than you think. efficiency.Incrementally Changing your Processes Level 4 organizational changes are focusing in making many small changes to existing work processes. 11. Keep perspective. quality or customer satisfaction. Don't seek to control change. Don't get wrapped up in doing change for the sake of change. How do you plan to reach the goals." Some General Guidelines to Organization-Wide Change 1. This includes granting them the authority and responsibility to get the job done. making improvements on how a buggy whip for horse drawn carriages is made will rarely come up with the idea that buggy whips are no longer necessary because cars have been invented. Get as much feedback as practical from employees. 7. including what t hey think are the problems and what should be done to resolve them. 13." Level 4 . 2. End up having every employee ultimately reporting to one person. 21 . understand it and manage it. Communicate what was done and how it worked out. 8. Job descriptions are often complained about. not on each part by itself. Acknowledge and celebrate your accomplishments. Consider using a consultant. please see "A Tale of Three Villages. but rather to expect it. what will you need to reach the goals. and they should know who that person is. Unfortunately. often with considerable effect. Organization-wide change can be highly stressful. Have someone in charge of the plan. Keep focused on meeting the needs of your customer or clients. If possible.substantially improving productivity. 3. 12. how long might it take and how will you know when you've reached your goals or not? Focus on the coordination of the departments/programs in your organization. As much as possible. work with a team of employees to manage the change. Ensure the consultant is highly experienced in organization -wide change. To read more about level 4 organizational changes and how it compares to level 3. Plan the change. 4. Take care of yourself first. Know why you're making the change. Delegate decisions to employees as much as possible. Include closure in the plan. let them decide how to do the project. Widely communicate the potential need for change. Oftentimes organizations put in considerable effort into getting every employee focused on making these small changes . What goal(s) do you hope to accomplish? 6. please see "A Tale of Three Villages.

including new forms and structures.14. Read some resources about organizational change. 22 .

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