Languages borrow words. That is a fact purists around the globe are not prepared to accept without a fight. English is no exception. On the contrary. It has always been, and as the present situation shows, will always be, one of the most easily penetrable languages in the world. Its contributors come from all continents and all language groups. Our interest in this phenomenon will be limited to the input of the group of Slavic languages. The reason for that is perhaps a selfish but nevertheless, just one. Namely, our native tongue belongs to this group, and it was to discover its particular share in the English lexicon, that provided the initial stimulus for the selection of this specific topic. By examining Slavic loanwords in English, we hope to determine the extent of influence Slavic languages had on the English vocabulary and language throughout history, thereby gaining a comprehensive insight into the processes of linguistic borrowing in general. We are to achieve this aim by compiling a corpus of examples accompanied by quotes, which we will subsequently analyse. By doing so we shall touch upon the science of etymology, and ultimately semantics. To start with, we shall try to answer some basic questions about the background of borrowing Slavic words into English. Next, the analysis of the corpus will commence, by presenting a concise overview of Slavic languages and their individual share in the body of examples. To continue, we shall analyse the corpus first in terms of the basic three-fold division of loanwords into simple loans, adapted loans and calques or loan translations, and then in terms of Sir James Murray’s division into casuals, aliens, denizens and naturals, which will hopefully shed some light on the process of word-naturalization. Finally, a semantic analysis of the examples will follow, with the primary emphasis on the changes of meaning, as demonstrated with Slavic borrowings in the English language.

In the end, we hope this thesis with its body of examples, will prove a valuable reference to all interested in this area of linguistic science, and will also contribute a small fraction to the study of English – Slovene linguistic relations.


English has never been a language of people isolated to the extent of not having any contacts with the world outside their own speech community. On the contrary, as Baugh & Cable (1993: 1) put it : “The diversity of cultures that find expression in it is a reminder that the history of the English language is a story of cultures in contact during the past 1500 years.” Following such reasoning, it seems inadequate to deal with loanwords simply linguistically, and ignore the political, economic, social, technological, and military events, that brought words like perestroika and glasnost into the scope of English vocabulary. English has over the centuries borrowed a great number of words from numerous languages around the world. Contributors range from well known Latin (delirium, axis…) and French (chauffeur, garage…) to more obscure Hindi (jungle, shampoo…) and Eskimo (kayak, anorak…). In this process Slavic languages have by no means been ignored: Russian, as the most prolific source, Polish, Serbo-Croat, Bulgarian and others, have made an impact on the English word stock. But why does a language borrow a word from another language? Usually this happens as a result of some new object or notion appearing for which the matrix or recipient language (Bright 1992: 199) has no word of its own. For example, a samovar is characteristic of Russia but has no suitable counterpart in the British culture (similarly the Bulgarian and Serbo-Croat rakia, Serbo-Croat tamburitza or Polish mazurka). Consequently, the word is imported, together with the object, into the English language. This “importation” of words occurs via commerce (new products not familiar to the borrowing language), war (new weaponry, army units, garments), development in science (inventions, discoveries), and progress in the numerous fields of intellectual activity (philosophy, literature, arts…). Another reason for borrowing words, as described by E. Haugen in the International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (1992: 199), can also be the consequence of a particular word being felt prestigious or just novel. According to the author, this is especially true if the speakers of the matrix language feel inferior to the speakers of the source language, as did the English when they were ruled by the Norman French (p.199). In the case of Slavic

and partly because international communications are now so much more rapid and important than a century or two ago (WWW. English does not seem to be particularly selective from whom it borrows. for example: lunik. if anything. partly because of the enormous number of new inventions in the 20th century made by people of various nationalities. languages belonging behind the former “iron curtain” (mainly Slavic) would stand no chance of contributing to the English lexicon. glasnost. we believe. To render such words into English would not only require time. The inferiority was and is. it does not choose a country or a political system similar to it. the policy of public frankness in Russia. international TV networks like CNN.” (Baugh & Cable 1993: 10) Moreover. The communist era (from the October Revolution onwards) was the time during which a considerable number of Slavonic words. Therefore. That is. linguistic interaction does not follow the pattern of international politics. Quite the opposite. in which speed is of great importance. If this were the case. yet foremost of Russian origin. foreign words enter a language like English easily. As a result. it is important to understand that acquiring and passing of information is one of the most important and profitable businesses of the late 20th and early 21st century. With regard to the latter phenomenon. It has always shown “a marked tendency to go outside its own linguistic resources and borrow from other languages. the name of the Soviet spacecraft. nothing of the kind ever occurred. but the rather simple rule of filling a need when it occurs. as politicians do. borrowing takes place on an unprecedented scale. does not seem to mind the overwhelming influx of foreign words into its ranks.borrowings. but would also lose a lot in translation. reversed. was imported into . often without any change in their spelling or even pronunciation. or the acronym KGB. to form relations or borrow a word. mobile telephones …). 2. Nowadays.1 THE 20TH CENTURY Fortunately. English with its “cosmopolitan vocabulary” (Baugh & Cable 1993: 9). standing for the Soviet secret police. Slavonic languages at the time of the cold war were not removed from the linguistic map of its western neighbours.

predominantly political in their overtones. through the media “the sputniks” and “the KGBs” slowly penetrated the English word stock. kray. and the popular spy literature. liquidate (to kill). whose authors. the fear of a country and its people. . Consequently. via its political system. apparatchik. oblast. It would appear. disinformation. often contained the original Russian expressions in order to reinforce the message and create a feeling of immediate and present danger. skaz (literature). sputnik.K. lies in the spirit of the time (especially the late 40s.V. podzol. Bolshevism. udarnik. The reason why so many words dealing with the communist regime were imported during the 20th century. Agit-prop. Stakhanovite. Namely. The news of the period. TASS. Examples. troika.the English language. samizdat. Soviet. Bolshevik. artel. and used whatever came across the Atlantic.D. with its innumerable spy movies. radio or TV. kolkhoz. SMERSH. This was of course not the case. vozhd all from Russian. Katyusha. Komsomol. marsokhod. as demonstrated in the adoption of its words. This development was further strengthened by the Hollywood film industry. Gosplan. during which communism was considered a threat to the western democracy and great interest was placed in the political development in the USSR. biomechanics. commissar. agrogorod.. were more than keen on being as authentic as possible. rayon. lunik. chernozem. Cheka. helped in promoting its language. apparat. planetokhod. N. Menshevik. tovarish. pogrom. whether in the newspapers. What is from the present standpoint intriguing about the whole process. the American public. samizdatchik. tolkach. is the paradox that eventually developed. sovkhoz. that only Russian terms connected with the communist regime were imported into the English vocabulary during the last century. rendzina. subbotnik. lunokhod. Also other areas of human activity and other Slavonic languages contributed to the English lexicon: Acmeism. politbureau. 50s and the 60s. Ivan. Talmudism. refusenik. resident. Comecon. Sakmarian. in order to ultimately boost their sales. after examining the above enumerated loanwords. Kremlin. kalashnikov. Cominform. dolina. KGB. constructivism (theatre). Comintern. kulak. intelligentsia. Every move the Russians made in the arms or space race was therefore accurately recorded and reported to the British. tamizdat. to a lesser extent in the 70s and 80s). okrug. but even more so. are quite a few: Aesopic.

latke. ploschadka karyotype (medicine). suprematism (artistic movement).thermokarst (geology). valenki (items of clothing). Mukuzan. technicum. uvala (physical geography). tarbagan (animal names). laika. (archaeology). vigorish (miscellaneous) from Russian. rubashka. stroganoff. babushka. sluggish (psychology). smetana. Mariavite (religion). piroshki. These words demonstrate the immense progress of human society in the 20th century. prospekt. Sejm (government). (physics). ferganite. gopak (a dance) from Ukrainian and pivo (a drink) as a word of common Slavic origin (the exact Slavic language as the ultimate source is not given). robot (theatre) from Czech. koktaite. ferritin (biochemistry). Once used by an author in a publication (a book. tamburitza (a musical instrument) from Serbo-Croat. pavlova. polaron. from Serbo-Croat. mahorka. slatko (a dish). phytosociology sulphazin (biology). as well as its interrelation. sobornost (theology) from Russian. they were eventually taken up by an English speaking scholar and entered the English word stock. knish. not only words belonging to political and technical terminology. riza. shashlik. macrolide (pharmacy). provodnik. in the end. perhaps not work. kolo (a dance). slavikite. oberek (a dance). stolovaya. magazine or a manual). akathisia (psychology). Tietze (medicine) from Polish and gley (geology) from Ukrainian. prisiadka. We could speculate about the reasons for that. pelmeny. idiogram. but it is probably due to the importance of food to human beings (both in the sense of survival and the gourmet . irinite (mineralogy). kissel. ponor. kolach (a dish) from Czech. polje. Gamza (a drink) from Bulgaria. kielbasa (a dish). blintze. Also every day items found their way into English:. tvorog. theremin. Stolichnaya. solyanka. (pharmacy). A closer look at the above list reveals that more than a third of the words denote a dish or a drink. shapka. But still. dobro (a musical instrument). zakuski (dishes and drinks). vrbaite (mineralogy). were imported from Slavonic languages during the 20th century. ongon. sharka (fruit disease) from Bulgarian. cubo-futurism (painting). hum. metapsychics (psychology). yarmulke (a clothing item) from Polish. takovite (mineralogy). They are all more or less specialised terms used mainly within their specialized areas. Borrowing them into English was much easier than searching for a suitable equivalent that would. kok-saghyz tokamak (botany). sanitar. innelite.

6. while others were travellers. with his diary. in the times of tsars.2 THE PERIOD BEFORE THE 20TH CENTURY Individuals visited Slavonic countries for various reasons. Upon their return. language and people of the country. almost as a rule. who crossed a Slavonic country and made notes of what they had seen and experienced. but also through itineraries of travellers. a comprehensive account of Russian geography. kings and knezes. methods of warfare. and Africa. English mineralogist and traveller. which did not except a single Slavonic state existent at that time. these people. who described his voyages in his principal work Travels in Various Countries of Europe. seeking adventures and knowledge. Some came there on an errand.understanding of the concept). Other words from the list entered the English language in a similar manner. they retained the original names that spread with the potential success of such enterprises. Many ended in an English speaking country where some of them started a normal life by opening restaurants serving their national dishes. Naturally. Patrick Gordon (1635-1699). law. and manners. 2. with his work Of the Russe Common Wealth (1591). a Scottish soldier of fortune who became a general in the Russian army and a close friend of Peter I. This way of adopting Slavonic words was even more prominent before the 20th century. government. Amongst them were: Giles Fletcher senior (1548-1611). Asia. . and through people who lived and worked there for a period of time. wrote accounts of their experiences. A less philosophical rationale would be that Slavs immigrated in great numbers during the communist regime. financed by their government or a wealthy company. during which they became intimately familiar with the customs.vol. church. Edward Daniel Clarke (1769-1822). that such words are so frequently borrowed among languages. a diplomat in the tsarist Russia.

as previously established. choom. yurt (dwellings). But what is more. ideas and notions characteristic of one group of people. For example. beluga. on their consciousness. 2. kasha. koumiss. knout. shaman. caback.(1810-23). Khlist. we see that especially Russian has left quite a prominent mark on the vocabulary of English speaking nations.). with his work State of Russia (1716). losh. voivode (aristocracy) lasset (animal) as words of undetermined common Slavic origin1. ikon (religion). Morlach (nation) from Serbo-Croat. moujik. enter the consciousness of another group via the borrowing of linguistic items. zubr (animals). telega (means of transport). boyar. Applying this to the Slavic words in English. linguistic communication enables the penetration and transfer of concepts into and to cultures that might be completely different from the source environment (A good example is obviously English with its world-wide lingua franca status. ikary.3 SUMMARY Words brought into English during both periods (i. vedro (measure). hetman. 20th century and before) clearly show how languages import items of vocabulary as a result of a linguistic need that emerges as cultures encounter one another. strelitz (miscellaneous) from Russian. and John Perry. chark (a drinking glass). vodka (food and beverage). kvass. established during the 20th century. saffian. In other words. droshky. kibitka. and knez. czar (aristocracy). bidarka. scientists and travellers are the following: arsheen. isba. steppe. shuba. a word like tovarish cannot be used . mammoth. a cartographer known for measuring the flow of Volga. peach. uhlan (army) from Polish. Words of Slavic origin that entered the English vocabulary through the works of these and other diplomats. and hence.e. ostrog.

CORPUS ANALYSIS 3.e. Serbo-Croatian). In addition. which constitute a separate branch of the IndoEuropean language family. So. 3. and the northern parts of Asia (Russian). but open to influences and change. Ukrainian. . Russian is still used as a second language by a great number of speakers in countries that used to be part of the Soviet Union. central Europe (Czech. Russian).000. The number of native speakers for the entire branch is about 268. we attribute such qualities to him or her via the special cultural connotation tovarish has brought along when adopted into English. have spread from their original area between the Oder and the Dneper rivers. for it proves that a nation and its language are not hermetically sealed.1 A CONCISE OVERVIEW OF SLAVIC (SLAVONIC2) LANGUAGES. particularly that characteristic of the former Soviet Union.stripped of its underlying meaning. Slovak and Slovene). This transfer of ideas and notions from one language to another through the adoption of words is perhaps even more important than the linguistic process of borrowing in itself. if we use it to refer to a person who is not a communist at all. AND THEIR APPEARANCE IN THE CORPUS According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica on CD-ROM (1999: section on Slavic languages). to the territory of the Balkans (Bulgarian. without bringing up the association of communism.000. eastern Europe (Polish. Slavonic or Slavic languages. i. We could also say that we attribute something “Russian” to the person in question.

000 people in Bulgaria and adjacent areas of other Balkan countries and in certain areas of former Soviet Union. Therefore. There are two major groups of Bulgarian dialects: an Eastern one that became the basis of the literary language in the middle of the 19th century and a Western one that influenced the literary language. that it would be more realistic to represent the historical development as a process in which tendencies to differentiate and to reintegrate the related dialects have been continuously at work. the West Slavonic and the East Slavonic branch. and Germanspeaking Austrians. The same source maintains that in the spoken Slavonic dialects (as opposed to the sharply contrasted thirteen Slavonic literary standards) the linguistic frontiers are not always apparent.1 Eastern subgroup Bulgarian is spoken by approximately 8. But even in this latter region. some evidence of the old dialectical continuity (between Slovene and Serbo-Croatian on the one hand. and Czech and Slovak on the other) that was later interrupted.300. 3. the traditional schematic division of the Slavonic group into three separate branches is not to be taken as the real model of historical development. the same traces of the old links are seen in comparing Bulgarian and Russian dialects. Hungarians. bringing up the remarkable degree of uniformity in the different dialects.In terms of intelligibility and to some extent in terms of shared features.1. The Encyclopaedia Britannica proposes.1. Encyclopaedia Britannica (1999) divides the Slavonic language group into three branches: the South Slavonic.1 The South Slavonic branch The South Slavonic includes two subgroups: Eastern including Bulgarian and Macedonian and Western with Serbo-Croatian3 and Slovene. can be traced. the exception being the area where the South Slavs are separated from the other Slavs by the non-Slavic Romanians. and that there are several transitional dialects and mixed forms of speech that connect the different languages. 3. .1.

The modern Macedonian language. spoken in north-western Croatia. Eastern Slovene dialects blend with Kajkavian forms of Serbo-Croatian. was the last Slavonic language to attain a standard literary form. 3. In addition. The standard Serbo-Croatian language was formed in the first half of the 19th century on the basis of Shtokavian dialects.000 people speak Serbo-Croatian. The central Macedonian dialect is closer to Bulgarian. Istria. and Hungarian speech can be heard. while the Northern dialects may be considered as links between the Eastern (Bulgarian) subgroup of South Slavonic and the Western (Serbo-Croatian) subgroup.000. its central dialects of Prilep and Veles were elevated to this status.000 persons in Slovenia and in the adjacent areas of Italy. but standard Slovene is remote from its Serbo-Croatian counterparts. more than 18. spoken by about 1. It should be noted that Greece does not recognize “Macedonian” as the name for this language. Friulian. In all. where ča (cha) is the form for “what?”. A third main group of Serbo-Croatian dialects.1. They are distinguished from the Chakavian dialects of Western Croatia. the coast of Dalmatia. because of the fact that the northern regions of Greece are officially named “Macedonia”.2 The West Slavonic branch The West Slavonic includes three subgroups: Czech-Slovak.000 people in Macedonia and in adjacent areas of Bulgaria and Greece. Namely. These dialects are called Shtokavian because they use the form što (shto) for the interrogative pronoun “what?”. 3. Sorbian and Lekhitic (Polish and related tongues).1.1. . and of some islands in the Adriatic. In Slovene (particularly its Western and North-western dialects) some traces can be found of old links with the West Slavonic languages (Czech and Slovak). Loan words from German.2 Western subgroup The Slovene language is spoken by more than 2. only as late as during World War ΙΙ (1944). Italian.000.500. there are marked differences between as many as 47 dialects and the standard form. Austria and Croatia. uses kaj rather than što or ča and is therefore called Kajkavian.

and in France. is the basis of the standard language. Silesian and Mazovian. 3.2. More than 4. The last dialect shares some features with Kashubian. which have features in common with Polish and Ukrainian. There are about 210. Slovakia and the former Soviet Union. The Slovak standard language was formed on the basis of a Central Slovak dialect in the middle of the 19th century. one of which.000.) 3. Its dialects are divided into Bohemian. (At that time a dictionary and some phrases in the language were written down. Moravian. in the area of Bautzen. they are located mostly in Slovakia.1.000 native speakers of Kashubian remaining in Poland on the left bank of the Lower Vistula River. Slovincian belongs to the northern group of Kashubian dialects. and East Sorbian. Low Sorbian (or Lower Sorbian). the United States.1.000 speak Slovak. called also Lusatian of Wendish).3.2 Sorbian dialects are still spoken by about 140. and Canada.600. The standard language is based on the Central Bohemian dialect of Prague.800.000 inhabitants of Lower Lusatia and Upper Lusatia in East Germany. Western Slovak dialects are close to Moravian and differ from the Central and the Eastern dialects. which was spoken up to the 17th and 18th centuries by the Slavonic population of the Elbe River region. in some regions of the Czech Republic. 3. and south-western Silesia in the Czech Republic. Little Polish (in the south-east).1. The main Polish dialects are Great Polish (in the north-west).000 people in the historical regions of Bohemia. Kashubian dialects (including Slovincian) are considered to be remnants of a Pomeranian subgroup that belonged to the Lekhitic group.3 The East Slavonic branch . and Silesian groups. Kashubian (and its archaic variant Slovincian) and extinct Polabian. There are three main groups of Sorbian dialects: High Sorbian (Upper Sorbian.2. which is distinguished from the Southern group. Moravia.2.000 people in Poland. Polish is spoken by approximately 40.3 Lekhitic includes Polish. Lekhitic also included Polabian.1 Czech (formerly Bohemian) is spoken by about 9.1.

1.1. if any. The reasons. and Byelorussian (White-Russian) comprise the East Slavonic language group. Russian dialects are divided into the Northern group (stretching from St. if not expected. is spoken by more than 42. Petersburg all across Siberia).3. Although two dialect areas exist (North-Western Belorussian and North-Eastern Belorussian).3.000 Ukrainian speakers in Canada and the USA.4 The languages in the corpus Not all of the above listed languages appear in the corpus. and Slovakia. and the relatively poor British interest in them from a scientific. 3. the Southern group (in most of central and southern Russia). and the Central group (between Northern and Southern). South-Eastern. Modern literary Russian is based on the dialect of Moscow.1. the standard Belorussian is based on the dialect of Minsk. The language contains many Polish loanwords.000 people in Ukraine and in Ukrainian communities in the neighbouring Belarus. 3. the standard language is based on the Kiev-Poltava dialect.3 Byelorussian is the major language of Belarus (Belorussia).700. also called Ruthenian. Ukrainian. Russia. resulting in a lack of corresponding contacts and therefore in poor. Belorussian forms a link between the Russian and Ukrainian languages. Poland. political and economic view. 3. . it is interesting.1. Russian was also taught extensively in those countries lying within the Soviet sphere of influence. although an attempt has been made at finding at least one representative of each language.2. Proportionally. which lay on the border between these two groups. in the second half of the 20th century. South-Western and Carpathian divisions (the last group having features in common with Slovak). Ukrainian.300. how Slavic languages spoken by a smaller number of people. 3.Russian.000 people and is widely used as a second language in other former republics of the USSR. admittedly speculative. Ukrainian dialects are classified into Northern. since it has transitional dialects to both. especially in eastern Europe.3. could be the influence or the absence of influence these nations had on the British culture throughout history. and there are more than 580.1 Russian is the native language of about 139. have left almost no trace in the English lexicon.

a foreign ending may be omitted and replaced with a native suffix: constructivism from the Russian konstruktivizm. Occasionally. Czech (formerly Bohemian. . according to John Algeo (1991: 4): “Many such words were actually formed in English. rather than only slight modifications of phonology and orthography. involve some morphological change (change of form). the following languages did make it to the corpus: Russian as the principal contributor of Slavic borrowings. adapted loans and loan translations. sometimes with minor changes in pronunciation to make them conform to English sound laws and patterns. Polish. Serbian.” Algeo (1991:4) divides borrowings or loanwords into three types: simple loans. Slovak and Ukrainian. so the extremely high percentage of borrowing sometimes reported for English is exaggerated. Croatian. To illustrate: apparatchik. 3.linguistic intercourse. Bulgarian. Yet. and akathisia from the Czech akathisie. Adapted loans on the other hand.2 ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS ACCORDING TO THE DIVISION OF BORROWINGS INTO SIMPLE LOANS. ADAPTED LOANS AND LOAN TRANSLATIONS If we examine the total English vocabulary closely. balalaika. dumka from Czech. To put it more bluntly: these languages were and are simply not big and important enough to leave any prominent mark on the English vocabulary. spelling changes of a similar kind are also required but with no major change of form. Be that as it may. artel. this term appears with a small number of examples in the OED). A number of examples are designated broadly of “Slavic” origin. For example. and gusle from Serbian. Simple loans are adopted directly into English. since the exact source cannot be determined. we see that a great proportion of it consists of words of ultimately foreign origin. they are adapted from their foreign word pattern into a more native (English) one. glasnost from Russian. In other words. folkloristics from the Russian folkloristika.

agrotown and the simple loan agrogorod. both linguistically as well as culturally. rendering the foreign sense by suitable words in the form of literal translations already part of the English vocabulary: biogeochemistry translating Russian biogeokhimiya. Most numerous are the simple loans. i. hence linguistic. Namely.is an English translation. defamiliarization translating Russian ostranenie.2. where part of the word or phrase is preserved in its original. and foregrounding translating Czech aktualisace. a young seal that has not yet mated. .Loan translations or calques differ from the above borrowings in that they are not foreign in their form but in the meaning they convey. Often.1 Frequency of occurrence In analysing the corpus. saturdaying and the Russian subbotnik. The examples of bachelors and foregrounding are somewhat peculiar and follow the definition of loan translations only to a certain degree. but rather the “closest” possible renderings. and part of it is translated: agro-city. where – nik is a remnant from the source language (Bright 1992: 199) and refuse. equivalent in the English language. plum pox and the Bulgarian sharka. sluggish translating Russian stértaya. so that there are few entries. godless translating Russian bezbozhnik. refusenik from the Russian original otkaznik. the definition of bachelor is primarily that of “an unmarried man” and is therefore nearest to the meaning of holluschickie. instead of borrowing the form of a foreign word. A literal translation is not possible for there is no cultural. For instance. superplasticity translating Russian sverkhplastichnost. . The corpus contains also examples of a phenomenon called partial translation.e. they are not literal translations of their foreign equivalents. 3. calques exist alongside the corresponding simple loans they translate: bachelors and the Russian holluschickie. English sometimes borrows its meaning. the majority of which have undergone some sort of phonological or orthographic change. the frequency of occurrence follows the order of description from the previous paragraphs.

where the English form imitates the Russian pronunciation of the word. pontian employing the adjective forming suffix -ian instead of the Russian ponticheski. However. i. change of stress pattern and changes in spelling. akathisia with the noun forming suffix -ia instead of the Czech akathisie. burka. crash where the second part of the original word was simply dropped and the initial Russian k in krashenina was changed into c-. Glagolitic with the adjective forming suffix -ic instead of the Serbo-Croat glagolica.(kabak) to make the spelling more English-like.is used in English instead of the Russian k. easier to pronounce. as in astatki from Russian ostatki pronounced with an initial a. kasha. acmeism with the native noun forming suffix -ism instead of the Russian akmeizm (similarly constructivism). metapsychics). choom imitating the Russian pronunciation but changing the orthography from Russian chum into English -oo-. or in caback where the initial c. Changes include replacement of a foreign by a native affix. astrobotany using the noun forming suffix -y instead of the Russian astrobotanika (similarly the Polish kromesky) . where the pronunciation in the source language results in the change of spelling in the matrix language. The following examples are illustrative of the process: achtaragdite. Katyusha.into a more English like -ch-. biomechanics using the noun forming suffix -ics and changing the spelling of the medial -kh. There are examples where the initial letter is changed. these . meteoritics. spell and use for the native speaker.e. bylina. Even a superficial look at the above examples reveals that there are no instances of an English prefix or infix and a borrowed root included. nifontovite). English. often adopts only stems rather than entire words. kurchatovium employing the native noun forming suffix -ium instead of the Russian kurchatovi. Vepsian using the noun forming suffix -ian instead of the Russian Vépsi (similarly Zyrian). the rare examples being balalaika. instead of the Russian biomekhanika (similarly folkloristics.with absolutely no alterations to be found in the corpus. astatki from the Russian ostátki. introducing the native noun forming suffix –ite instead of the Russian achtaragda (similarly kalistrontite. on which it can easily perform appropriate changes that make the word more “user-friendly”. since the OED (electronic edition) does not contain such an entry. as other languages of the world. Following the simple loans in their number are the adapted loans. The reason is quite simple: there aren’t any to be found.

A second cultural parallel that occurs with this example. is the English rendering of the Russian poputchik. the term raskol denotes a specific event in the history of the Russian church. the compound fellow-traveller. being used also with other political systems and convictions. significance of the field of use or the object or notion in question. The borrowed sense does not have a corresponding simple loan. but simple loans that underwent a slight cosmetic change. are the loan translations or calques.” (OED) The description resembles something the English are familiar with: pox. the already mentioned sharka. For example. an object or notion is so characteristic of the source environment that by translating it the original meaning would be entirely lost. For instance.are not adapted loans with a native prefix added to the foreign root. Therefore.” In this example. and has nowadays almost completely lost its communist Russian connotation. from the point of view of frequency. since it occurs on plums. which primarily means “one who travels along with another”. either because of high frequency of use. the logical translation is that of plum pox. which appear every now and then almost as peculiarities in the corpus of predominantly simple and adapted loans. because words with similar meanings existed in the borrowing language. For example. They are different from the other two types in that they were important enough to be translated into English. arises from the fact that the disease itself is not unknown to the British Isles. when a schism occurred as a result of reforms instituted by Patriarch Nikon in 1667. “characterized by yellow blotches on the leaves and pockets of dead tissue in the fruit. the initial sense of “companionship” in fellow-traveller is used to convey the communist “comradeship” of poputchik. Loan translations are. a plum disease first described by a Bulgarian scientist. Last but not least. A . people who imported them and were first to use them. or because objects or phenomena denoted by these words were part of both cultures. on the other hand. If. few and seem to occur where there is some sort of linguistic or cultural parallel between the two languages that calls for a translation. where it caused problems in the past. as the corpus shows. a translation does not occur. “one who sympathizes with the Communist movement without actually being a party member.

In the next chapter we shall take a closer look at Sir James Murray’s division of loanwords into four stages of “citizenship”: the casual. for there are words in the corpus more difficult to pronounce and spell than for example sharka or subbotnik. .2 Summary In this chapter we have dealt with the threefold division of loanwords into simple and adapted loans and loan translations. and discussed their frequency in the corpus. whereby the original implication gives way to a broader semantic understanding of the term. Namely. The corpus contains also instances which in their peculiarity appear similar to those from the previous paragraph. 3.translation like separation is of course possible but pointless. and the Russian yamstchik. This does not appear to be a reason enough to produce an English rendering. britzka. The frequency of loan translations is also not affected by the “obscurity” of a word. but are in fact quite different. we witness a transfer of ideas from one language to another. Here.2. in contrast to the previous example of raskol. the alien. that have not acquired their translation into English: the Polish witzchoura. it is because it has discarded its purely Russian connotation. and has acquired a more general meaning referring to any previously uncultivated land. We have seen that Slavic borrowings include all three types with all the characteristics of each type. when a word like tselina (land as the subject of an intensive agricultural programme by the Soviet government since 1954) is translated into virgin land and becomes a calque. since it does not refer to the particular separation in question. in terms of its pronunciation or spelling. szlachta. the denizen. and the natural.

how close they are to achieving such status. In the following paragraphs we shall apply Murray’s division to Slavic borrowings. They have lost their foreign character.3. titles. We may assume that most of them will fall under aliens and denizens. from the point of view of naturalization. etc. 3. whether and how many are considered “English-proper”. Naturals.P and T) himself. they retain their foreign appearance and to some extent their foreign sound. and for which we have no native equivalents. the alien. DENIZEN AND NATURAL Sir James Murray is considered by many the father of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED). The casuals appear only in travel writings and accounts of foreign countries. with a few casuals also to be expected. He was the editor and the driving force behind the vast undertaking. and if not. he served as president of the Philological Society (1878-1880. but if they survive they are gradually accommodated to the language which borrows them and become denizens. H-K. Most words when first borrowed are aliens. In the general explanations and introduction to the first edition of OED.1 Slavic casuals . They follow each other from the least to the most naturalised. the denizen and the natural. In addition to his work on the OED. and it is difficult to recognize that which was once alien in them. sound and feel like being in the language forever. but citations must nevertheless be collected for them in order to record the early history of the word that may at a later stage become a full-grown member of the language. members of the last stage of citizenship.e. Aliens are names of foreign objects. 1882-1884) and wrote a number of articles on the English language. which we have to use.3. whereas naturals will be hard to come by. ALIEN. O. The aim of this analysis is to examine to what extent Slavic words have become part of the English vocabulary. the most famous being the one published in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1878). are words that look. and completed about half of the dictionary (sections A-D.3 ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS ACCORDING TO MURRAY’S DIVISION OF LOANWORDS INTO CASUAL. Murray listed four stages of word “citizenship”: the casual.. Denizens are borrowings from foreign languages which have acquired full English citizenship. i.

This process influences their use. in that they no longer appear only in accounts . since many other words also appearing in such works did not qualify for this category. with some reassurance. but only the ones enumerated correspond in their “obscureness” to the formal criterion under which a casual is defined: they all appear in travel writings only. once they enter the matrix or the recipient language. rye beer). all from Russian. Therefore. go through certain modifications which make them. They are all simple loans with minor sound and spelling changes. and in this context. We have expected to find a few more examples in our analysis. however obscure. in our case. In trying to understand the reasons for such a small number of Slavic casuals. surrounded by a palisade or wall. peach or peech (a Russian stove). kvass (a fermented beverage. i. chark (a small Russian glass or cup). appearing perhaps only two or three times in an English text: caback (a Russian dram-shop or pot-house). ostrog (a house or village in Siberia. and only after looking at all of them a word could. the object denoted by the word itself – here the object was considered from the point of view of its present day relevance. in the English speaking world. words of Slavic origin often entered English via itineraries of travellers and memoirs. Some of these words fall into the category of casuals. we looked also at whether the example is accompanied by a translation or a description in the quotes for better understanding. whether it is at least known. we should look at the life of loanwords. However. telega (a four-wheeled Russian cart) and olen (a red deer). they also adopt English morphology with the characteristic inflections of the corresponding part of speech. this proved not to be a reason enough to characterize them as casuals.e. if not used. the age of the quotes – the older the better. tarantass (a four-wheeled Russian travellingcarriage). choom (a conical hut). and serving as a fort or prison). whether it still has any bearing on the people in the land of its origin. be designated as a casual. Besides spelling and pronunciation. more English like. written by people who lived and worked in a Slavic country for a considerable period of time. The rationale behind these criteria is that they all point to the somewhat “veiled” character of casuals. As already described. many examples that at a first glance appeared to fall under this category. most of the loans. and last but not least.As we have noted in one of the previous chapters. in the end turned out to be aliens.

recording it for future reference is in most cases simply not enough. (A cursed sort of carriage without springs). the word knout. denoting a special kind of whip or scourge. but also a Russian wagon or sledge) appeared in the Daily News (1899 14 Jan. 2/1): “His typical studio should be a kibitka of the Steppes. Only a relatively small number continued on as casuals. but also in literary works. if not denizen status.” These and other loanwords passed from being mere “just-in-case” dictionary entries with an example or two to their name. eventually found its way to Tennyson’s “Maud” (1855): “Shall I weep if an infant civilisation be ruled with rod or with knout?” Similarly. it is characteristic of the majority of Slavic borrowings that they were and are adopted directly as aliens and not as casuals first. This trait of loanwords results from an instant demand for naming an object or notion as it appears in the borrowing culture.” And in Byron’s “Don Juan” (1823): “There in a kibitka he roll'd on. kibitka (a circular tent.3. to words of at least alien. 3. For example. .of foreign countries.2 Slavic aliens As already mentioned. with the objects or notions they denote never becoming part of the English culture and way of life. but remaining mentions in the vast body of the English lexicon. newspapers and other writings.

tur. kromesky. thermokarst. shabracque. voivode. In contrast to casuals. ponor. bidarka. Skupstina. heyduck. slava. kazachoc. Sobranye. kasha. Taborite. mazut. Mariavite. polatouche. and bismar. hospodar. babushka. For example. moujik.” (science) 1972 Daily Tel.” (literature) We see that the word has transcended from a simple note in a dictionary to a vocabulary item of interest not only to inquisitive yet incidental linguists. akathisia. ploschadka. mazurka. bobac. tokamak. Glagolitic. uvala. Strouhal from Czech. tamizdat. samovar. buran. zubr as only a few examples from Russian. zibeline as examples of undetermined Slavic origin. tabor. prospekt. borsch.Aliens proved to be the most substantial group of Slavic loanwords. suckeny. kolo. 6/9: “They burst out into wild Ukrainian dancing with every possible variation of the squatting step prisyadka. Schönberg tr. including adapted as well as simple loans: acmeism. starosty. newspapers. Ustashi. redowa. lunokhod. pivo. pelmeny. polka (clothing item). calash. polje. 292: “I don’t care if I’m six feet tall” Valnikov said. hetman. Gamza. hum (Physical Geography). pospolite. willi). schapska. coulibiac. squatting on his haunches. shchi. appeared not only in travel accounts but also in works of literature. oberek. Piast. prisiadka. stokavian. but also to a wider public of . arsheen. kielbasa. sastruga. lasset. kissel. trying some prisiadka kicks that put him temporarily on his ass. gusle. astatki. Sejm. Sokol. witzchoura. tvorog. aesopic. 28: “Wilder still are the Bavarian Schuhplattler and the Ukrainian prisjádka with their heel stamping. chetnik. szlachta. gherkin. copeck. dacha. britzka. Krakowiak. of Dance i. yeri. feldscher. the Russian prisiadka can be found in the following quotes in the OED: 1938 B. rakija. shapka. Sachs' World Hist. gopak from Ukrainian.” (newspaper) 1977 J. sovkhoz. miryachit. knez. gmina. gusli. dumka. furiant. dinar. koumiss. sevruga. blin. 14 Aug. and in scientific writing. kolach. slivovitz. koruna. although some of them are admittedly obscure and nowadays archaic. polacca. chernozem. kalashnikov. lev. oblast. artel. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) xii. tamburitza. okrug. these words. stotinka from Bulgarian. zadruga from Serbo-Croat. vila (wili. zloty from Polish. Pomak. Cadet. slatko. bylina.

dance enthusiasts, newspaper readers and lit-fans. It managed to penetrate into the English culture and settle itself as the name of something the English know and in some cases use, but do not designate using their own lexemes. Prisiadka, as other aliens, succeeded in making a step towards English citizenship, but its fate is still that of being left somewhere queuing in an endless line of anxious newcomers, perhaps never achieving the ultimate goal of becoming a legitimate member of English lexicon. This may, for some, appear a gloomy future for these words. However, in connection with that, we must bear in mind the element of time and its influence on the vocabulary of a language, which makes such outcome inevitable. Namely, these lexical items appeared in English at certain points in history and many were used only in and around those particular periods. A good example is the Russian arsheen, a measure of length used in Russia and Turkey. The key word here is “used”, which is to be read as past simple and not present, since the Russian metric system no longer employs such obsolete measures. Let us look at the quotes, again from the OED: 1734 Treaty in Magens Insurances II. 592: “English Cloth two Copyks in Rixdollars for each Archine.” 1783 Martyn Geog. Mag. II. 40: “The arshine or Russian ell, equal to twenty-eight and onetenth inches English.” 1819 J. Q. Adams in C. Davies Metric Syst. (1871) iii. 185: “Suwarrow said to his troops, “A soldier’s step is an arsheen.” 1828 Webster, Arshine. 1881 Nature XXV. 88: “The new system of weights and measures in Turkey, the archine, is exactly equal to the French metre.” We see that they are all from the 18 th and 19th century, but none from the 20th, which points to the fact that the object in question has gone out of use, making the word denoting it obsolete as well. Such development leaves little if no hope of arsheen and similar aliens

ever achieving the “timelessness” of lexemes that endure in a language for centuries 4. In other words, they will almost certainly never acquire the status of denizens or naturals, and will gradually become what casuals already are: mere entries in bulky dictionaries, with their position deteriorating with the passage of time, to the extent that we will eventually no longer be able to regard them as pretenders to anything but linguistic remnants of the years gone by. As such we could term them historical aliens, i.e. borrowings once used in their original form, but later becoming redundant parallel to the gradual disappearance of objects or notions they denoted. Contrary to the development from the previous paragraph, many aliens do achieve a certain degree of “timelessness” that promises later full naturalization. For example, the Russian coulibiac, the Bulgarian rakija., or the Serbo-Croat uvala: 1970 Simon & Howe Dict. Gastron. 237/1: “Koulibiac, a Russian type of pie.” 1980 J. Hone Flowers of Forest i. 21: “Playing chess over a bottle of rakia somewhere in Yugoslavia.” 1970 R. J. Small Study of Landforms iv. 152: “In many areas closely adjoining sotchs have amalgamated, through lateral extension, to give larger depressions comparable with the uvalas of the Karst proper.” Characteristically, the chosen examples denote a dish, a drink and a trait of nature, all of which are things that carry along an underlying sense of duration; first food and drink with their preparation, which are of essential and permanent interest to human beings, and then nature, although disposed to alteration, presenting a continuum in a lifetime of an average individual. Contrastively, words from areas that are subject to frequent change and are socially conditioned, such as economy, government or metric systems, do not seem to be able to stand the test of time. As it is to be expected with words, there are also examples, such as perestroika and glasnost, which for some reason or other, do not let themselves be influenced by the

passage of time. They are adopted very quickly as aliens, and do not require years to become denizens. If we concentrate on the above mentioned cases, we see that in the last two decades from their point of entry into English in the 1970s and 80s 5, the spelling and pronunciation of perestroika and glasnost haven’t changed dramatically, which makes them similar to aliens. What has changed, and why we ultimately defined them as denizens, is their meaning. Namely, both terms are associated with the political and economic reforms of Mikhail Gorbachov from the 1980s. The former word stands for “the restructuring or reform of the Soviet economic and political system”, and the latter for “the policy of public frankness and accountability” (Collins English Dictionary-CED). Both words were borrowed into English with these primary meanings, as is apparent from the earlier quotes (OED): 1981 Summary World Broadcasts: Soviet Union 26 Feb. c24: “They are outlined in the 26th April 1979 decision of the CPSU Central Committee. This is a long-term document. Essentially it deals with restructuring (Russian: perestroyka).” 1981 N.Y. Times 13 Mar. a7/1: “The Russians, it seems, have rediscovered the value of Lenin's dictum that glasnost, the Russian word for openness or publicity, is a desirable form of conduct.” 1986 Scotsman 9 May 10/1: “What seemed to be at risk was Mr. Gorbachev’s glasnost policy, the essence of which is more openness.” 1986 Sunday Tel. 9 Nov. 2/6: “I can see Mr Gorbachev on television going on about something he calls Perestroika, roughly translated as “the restructuring”. The subsequent development of their meaning went in the direction of extension or generalization6 . Perestroika came to denote “any radical change in economic policy”, and following such new interpretation, somewhere along the line an interesting imitation of its sound and meaning, referring to “the restructuring of the political policies of the South African government” (Among the New Words; fall 1990) called Pretoriastroika, emerged:

readily accepted any novelty from the communist realm. making these loans true denizens. as we have discussed in one of the previous chapters. 19 June 6/5: “On the emigration front. It is well known that they were used as catchwords during the peaceful political and economic reforms in the USSR. which subsequently caused an avalanche of similar events in other countries behind the Iron Curtain. To exemplify. we shall turn again to the above instances of perestroika and glasnost.” 1987 Jerusalem Post Mag. Both terms were instantly adopted by the West and hence by the English-speaking world.” The examples of perestroika and glasnost illustrate the whimsicality of the lexicon.” 1989 Oct 8 The Ottawa Citizen A-8/1 (editorial): “The ink is barely dry on President Frederik de Klerk’s order not to break up lawful. 4/1 (heading): “Life is still hard under glasnost. . peaceful protests in South Africa and there’s already talk of “Pretoriastroika” and a “Pretoria spring. This initial alien period soon ended with the acquisition of additional meanings. Lodge. and are to be sought in the society. The reasons for such a character lie outside the language itself.” As for glasnost. giving so no easy answers and allowing no universalities. Maharasthra’s sharp change of course was announced late last month. whose capital is Bombay. Vietnamese style. which ultimately discards some but accepts other borrowings. the era of glasnost has seen decidedly mixed results. that were and are experiencing a similar favourable turn of events: 1987 Los Angeles Times 30 May i.Atlantic Monthly 35 (George C. it began to be used also in connection with other countries apart from Russia. which. heading and subhead): IT’S TIME FOR AN AMERICAN PERESTROIKA May 13 Economist 46: “Indian perestroika is at its most radical in the western state of Maharasthra.

uhlan from Polish. kurchatovium. karakul.3. This set them apart from similar alien-loans like lunokhod. they are altered in terms of spelling and pronunciation so as to look and sound English. Dobro. koktaite. Morlach. Serb. mendelevium. gley from Ukrainian. sovkhoz or kalashnikov. there are also others that still retain their foreign appearance. horde. Croat. ferganite. Pilsener. separating borrowings into two groups: those that we perceive as foreign on the one hand. as part of our lexicon on the other. kalistrontite. Kremlin. marrowsky. Circassian. but undergo significant changes in meaning. Bolshevist. In the next chapter we shall start dealing with the latter. howitzer. pogrom. ukase. We have discovered that whereas this is true of many denizens. Lech. Checen. polka. which despite their communist background never made the breakthrough to the denizen status. takovite from Serbo-Croat. clearly distinguishing them from aliens (the familiar perestroika and glasnost examples). Indicatively. The conclusion that presents itself almost self-evidently. pulk. and those that we already accept. Russ. cravat. sable. pandour. Cheka. agit-prop. Russian. innelite. mammoth. was that the external circumstances in the society were favourable for perestroika and glasnost to be adopted so rapidly into English. kolkhoz. tundra. taiga. Slovene. vrbaite from Czech. Ivan. denizens are regarded as words that have acquired full English citizenship. and to acquire such a generalizing meaning. siskin. some additional clarification is in order. steppe. tsar. although not entirely. hydrotroilite. Pole. First of all. Polack. Cominform. cancrinite. droog. nielsbohrium. Kashube. is that it is between aliens and denizens that an invisible borderline exists. podzol. hussar. vodka. Cesarewitch. Russia.3 Slavic denizens In the literature. paprika. samizdat. In order to fully understand the choice of words we have designated as denizens. 3. apparatchik. irinite. intelligentsia. tsatske.What happened in this case. vampire and Vlach as examples of undetermined Slavic origin. Bulgar from Bulgarian. yurt as only a few examples from Russian. Cheremis. Chuckchee. The following surprisingly substantial list illustrates this diversity within the category of denizens: achtaragdite. the reader will have noticed many loans . Slovak from Slovak. Bolshevik.

although nations are born anew and are being wiped out. characteristic of. 629/2: “The whole tone [of the play] is ten times heavier and cornier than any of the agitprop from the old Unity Theatre. The total number of such examples in the corpus is around sixty (most of them Russian). & Q. the way they are called is seldom if at all altered. they will remain in the language. Consequently. its people. the future of these words in English is secure. In addition to the English-like appearance. as we have briefly discussed in the introductory paragraph to Slavic denizens. but only enumerate some examples with quotes. it is adopted and adapted (spelling.” (primary meaning) 1959 Spectator 6 Nov. At this point. Although used by a relatively small number of people. has sent word round to writers. However. that there is to be an organisation for mass-laughter. pronunciation) unaware as not being of their native linguistic origin. which arguably look and sound like aliens. thus becoming an integral part of their language. newspapers and publishers. which is part of the next chapter dealing with the changes of meaning. call them. we shall not attempt any semantic analysis. to illustrate the point: a) Agit-prop: 1934 N. which is why we have not included all of them in the above list. the central organ for propaganda and agitation. Thirdly. the corpus contains an equally substantial group of borrowings relating to. there are borrowings included in the list. or their language (again most of them have been adopted from Russian). 73/1: “The A[g]itprop. a part of which they are almost . usually their neighbours. Secondly. In most cases. CLXVI. The ethnonym under which the nation is known is either that which the people call themselves. or characteristic of a nation or ethnic group. and in more or less the same form in which they appear at the present moment.ending in the noun forming suffix –ite. among other things. they denote objects which are of unlimited duration and immune to cultural influences that could affect their existence. names of rocks and minerals. We have categorized them as denizens for similar reasons as minerals. it is difficult to recognize the Slavic origin of these borrowings since they have been significantly modified in terms of spelling and pronunciation. they appear in English with meanings sometimes completely different from those that we define as primary. or what others.” (transferred meaning) by other nations. Namely. Once established.

thereby losing their alien characteristic of simply naming an object or notion for which no native designation exists. vodka Collins. which points to a high degree of naturalization7. tsarship.b) Cesarewitch: Title as heir to the imperial Russian throne of the prince who became Alexander II. vodka glass. vampire tinge. …” 1891 G. vodka flask. tsarate. Chetwynd Racing Remin. vodka-tonic. vodka gimlet.). vampire legend. vampire-fanned (adj. tsarian(adj. vampire bookseller.). vodka martini. they have altered their meaning so that an English speaker no longer associates them only with foreignness. An essentially formal reason for including any of the already mentioned loans in the above list of denizens. vampire corpse. Ibid. tsarism. What is more. assumed new identity in the English language. vampire spell. despite their foreign appearance. vampire: vampirarchy. 1839 Sporting Mag. but also with some new. vampire story.). tsarina. tsardom. tsarish(adj. the Russian tsar and vodka. tsar: tsarlet. vampire superstition. tsaritsa. and the Slavonic vampire. instituted in 1839. XIX.-His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke of Russia having presented the Jockey Club with the sum of 300. vodkatini (a contraction from vodka-martini). 263: “Newmarket. to be run for annually. (primary meaning) A long-distance handicap horse-race run at Newmarket. even peculiarly English concepts. 31: “At the next Newmarket meeting Cardinal York won the Cesarewitch by six lengths. vodka shop.” (transferred meaning) We believe that the quotes clearly show how these and similar loans have. tsaricide. vodka: vodka bottle. 2nd. vampire . tsarevna. Ser. For example. tsarevich. was that a word is accompanied by many compounds and derivatives.

denoting various new meanings. after having read the above set of examples. karyotype. liquidate (in the sense of “to kill”). which are truly English-like. The great extent of naturalization which these words have achieved is distinctly evident from the above collection of new vocabulary items. foreground. Almost. neither black nor white. metapsychics. vampirize (verb).). The objects and notions they convey were discovered. pedology. constructivism. At this point. sherryvallies or doodle.to play the bagpipes) as a loan of undetermined Slavic origin. vampire trap. before ever reaching the English language and consciousness. vampiredom. diversionist. vampirism. disinformation. ferritin. psychophonetics. abbreviated from vampire).). robot from Czech. vampishness. folkloristics. vampire bat. cubo-futurism. vampiric (adj. which we will enumerate at this point: constructivism. idiogram. informatics. that it is not only English that makes use of classical languages to create learned expressions in various fields of science. vampire (verb). ethonym. languages. jarovization. The reader will admit some degree of surprise in his/her mind. into considering them native-like words.). phytosociology from Russian. we came across a number of similar examples. They are somewhere in-between. used and described first by foreigners. This shows us firstly. we should not be misled by the appearance and sound of this last group of Slavic loanwords. Especially words like robot. vampiness. coined from Greek and Latin words or roots: idiogram. disinformation. phytosociology. vamp (noun and verb. akathisia. The reason for the majority of these items to appear so English lies in the fact that they are similar to English scientific vocabulary.). In this way tsar. vampirine (adj. vampy (adj. and are therefore foreign by . akathisia. that English demonstrates no hesitation when it comes to adopting such items from foreign. defamiliarization. and secondly.). in our case Slavic. but of the many shades of grey the English lexicon is full of. vodka and vampire have made a strong mark on the English language. sherryvallies from Polish. metapsychics. baffle once their origin is disclosed. but almost as naturals. macrolide.wing. vampirish (adj. During our survey. a mark so prominent that they no longer feel as denizens. vampish (adj. doodle (verb .

large and play (Davis&Klinar 1996: 141). Despite all that.definition.3. not enough time has passed from its entrance into English till the present moment for the borrowing to lose its Slavic character either in spelling. sound or meaning. It is a Scandinavian borrowing (Davis&Klinar 1996: 136). however short. for it sounds and looks as being there forever. and its presence in our lives secured. let us provide some contrast in the form of the English word law. are still a long way from achieving such status. As Klinar puts it: “English vocabulary is permeated by French everywhere. even the most naturalized ones.4 Slavic naturals The answer to the question from the previous chapter is not a satisfying one. The monosyllables in the following list are among the 250 most frequently used words in the language and are as thoroughly English as any that could be mentioned. but of Scandinavian origin. the word is not of Anglo-Saxon. fall into the same group. to the extent that we could regard it as being native. Everyday users of the language do not stop to ponder over its origin. . of Slavic naturals in the English language. We were hoping to be able to present a list. Most of the earlier borrowings are not felt to be alien in any sense. which not many would recognize as being of foreign descent.” (Davis&Klinar 1996: 141) Slavic borrowings in English. its meaning all too familiar to everyone. Our good intentions were soon shattered by the realization that the foreign element in the words from the corpus was still strong enough to prevent such categorization. We may in fact ask ourselves a justified question: are there any borrowings at all from Slavic languages that are closer to nativeness than denizens ? 3. the French borrowings city. but we can undoubtedly acknowledge it as a natural. and only time will tell if any make it that far at all. Why is that so? We believe that with every single loan in the corpus. Similarly. In order to clarify our point. state.

a somewhat similar number of denizens. and no naturals among the gathered Slavic borrowings in the English language. turned out to be quite accurate. especially Russian. according to Sir Murray’s division. . and focus on what is behind it. to the English lexicon words that are not just “dead”.5 Summary Our premise at the beginning of the analysis.3. a lot of aliens. But let us ignore the statistics. As such. but lexical items with a flourishing life of their own. the analysis has shown that Slavic languages. they bring in new cultural aspects and meanings. is the more or less expected final outcome. non-developing material.3. outside their primary linguistic environment. in this way adding to the effect of great etymological diversity of the English language. A few casuals. Namely. contribute and did so in the past.

natural. or proper. grammatical or medical term. that being the “primary” meaning in which it manifested itself in the matrix or recipient language. legal. In our semantic analysis.1 Extension or generalization . 3. 233) Therefore. And this meaning may or may not have a direct logical connection with the original sense of the root. and narrowing or specialization (contraction). amelioration and pejoration (deterioration) as changes on a vertical scale (Crystal 1995: 138. we shall depart from this “primary8” meaning.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 220.bears. essential.4. is in our case intended merely as a convenient wording for describing the semantic situation at the point of entrance into English. we have been referring to the primary meaning of an individual Slavic borrowing. that meaning which the speakers of the language have tacitly agreed to assign to it. transferred. The examination will be more or less limited to four general categories of semantic change: extension or generalization. for: “In the absolute sense of the term a word has no essential meaning. as it appeared in English with the first occurrence of the word. Words are conventional signs. and primitive. The term is in itself misleading. 233. as semantic changes in a horizontal dimension. Webster’s Word Histories 1989: Introduction). as an ecclesiastical. as they appear with Slavic borrowings in the English language. or specialized use. at any moment. They mean what they are intended to mean by the speaker and understood to mean by the hearer. By looking into these processes we hope to illustrate the evolution that certain Slavic borrowings have gone through since their introduction into the English lexicon. Volume 1 1989: xxvii).4 SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS: CHANGES IN MEANING Throughout the paper. as it is also termed in literature (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 220. and describe different kinds of semantic change. This primary meaning. a Slavic borrowing may have been taken into English already in a figurative.whatever its origin . … any word . OED.3.

” and the verb thingiam. Let us observe some characteristic instances9 with quotes..” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 241) An example of the latter.” From the “terms” of a bargain to a concrete “object of value” is a short step. the word picture. 236) With Slavic borrowings such extreme cases do not occur. There is always some trait of the basic meaning present in the new extended sense. but still present. are all included with paintings under the general term pictures.” If so. a lexeme widens its meaning. who is responsible for the execution of policy. and drawings with pen or crayon.” The word is thought to be cognate with L. It may retain various levels of connection with its basic meaning. is the word thing: “Its special modern sense of “inanimate object (usually regarded as its “real meaning”) is certainly due to generalization. where the political overtone is evidently fading. The Anglo-Saxon noun thing often meant “terms” and also “a council of court. mentioned by the same authors.”. “the (fitting) time. “to make conditions. we may feel confident that the oldest sense at which we can arrive in English is “that which is agreed upon as fitting. “to arrange.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 244). A further generalization occurs in the sense of a functionary of a public or private organization. The meaning was eventually extended to refer also to a member of a political party in any country. Thus photographs. “Picture meant first a “painting. or it may “become so very general that it ceases to distinguish anything in particular from everything else.” but is now applied to any flat representation of an object or scene.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 235.” “the right moment. A word can be generalized to different degrees. Quotes: . pencil sketches. except a mere plan or diagram.and from this to “anything” (actual or ideal) is no long stride.In the case of extension or generalization. For example. whereby the first quote always conveys the primary meaning: a) Apparatchik basically denoted a member of the apparat (the party machine of the Communist party in Russia). tempus. and a Communist agent or spy (a meaning that was developed already in Russia by the party members themselves).

” b) A similarly “political” example is provided by Bolshevik. Minimalist (in the sense of Menshevik). but President Nixon and his closest associates. seized power in the “October” Revolution of 1917. Dillon Eclipse of Russia 10: “The Bolsheviks at once outbid the Cadets. The generalization of the term focused on the revolutionary connotation of the basic meaning.C. kolkhoz. . which was originally the designation for a member of that part of the Russian Social-Democratic Party which took Lenin’s side in the split that followed the second Congress of the party in 1903. which indicates a possible development of the word’s meaning in the direction of a complete loss of political attributes. Quotes: 1918 E. or apparatchik.) 5 July 5/1: “The United States was indeed being pushed in the direction of a police state. Ivan. and was subsequently renamed the (Russian) Communist Party. is distinguished from the ordinary party member by his professional attachment to the party. Menshevik. Soviet.” 1926 W. etc. samizdat. Maximalist (another term for Bolshevik). who seem to be inspired by a destructive hatred of civilisation.” 1985 Sunday Times 27 Jan. Inge Lay Thoughts 29: “The cliques of literary Bolsheviks. for as a rule he devotes himself exclusively to party activity. and came to denote a person of subversive or revolutionary views. Kremlin. 277/1: “The party bureaucrat. intelligentsia. 16 Feb. B. “ 1973 Daily Colonist (Victoria. 38/5: “The radio programmes were put together in the privacy of his own computer-equipped studio at home. is very prominent. whereby their meaning was extended to refer to objects or people with similar traits in general. R. The pushers were not mere apparatchiks such as John Dean.” Similar “communist” loanwords from Russian that were subject to generalization. are: cheka. J. away from the controlling influence of BBC apparatchiks. sputnik. and a downright opponent of the existing social order or accepted codes. Rev.1963 Camb. The shift away from the strictly political characteristics and in the direction of general human traits of rebellion and stubbornness.

” 1893 McClure's Mag. B. Shaw On Rocks 164: “They [sc. the underlying connotation of power. 375: “He was being held up as “The Czar”---a man whose iron heels were crushing out American popular government. domination and limitless authority. 2) I. the able. Wallace Russia (ed. 5/8: “The peasants [in China] have been “voluntarily” collectivised. the complete assumption of it being the achievement of Ivan IV. hardfisted farmer who was richer than his neighbors. With the onset of communism this meaning changed. In addition to that. Quotes: 1877 D. vii. extended to people in general possessing such qualities. 159: “Not a few industrial villages have thus fallen under the power of the Kulaki .” d) A somewhat older loan is tsar. hardheaded. In the process of generalization. Quotes: 1890 Morfill Russia 56: “Ivan assuming the cognizance of the double-headed eagle.” 1957 Observer 10 Nov.” . I.” 1952 R. and partially taking the title of Tsar.” 1934 G. In English the meaning was extended to “successful and independent farmers” in general.literally Fists .c) An interesting case in point is the loanword kulak. with its basic meaning of the title of the autocrat or emperor of Russia. Campbell Lorca 7: “Lorca was by birth a landowning kulak. and the word was borrowed anew in the sense of a peasant-proprietor working for his own profit. a comparatively stronger sense of “tyrant” also came to be associated with this borrowing.as these monopolists are called.but there has been no Russian-style campaign for the “elimination of the kulak as a class. We can see how the connotation of independence and relative wellbeing is present in both periods. M. which was first adopted in preRevolution Russia. the Soviet government] also proscribed the kulak. in the sense of a well-to-do farmer or trader.

the Mammoth. (ed.” 1863 A. and is used attributively in the name of things belonging to. Mag. often applied also to the fossil mastodon. II. denoting something comparable to the mammoth in size. 211: “Mr. Ramsay Phys. and other extinct mammalia.” .” 1894 Cornh. and also to its use as an adjective. 463: “Man. Geog. 5 vols. folio. which is another Russian borrowing. 2) I. Quotes: 1796 Kirwan Elem. In this case the economic and political power of the capital.” f) The geographical term Muscovy.” e) The word mammoth. of which Moscow was the capital. 197: “The fossil remains of the mammoth (a name commonly applied in the United States to the mastodon). another extinct species of elephant.1970 Guardian 18 Apr. were contemporaneous. where mammoth became a superordinate. or any kindred mammoth among books.” 1974 Economist 21 Dec. In the United States the first generalization of the loan took place. came to be applied by extension to Russia generally. with which most of the commerce with the West took place. originally denoting a Russian principality (13th to 16th centuries). Sage found muscovy glass infusible in the strongest heat. orginating or produced in and obtained from Russia. 269: “Bayle’s “Dictionnaire Historique”. 65/1: “Britain’s mammoth current account deficit. basically denotes a large extinct species of elephant. Mar. Min. xxviii. The second extension of meaning is connected with the characteristic strength and huge size of the animal.S. C. provided such a strong association as to substitute for established geographical names. Quotes: 1850 Lyell 2nd Visit U. 10/6: “ Many [American] Presidents establish a staff “Czar” to cut down on “unnecessary” memos and contacts. which led to the use of the word to describe anything of huge size. formerly native in Europe and northern Asia.

and a somewhat stronger English lager type.: “Not even the dark ages extracted so heavy a toll of Jewish blood: something like 1400 pogroms took place all over the Ghetto. as is correspondingly smaller their number in the corpus. after clearing out the rebels. Mechanic 740: “Substituting varnished metallic gauze in the room of Muscovy talc.” . attack on any community or group. Plzen.htm : “However. Zionism II. 49: “Much rain . Schreiber Jrnl. It denotes an organized massacre in Russia for the destruction or annihilation of any body or class: originally and especially applied to those directed against the Jews (specialization of meaning). but rather indirectly via German.com/bohemianbeertours/czech_beers. The word was not adopted directly from Czech. 916/1: “It [sc.geocities. p. the dominant element of Czech beers is the hops. Quotes: 1877 C. Czechoslovakia. Bohemia. pursued the pogrom in the towns and villages. but is nowadays by extension used. a province and city in W. as a designation for the type of beer. Med. Sokolow Hist. The loanword originally denoted the origin of a beer (Czech. (1911) II. The actual beer from Plzen itself is known as Pils(e)ner Urquell. Jrnl.no breakfasts in the garden and Pilsner beer luncheons this year!” 1980 Brit. Quotes: 1919 N. a kind of mica. officially tolerated. class 2 beer] was available in two strengths-a middle European Pilsner beer. 29 Mar.” h) Examples from languages other than Russian are less frequent. The first we are to examine is the Czech Pilsener. 3 Aug.” 2000 www. which is a pale-coloured lager beer with a strong hop flavour. Each brewery usually has several styles of pilsner. In generalized use pogrom refers to an organized. li. also in the Czech Republic itself.” 1971 Sunday Times 13 June 12/4: “The army units. Nicholson Operat.). Saaz or Zatek hops give a Czech pilsner its distinctive flavor.1825 J.” g) The original meaning of pogrom also has a negative connotation of death and devastation.

” 1977 G. the word originally denoted a “free-lance” and a “freebooter”. In the second half of the 15th century. and changing tasks. it became applied to the Hungarian light horsemen. In the languages it was adopted from. including that of Great Britain. but subjectively the most “successful” Slavic loan is the Czech robot. a free-lance in literature or debate. the name of light cavalry regiments formed in imitation of these. Quotes: . especially one which carries out a variety of tasks automatically or with a minimum of external impulse. primarily not borrowed with the word. The borrowing developed many derivatives and compounds.” j) The loan hussar10 has been in English for quite some time. a machine (sometimes resembling a human being in appearance) designed to function in place of a living individual. (Rossum’s Universal Robots.R. was adopted into English. 51: “The person who is “seized” by the Spirit is thought of as a passive object. the meaning reverted to human beings. in most European armies.i) Another non-Russian.” 1955 Times 27 July 9: “It might be a pretty compliment to the brothers Capek if we called this new way of life robotry. which were subsequently introduced. temporarily reduced to the status of a robot. Quotes: 1923 Times 9 June 10/5: “If Almighty God had populated the world with Robots.U. legislation of this sort might have been reasonable. It was conceived by Karel Capek in his play R. in which application hussar became known and used in the Western European languages. Lampe God as Spirit ii. and the borrowing came to denote an adventurer.100 playback or programmable robots into its factories. When the extension occurred. W. the original meaning of a “freebooter”. and still exist. By extension. 1920) It originally denoted one of the mechanical men and women in Capek’s play. which all retained the original connotation of automation.” 1980 Times 1 July 19/5: “A real robot is programmable. In 1978 Japan put 1. a “free-lance”. Hence. H. hence. and so the word refers to a person whose work or activities are entirely mechanical. it can be programmed to perform different.

. but the loan is agreed upon as being of Slavonic descent.” 1802-16 C. who had no steady views to direct him. or do harm. k) Our last example in the section on generalization is vampire. Vampire primarily denotes a supernatural being of an evil nature (in the original and usual form of the belief. Dict. Its origin is somewhat obscure.1768 Foote Devil on 2 Sticks 11: “The hussars and pandours of physic. especially one who preys ruthlessly upon others. especially after the publication of the wellknown Bram Stoker’s Dracula. s. James Milit. rarely attack a patient together.v. The word has become quite popular since its adoption in the 18th century. The vicious nature of the creature is reflected also in the generalized or extended meaning of the borrowing. is clearly reflected in the loan’s generalization. my skipping scampering hussars. 473: “Your infinitely-infinite monades in infinitely-never single bodies. Similar semantic change occured also with the words pandoor and uhlan. Hence. supposed to seek nourishment. by drinking the blood of sleeping persons.” In the case of hussar. the negative connotation of the word. Nat. a vile and cruel blackmailer or extortioner. Carlyle Autobiog. 432: “He was a mere hussar. which also basically denote an army force. associated with negative moral values and fighting.” 1768-74 Tucker Lt. a man or woman abnormally endowed with similar habits. referring to a person of a malignant and loathsome character.. cannot get the better even of my light armature.” 1800 A. a reanimated corpse). (1852) I.: “There are also several regiments of hussars in the British service.

” 1862 B.” 1899 F. a vampire is also an intolerable bore or a tedious person. Bullen Log of Sea-waif 164: “The vampires who supplied them with liquor had somehow obtained a claim upon all their wages. Taylor Home & Abroad III. and the wetness of the lip with blood. mosquitoes. are the never-failing signs of a Vampire. An interesting common trait of some of the examples is that they express an underlying human trait which transfers itself from the original to the extended meaning. 71: “Speedy death was the inevitable consequence of such a visitation. as described in the opening remarks. is connected with the practice of drinking blood supposedly performed by this being.Another. T. or being bored by someone else. although it never reaches the degree of extension of thing or picture. “vampyre. (1874) 58: “A sharp prick and the little vampire is drinking your blood. Ranke's Hist.” Generalization has proven to be a very frequent semantic change with Slavic borrowings.” 1968 Word Study Dec. 4/2: “A vampire is a woman who uses sex to facilitate the acquisition of money or other signs of wealth. A. The association this disagreeable act evokes is that of annoyance and harassment. or its intensification. Others again denote certain prominent objects which are famous or important enough to become . perhaps less known generalization of vampire. Last but not least. the word is by extension applied also to miniature blood-sucking monsters.” 1864 Geikie Life Woods iv. Quotes: 1813 Byron Giaour Note 38: “The freshness of the face. Hence. Kerr tr. which is to some extent parallel to the feelings we experience when we are bored. 215: “In the German language there is no epithet which exactly translates our word “bore”.” 1847 Mrs. and any one who so died became himself a vampyre. Servia iv. ii.

or to a vague or general category of ideas. a new and specialized sense is the result. but is not the subject of our paper. unique.2 Narrowing or specialization With narrowing or specialization a lexeme becomes more specialized in meaning. Whether this applies to all words equally (native or loan . 3. which originally meant “grandmother”. it may at any moment become specialized by being used to name one of those objects or to express one of those ideas. the primary denotation. it seems that if the loan’s meaning is to be extended. Judging from these two sets of examples. general enough. in some way related objects.associated with a wider array of other.” Meat was once “food” of any kind.Slavic or other). This type of headwear must have been. worn by Russian peasant women. and we will also try to deduce a rationale. is a matter worth examining. Therefore. quite the opposite.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 248) English is full of such words.” Myth is merely the Greek for “story.” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 249) Let us now look at Slavic borrowings and their specialized senses in the English language. And if this particular application gains currency in the language. a kind of a “head-scarf”. providing the association for the specialized use of the word. Quotes: . In the next section an opposite process will be discussed. but even more so connotation of the word has to be something special. In a bit longer definition: “When a word is equally applicable to a number of different objects which resemble each other in some respects. and probably still is. speculative as it may be. The word was adopted into English already with a narrowed meaning. a) Our first example is the loan babushka. we shall leave this question open for others to resolve. Goods is literally “good things. behind its occurrence with Slavic loanwords. denoting a head covering folded diagonally and tied under the chin. strong or. Affection meant “feeling” in Elizabethan English. to earn such semantic change.4. Deer was formerly any “animal.

claim etc. 1649/2: “All Sheriffs-Officers of the Mint.” c) The verb to liquidate11 comes from late Latin liquidat. bankrupt estate.” 1959 Encounter Oct.” 1921 Chambers's Jrnl.S.. Scotl. and most frequently conveys the meaning of to settle or pay off a debt. Commissars and their Deputs. to stamp out. a deputy or delegate.” 1955 J. adapting. Hence. This special meaning emerged in the time of communist . a government. Gaz. killing their own commissars as they fled. and ultimately to eliminate or kill. one commissioned to act as representative. The sense we are interested in comes from the Russian likvidírovat. adapting medieval Latin commissari-us. 32/2: “A voile scarf tied babushka-style. we cannot say that the form of the word itself is of Slavic origin. but rather the specialized meaning borrowed from the communist Russia.” b) A somewhat peculiar example is the communist borrowing commissar. The loan in its primary sense denotes one to whom a special duty or charge is committed by a superior power. and means to put an end to.for district committees to be formed. and also the head of a government department in the U. and to terminate the operations of a commercial firm. in other words. In this sense the loan designates a representative appointed by a Soviet. Carmichael tr. etc. in Lond. 62: “Braunstein proposed that directives be given . Relig. abolish. 33/2: “The babushka is a peasant-sort of hood you wear over your pretty curls. Revol. or the Communist party to be responsible for political indoctrination and organization. In English the word already existed as another form of commissary. or any of its constituent republics (in full “People’s Commissar”).R.S. iii. wipe out. and for plenipotentiary Commissars to be appointed in each district to restore order and direct the struggle against anarchy and pogroms.1938 Chatelaine Feb. French commissaire. i. No. their Clerks and Fiscals. Quotes: 1681 Act Prot. Sukhanov's Russ. especially in military units. 151/1: “The Bolsheviks retreated in a panic.

270: “I'll get Uncle Yury to stay to dinner and take the kasha out of the oven. Zhivago ii. that is Alex. Georgie.” 1883 Manch. He gave the word a completely new and specialized sense of a member of a gang.like relations. 27 Nov. was brought into the language by Anthony Burgess. and Dim. or an accomplice or henchman of a gang-leader. characteristic of friendship . Exam.” . Quotes: 1834 H. The specialized meaning developed in English is associated with the colour of this dish. Pasternak's Dr. 13 Apr. an English novelist and critic. and my three droogs. Suppl.regime. Quotes: 1962 A. many of them carried lists of people to be liquidated. a young ruffian. 135: “No effort should be spared to liquidate the National Debt. Quotes: 1958 Hayward & Harari tr. Martineau Moral iv. and has as its focal point the notions of conclusion and termination.” e) Kasha was adopted from Russia in its original meaning of a gruel or porridge made from cooked buckwheat or other meals or cereals. The only association left between the basic and specialized sense is that of accompaniment and alliance. 1: “There was me. 402/2: “How long ago it seems since the New York Times referred to the spray-can droogs of the subways as “little Picassos. 4/7 : “It has been decided to liquidate the Exchange Bank.” 1971 Sunday Times 13 June 12/6: “When the army units fanned out in Dacca on the evening of March 25. Burgess’ Clockwork Orange i. describing it as a beige colour resembling that of buckwheat groats. The connection between the senses is self-evident. that is Pete.” d) The next example of specialization belongs to the group of lexemes Klinar terms “author’s contributions” (Davis&Klinar 1996: 156). which originally meant “friend”. true or imagined.” 1984 Times Lit. which ruthlessly did away with its enemies. The borrowing droog. ix.

Quotes: 1814 Wordsworth Excursion ii. a name given to the Jews of the Polish provinces. That I must yield myself without reserve. which primarily means one who travels along with another. 770: “Danzig fears and hates the “Polacks” and still more the French. Wilson Hemlock & After 147: “Bernard. and “smoke”. which basically denotes a native or inhabitant of Poland. “Kasha” (a Russian buckwheat porridge beige). (Suppl. Dec. 9/3: “Principal colours are navy.): “Polack. is the compound fellowtraveler. F. chiefly limited to North America in its use. used as a noun and also as a verb to fellow-travel. the specialized meaning of fellow-traveller. is one who sympathizes with the Communist movement without actually being a party member. As we have already noted in the section on calques. was certainly the perfect material for Communist propaganda. As if the thought were but a moment old. 55: “ My Fellow Traveller said with earnest voice. 20/8: “The Germans who fellow-travelled with Hitler in the 1930s were guilty of a gross dereliction of national duty. if not a fellow-traveller. and the second somewhat derogatory sense of a Polish immigrant or person of Polish descent.” . The word has two specialized meanings. by their Lithuanian co-religionists. Dict. and has even acquired its own generalized meaning in that it is being applied also to other political systems or convictions. It is intriguing how this specialization of meaning is gaining ground at the expense of the original sense.” 1952 A.” 1963 Observer 18 Aug. Rev. the first being the designation for a Jew from Poland.1971 Guardian 19 Jan. Liddell in Contemp.” g) An example from a Slavic language other than Russian is the Polish Polack.poputchik. Quotes: 1909 Cent.” 1922 M. the original sense of “companionship” in fellow-traveller is used to convey the communist “comradeship” of Trotsky’s original . f) Another example where the sense but not the form was adopted. In this example. It is in fact a less common term for a Pole.

In other words. this being the loan’s second specialized meaning. because the person in question invented. L. and projecting beyond the face. Polacks. Wilson Life (1862) I. perambulator. and by extension also the hood of a bathing machine.” 1856 A. The former denotes a process in which personal names are used in the formation of new lexemes – the name is applied to a thing. are eponymy and toponymy12. Everyday examples are Wellingtons.” i) Two special kinds of specialization. supported with whalebone or cane hoops. with which all the specializations are connected. 53: “They were scornfully known as Dagoes. which in turn became the expression for a particular kind of headgear worn by women. The first specialization refers to the folding hood of such a carriage.” h) The borrowing calash is of undetermined Slavic origin. shrapnel. 212: “Priscilla wore a calash. Allen Big Change iii. xii. In the case of calash. Smith Mr. etc. having a removable folding hood or top. The original meaning. namely the hood. iii. or because the inventor named it after himself. is usually without a cover. mackintosh. xv. denotes a kind of light carriage with low wheels. Hunkies. 129: “Sleeping in the Calash. leaving it suspended by the strings. II. Quotes: 1849 Sir R. Rom. 117: “The calash of a bathing-machine.1952 F.” 1852 Hawthorne Blithed. the semantic development went in the direction of specialization acquiring its own specialized meaning. (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 382) . in Canada the vehicle with the same name has two wheels. sandwich. Ledbury I. which she had flung back from her head. and is equipped with a seat for the driver on the splashboard. Kikes. and also has more than one specialized meaning. the borrowing began to be applied to a part of the entire object. which are surprisingly frequent with Slavic loanwords. discovered or introduced it. The characteristic shape of such a hood resulted in the term being used also for a woman’s hood made of silk.

a Russian mathematician. and fruit – pavlova. Marrism. however. who investigated stochastic processes for which the probabilities. whipped cream. The next term also comes from a surname. (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 384) The first Slavic example of eponymy is already a familiar one. magnet. and Markov property. who as a reflection of her popularity. china. the characteristic property of Markov processes. Kalashnikov is the surname of the inventor of a rifle or sub-machine gun. instituted in 1839. from the name of Nikolai Yakovlevich Marr (1865-1934) a Russian linguist and archaeologist. In England the name came to be applied to a long-distance handicap horse-race run at Newmarket. used the name of the famous Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova (1885-1931). known to generations of soldiers all over the world. Markov comes from the surname of Andrei Andreevich Markov (1856-1922).The latter. of the different future states depend only on the existing state and not on how that state was arrived at . cashmere. a Markov process in which there are a finite or countably infinite number of possible states or in which transitions between states occur at discrete intervals of time. in which language is regarded as a phenomenon of social class rather than of nationality. refers to the derivation of new lexemes from place names – articles of commerce are often named after the place from which they come or are supposed to come: champagne. which became identified under this name. now usually one made with meringue.Markov process. Cesarewitch is originally the title of heir to the imperial Russian throne of the prince who became Alexander II. . The term is used also attributively in the expressions Markov chain. at any one time. denotes the linguistic theories advocated by this scientist. A less scientific example comes from Australian chefs. as the designation for a dessert or cake. and also one for which in addition the transition probabilities are constant (independent of time).

In this case. is the name of a small spring-flowering bulbous plant of the genus so called. 1850-1922).S. popular for playing country and western music.Puschkinia from the name of Apollos Mussin-Puschkin. as the instrument is called.) for a type of acoustic guitar with steel resonating discs fitted inside the body under the bridge. a good thing.” . 1/8: “He ran to get his kalashnikov (a Russian assault weapon) but when he returned. Nipkow disc is a term originating from the name of its inventor Paul Nipkow (1860-1940). Sports 373/1: “Cesarewitch Course – 2 miles. Polish electrical engineer. belonging to the family Liliacea. the Do(pera) Bro(thers). denoting a dimensionless number used in the study of the vibrations produced in a body by a fluid flowing past it. 2 furlongs. since the second part of the acronym is not a personal name at all. is an acronym from the name of its Czech-American inventors. The coincidence with Czech dobro (the) good. 25: “A finite Markov chain is a finite Markov process such that the transition probabilities pij(n) do not depend on n. From Czech comes Strouhal (Czech scientist Cenek Strouhal. which is used attributively in the phrase Strouhal number. we could talk about partial eponymy.” 1973 Times 11 Apr. and bearing spikes of blue or white cup-shaped flowers. The last and most curious example of eponymy we shall analyse is the name (proprietary in the U. It denotes a scanning disc used in some early television transmitters and receivers. the Israelis had burst through the door. Eponymy quotes: 1856 “Stonehenge” Brit. Dobro. may also help to explain the choice of this form. 28 yards. Russian chemist and plant collector.” 1960 Kemeny & Snell Finite Markov Chains ii. who invented the device in 1884.

12/4: “A Pavlova. Handbk.” 1962 G. the wool of which resembles fur. xxi. which is originally the name of a province and lake in Bokhara. A similar example is astrakhan (from Astrakhan in Russia). The next example is the proprietary name of a variety of Russian vodka. Bulbs vii. 199: “Marrism. valued as fur. 122/2: “As long as they are not forced. A. . The borrowing also refers to a kind of cloth used chiefly as an edging or trimming for garments. has raged as a kind of Asiatic flu in some European universities west of the Iron Curtain. G. the flying-spot scanner and the pick-up tube. W. 42/3: “For an isolated stationary cylinder the Strouhal number is fairly constant for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Indo-European Dial. which denotes the skin of stillborn or very young lambs. which was officially encouraged in Russia for political reasons.” 1975 Times 16 Dec. puschkinias can be grown indoors like crocuses.” 1984 Washington Post 24 Dec. Burdett Automatic Control Handbk. so vodka that comes from the capital.1966 B.” 1975 Offshore Engineer Dec. B7/6: “The ornate surface of Ben Eldridge’s banjo and the brittle precision of John Duffey’s mandolin were answered by the warm and elastic dobro of Mike Auldridge. 6: “There are three types of scanning device in existence – the Nipkow disc. Collinder in Birnbaum & Puhvel Anc. metropolitan. T. Stolichnaya literally means “of the capital”. The borrowing denotes a breed of sheep with coarse wiry fur.” 1974 H.” The first Slavic example of toponymy is karakul. Fogg Compl. ice cream and strawberries. and also the glossy curled coat of a young karakul lamb. an Australian dessert – a meringue with cream. passion fruit.

somewhat contrary to what we have expected. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) i. not directly from this Slavic language. iv. but via French as a direct adoption of polonaise. 183: “Her astrakhan cape hung open over the quaking layers of her double chin. Toponymy quotes: 1957 V.” 1813 Lady Burghersh Lett. A more familiar example is the famous dance mazurka. or of the places where they were discovered for the first time. Pasternak’s Dr. 134: “The warm rose-red silk lining of her karakul muff. (1893) 93: “The ball began with polonaises. which owes its form to the Polish province Mazovia. Nabokov Pnin v.Many minerals carry the names of their discoverers. name of a shore in the north of the Kola peninsula in Russia. coming from Murman. It comes from the adjective “Polish”. A similar instance is the ceremonial marchlike dance called polonaise.” 1968 I. Murmanite is a typical example. (1889) I. and perpetually dancing the mazurka.” 1842 Motley Corr. 298: “Murmanite and lomonosovite form a complete isomorphous series and are monoclinic like sphene and fersmanite.” 1977 J. vi. Kostov Mineralogy ii. Especially numerous are cases of . 3: “He stealthily withdrew the bottle of Stolichnaya from the pocket of his raincoat. however. Zhivago i.” 1958 Hayward & Harari tr. v. which are in fact only walking in time. 116: “He is at all the parties perpetually.” Specialization has. turned out to be quite a frequent semantic change with Slavic borrowings.

as is evident from the quotes: 1684 Scanderbeg Rediv. i. but occurs in response to some peculiar cause” (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 295).eponymy and toponymy. iv. 3.4.3 Amelioration With amelioration a word develops a positive sense of approval. from the most disagreeable (robber). chamberlain “the servant in charge of the chambers”. constable “stall-attendant”. and proceed to modifications on a vertical scale. in Hungary became the name of a special body of foot-soldiers (to whom the rank of nobility and a territory were given in 1605). which can hardly point to a deducible pattern we could put forward as a universal motive for specialization. With this we conclude the discussion on semantic changes in a horizontal dimension.. to the neutral (servant). and in Poland of the liveried personal followers or attendants of the nobles. With other instances the change occurred in the matrix language as a result of miscellaneous reasons.e. After scrutinizing the corpus for examples of amelioration with Slavic borrowings. The loan that originally meant “robber”. “bandit”. where in the field of mineralogy almost every borrowing is derived from a personal or place name. we cannot offer a single word for consideration. It may change from pejorative to neutral or positive. so that it was only the specialized meaning that was imported into the language. An interesting characteristic of a number of examples is the fact that the word itself already existed in English. Well .” . It is interesting that all three meanings appear in English. is not in obedience to any general tendency.known examples are also quite amusing: Marshal once meant “horse-boy”. and pioneers were once the soldiers who cleared the way for an army. 54: “First Marched five Companies of Heyduques. however. “The ascent. nice meant “foolish”. The only instance that came somewhat close is the Slavic heyduck. “brigand” (a sense still retained in Serbia and adjacent countries). and did all the hard and unpleasant work.

disparagement. however. lust. The degeneration is sometimes due to special causes. so that English simply adopted and used whatever sense it had the need to express. vile literally “cheap”.4 Pejoration or deterioration With deterioration (Greenough & Kittredge 1961: 284. talk about degeneration of meaning) a lexeme develops a negative sense of disapproval. A. Servia 49: “Such as refused to appear before the Kadi. it gets into worse and worse odor. Nevertheless. and words.” 1889 Athenćum 15 June 768/1: “One of that extinct species of servants. holds the horse of the fat monarch. like people. fled into the forests and turned Heyducs or robbers. without any participation or interest in the semantic change on its own.” More or less familiar examples in the English language are villain. amelioration does not happen as a result of a regular inclination for such a change.1847 Mrs. In addition to that. we feel that in general a word should be present in a language for a substantial period of time in order to. a word must primarily and quite obviously have a negative connotation to be a suitable candidate for a subsequent rise in dignity and agreeableness. a Latin synonym for “enthusiastic”. .4. 3. which originally signified “a farm-laborer”. and fanatic. the heyducs. As time goes on. Kerr Hist. As we have previously noted. the word takes its first step in the downward path when it is used in slight. through its extensive use. which originally meant simply “pleasure”. The process is best described by Greenough & Kittredge in their work Words and Their Ways in English Speech (1961: 284): “Descent is easy. but rather as a consequence of some curious stroke of fate. until at last it may become a term of extreme contempt or reprobation.” The amelioration of meaning in this case occurred already in the source languages. show a propensity to fall away from their better selves. perhaps jocose. Usually. experience such “fortuitous” semantic alteration.

: “Polack. etc. Quotes: 1810 E. a borrowing denoting a member of a gang. a young ruffian. 784/1: “The Czar – as we say – or President of the Motion Picture Producers’ Association. and refers to a person having great authority or absolute power – a tyrant. Russia. (1839) 29/1: “The connection which subsisted between the tsars of Muscovy and the emperors of Constantinople. The author’s motives for such a use of the word must have been quite interesting. In Russian the word means simply “friend”. the corpus of Slavic borrowings did offer a few examples. same as Pole.” b) Anthony Burgess’s droog. In North America the term acquired negative connotation denoting a Polish immigrant or person of Polish descent. but also by other ethnic minorities in the USA and Canada. Clarke Trav. “boss”.” 1976 National Observer (U. or an accomplice or henchman of a gang-leader.” c) Tsar basically denotes the title of an autocrat or emperor of Russia. used derogatorily by the ethnic majority (Anglo-Saxon origin). Dict. a Pole. although it may produce a special personal connotation to a native Russian. For most people this represents a neutral use of the word. sweeping all forms of law and order aside. or a Russian expatriate.) 26 June 1/3: “The Crusher’s a clean-living Polack from Milwaukee who don’t truck with no drugs or bad women. a) Polack originally refers to a native or inhabitant of Poland. by most standards.” 1959 Listener 5 Nov. Quotes: 1895 Funk's Stand. and perhaps politically motivated. warm feelings provoking meaning.In the case of deterioration. The deteriorated meaning originates from the United States.S. which is.” . is a case of significant deterioration of meaning. D. a positive. Quotes: 1972 Telegraph (Brisbane) 6 May 7/2: “A world where youth gangs – the teddy boys of yesterday and the “droogs” of tomorrow – have virtually taken over.

bad reputation of these warriors was immense.” 1883 19th Cent. XCIV. pandoor or hussar. is the notorious horde.” 1939 Geogr. admittedly. the middle and the little hordes. which accompany such men. iv: “I am sprung from a horde of Baltic pirates. The degeneration of meaning focuses on the war – or – plunder part of the basic sense.d) The next example. but also courage and awe. 78: “The Kirghises have always been divided into three hordes. ultimately contributed to the ill-fame nowadays associated with these. or for war or plunder. pandoor and uhlan primarily denote special army units. of miscellaneous origin. the however. 89: “Davidson points out that the horde. Tooke View Russian Emp. especially of the savage. Quotes: . a unit of about five families. Hussar. who in the war with France reportedly showed no mercy. crew. dwelling in tents or wagons. In the time of their active participation in warfare. hence referring to a great company. the great. In anthropology the loan. Quotes: 1799 W. who were known for their rapacity and brutality. and is as such applied also to other nomadic tribes. in all some thirty-five persons. II. was the largest political unit known to the Australians. denotes a loosely-knit social group consisting of about five families. Hence. more and more obscure loans. quite positively. Particularly pandoors. a person who is referred to as an uhlan. and migrating from place to place for pasturage. May 901: “In all our large cities there are hordes of little ragged urchins who live on the streets. troop.” e) Our last case comprises three words which all suffered a similar turn for the worse. and Black or Death Hussars. Originally the term refers to a tribe or troop of Tartar or kindred Asiatic nomads. Jrnl.” 1847 Disraeli Tancred vi. or uncultivated – a gang. uncivilized. is bestowed upon all the worst characteristics of a soldier. without any special connotation added.

where a slight change in human relations may cause dramatic changes in all areas.4. remain semantically unchanged. War. Deterioration of meaning is thus far easier to create than is the case with the reverse process.e. 3. Ballantyne ibid. rarely attack a patient together. Their “evolution” is frequently manifold in nature. i. 352: “When leagued Oppression pour'd to Northern wars Her whisker’d pandoors and her fierce hussars. but that they acquire new.1768 Foote Devil on 2 Sticks 11: “The hussars and pandours of physic. deterioration of meaning revealed itself as being relatively frequent with Slavic loanwords in English. often quite different meanings.” 1886 Pall Mall G. right place.” 1799 Campbell Pleas. Words in such circumstances act as symbols and may provoke strong emotions when uttered at a wrong or. for that matter. 432: “He was a mere hussar.” 1800 A.” 1851 Gallenga Italy 471: “Squadrons of hussars and Hulans were scouring the plain in every direction. Hope i. to Jas.” 1816 Scott Let.: “I belong to the Black Hussars of Literature. after they have been borrowed into English.5 Summary The semantic analysis of the corpus has shown us that not all Slavic borrowings.” 1851 Gallenga Italy 131: “Three squadrons of hulans and four companies of Croatians. power and nationality are sensitive issues. In other words. “ Contrary to amelioration. old “resentments” die hard. . Carlyle Autobiog. who had no steady views to direct him. who neither give nor receive criticism. 6 March 5/2: “Those uhlans of commerce who have lately been so urgently calling for the establishment of railway communication with China through Burmah.

Polje comes from Serbo-Croat polje. Uvala is again an adoption from Serbo-Croat uvala. Slovene appeared only as a small fragment in a lengthy etymological discussion. Once this was established we stopped looking at individual words and ran an etymological search in the OED. cat. ponor. once OED flashed on the screen: Dolina is supposed to be an adaptation of Russian dolína. church. tsar experienced both generalization and deterioration. However. and illusions vanished in thin air. as robot clearly exemplifies. THE STATUS OF SLOVENE IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE When we began our work on this thesis. Amelioration is virtually non-existent with Slavic borrowings. polje.not limited to one kind of semantic change only. We discovered that Slovene does exist in etymological definitions. in terms of meaning. which is again only an adaptation of the Serbo-Croat Kras. In short. gherkin and knez. and by no means as the only source of the lexeme. droog underwent specialization and deterioration. with the following etymology: [A Slavonic word: . For example. even Klinar’s words fell out of the game. in addition to those Mr. uvala. just as other words. And this is what came up: bread. Slavic loans in English behave. whereas have hinted at in the previous section. With each of these words. Moreover. the complete naturalization of some of them is perhaps not so remote after all. And Karst came into English from German der Karst. as is ponor from ponor. and were delighted to see the results of the query. however. provided they are given a proper stimulus or enough time. We hoped to discover some new words. Klinar had mentioned in his classes on English wordformation (dolina. Therefore. disappointment struck hard. karst). Closest to this came knez. for reasons we 4. our expectations about the Slovene contribution in the English language were at least optimistic if not idealistic.

Boh. kunenz. the name is a survival of the old native designation of the Slavs. Be that as it may. Russ. knjaz:---Old Slav. as Slovene. Magyar kenez. *kuning. . The origin of the word is according to the OED [Serbo-Croat and Slovenian]. knez. ad. little remains to be said. pl. which appears in OSlav. After that we decided to look at the word Slovene.] When all hope was already gone of finding at least one borrowing of purely Slovene origin. but that ultimately does not change their ruling. Slov. Slovenen. In the end. Sorbian knjez. Is it the result of a mistake? Not likely. prehistoric a. sloviti to speak. Slovenec. also Romanian knęz. since they are all more than qualified for their job. Slovene (Slowene). Styrian.. knez. It could suggest either that the word was adopted from one or the other or that the origin is uncertain – Serbo-Croat or Slovene.Serbian. now that we have described our “Odyssey” of search for Slovene borrowings in the English language. at least to our mind.] . and is supposed to be derived from the stem of slovo word. the word vila appeared as if from nowhere. pl. In our opinion. vila is the only word listed in the OED that their etymologists define as undoubtedly coming from Slovene. We may either agree or disagree with the etymologists. and certainly not with the OED. the only thing we can “accuse” the English of. What this actually means is not entirely clear to us. Therefore. From Slov. or perhaps better. knez. Is this status of Slovene in English the result of ignorance of these scientists? Probably not. undeniably ours. etc. Again we discovered that the English are more than partial to adopting words via German: [a. G. is bias. Slovene. Alban.king. Slovenia is simply not influential enough to be given any linguistic credit for words that are. OTeut. Slovenci.

Next. our attention turned towards semantics. alien. do not remain unchanged but start a life of their own in their new linguistic environment. Analysing the body of examples in terms of three-fold division into simple and adapted loans and loan translations. CONCLUSION The corpus has shown that Slavic words are present in the English lexicon in a number that can hardly be described as insignificant. described by Murray as casual.5. . has proven invaluable to our thesis. which provides fresh stimuli for their existence. specialization. We analysed semantic changes as they occur with Slavonic loanwords. whereby they follow each other from the most to the lest frequent in the same order as they are discussed. which demonstrates how words once they are borrowed. amelioration and degeneration of meaning. This turned out to be the most compelling part of our work. has produced anticipated results in terms of their frequency. with the most prolific source amongst Slavic languages being undoubtedly Russian. The subsequent examination of various degrees of naturalization of Slavic borrowings. Its results are less interesting from a statistical perspective. denizen and natural. focusing on generalization. but far more so for their underlying message.

6. we are nevertheless convinced that this thesis represents a comprehensive survey of Slavic borrowings in the English language for the most part of its linguistic history. of course. and for a small part on Fifty Years Among the New Words. this thesis employs the same policy. its second edition from 1992. but it turned out to be like looking for a needle in a haystack.e.providing results that ultimately substantiate the summarising thought from the previous paragraph. 3 – A former mixture of Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian also features in the corpus since it is also used in the OED. Serbian and Croatian are . and by extension its analysis. Hence. by John Algeo. All that. for example from Travels in the Caucasus by the German orientalist and explorer Heinrich Julius Klaproth. We have tried to find some neologisms of Slavic origin in corresponding dictionaries. to make the “giant” step in the direction of English dictionaries. So. To conclude. Last but not least. we would like to point out that we are aware that the corpus. The reason for that lies in the fact that it is based on the OED. According to Encyclopedia Britannica. We concluded that our native tongue is probably not influential enough. we tried to find some answers as to why Slovene does not feature more prominently in the English lexicon. but without any luck. We have also probed the internet. This means eight years of more or less blank space. NOTES 1 – Among the enumerated entries are also some that were imported into English via translations of works by non-English authors. from 1991. does not mean there are not any new Slavic words in English already in use in everyday speech. as not to sound too apologetic. i. is not up to date. or Journey Through Various Provinces of the Russian Empire by the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas. 2 – In literature both terms are used interchangeably and inconsistently.

ofsajd . Lenin. 8 – The term “primary meaning” will in the discussion be replaced by the term “basic meaning” or “original meaning”. so as to avoid any misunderstanding. . Major. 10 – The etymology of the word shows that hussar is not exclusively of Slavic origin. In addition. orig. bojovnik vs. stanovništvo. zaleđe vs. but did not become a subject of serious public debate in the Soviet Union until an Izvestiya editorial requested letters on the subject on 19 Jan. this view and subsequent terminology is obsolete and incorrect. 7 – Of course not all candidates could meet this requirement. 4 – To use “forever” would not be appropriate in connection with language. I. 1985 in a speech accepting the post of General Secretary of the CPSU has subsequently led to its being associated particularly with his policies. Its use by Mikhail Gorbachev on 11 Mar. helikopter. see the chapter on the changes of meaning. etc. Hungarian huszar. the Croats have in recent years put a great deal of effort into separating their own language from that of the Serbs. for its Serbian roots: a. and called for in an open letter to the Soviet Writers' Union by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in 1969. 1985. We have nevertheless included it in the corpus. For those. since both nations regard their languages as unique and completely different from each other. For glasnost “is recorded in dictionaries from the eighteenth century. pučanstvo vs. from the point of view of the present linguistic situation resulting from the war in the former republic of Yugoslavia.” (OED) 6 – For a more detailed discussion on extension or generalization. 5 – This is only partially correct. 9 – Perestroika and glasnost have already been discussed in the section on Slavic aliens. form). but in the more general sense of publicity. as the examples of Agit-prop and Cesarewitch show.dialects of the common Serbo-Croatian However. It was used in the context of freedom of information in the Soviet State by V. other criteria came into consideration (meaning. In order to avoid repetition we shall not examine them again in the present section. Note the following words: zrakomlat vs.

Bright. Oxford: OUP. & Klinar. 1991. REFERENCES Books Algeo. OServian husar. freebooter. Fifty Years Among the New Words. robber. 1993. . Baugh & Cable. eds. 12 – The term primarily denotes a special branch of onomastics which deals specifically with the origin of place names. also gusar. ad. 1993. Crystal. D. 1996. Oxford: OUP. They are included in the discussion as an illustration of the semantic process itself. corsaro.“freebooter. 1992) 11 − The first three examples of babushka. W. Part One. hursar. London: Routledge. free-lance”. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. corsare (OED on CD–ROM. Cambridge: CUP. M. D. A History of the English Language. J. 1941– 1991. later “light horseman”. Davis. gursar. English Word-Formation. A Dictionary of Neologisms. ad. Berg. 7. A Guide to the Oxford English Dictionary. 1995. Cambridge: CUP. Ljubljana: Filozofska fakulteta Univerze v Ljubljani. It. 1992.S. kursar pirate. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. commissar and liquidate are different from the rest of the set in that the specialised meanings were adopted into English already from the primary language and did not develop in the borrowing language.

Etymology. G. 1992.com/bohemianbeertours/czech_beers. 1992. 1996 Edition. Oxford English Dictionary on CD–ROM. ---The Oxford English Dictionary. Words and Their Ways in English Speech. 1989. 2nd edition. Springfield.geocities.Greenough. Volume 1 A–Bazouki. 1989. Massachusetts: Merriam–Webster. Y. Electronic sources ---------Encyclopedia Britannica on CD–ROM. ---www. eds. Glasgow and London: HarperCollins Publishers. Sinclair. Oxford: OUP. 1961. Malkiel. Oxford: OUP. Introduction and General Explanations.Webster’s Word Histories.htm . 1995 and 1999 Editions. Cambridge: CUP. J. J. New York: The Macmillan Company. ---.& Kittredge. 1993. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia–World English Edition. The Collins Electronic English Dictionary & Thesaurus.

. Cambridge: CUP.8. and one or more quotes if they are available.1.1.1 Introductory remarks In the corpus the languages follow one another. The reader is advised to refer to one of the following books if he/she shows specific interest in this area: a) Roach & Hartman. and in part on the Collins Cobuild Electronic Dictionary and Fifty Years Among the New Words by John Algeo. Each entry is equipped with etymology. English Pronuncing Dictionary. in alphabetical order. The corpus is based on an etymological search run in the OED. The pronunciation has been abandoned partly for technical reasons. Russian as the most prolific source. APPENDIX 8. and partly because it does not feature importantly in our discussion. explanation. with the exception of Russian. The borrowings are listed alphabetically for each language. is placed at the beginning in order to stress its prominence. CORPUS 8. 1997.

] A department of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party responsible. In relation to Russian and (Soviet) Communist literature [Russ. 1952 Economist 1 Mar. Russ. xvii. 2. spec.1992. . Russ. and placed in his appendix to clays. 3. as a device to disguise dissident political writing in allegorical form and so avoid official censorship.b) Wells. or as adj. 1961 H. Hingley Russ. ezopovski. Also Acmeist. Acmeism [ad.1. f. Gr. Agit-prop. agit-prop [f. agitpróp. 4. Aesopic a.]: using a style or language that has hidden or ambiguous meaning. Aesopian a. formative. 2. akmeizm. 8. in Novaya Zhizn (1905) 13 Nov.g. Saltykov-Shchedrin. a person engaged in agitprop. Lenin Party Organization & Party Lit. [f. variously manifested. Muchnic From Gorky to Pasternak 10 This individualist attitude.C. Unfinished Conversations (1875) iv. Cf. also attrib.] An earthy hydrous aluminous silicate.. e.2 Russian 1. e. for _agitation and propaganda' on behalf of Communism. in pl. Pronunciation Dictionary. esp. cf. 508/2 Any businessman who goes to Moscow in the belief that he will be able to strike an effective blow for anything he believes in and the Communists do not is simply inviting the Agitpro' experts to make a monkey of him. as well as in the entirely personal nightmares of such writers as Leonid Andreyev---was to clash most sharply with the dogma of Soviet art.S. 165 Despite all obstacles writers still found means of communicating. a member or admirer of the Acmeist movement in poetry (usu. One technique was indirect allusion in Aesopic language. Achtaragda a Russian river + -ite min.] An early twentieth-century movement in Russian poetry which rejected the values of Symbolism in favour of formal technique and clarity of exposition. agit(átsiya agitation + prop(agánda propaganda.g. the poetic theory represented by this movement.). considered by Dana a doubtful species. f. e. not only in Symbolism itself but in its several offshoots---Acmeism. its activities. Also (now U.g. Formalism. Harlow: Longman. Futurism. first so used by M. J.) Esopic. achtaragdite Min. with its local branches.E. Writers & Society in Nineteenth Cent. 1977 R. iv. Also transf. ____ acme: see -ism. Also.

1783 Martyn Geog. 277/1 The party bureaucrat. 629/2 The whole tone [of the play] is ten times heavier and cornier than any of the agitprop from the old Unity Theatre.g. etc. apparatchiks. apparatchiki. or artel.. of machinery). apparat [Russ. A kind of cloth used chiefly as an edging or trimming for garments. b.] 1. I found Communist apparat-work much less efficient than its scared opponents presume. e. of ostátok remainder. 262 This is true not only of members of the Apparat but of militant Communists in general. Soc. f. apparatus apparatus.g. 46. 1951 Soviet Stud.1959 Spectator 6 Nov. like the premature scheme for agrogoroda. by corresponding consolidation of villages into what were proudly called “agro-cities”. artel [Russ. away from the controlling influence of BBC apparatchiks. of Russ. undertake particular functions---ploughing. Also attrib. 1885 Jrnl. also. arsheen Also arshine. 78/1 Petroleum residuum or astatki is the only fuel employed in distilling petroleum at Baku. . astatki [ad. 1950 A. Russ. an association of craftsmen or other workers for work in common. apparatchik Pl. -a. a rural city. 1952 ---. artél'shchik]. in artelman [partial tr. chosen without regard for family connections. [Russ.---as and where required. Hodgkinson Doubletalk 27 A brigade..g. 1963 Camb. by partial translation. e. pl. [Russ. 6. apparat apparatus. processing. Ger. artél'.g. f. e. 40 The arshine or Russian ell. Crankshaw Khrushchev's Russia 83 He [sc. 8.as in agronomic a. e.g. a Communist agent or spy. reaping.] In Russia. a. 5. II. agro. a campaign was begun for a great enlargement of the individual kolkhozy by _voluntary' mergers. + górod town. 7. milking. equal to twenty-eight and one-tenth inches English. Also attrib. 158 Under the leadership of the Politburo member Nikita Khrushchev.] The party machine of the Communist party in Russia. e. etc.] A measure of length used in Russia and Turkey. A member of the apparat. Oct. Also attrib. 16 Feb. IV. is distinguished from the ordinary party member by his professional attachment to the party. agrogorod Pl. Rev. 9. e. for as a rule he devotes himself exclusively to party activity. Chem. Ind. but he had had his good schemes too. transf. 2. -town. a functionary of a public or private organization (in quot.g. instrument. ostátki (pronounced a_statki_). 38/5 The radio programmes were put together in the privacy of his own computer-equipped studio at home. 11.] The waste product of the distillation of Russian petroleum atomized with steam and made combustible for use as fuel. 10.Arrow in Blue xxviii. [Russ. e.g. III. agro-city. A member of a political party in any country. Khrushchev] had had his wild ideas. 1959 E. or apparatchik. 1985 Sunday Times 27 Jan. astrakhan a. Also. Mag. 1969 used attrib. who is responsible for the execution of policy.] A group of amalgamated collective farms (kolkhozes) forming an administrative unit. 1955 H. the wool of which resembles fur. i. The skin of still-born or very young lambs from Astrakhan in Russia. Koestler God that Failed i. L. archine.

Mus. found in the Caspian and Black Seas. and called the Scythian Lamb (already referred to by Maundevile. 2. bashlik Also bashluik. and in the estuaries of rivers. reports confirmation of his theory that higher forms of vegetation. one---the Beluga--often measuring 12 or 15 feet in length. beshlik.g. 33/2 The babushka is a peasant-sort of hood you wear over your pretty curls.] A head covering folded diagonally and tied under the chin. Also attrib. e. badiaga [Russ. Lycopodium. e. an erroneous adaptation of Russ. i. bashlýk. p. 17. News Let.g. 1938 Chatelaine Feb. belo-. 1847 Carpenter Zool.. The white Whale (Delphinapterus leucas). 1952 Sci. hence astro-botanist. 18. (1880) 493 The various species of sturgeon attain a great size. 1959 Encounter Oct. of baran ram') applied to species of Clubmoss. 15. 1904 Daily Chron. (Cent.e. 279 Waves. astrobotanika (Tikhov 1945)]. with a triangular body. ch. 16. ba_dyaga _river-sponge. [ad. 1956 Newsweek 22 Oct. Brown Murder can be Fun (1951) vii. similar to trees.). Lex. be_lu_a. deriv. For coats. 14. a. Gard. 1817 in Burrowes Cycl. barometz [App. beluga Also bellougina. 13. . 1791 E. the powder of which is used to take away the livid marks of bruises. 1948 F. white + -uga. bię_luzhina flesh of the beluga. e. 28 Mar. (ed. Amer. babushka Chiefly N. Also transf. Soviet astrobotanist. 1853 in Mayne Exp. exist on Mars. balalaika [Russ. 368/2 Balalaika bands have frequently visited Western Europe.g. e. 12. -u_a. A species of fish: the Great or Hausen Sturgeon (Acipenser huso). be_luga. found in herds in the Northern Seas. the study of plant organisms on the celestial bodies. 1965 Which? Mar. Russ. f. Russ. 264). a head-scarf. [In sense 1.g. hats. an animal of the Dolphin family. Russ. 5 Jan. worn to protect the ears. e. 1869 Nicholson Zool. e. 5) I. trimmings. Fletcher's word is evidently the Russ.S. grandmother. a light covering for the head.] A spurious natural-history specimen. or hood. 106 She wore a greenish mottled babushka and stringy hair pushed out in front of it. formerly represented as a creature half-animal and half-plant. 2 There is much attention [in the Soviet Union] to what is called *astrobotany.. _211 The Beluga or White Whale_rarely visits our own coasts.] A musical instrument of the guitar kind. usually made from wool and mohair. worn by women in the U. Russ. both f. xxvi. 26/2 Gabriel Tikhov. 3/1 The bashluik. baranets (dimin. and their tributary rivers. 96/2 Most astrakhan cloth is imitation fur.] 1. in sense 2. 1753 in Chambers Cycl.g. baba (peasant) woman. astrobotany [ad. [Russ.g. e. augmentative formatives. popular in Russia and other Slav countries. thy golden hair. e. consisting of the creeping root-stock and frond-stalks of a woolly fern (Cibotium barometz) turned upside down. etc. 32/2 A voile scarf tied babushka-style. a. Darwin Bot. 1954 Grove's Dict.g. Supp. gentle Barometz.] A kind of hood with long side-pieces worn by Russians in inclement weather as a protective covering for the head.g. Dict.g.'] A species of alga.

. Theatre 68 The classical example of bio-mechanism is the comedy The Magnificent Cuckold. 152 The maitre d'hotel was turning the blinis over in the pan.g. 172 The Puritan heresy known as Paulicianism or Patarenism or Bogomilism or Catharism. blin. C. Biogeochem. 1941 _R. [Russ. 1938 tr. 1945 E. Russ. biogeokhimiya]. and a. Toynbee Stud. n. 1930 P.] (See quots. and fig.] A. pl.] In Alaska and adjacent regions. the branch of biochemistry that deals with the relation of chemicals found in the soil to living organisms. A person of subversive or revolutionary views. and n. Bogomil. [ad. ba_dárka. of ba_dára an oomiak. e. . Also rarely -ic. a kayak. A member of that part of the Russian Social-Democratic Party which took Lenin's side in the split that followed the second Congress of the party in 1903. 1967 J. Satan and Christ. 21. Pl.] Also biomechanism. biogeochemistry [f. blinis.19. 1898 Century Mag. LV._ Large revolving wheels were also employed.g. Russ. [Yiddish blintse. Vernadsky's On some Fundamental Probl. e.. In this the movements of the performers were so standardized that they seemed to obey some geometric law. West' Black Lamb & Grey Falcon I. Hist. baidarke. of disputed origin. pl. -ki. Russ. may be finally reduced to a precise quantitative mathematical expression of the living nature in its indissoluble connection with the external medium. bidarka Also baidarka. _Bogomilist. f.Gr. blini. 23.g. (1967) III. 672 Their kayaks and bidarkees. med. vi. i. in which the living nature exists.g. transf. geochemistry. f. 25. 412 The small baidarka [was] the same as the Eskimo kayak. [cf. blinets. pancake..g. e.] = blin. 20. -mile Hist.g. bliny. 1961 Woman 21 Jan. Russ. the biological application of geochemistry. 24. Theatre. blintze. in order to register the various emotions that prevailed from time to time in the breasts of the actors. 16/3 Blintzes are cheese-filled pancakes served with jam. [a. seized power in the _October' Revolution of 1917. after Russ. bol_shó_ big. biomechanics. which is a part of geochemistry and has peculiar methods and peculiar problems of its own. and variants. 22. and was subsequently renamed the (Russian) Communist Party. n. 1917 19th Cent. J. dim. England tr._ The Bolsheviki (Extreme Socialists). an out-and-out opponent of the existing social order or accepted codes. _Bogomilism. (See quots.] A member of a heretical Bulgarian sect which arose in the 10th or 11th century. Fülöp-Miller & Gregor's Russ. bol_shevík. 5 Biogeochemistry. July 141 The Mensheviki or Minimalists (Moderate Socialists). bol_shevikí has been used by some English writers. Russ.g. Hence Bogo_milian a. b. whose main tenet was that God the Father had two sons. Bolshevik n. 1939 A. dim. 633 The Bogomil Church is a monument of the successful execution of this project. The Russ.) e. Waugh Brideshead Revisited i. e. bidarkee. the first syllable may represent Russ. Bog God. of blin. iii.) e. hence biogeochemical a. ból_she more. IV. a portable canoe for one or more persons. e. biomekhanika. [ad. f. Beaglehole in Cook's Jrnls.

. boyard Forms: boiaren. Dec.] A breed of dog. Russ.g. f. e. next in rank to a knyaz or prince. boyárin. 514/1 Life in Bolshevisia---such as it was in July 1918.] A member of a peculiar order of the old Russian aristocracy.g. or as adj. Roman. King Russia during War 49 The rising tide of Bolshevikism. borzó_. though still often erroneously applied by English newspaper writers to Russian landed proprietors. f. [Russ.) 7 Feb. Hence Bolshevistic a. with Russ. 1919 H. e. 1940 Tablet 4 May 417/1 Under the Bolshevist-Nazi dictatorship. e. Bolshevikism = Bolshevism.] The doctrines and practices of the Bolsheviks. _Bolshevy [after Muscovy]. as a term of reproach for an out-and-out revolutionary.g. Hubbard Observer's Bk. but Miklosich would connect it with Turkish boj stature. Bulg. the communistic form of government adopted in Russia since the Bolshevik Revolution of October (November). Also attrib. also called the Russian or Siberian wolf-hound. 27. [a. 18 Mar. The part played by the Jews in Bolshevik Russia.] A Russian soup of several ingredients. The word occurs in Byzantine Greek. borzoi Also 9 barzoi. 153 She was slowly mixing a white exclamation mark of sour cream into her borshch.. adj. Bolshevy from within. bolerin. prob. the Bolshevists. 1963 V. [a. = Bolshevist a.e. boyard. esp. 1917. or characteristic of. 30.great. 1917 New Europe 8 Nov. In Romania the boiér still existed (. boyar. 29. e. a supporter of Bolshevism. L. e. who seem to be inspired by a destructive hatred_of civilisation. at Home I. 1921 Times Lit.g. borshch. borshch. lord':---earlier bolyárin. Russ. boi _war'. e. boyaren. bojar. 47 Bolshevism only smashed your house or your business or your skull. beetroot and cabbage.1887) as a privileged class. of. 1926 D.g. 1917 19th Cent. 1920 Chambers's Jrnl. 1919 J. B. Inge Lay Thoughts 29 The cliques of literary Bolsheviks. 1918 Nation (N. pl. Russ. Serb.g. boiér. which may have influenced the later form. Dahl. and others.g.) e. the land of Bolshevism. 28. Lawrence Plumed Serpent ii. 202 The rich _boyars' (as foreigners persist in styling the Russian proprietors of the present day). (The Eng. boyáre _grandee. S. e. 1920 Punch 13 Oct. and held all the highest military and civil offices: the order was abolished by Peter the Great. two hundred million human beings are forced to live deprived of the foundations on which Western civilization was built. Bolshevistically adv. who enjoyed many exclusive privileges. and the word is in Russia only a historical term. p. boyar. bol_shevíst (now disused) Bolshevik. Bolshevism [a. 1879 R. pertaining to. R. Hence .. OSlav.] A Bolshevik. B. 26. Russia under the rule of the Bolsheviks. 112 The good sense of Russian democracy threw off the yoke of Bolsevism. bórzy_ swift. Nabokov Gift iii. H. xx. Russ.g. bolyar. Suppl. Bolshevikize v.Y. 1945 C. but Americanism smashes your soul. bortsch. boyar appears to have been taken from the plural. 1926 W. Also transf. boijlu high. Pollock Bolshevik Adv. 135/1 What Germany is resolved upon is that these lands shall not be Bolshevikized economically. bolshevízm: see Bolshevik. Bolshevist [a. esp. Dogs 30 The Borzoi arrived in England about 1875.g. 1106 The reign of Bolshevists and Terrorists. borsch Also borscht. Edwards Russ. a male dog of the breed called borzáya. S. 282/1 In these Bolshevistic days I should have preferred of course to have started off with _Comrade' or _Brother'. boyard is an erroneous French spelling. = Bolshevize v. root bol.

cantonist. 1591 G. L. boorka. Deutscher Stalin ix.] A massive mineral found at Minsk in the Urals. XV.g. 1927 Ibid. a silico-carbonate of aluminium and sodium. imported from Russia. 1879 Rutley Stud. a Russian statesman: see -ite. 10 Jan. Russ. bylinas.g.g. Also burkha. esp. byliny. bylina Pl. Cadet (second meaning) Also Kadet. K.] A Russian dram-shop or pot-house. xi. Chadwick Russ. in F. 31/4 The Cadets advanced the claim_to a sovereign and democratically elected legislature. Kadét. 37.] The political principles of Bukharin.] In the steppes. e. 482 Boyardism stands a good chance of being vanquished by democracy [in Roumania].] In Russian politics. burán. 33. 1949 I. a Russian leader and editor + -ism. 17 Jan.g. karlúk isinglass. 36. e. 35. 38. xi. dram-shop. like giants in their hairy boorkas and astrakhan caps.boyardism. [Russ. e. So Bu_kharinist a. Turki boran. 14/3 The Kadets must properly be described as radicals. buran [a. the district in which the great majority of the byliny have been collected. . 486 The evils of Trotskyism. [Russ. with ending assimilated to that of cadet1. [Russ. 1958 Times Lit. burka n.] A Russian traditional heroic poem. 32. from Fr. 1854 Fraser's Mag. the names (Ka de) of the initials of Konstitutsiónny_ demokrát Constitutional Democrat. 31.g. 39. 305 When we went on the evening sky was overcast and presently the buran hit us. f. This party was formed in 1905 by a fusion of the group favouring autonomy for Poland and a federal constitution for the Russian empire with the (so-called) Independence Party formed by political exiles at Paris in 1903.] A long Caucasian cloak of felt or goat's hair. the name of N. [ad. the practice of singing byliny has for long been restricted to a limited area. Rocks x. carlock [a.g. Heroic Poetry 2 Even in the province of Olonets on Lake Onega. 108 Cancrinite is probably an altered condition of nepheline. etc. 481 The so-called military cantonists supply a yearly contingent of recruits.g. Bukharin (1888_1938). 1936 P. Fleming News from Tartary vi. Bukharinism [f. kanto_nist. 384 Conspiratorial activities of the Trotskyist and Bukharinist leaders. I. 1848 Tait's Mag. of which it is impossible to estimate the amount. 299/1 Broad-built men. beere. (1836) 58 In every great towne of his realme he hath a caback or drinking house.] The child of a (Russian) soldier in cantonment. e. e. 34. 1678 in Phillips. a blizzard. Suppl. e. and other deviations. Ibid. one accompanied by high winds. Russ. Ibid. cancrinite Min. e. a snowstorm. Fletcher Russe Commw. where is sold_mead. Sept. [Named after Cancrin. Bukharinism. burqa. caback [Russ. Russ. also carlock. a member of the Constitutional Democratic Party. 1932 N. and n.] Isinglass from the bladder of the sturgeon. ad. ka_bak.

42. Brit. chërny_ black + zemlyá earth. 46. chekíst]. 45.g. whereas this had been true only of the Ingush and the Chechens. IX. tchorn-. chark [Russ. noggin. ka) of the initials of Chrezvychá_naya Komíssiya.P. [a. pl.g. Gordon 26 Jan. Brit. 1686 Diary P. tsesarévich. Russ. Hence Chekist [a. e. Also transf. Cheka Also Chay-ka. 1957 R. Tcheka. 1591 G. a type of soil. e. chervontsi. the first race for it will take place in the Second October Meeting. Ser. chernozem Geol. 77 The false impression that the Caucasian peoples_were hostile to Russia. Cesarewitch [ad.g. [Russ. the names (che. Russ. Dicts.] a. 1938 Times 1 Jan. 1953 J. C. (One of) a North Caucasian people. (Spalding Club 1859) Receiving a charke of brandy out of the youngest his hand. chervónets. and in mod. 263 Newmarket. charka. 1819 in Pantologia. e. instituted in 1839. tchern-. N. Also chernosem. Holmes Princ. f. 2) xiv. XIV. Cary Except the Lord 216 Autocracy with a sword is followed by democracy with a cheka. Hence Cheremissian a. chernozëm black earth. _chechény (now chechéntsy). 219/2 The Volga Finns include the Cheremissian on the left bank of the Volga. chervóntsy.1768 in E. as in central and southern Russia. For this reason the soil type is called chernosem. and a. 1965 A. characteristic of natural grassland in cool to temperate semi-arid climates. title as heir to the imperial Russian throne of the prince who became Alexander II. Lambert Music Ho! ii. Buys Dict. forming the major part of the population of the Russian Autonomous Republic of Checheno-Ingushetia. soil.-His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke of Russia having presented the Jockey Club with the sum of 300. 1839 Sporting Mag. and Speculation). tschern-. XIX. 1957 Encycl. [a. [Russ.] Black earth or soil (see black a.] (One of) a Finnish people living in the region of the middle Volga.] A small (Russian) glass or cup. chechén (now chechénets). central Canada. dim. b. or small cuppe. 1934 C. 1879 Encycl. Terms of Art. Russ. 889/1 The Marii were called by the Russians Cheremis. 43.] A long-distance handicap horse-race run at Newmarket. etc. -zi. (ed. and is thus officially announced: The Cesarewitch Stakes-a free Handicap Sweepstakes. 44. to be run for annually. Cheremis(s Also Tcheremiss.U. etc. -sy. Physical Geol.' 41. (1857) 146 They beginne commonly with a chark. Russ.g.] An organization set up in 1917 under the Soviet régime in Russia for the investigation of counterrevolutionary activities (superseded in 1922 by the G. and n. 2nd. or Ogpu). tchervonetz. 19). cheká. Also attrib. Chechen Also Tchechene. of aqua vitae. n.] . 406 The upper layer of the soil profile is black. chervonetz Also chervonets. e. of chara glass. 11/5 A wide application of Chekist methods. 40. becoming brown in depth where there is less humus. f. Pl. 77 The most lynx-eared of the fashionable cheka who are the selfappointed arbiters of vogue. The North Caucasic language of this people. the Finno-Ugric language of this people. Also. Hunt Guide to Communist Jargon xxi. pl. Fletcher Russe Commw. Sabotage. rich in humus. Russ. Extraordinary Commission (for combating Counter-revolution. [a.

235 An hussar was Natasha. i.g. C. B. Russ. in circulation from 1922 to 1947. 50. b. e. n. Maude tr. Hunt Guide to Communist Jargon x. chum.] Among the nomadic peoples of Siberia. and a. chinovnik Also tchinovnik. cherkéshenka. one for summer and another for winter. the initial letters of Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (or Aid). 1963 C. One of these people. pl. Hogg Conf. 1957 N.] A._ Their name means rich in reindeer. n. cherkés (fem. vii.000_but the Chukchi have spread to Kamchatka. adj. choom [Russ. 1954 E. a conical hut or tent of fir poles covered with skins or birch bark. and a Circassian was Sonya. B. as it had in fact been introduced by Peter the Great.). 51. G. a civil servant. a. Also Chukch. 109 At the dancing-class_the thrill of meeting Clive and taking her hand for a moment or two in the peregrinations of the Circassian circle. Jackson Gt. XIII. 250/1 The Chukchi peninsula lies north of the line that would connect Chaun bay on the Arctic ocean with Kresta_bay on the Anadir gulf.] In Russia: an advisory board or committee (see quots. e. x. cherkésy) + -ia: see -ian. (sing. e. Russ. Chukchee. and a. Comecon [Acronym f. esp. Sovet Ékonomichesko_ Vzaimopomoshchi. e. kollégiya. the North Caucasian language of this people. birch-bark tents.g. Of or pertaining to this people or one of their number.] The economic association of Communist countries in Eastern Europe. 1895 F. Of the district which some of them inhabit. Chukchi n. Also attrib. b. a. with a burnt-cork moustache and eyebrows. or connected with the Circassians. of attaching to every People's Commissar a Collegium of members of his Commissariat which he was required to consult before promulgating an order. Tolstoy's War & Peace II. Circassian circle: a type of dance popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 2. e. collegium (see college n. and held his position in some Government office with great pride and solemnity. 49. H.] A. Brit. latinized form of Russ. e. Mackenzie My Life & Times II.g. Chúkcha). a government official. collegium Pl. c. & A. L. 1923 L. a minor functionary. A thin worsted fabric. Also 7 Sarcassen and (of a woman) Sarcashen. Walpole Secret City i. [Russ. Tchuktchi. The language spoken by them.A Soviet bank-note of the value of ten gold roubles. . collegia. A native or inhabitant of Circassia. [f. 47. etc.g. Chúkchi pl.] In Tsarist Russia. [a. 175 A little encampment of Samoyede summer chooms. -cashien. pertaining to. or their language. also. Justified Sinner 341 Rather a gentlemanly personage---Green Circassian hunting coat and turban---Like a foreigner. f. 36 Reference should also be made to the practice revived by the Bolsheviks when they came into power.g. vi. 1957 Encycl.e. Aug. a region in the northern Caucasus. e. Circassia. 1824 J. 1959 D. 25 He was a Chinovnik. A Palćoasiatic people of extreme north-eastern Siberia. Carr Interregnum 32 Narkomfin authorized the acceptance of chervontsy notes for tax payments at the current rate of exchange. tr. 48.).g. native name._ The number of Chukchi in the Chukchi peninsula was estimated at 2.g. 23 When fate must send To live next door Dog-loving dull chinovnik. Circassian n. Davie Forests of Lithuania ii. Frozen Land 82 Of the choom which forms the Samoyad's home there are two kinds. 1. Morier in Murray's Mag. Chukche. Of. a clerk. 1919 H. 52. 1889 V.g. Russ. tr. adj. [a. of Caucasian race but non-IndoEuropean in language. e.

54. spec. f. copique. pike. Russ. and for plenipotentiary Commissars to be appointed in each district to restore order and direct the struggle against anarchy and pogroms. or any of its constituent republics. 265/2 The new Cominform is in business. founded in 1919 and dissolved in 1943. and Bosnia-Herzegovina---were convicted of _Cominformist' sympathies or activities. Russ. 55. komissariát. 459/2 Ministries---as the Commissariats were renamed in 1946---were set up for every major branch of economic activity.) e. a Yugoslav Communist who advocated the return of Yugoslavia to the Soviet bloc.] a. f. (dim. for 22 years. Russ. 87/1 East Germany seems to be weathering the storm better than some in Comecon. Rev.g. Russ.S. 1981 Economist 24 Jan.R. (In 1946 the title was replaced by Minister'. 97/1 As the seventies continued. iii.' or of spreading _hostile propaganda'..] An information bureau set up in 1947 by the communist countries of eastern Europe for the interchange of experience and coordination of activities and dissolved in 1956. [ad. 73 The cominform. . of various crimes _endangering the territorial integrity and the independence of Yugoslavia. originating in Moscow in 1920. the international organization of the Communist Party. Ibid. the head of a government department in the U. forms of com(munist and inform(ation. kopeika.g. e.S. 1984 New Yorker 12 Mar. [f. + -ism. commissar [ad. Revol.. 57.e. [Russ. 1959 New Statesman 25 Apr. (In 1946 the title was replaced by _Ministry'. e. 8 copeik.S. during and after the Revolution of 1917 in Russia. Sukhanov's Russ. a once popular theatre movement in Russia (during the twenties) with the emphasis on machines. the first elements of the Russ. esp. capeck. and transf. i. The theory or use of mechanical structures in theatrical settings.S. concerned mainly with expression by means of constructions (construction 4 a). hundreds of people---most of them in Croatia. a Comintern functionary for much of that time. In full People's Commissar. 9 kopek. 1955 J.g. 58. Lounsbury Backstage from A to Z 24 Constructivism.P. Cominformist. Kosovo. a government department. CIV. the type of art produced by this movement. or the Communist party to be responsible for political indoctrination and organization. form) of kopyé lance. konstruktivízm] a. 1947 in Amer. constructive a. copeck Also 7_8 copec. = commissary 1. C.g. a supporter of the Cominform.g.) e. 1948 Archit. 1958 New Statesman 6 Sept. 1952 Economist 15 Nov.] In the U.. 1959 W. and skeleton construction. and its business is the publication of a new journal from which Communists all over the world will take their cue. Cominform [Russ. 562/3 There is no doubt that Tito knows many damaging things about Soviet and Comintern history: he has been a leader of the Yugoslav C. 53. in military units. constructivism. e. kopięika.] The Communist International. komissár. a government. Also attrib.R.g. and he has had frequent private meetings with Soviet politicians. esp. 299/1 The Renaissance school which took the place of this nihilistic constructivism is also proving worthless in face of the new Soviet architecture.g. deriv. a representative appointed by a Soviet.] [ad. e. 8_9 copeek. b. commissariat [tr. after its expulsion in 1948. the first elements of the Russ. Komintérn.g. 56. An artistic movement. kapeke. Comintern Also Kom-. 62 Braunstein proposed that directives be given_for district committees to be formed. Carmichael tr. Considering both Mexico City and Montevideo_as headquarters for a _Cominform' in the Western Hemisphere. mechanical devices. forms of com(munist and intern(ational. b. e. an information bureau set up by the Communist parties of nine European countries. Speech (1949) XXIV.

datsha.g. but was formally assumed by Ivan IV in 1547. Sunburn. According to Herberstein its actual sense in Russian was king'. Cubo-Futurism [ad. kubo-futurizm (1914): see Cubism and futurism. the 1100 part of a rouble. II. crash towels. for that of his predecessor with a sword. a tyrant. Russ. 1889 Fortn. and Grand Duke of Finland'. now (1893) worth from 14 to 13 of a penny English. 1885. 61. Hence CuboFuturist a. Ibid. f. XLVI. L.] In Russia. Gold. orig. [ad. Bestuzhev-Riumin.g. (citing the contemporary Chronicle of Rostov. e. In Russia it was partially used by the Grand Duke Ivan III. 60. 59. a small house or villa for summer use.] A Russian pie of fish or meat. dacha Also datcha. Caramel. but the Russian popular appellation was still tsar. vi. Pl. 285 This frightful régime of innumerable Tsarlets. 62. e. but it was gradually taken as emperor'. (1880) 106 A basin. 206. on horseback with a lance. czar [Russ. 1462_1505. the colour of unbleached cotton. borne also by Serbian rulers of the 14th c. 2 June 14/1 Strong white _crash' bags. Russ. datche. 1970 Simon & Howe Dict. far though it often is from either Cubism or Futurism. 6 In shades of Peach. 182 The circle of the Moscow Cubo-Futurists. characterized by works treating the subjects of peasant art in the abstract geometrical manner of Cubism. etc. 1981 Oxf.] An early 20th-century movement among Russian painters.g. da(t)chas. e. Hist. L. in the country near a town. a caraffe. attrib. Smyth Pract.g. Zhadova's Malevich i. Russkoya Istoriya.S. Gastron. 237/1 Koulibiac. and generally used as Towelling. A coarse kind of linen. historically. used for towels. and by his son Basil or Vasili. and the official style shortly before the Revolution of 1917 was Emperor of all the Russias. U. i. kulebyáka.g. 1890 Morfill Russia 56 Ivan assuming the cognizance of the double-headed eagle. 1971 Guardian 21 Jan. and Karamzin VIII. 1812 J. boss. coulibiac Also koulibiac. Hence tsarlet. A person having great authority or absolute power. The title of the autocrat or emperor of Russia. 1982 A. Customs 125 A coarse sort of narrow Russia Linen_commonly called Crash. Gray Great Experiment v. 1887 Pall Mall G. 20th-Cent. tsar from Russian tsar. 1927 Daily Express 2 Apr. as the Tsar Stephen Dushan. e. Made of crash.g. Tsar of Poland. White. 1875 I.. transf. _grant (of land)'. cabbage. 16 _Cubo-Futurism' as a general and widely-accepted label gained currency at a time when both critics and general public lumped together the pictures of the Cubists and the poems of the Futurists as equally incomprehensible. Bird Sandwich Isl.So called from the substitution in 1535 of the figure of Ivan IV. 1962 C.] A Russian copper coin. A. Crash. a petty Tsar. 1959 Listener 5 Nov. 1. Rev. dat_ to give. e. . The name of a tint in textile fabrics. a. 784/1 The Czar---as we say---or President of the Motion Picture Producers' Association. Lieven tr. Bracken. Art 138/2 Some historians_have used the term _Cubo-Futurist' to describe this primitivist reaction generally. the complete assumption of it being the achievement of Ivan IV. Cf. a Russian type of pie. 3/3 Mr Krushchev in the country dacha to which he had retired. 63. 1888 Times 27 June 12/1 A tax of half a copeck per pood should be levied on exported corn. and partially taking the title of Tsar.g. 132 The Woodcutter of 1911 is Malevich's first mature Cubo-Futurist work. orig. 2. b.). and n. b. [Russ. via Gothic kaisar from Latin: CAESAR a. e. dácha. crash n [ from Russian krashenina coloured linen] e. Peter the Great introduced the title imperator emperor'. Compan. etc. a sense which it had in other Slavonic languages.

diversionist [f. dëgot_ tar. Russian patron and traveller: see -ite1. désinformation is not recorded until 1954 (Quemada.] e. Ozhegov Slovar_ russkogo yazyka. & Q. of literature.g. to render unfamiliar. i.g. ostranenie (V. of Demidovite. 67. H. tr. e._ Syn. Hence diversionism. Hence (as a back-formation) disinform v. on the accession of the Emperor Nicholas I. June 278/2 Terms like authenticity. defamiliarization. trans. sazhens. perh. Ibid. Also dis-information. 53). Russ. II. 128).g. to subject to defamiliarization. phenomenology. 69. 352 He attempts to defamiliarize and deconstruct the text and thus account for its persuasive power. Lit. 5/1 The Tsar is said_to own in private property. 401 Demidoffite. Species (ed.] In structuralist (esp. dessiatine. 1980 de Borchgrave & Moss The Spike 85 He had proved a willing collaborator in their efforts to disinform the American press. the activity of a diversionist. diversion + -ist. dekabríst. 1984 Review Eng. 9 Oct. Theory. disinformation. e. [f. Matériaux (1971) II. Dagget [etc. dis. trans. was a liberal. e. a million desatines of land. [de. Dekabrist Also Deca-. e. [ad. Russ. cf. XXXV. 105). and formerly as a local application for diseases of the skin.g. 1984 Daily Tel..] A dark tar obtained by the distillation of the bark of the European white birch. des Naturalistes de Moscou XXIX. false information so supplied. lit. in Poétika (1919).+ information. 1955 M. imp. _tenth.g. [ad. the name of Prince Anatoli Nikolaevich Demidov (1813_1870). 1935 Discovery Oct. known as Oil of Birch Tar. mostly in the Baltic Provinces. Russ. attrib. The dissemination of deliberately false information. Soc. disinformation and provocation against him. demidovite Min. to supply with false information. yields an empyreumatic oil. desaetine. e. Shklovski_. in S.g. or as adj. although F. desyatin Also des(s)atine. Russ. 1983 Listener 1 Sept. spec. diversánt] In Communist usage: a saboteur. 68. Also demidoffite. F. [a. 29 Aug. 1982 N. 65. 24/1 He surveyed the range of surveillance and disinformation technology which modern technology has placed in the hands of governments. I. Hey Index Min. 1. and used in the preparation of Russia leather. defamiliarize v. allegedly ad. démidovite (N. e. “making strange”.. daggett Also degote. f. when supplied by a government or its agent to a foreign power or to the media. b. Russ. Stud. 1925 Glasgow Herald 5 Mar. dekábr_ December. e. [ad. cf. in which formal devices are held to revitalize the perception of words and their sounds by differentiation from ordinary language or (subsequently) from other habituated formal techniques.g.] A Russian superficial measure of 2400 sq. Russian Formalist) theory: the process or result of rendering unfamiliar.64. 1901 Daily Chron. also.. in Bull.]. with the intention of influencing the policies or opinions of those who receive it. one who conspires against the government. Nordenskiold 1856. 66. ad. Russ. 2) 214 Demidovite. 70. 299/2 Birch bark_by destructive distillation. dezinformatsiya (1949. tithe'. Silicate and phosphate of Cu. misinformation.g. Petersburg on 26 December 1825. e. . f. alienation and defamiliarization float free of any historically determining pain.II. Fr.] a. esp. desyat_na lit.g. degutt. dessjaetine. as became a descendant of a Dekabrist. Also attrib. 4 Prince Wolkonsky. 9/2 It is Sir James’ position that the Soviets made a conscious decision to seek to discredit the West German politician and mounted a campaign of defamation.] One who took part in an uprising which occurred in St.

doline Geol. a member of a duma or the Duma. constant element in Doukhobor Christianity. 77. 1968 Woodcock & Avakumovic Doukhobors i.g. droog [ad. 1955 G. plain. attrib. e.S. pl. an elective legislative assembly (Gosudárstvennaya Dúma). drozhki. a young ruffian. Archbishop Amvrosii Serebrennikov of Ekaterinoslav. Pl. the name of Feodor Michaelovich Dostoevsky (1821_1881). a Russian low four-wheeled carriage without a top. 72. dvor courtyard. an elective municipal council. droschki. of drogi waggon. e. 402/2 How long ago it seems since the New York Times referred to the spray-can droogs of the subways as little Picassos. e. properly pl. also -bórets.] A depression or basin in a karstic limestone region.g. Russian novelist. 1961 Times 30 Mar. in some German towns the name of the ordinary fourwheelers or fiacres plying for hire. 2 The most important electoral machinery was that created for elections to the imperial duma. to suggest that they were fighting against the Holy Ghost.e.g. dolína valley.] Anthony Burgess’s word for a member of a gang (see quot. Barrie and the children. drug friend. form) douma.] Of. So Fr. knife-edged arętes and pinnacles of bare limestone standing like battlements around dolines covered by montane forest of mossy aspect. 76. 75. but denied collaborating with the Gestapo during the war. 1882 Strathesk Bits fr. ethnonym Anthropol. [ad. drojeka. -ors or -ortsy. 1923 Blackw. hence transferred to other vehicles in use elsewhere. [Russ. 78. Dukhobór.] A house-porter. Ger. one that is relatively extensive and funnel-shaped. [f. dvornik [Russ.. and prop. [Russ. e. dvórnik. Carson Electoral Practices in U. or characteristic of.R. pl. 1955 Times 1 July 10/6 He pleaded Guilty to political crimes and diversionist activity. dolina. 203/2 The _dvornik' had been with the family for years.] A member of a Russian religious sect which originated in the 18th century. Also Dostoievskian. Russ. Feb. an accomplice or henchman of a gang-leader. 74. esp.g. B. droshka.S. 1984 Times Lit. which was established in 1905 by a ukase of Tsar Nicholas II and lasted until the Revolution of 1917. -bórtsy. 15/2 Jesus is shown as a despised Dostoevskian epileptic. 1962). Russ. 13 Apr. .] A kind of vehicle: orig. e.g. 1838 J. hearse. Also attrib. L. when he invented it in 1785. f. many of whose members emigrated to Western Canada in the late nineteenth century after persistent persecution. spirit-wrestler (see spirit n. duma Also (in Fr. of droga perch. Suppl. consisting of a narrow bench on which the passengers sit astride or sideways. -bóry. droshky. and it was intended by the archbishop. -ki. Dosto(y)evskian a. 19 The name of Doukhobor was first used in anger and derision by one of their opponents.g. or _reach' of a fourwheeled vehicle. 71. dim. Hence dumaist. the Duma. drosky. Doukhobor Also Dukh-. dúma. -ke. droska. etc. Dostoevsky or his work e. There is a central. Mag. 73. Greece. It means _Spirit Wrestlers'. their feet resting on bars near the ground. 71/1 The drosky boy_dressed in a long surtout_sits on the end. Russ.] In Russia. [ad. Stephens Trav. Also droitzschka. 1962 Nature 16 June 1037/2 Vertically walled.g. Blinkbonny xiii. e. 23 c). 294 He met the drosky containing Mrs.g. droskcha. Ibid. droschke.

iv. ethnonymics.Y. 1985 in a speech accepting the post of General Secretary of the CPSU has subsequently led to its being associated particularly with his policies. word is recorded in dictionaries from the eighteenth century. a person with practical training in medicine and surgery. . Bower Short Guide Soviet Life 58 There are also 600 schools for training nurses. G. e. have rediscovered the value of Lenin's dictum that _glasnost'.g. étnonim (cf._ On the other hand. it seems. A. 1985 Jrnl. 421 Ferganite. [ad. Also applied transf. ferganit (I. meaning frankness. one which it calls itself.+ -nym. Mag. greater freedom of speech and information arising from this policy. and called for in an open letter to the Soviet Writers' Union by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in 1969. Ferg(h)an-a (see Feraghan): see -ite1. gorbuscha Also garbusche. ferganite may represent a leached or weathered product of tyuyamunite. Nenadkevich that ferganite is identical with tyuyamunite. godless the Godless [Russ. is a desirable form of conduct. 7). including the publication of news reflecting adversely on the government and political system. Also ferghanite. humpback. [Russ. 81. M. as in homonym. 34). bezbózhnik]: the title of a union (and its press organs) in Soviet Russia. 259). f. spec. Its use by Mikhail Gorbachev on 11 Mar. lit. 10 Oct. 1981 N. 80. e. It was used in the context of freedom of information in the Soviet State by V. pseudonym. the study of ethnonyms (1939). Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. A.. 84. XX. a7/1 The Russians.S. as sing. the Russian word for openness or publicity. 82. e. fol_kloristika (1926. Russ. 1910 Mineral. Malkiel in Current Trends in Linguistics III. Yu. 6/7 Soviet scientists had been transporting the eggs of gorbuscha from Sakhalin Island to the rivers of the Kola Peninsula. Russ. e. Amer.g. & Search for New Ideals in U. Antipov 1908. folkloristics n. having for its primary object the suppression of religion. e.] A hydrated vanadate of uranium. 294 It has already been suggested by K.R. IV. 1985.] In Russia. 6/6 What about Mr Gorbachev's exciting campaign for greater glasnost'. 1967 G. but without professional medical qualifications.[f.] The humpback salmon. app. fél'dsher. e. for example. folklore as a discipline or subject of research. gorbúsha.] A proper name by which a people or ethnic group is known. ferganite Min.] In relation to the affairs of the Soviet Union: a declared party policy since 1985 of greater openness and frankness in public statements. 79. (const. ad. Russ. [ad. in tackling defects in the Soviet system? 83. Times 13 Mar. a local medical auxiliary. also étnonimika. glasnost [Russ.).g. folkloristic] The study of folklore. to similar developments in other countries. Lenin. feldscher Also feldschar.S. _the fact of being public. but did not become a subject of serious public debate in the Soviet Union until an Izvestiya editorial requested letters on the subject on 19 Jan. in Górnyi Zhurnál lxxxiv. 360 Refractory ethnonyms fell into desuetude in Romance. a physician's or surgeon's assistant. 1925 Ibid. feldscher field surgeon. gorb hump. pl.g. 95 Publication of atheist propaganda was_revived in 1947 when the Association of Militant Godless was dissolved and the Society for Dissemination of Political and Scientific Knowledge established. openness to public scrutiny or discussion'. ethno. but in the more general sense of _publicity'.g. feldsher. feldshers (auxiliary nurses) and midwives.g. 1966 Y. f. von Stackelberg in Fletcher & Strover Relig. 1986 Daily Tel. XV. glasnost_. Russ. 1960 Guardian 15 Nov. [ad. 331 The following contribution to the folkloristics controversy is intended to shift the discussion_away from a condemnation of the term toward a consideration of terminology. I. 1957 H. f. The Russ. Folklore XCVIII. Sokolov in Khudozhestvenny_ Fol_klor I. Sovetskaya Étnografiya (1946). a.

11/1 Can you use the roe of any other fish but sturgeon and sterlet as caviar.] Young males of the northern. Sidorenko 1901. informatician. 119)]. granduca. Grand Duke.R.g. hydrotroilite Min. 73/2 Informatics is the discipline of science which investigates the structure and properties (not specific content) of scientific information. 35)] informatical a. Before Peter the Great.-Russie XXIV.] 1.g. informatics [tr. Obs. = bachelor 4 c. Ingushes. groszherzog. e.S. Ingush Also Ingoush. e.] a. 214 The Emperor [of Russia] had been in England before when Grand Duke.) The title seems to have been first assumed by the ruler of Tuscany in the 16th c. (The governments of the constituent republics also have Gosplans. in Nauchno-tekhnicheskaya Informatsiya XII. 171 he is reported as having used the term in his lectures for many years)] Usually. Pribilof.) e.nH2O. 2 c. [ad.S. One of a North Caucasian people. the name of the former autonomous area of Ingush. 1973 Lancet 24 Feb. much used by ballad singers formerly. Russ. Navashin: in Zhurn. the title of any of the sons of an emperor. I. idiogramma (S. gidrotroilit (M.85. [ad. The title of the sovereigns of certain European countries (called Grand Duchies). 1901 Munsey's Mag. Russ. as you call it? 92. State Planning Committee (of the Council of Ministers) of the U. [ad.g. the rank so designated is understood to be one degree below that of king. Russ. 1962 Economist 16 June 1078/2 There is no sign as yet of a budding Gosplan in the Soviet block. collect. Brit. holluschickie n.R.. icary. Instruments 206 A true psaltery of medieval vintage survives in Russia in certain forms of gusli. e. ikra caviare. forming the minor part of the population of Checheno-Ingushetia. a diagrammatic or systematized representation of a chromosome complement (of one cell or of many) indicating the number of chromosomes.] An organization formed in 1921 to draw up plans for the development of the national economy of the U. [ad. abbrev. (Cf.. 15 Feb. 355/1 The holluschickie who have reached the age when they contemplate matrimony. a black hydrated ferrous sulphide. 952/1 The young males or bachelors (holloschickie). Callorhinus ursinus. Ingush. C. Gosplan [Russ.g. methodology and organization. 1961 A. 89. 1.S. Russian veliki kniaz. F. Obshch.g. . gosplán. gúsli. holluschuckie. duke 2. Russk. [a. 90. XVII. or ikra. 93.g. The North Caucasic language of this people. e. [a. Russ. 1875 T. grand duc. in Mém. Baines Mus. Mikhailov et al. kholostyakí pl. Martin Prince Consort I. IX. 1929 Encycl. In pre-revolutionary Russia. their relative lengths. Russ.] = caviare. Bot. history.. Soc. or Alaska fur seal. Also attrib. its theory. 1967 FID News Bull. the sovereign of Russia was styled Grand Duke of Muscovy' in European diplomacy. 420/1 Strictly speaking the actual pictures [of chromosomes] are karyotypes. See duke. etc. informátika (A. Also holloschickie.S. 86. 88. idiogram Cytology and Med. 87. 1887 Pall Mall G.] A Russian musical instrument resembling a zither. Russ. the position of the centromeres. e. b. 91. as well as the regularities of scientific information activity. Ingúsh. and an idiogram is a diagram of the chromosome state of an individual.g. pl. a literal rendering of It. In 6 ickary. a. bachelors. 1966. of Gosudárstvenny_ plánovy_ komitét (sovéta minístrov) SSSR. Naturalistes Nouv. Pl. gusli [a. ikary. (1921) VI. Ingoushee. b. e. FeS. G. or as adj. occurring in the mud of lakes and inland seas. XXV. Russ.

lit.g. f. of inostránny_ turíst foreign tourist. young plants. a Russian soldier (as typical of the Russian army). referred to in German publications as “Jarowisation”. intelligentia intelligence n. 3 The Russian word “Jarovizatzia”. U.S. the class of society regarded as possessing culture and political initiative.] Name of the State Travel Bureau of the U. intelligéntsiya. found as tabular crystals in pegmatites in the Inagli massif.R.g. U. Russ. and presided over the local court which was an administrative rather than a judicial body. [Russ. the official Russian agency_and apply for a tourist visa. [ad. 100.g. described as a new mineral of the perovskite group_has a high thorium and rare earth content. to low temperatures in order to hasten subsequent flowering. The technique of exposing seeds. who was elected by the nobility.g. also. Ivan [Russ. a Chechen dialect (Eastern Caucasian group of the North Caucasian family of languages). 1962 Observer 20 May 21/1 We lived in a tiny isba. 1963 Doklady Earth Sci. 1943 E. 1971 H.] Used for: a Russian. 1972 Guardian 8 Sept.g. XCVII. i. Seton-Watson Russ.. innelite Min. M.S. innelit (S. Pl.. 95. or log cabin. e. 89. ispravnik Hist. A. 9.] An oxide-hydroxide of sodium.R. Russ.] The part of a nation.g. cerium. 1297/1 Innelite_was discovered in 1957 in aegirite-akermanitemicrocline pegmatites of the Inagli massif which occur in dunites. Seton-Watson in A. izba. thorium. 1954 Pei & Gaynor Dict. irinit (Borodin & Kazakova 1954.S. isba Also isbah. [ad. 29 You go to any travel agency that has an arrangement with Intourist. e. the name of Irin-a Dmitrievna Borneman-Starynkevich. CXLI. Russ. Rock-forming Min.S. Russian geochemist: see -ite1. jarovization Also iarovization. Russ. 101. Yakut name for the Inagli river: see -ite1. etc. ispravniks. 139/1 The revolutionary propensity of the intelligentsia has been definitely correlated with the extent of the cultural gap between the educated élite and the mass of the people. married. Empire i. titanium. irinite Min.R. and belonging to the perovskite group of minerals. 725). e.e. 96. 51 Irinite. e..Na2SO4. yarovizátsiya] = vernalization. in Doklady Akad. e. [1933 Whyte & Hudson in Bull. 20 The chief executive officer at the uezd level was the ispravnik. Inneli.S.).] A yellow-brown complex silicate of barium.S.R. e. Ling.S. 1962 W. = John. Intourist [Russ. Gunther Inside Russia Today i. abbrev. 1958 J. Russ. M. 12/4 A situation in which Ivan continues to come a lot cheaper than GI Joe. had my own izba. in pre-revolutionary Russia. Inturíst. L. and niobium occurring as red-brown crystals in the Khibiny Massif.g. [ad. Bullock 20th Cent. V. I was twenty-one. 101 Ingush. 99. [ad. ispravniki. Almedingen Frossia ii. 98. intelligentsia Also (formerly) intelligenzia. e. together with three other families. 94. esp.] A Russian hut or log-house. f. has here been translated by the . that aspires to intellectual activity.S. izbá (related to stove n.] A chief of police in a rural district in Tsarist Russia. the natural process induced by cold weather which this technique imitates. [f. owned my own livestock.. orig. near Ba4Ti312Si4O18(OH)112. _executor'. e.g. Imperial Bureau Plant Genetics No. Nauk S. 97.g. 1967 H. ad. Deer et al. Kravchenko). South Yakutsk.

103. Poyer Chinese Agenda (1973) xiii. (With small initial letter. The language of this people. Vsesoyuz. jeremeievite. a.g. e.] A sulphate of potassium and strontium. Abstr. 1883 Encycl. 7_9 Calmuc(k. the doctrines of this party. Bashkir. A. kalashnikov [Russ. They were ascetic. e. vi. H. 1963 Mineral. 1883 Amer. i. [f. approved works of charity. Brit. 618 Probably it was inevitable that the Josephites and the Non-Possessors should clash. [f. Japan I. 128/1 Calmuc.g. Obshch. Ibid. S. Christianity xxvii. e. Also Kabard.] A. and a. 712). from the Khirghiz district. Jrnl. kalmyk. xl. A member of one of the peoples inhabiting the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic in the northern Caucasus. Central Asia. Ser. b. 1940). Fidlon tr. a Russian zealot. Josephitism. Caucasus 14 She was a graceful Kabardinian girl with a healthy suntan. e.S. e. 1953 K. 106. Mineral. Also attrib.g. b. kali1) + strónts-i_ strontium + -it -ite1. kalistrontite Min. e. Kalmuck Also 8 -muc. 1965 D. -myk. a new mineral. 478 Jeremeieffite. kalistrontsit (M. n. Dict. of Caucasian race but non-Indo-European in language. 750/2 The Kalmuk and East Mongolian dialects do not differ much. V. related ethnically to the Circassians. e. Abbot of Volokolamsk. [Named 1883 after Jeremejev or Yeremeieff. [ad. Russ. Voronova 1962. Latourette Hist. Kalmuckian a. Scheuchzer tr. 9 -muk. Josephite Also Josephine. and Miss M.] The name of a type of rifle or sub-machine gun made in the U. iii. Of. 2.. Kuipers Phoneme & Morpheme in Kabardian 8 The Kabardians differed from their Western relatives in that they formed a well-developed feudal ceremony. 1727 J. Trunov's Trip N. Kabardan.latinized equivalent “vernalization” in consultation with the School of Slavonic Studies. Ibid. the Israelis had burst through the door. London. L.R. is named kalistrontite. Also attrib. káli-_ potassium (cogn. w. pertaining to. XVI. Kabarda (place-name) + -ian._ In Kalmuk_the guttural can only be traced through the lengthening of the syllable. 1940 Chambers's Techn. The Josephites believed in the maintenance of a close tie between Church and State. -ieffite Min. 107. in Zap. 181 These Kalmucks are strictly traders. G. a Russian mineralogist + -ite. . 905 The Josephites believed in the possession of property by the monasteries and the Church. found as colourless hexagonal crystals. XVI.g. a coarse type of wool. adj.g. A member of a Mongolian people living on the north-west shores of the Caspian Sea. 1960 A. 1/8 He ran to get his kalashnikov (a Russian assault weapon) but when he returned.S. 1973 Times 11 Apr. The north-western Caucasian language of this people. K2Sr(SO4)2.S.R. f. 183/2 A new potassium and strontium sulphate found in saline anhydrite rocks from a borehole near the village of Alshtan. the name of St. or as adj. Kabardinian. B. resembling bearskin (see also quot.] A member of an ascetic and caesaro-papist party formed among Russian Orthodox monks in the sixteenth century. e.g.S. and stressed ritual. 105.) A kind of shaggy cloth. Russ. 180 A caravan of Kalmuck traders. XXV.] A transparent colourless borate of aluminium occurring in hexagonal prisms. 90 The Prince of the Calmuckian Tartars. belonging to the Ural-Altaic group. Kabardin(e). [Russ. Josephism2.g. Kćmpfer's Hist.g. 1972 J. 1947 [see Buriat]. Joseph (1439_1515). Cytovic 102. Kabardian n. Sc.] 1. 104. or characteristic of the Kabardians or their language. a. XCI.

. f. beryllium.g. is a major export and is well supported by karakul pelts. Lowie Hist. 110. karpinskiit (L. shape. name of a province and lake in Bokhara. The chromosomal constitution of a cell (and hence of an individual. valued as fur. in Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR CVII. Ethnol. 1956 Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR CVII. kamish [ad. Speech XXIV. Upsalienses I. b. Russ. i.] 1. e. 1971 Guardian 19 Jan. coined by Delaunay in sense 2. Russ. 1973 Lancet 24 Feb. occurring as radial aggregates of white. 1932 H.g. 2. 2 The vast beds of kamish reeds_which stretch for miles from the slow flood of the Kuban to the Persian shore of the Caspian. 1973 Times 3 Feb. Russ. A. _Kasha' (a Russian buckwheat porridge beige). Lewitsky in Trudy po Prikladno Botanike i Selektsii XXVII. 15 The Kamchadal cooked meat in wooden troughs filled with water into which they threw heated rocks. as observed at metaphase during cell division). 1931 it was later coined independently (again in Russ. and magnesium. a.and -type. Karpinsky (1847_1936).) by Lewitsky (1924). 1960 Times 31 May (S. etc. but merely for designation of nuclear peculiarities of a given organism or systematical unit. kamýsh reed. Shilin 1956. Delone (Delaunay) 1922. kariotip (L. b.g. of the chromosomes (usually. species. A systematized representation of the chromosomes of a cell or cells.) as determined by the number. in sense 1 a. carakul. the name of A. [Russ. Katyusha . Kamchadal Also Kamtchat(ka)dale. e. e. Na2(Be. 737). and _smoke'.g. Karakul. Biol. independently from Delaunay. 114. 420/1 Strictly speaking the actual pictures are karyotypes. 1937 R. the kasha (buckwheat) and the tzimmes.Zn. e.] A hydrous alumino-silicate of sodium. I have proposed myself. [ad. needle-shaped crystals. 221.g. but according to quot. [ad.] A group of species having similar karyotypes (sense 1 a). karakul Also caracul(e). Russ. The language of this people. A beige colour resembling that of buckwheat groats. a sheep of this breed..] a. H. Obs. rare. a kind of cloth made in imitation of karakul. karyotype n. 113. e. [After the original meaning of the Russ. vi/7 Wool. G. etc. 1. 1964 R. kasha Also casha. the same term “Karyotype”. Phragmites communis.Mg) Al2Si6O16(OH)2. [Russ. and an idiogram is a diagram of the chromosome state of an individual. Afr. wavy curl and give their name to a common variety of skin very common in the industry called karacul. A gruel or porridge made from cooked buckwheat or other meals or cereals. Suppl. size. of course.108. and Med. Orig. A breed of sheep with coarse wiry fur. N. 111 The species [of Primula] can be divided according to their nuclear constitution into different cytological types called “karyotypes”. A member of a Mongoloid people inhabiting the Kamchatka peninsula on the Pacific coast of Siberia. 1949 Amer.) p. 13/5 You can try the kneidlach soup (with matzo-meal dumplings). 111. open. esp. also spelled carakul.] The common reed. 95 Lambs from China or the interior of Asia possess pelts distinguished by a flat. 628 (table of contents) Karpinskyite---a new mineral. as karakul cloth. Kamt(s)chadale. [Russ.] 1. e.] a. f. The glossy curled coat of a young karakul lamb. geologist: see -ite1.g. where the breed originated. karpinskyite Min. 49): see karyo. a photographic one e. 9/3 Principal colours are navy. Theory ii. 2. 112. L.b. zinc.. 1931 G. Also attrib. in Vestnik Tiflisskogo botanicheskogo Sada 2nd Ser. 109. karacul.g. Bruun in Symbolae Bot. P. Perry World of Tiger i.

or pl. and a. 122. a sledge with a tilt or covering. lit. word. 117. mainly to spite Harry who invariably fell over when he tried. Russian ascetics originating in the seventeenth century.] e. I remembered what Barlev had told me about the 120-mm. Giles Provenance of Death iii.] A black sulphide of copper. for a step of this dance.] A. 1956). Also kesterite. T. adj. Pl.] A Slavic. 1968 I. e. Relig.. Orlova. qubbat _tent covered with skins'. or West Kipchak Horde. range of about eleven kilometres. Kirghis. Kirgiz.] A Russian rocket launcher. dance with a fast and usu. A member of a Mongolian people of central Asia. 1 Formerly known as dog salmon.S. n. Kazakh Also K(h)asa(c)k. 1972 E. tin. Ambler Levanter vi. 170. 1959 Chambers's Encycl. Chlists.g. who believed that Christ could be reincarnated in human beings through their suffering. the acc. e. a Turkic dialect. in the prisoners' kabitkas that stood ready to receive them. e. 1972 Times 11 Dec. 1967 D.Fe)SnS4. Siberia: see -ite1. Chlists.g. 1966 K. Kazak. (Kazakhstan). zinc.] 1. Tartar kibits. 121. It is caught all along the coast of British Columbia. e. kibitka Also 8_9 -ki. quickening tempo. 2. V.g. Also Khirgese. ad.. The language of this people. used by the Tartars.g. e. Kipchak Also Qipchak. Arab. Jagatai. the name given to the western division of the great Mogul empire_after_1241. e. Këster. kazachoc Also kozatchok and other forms repr. forming the basic population of the Kazakh S.g. kibitka.. e. kësterit (Z._ The neighbouring East Kipchak Horde was known as _White'. Khlysts. transf. B. e. 1962 Co-op Grocery News Bull.g. or as adj. A circular tent made of lattice work and covered with thick felt. [Russ. kësterite Min. 2/1 His typical studio should be a kibitka of the Steppes. A Russian wagon or sledge with a rounded cover or hood. [ad. tent. of the Russ. 426/2 Golden Horde.g. in which the male dancer squats on his heels and kicks out each leg alternately to the front. Sometimes used erron. 118. Kirghiz n. a. Khlisti. has also been called the qualla.g. dim. f. [Russ. Kostov Mineral. keta Also _keth. the chum. Kazakhi.] A member of a sect of ascetic Russian Christians. a Tartar household or family. . Kazakhs. f. 115. 147 Sakuraiite_is considered an indium analogue of kesterite. [Russ. [Russ. Khlist Also Chlist. Terms. with the scientific name Oncorhynchus Keta. the language spoken by this people. Russ. and iron.] One of a Turkic people of central Asia. VI. 1855 Englishwoman in Russia 79 They were hurried off to Siberia. mainly Ukrainian. name of its locality in Yakutia. or their language. Khlyst. Pl. Kauffman Dict. Cu2(Zn. [Russ. ii.g. suffix -ka: cf. or Klysty flagellants. of kazák Cossack. keta and calico salmon. formed in the 17th century. a whip. b. (Saskatoon) 1 Aug.[Russ. 1/7 An 800-mile border with China.R. 1899 Daily News 14 Jan. 120. 78 She switched on the player and danced the Kazachka. Khlysty. 116. 9 -ke. [Russ. Of or pertaining to this people. Also attrib. with Russ. Qazaq. It crosses mountainous areas which provide pasture land used by Kazakh and other hill shepherds. tilt-wagon. 274 Khlysts. 119. properly called the prisiadka. Katyusha rocket: fifty kilo warhead.

G.) 27 May 2/4 He consumed three meat knishes. as in the rose-red varieties [of chlorite] kämmererite and kotschubeite. kolkhos. kotschubeit (N.] A. 1971 Whitaker's Almanack 1972 966 The Kirghiz S. or kolkhoznik. Kochubei. of the total rubber in the plant. kisél_. kolkhozy. Almedingen Frossia viii. Brit._ The roots contain about 90 per cent. e. collective farm. Russ. [ad.g. _kolkhoznik (pl. 369).g. e.g. . Taraxacum koksaghyz. which is boiled and thickened with potato or cornflour. A. or collective farm. spec. the Japanese mink. stir into the blackberry puree. knish. e. f. knut.g. formerly used in Russia as an instrument of punishment. the name of Count P.S.S. Russ. kolkhoz. etc.S. is a symbol of the crude rustic for city dwellers. Russ. knish [Yiddish. or cheese. e. de St. kolkhozes.] A dumpling of flaky dough filled with chopped liver. 1935 Huxley & Haddon We Europeans vii. von Kokscharow 1863. n.] A kind of dandelion. name of a port in north-west Russia. 1955 H. adj. kolinsky Also kolinski. Ironside Fashion Alphabet 155 The Siberian China mink is known as Kolinsky.[ad. 1969 Guardian 15 Aug. two blueberry knishes. Russ. 212 Ethnologists use the word [sc. a member of this people. [f. and baked or fried. now chiefly inhabiting the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.] A mineral of the chlorite group that is a chromiferous variety of clinochlore and occurs as rose-red rhombohedral crystals. [Russ. a member of a kolkhoz. Turki] loosely and in several different senses:---_(b) To designate a certain ethnic group of which the Turks._ He has seen Sovhozes and Kolhozes. 123. 1855 Tennyson Maud i. iv. f. 7/4 Blackberry kissel. Hodgkinson Doubletalk 27 Each worker. and n. 4/4 A kolkhoz. 1968 J. kok-saghyz [ad. viii.] A name for the fur of a Mustela sibirica. 125. B. Also attrib.g. VI.] A kind of whip or scourge. kissel Also keessel. [a.R. Also 8 knoute. in Bull. knysh a kind of cake. French spelling of Russ. potato. Kir_ghizian a. f. has to give between 100 and 150 work days on the common land. -niki). 127. 256 Alumina may also be partly replaced by chromic oxide. 285 He knows Russia. Also transf. J.g. their Turkic language. Of or pertaining to the Kirghiz. Rodin). whose roots contain a latex used for making rubber. very severe and often fatal in its effects.-Pétersbourg V._ Blend the cornflour with a little cold water. occupies the north-eastern part of Soviet Central Asia and borders in the south-east on China. Kirgíz. 19th-century Russian mineralogist: see -ite1. of Turkic origin.C. 18 Kok saghyz (Taraxacum kok saghyz. 8_9 knoot. This plant was discovered in 1931. knowt. 1910 Encycl. 128. A widespread Mongolian people of west central Asia. 1943 E. e. Imp. Russ.g. M. Also kotschubeite. Kola. 1972 Guardian 4 Aug.] A sweet dish made from fruit juice mixed with sugar and water. des Sci. 1973 Daily Colonist (Victoria. kok-sagyz. four potato knishes and two cream-filled knishes. Shall I weep if an infant civilisation be ruled with rod or with knout? 126. knout n. kol(lektívnoe khoz(yá_stvo. 1954 H.. e. de l'Acad. 124. Pl.R. e. the Kirghis and the Tatars are best known. e. kochubeďte Min.] A collective farm in the U. kolkhoz Also kolhoz. 129. Stern Rubber i. B. [ad.g. and with the brandy.

chumis. Vernadsky 1922. kremlin. Russ. 314 Our evidence suggests. spoken by about 1.g. e. that kolovratite is a hydrous zincnickel vanadate. 136. 1973 Nat. or as adj. 16/5 At Sothebys.R.] A greenish-yellow amorphous or finely crystalline mineral that is probably a hydrous vanadate of nickel and zinc. [Russ. U.g. Russ. the Koryak people. [a. Koryáki (pl. or possibly a silico_vanadate. Lawrence for _210. Koriak. a language. e. 8 kremelin. etc.g. The Kremlin (in Moscow): (used for) the government of the U. The Kremlin is the only world capital powerfully arrayed against crossing the new frontier. 1966 Daily Tel.S. 1892 Daily News 28 Dec. Also attrib.). 15 Sept. esp. kovsh Pl. Sci. b. a region. Rend. . 133. 18/7 People who referred to their head offices as _the Kremlin'_were somehow lacking in motivation.] a. as she prefers to spell it). a member of this people. S. kumisse. f. Isabel Hapgood_gives some interesting particulars of koumiss (or _kumys'. went to G. classified in the Hyperborean or PalaeoAsiatic group. 1967 J. de Russie A. komsomól. a territory. [Russ. koumiss Forms: (cosmos. 134. b. [Russ. koomiss. which contains the imperial palace and various public buildings. e. Kolovrat-Chervinsky (1884_1921). kolovratite Min.S. Geographic May 606/2 The Komsomol (Communist youth organization) in her district had advertised openings at Togliatti stating that a modern low-rent apartment was part of the employment contract. Koryak Also Korak. koumiss. in Compt.] a. [ad. catarrhal affections. Kremlinology. as phthisis. The Palćo-Asiatic language of this people. 131. vi.000 persons in north-eastern Asia. cossmos: see cosmos). from Kazan Tatar kumyz] A fermented liquor prepared from mare's milk. Also attrib. commonly used as a beverage by the Tartars and other Asiatic nomadic peoples. kray Also krai. d. kovshi. Russian radiochemist: see -ite1. e. (kumish). a member of this organization. khoumese). 1954 Pei & Gaynor Dict. a member of the Chukchi-Kamchadal family of languages. 116 Koryak. A people inhabiting the northern part of the Kamchatka peninsula. short f. [Russ. e. 1884 Pall Mall G. (kimmiz. kolovratit (V. 5/4 Mrs. Komsomol Also Comsomol. I. that of Moscow. Cole Geogr. Kremlin Also 7 cremelina. 9 kremle.S. a squat wine jug. cosmus.S. The citadel or fortifed enclosure within a Russian town or city. 1973 Times 19 Feb. however. koumis. 1962 Canad. anćmia. also.g.g.] In the U. f. the name of L.. 1961 Evening Bull. also applied to a spirituous liquor distilled from this. F._ Sometimes patients spend six or seven summers at the koumiss establishments. rather than a nickel vanadate as inferred in the original description. kumiss.. Koriac(k). Mineralogist VII. chlorosis.. P. kumis. 18 Oct. Kommunistícheski_ Soyúz Molodëzhi Communist Union of Youth. (in trivial use). attrib. The fermented beverage is used dietetically and medicinally in various diseases. Ling. 101 In Siberia some krays and oblasts are enormous.S. 37).S. and for these purposes imitations are also prepared from asses' milk and cow's milk.130.R. 11/2 The koumiss cure is growing greatly in popularity. de l'Acad. kumys(s._ A Russian silver and enamel kovsh. and extend from the Trans-Siberian Railway as far as the Arctic Coast. of Tartar origin.] A ladle or container for drink.] An organization of Communist youth in Russia.R.g. 132. Also transf. 135.g. e. a second-order administrative division. e. the study and analysis of the Soviet Government and its policies. kreml citadel. [ from Russian kumys. (Philadelphia) 5 Mar.

Russ.] (A name proposed for) an artificially produced transuranic element. in the Soviet Union. [ad. Mineralogist LVI. 1959 New Statesman 23 May 711/3 Aesthetic considerations never played a part in the previous drives for a more kulturny mode of life.g.I. e. a spy and an enemy agent. Caucasus 218. 1115 The present work shows once again that the doubts expressed by the Berkeley group_concerning the chemical identification of kurchatovium are completely unfounded. Chem. 769 These Tschudish kurgans abound in copper and gold articles_but contain neither bronze nor iron. a peasant-proprietor working for his own profit. kulák fist. VII. I. Russ. 8/8 Kremlinology gone wild. [ad. 5 Since kryzhanovskite is predominantly the ferric equivalent of the phosphoferrite group. Russ. 1970 New Scientist 1 Jan. atomic number 104. such an analyst. & Nucl. the name of Igor Kurchatov (1903_60). S. 139. [Russ.g. Kazakhstan.civilized. Symbol Ku. Russian mineralogist: see -ite1. 96 Another common type of Persian lamb is the krimmer. also transf.g. pl. e. krimmer Also crimmel.] In the Soviet Union: cultured. f. kulak Also koolack. Mikes Down with Everybody 48 He was a kulak. 15/1 The improved grain husbandry_may favour the rise of _kulaks' or _improving landlord' groups. Kremlinologist.] A hydrated borate of magnesium. University i. civilized. 1971 Times 22 Jan. which often and quite properly turned out to be the C. but now he had realised his mistake---namely that it was a mistake to be a kulak. kulturny a. f. kurchatovium Chem. Russ. 143. e. kurchátovi_ (Flerov & Kuznestov 1967. 1971 Amer.S. tight-fisted person. 138.] A prehistoric sepulchral tumulus or barrow in Russia and Tartary. 137. kryzhanovskit (A. which were more concerned with manners than with the cultivation of good taste.g. Also transf. Kurnakov (1860_1941). I.] A grey or black fur made from the wool of young lambs in or near the Crimea. I remarked two green basins._ They had been found in a kurgan.S. Krim (Russ. 1890 Huxley in 19th Cent. Turki kul hand. in Doklady Akad. of Tartar origin. Other strains of lamb can be dyed to simulate krimmer. [f. f. 1141/2 In kurnakovite an isolated H2O particle is bonded to four boroxy rings by a single Mg octahedron. f.. 140. [Russ. 1972 A. . 35). a well-to-do farmer or trader. an imitation of this. koulak. 1949 Amer.g. 1951 G.R. tumulus. U. kurgan barrow.R.A.S.g. 35 The budding Kremlinologists were put in their place. 1973 J.Kremlinological a. e. Shub Moscow by Nightmare ix. found as colourless granular aggregates with a vitreous lustre at Inder. krimma. 97 She let the porter take her one small suitcase---it wouldn't be “kulturny” to carry it herself. kul'túrny. the name of V..). nuclear physicist: see -ium. Mg2B6O11_13H2O. the species has valid status and the name is to apply to all members of the phosphoferrite group containing an excess of 50 mol percent Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. the name of N. 1970 Soviet Physics: Doklady XIV. 141. kryzhanovskite Min. Kryzhanovski (1881-1947). nauk SSSR LXXII. kurgan [Russ. Speech XXIV. e. e. in Priroda Nov. Krym) Crimea (see Crimean a. Abercromby E.S. crimmer. mineralogist: see -ite1._ It is characterized by heavier fur and looser curl. MnFe2(PO4)2(OH)2_H2O. Ulam Fall of Amer. Lett. [G. 142.] A greenish-brown hydrated basic phosphate of manganese and ferric iron. kurnakovite Min. a spy and an enemy agent. Ginzburg 1950. e.] In pre-Revolution Russia. 1971 Inorg. found in Kazakhstan. 1889 J. U. kulaki. 763).g.

Hamilton World Encycl. 148. Also Lesghi(e). 147. 37 Once we killed bad men: now we liquidate unsocial elements. Of or pertaining to these people. a stocky body with a thick.] In Jewish cookery. fawn. 1863 Mrs. Also. 13/8 He really does need a few more of my potato lutkas. abolish. 1971 F.g. Russ. Lezgin. nauk SSSR XXXII. esp. Internat._ When a Laika.) 1858 Simmonds Dict. 48 note. 151. the name of Michael Lomonosov (1711_65).g. S.] A phosphate. applied to the salt-marshes at the mouths of the Dnieper (cf. link system. quas.g. Gerasimovsky 1941. Turkish liman harbour. [Yiddish. wipe out. zvenó. adj. one made with grated potato._farinaceous food. [ad. [Russ. rye beer.g. III. Russ. kvas -leaven. liquidate [after Russ. 1971 Sunday Times 13 June 12/6 When the army units fanned out in Dacca on the evening of March 25_many of them carried lists of people to be liquidated. 1974 Times 15 Oct. [tr. lomonosovit (V. B. Lezg(h)ian.R. Liman. to stamp out. . [Russ. where salt is made. Lezgin. 1879 Webster Suppl. Turgenev's Ho.S. e. Trade. and the liman of the Dniepr is in point of fact so shallow as almost to deserve the name. kvass. n. e. e. characterized by a pointed muzzle.Gr. silicate. out hunting. to kill. liii. Gentlefolk 121 _Fetch the kvas'. a. Lesghian n. 1943 C.g. a system of organizing collective farming into links.R.to liquidate. Geiger et al.] A dog belonging to a group of Asiatic breeds of the spitz type. likvidírovat.). 498). la_ka.. 1959 B.g.144. 1965 Economist 18 Dec.] The name of a small labour unit on a collective farm in the U.] A fermented beverage in general use in Russia. kvass Forms: quass(e. lomonosovite Min. Lewis Abolition of Man iii. Dogs 599 Laiki are seen all over Northern Russia. lutke. e. and a. latke Also lutka. and oxide of sodium and titanium. it barks ceaselessly. 1894 Garnett tr. white. 1859 Rawlinson Herod. Hence link leader. rough. one of a mountain people of Daghestan. 149. iv. Lesghien. kvas. III. sees a bird in a tree or bush.S. laiki. or black coat and a tail curled over the back. U. [ad.S. pricked ears. Lesgian. a shallow narrow lagoon. Caucasus 38 Lezgian_has the status of a literary language in the Dagestan ASSR. e. 145. liman [Russian liman estuary. wind up. e. laika Pl. grey.g. link g. látka a pastry. Also_Lesg(h)ic a. commonly made from an infusion of rye-flour or bread with malt. a pancake. the language of these people. e. with the possible formation of intermediate compounds between lomonosovite and sodium-poor lomonosovite. found as dark brown triclinic crystals in the Kola peninsula. A member of a tribe of the north-eastern Caucasus. The word in the Greek_is rather _marsh' than _lake'. quash. mod. 146. quass. Russian mineralogist: see -ite1.] A. I. Akad. Atkinson Tartar Steppes 232 They have bread in unlimited quantity.S. in Dokl.] To put an end to. f. Na5Ti2(Si2O7)(PO4)O2. 1966 Geochem. Russ. la_ bark. 150. 197 It is better to interpret lomonosovite as an inorganic clathrate of murmanite structure and sodium phosphate. 1283/1 The _links' are a veiled compromise between the American type of large-scale farming and the Soviet collective method. f.] (See quots. Russ. Liman. Peoples & Lang. also (in earlier quots. at the mouth of rivers. kuass. the deposit of slime at the mouth of a river. repeats the same woman's voice. kvass.

g. but simply oiled. b. L'üdiks. Brit. 2.g. [a. wash-leather. and Comb. attrib. e. lun-a moon + -nik. 1903 Expositor June 460 Wrought objects of mammoth ivory. [a. 2. and a. Mar.g. huge. U. Lude. were contemporaneous. mamont. Suppl. 1863 A. as mammoth horn. Russian mammot. 5 vols. e. Russ. e. [f. Ramsay Phys. after sputnik. 269 Bayle's _Dictionnaire Historique'. A former name for a member of the Ukrainian people. A large extinct species of elephant (Elephas primigenius) formerly native in Europe and northern Asia. 1970 Guardian 18 Nov.g. lasch n. 709/3 Ludic. (1878) 463 Man. Also (as the proper name of individual vehicles) with capital initial. its remains are frequently found in the alluvial deposits in Siberia. 1851 VIII. 156. Geog. Losh-hide. L. now in the north-west part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Ross Russ. and later of the buffalo and ox. a. p. mamant.] 1. mammouth. xxviii. 155. Freq.] A language of the Finnish group of the Finno-Ugrian family of languages. Something of huge size (cf.1 Also 7 losy.. lunokhod Astronautics. f.g. losh n.g. 482 People riding on Elks and Loshes. 1. e. los. (mammoht). a soft buff-coloured leather. 1974 Encycl. (Cf. e. 1864 Craig. or any kindred mammoth among books. mammoth-wise adv. Russ. Ludian Also Lüd. people) + -an. e. suffix denoting something that travels (f.. n. 1894 Cornh. lunik Astronautics. e.] A type of Russian self-propelled. An elk.g. 1964 Sunday Mail Mag. -ian. luná moon + -khod. 1696. whence mammotovoi kost mammoth's bones (Ludolf Gram. adj. Also attrib. 1923 E. Obs. B. Mag. luná moon). A. maman. [Russ. Malorossíya Little Russia. lunokhód. mammon. a. c. Also Lunik. 65/1 Britain's mammoth current account deficit.) e. Villagers in the Caucasus have been smoking a mossy mixture known as mahorka. . ivory. n. is considered to be a blend of Karelian and Veps. now mamant. folio. khodít' to go). 1/2 Russia is likely to try to bring its moon crawler Lunokod-1 back to earth. C. the alleged Tartar word mama “earth” (usually cited as the etymon) is not known to exist. adj. Russ. (Brisbane) 22 Nov. radio-controlled vehicle for transmitting information about the moon as it travels over its surface. [f. 1674 Milton Hist. leather: the untanned hide of the elk. Lüdish. lúnnik (similarly f. Mosc. 1974 Economist 21 Dec. mammoth n. 1967 Punch 28 June 937/1 The Luniks were soon joined by American Surveyors and Lunar Orbiters and by the end of 1966. fig. Comparable to the mammoth in size. ljudi. and other extinct mammalia. losh hide. Of or pertaining to this people. ii. gigantic. Malorós(s). prepared with oil. mammouth. 153. Micropćdia V. B. 158. Wks.] Any of a series of Russian spacecraft sent to or close by the moon. e. a minor group of dialects spoken to the south of Karelian. and a. e. Soviet Republic 58 Between Great Russia and the Black Sea live the Ukrainians or Little Russians (Malo-Russians). Russ. mammot. 154. Ukrainian. 92). The word is of obscure origin. Also mammuth. tusk. makhorka. a hide not dressed in any way. the Ukrainian language.g. [f.] A. by no stretch of poetic imagination could the moon be described as companionless. mahorka Also makharka. e. [a. -rús or Malorossiyánin Little Russian. B).] A.g.g. used by a small number of speakers in the region of Olonets. or ad.] A coarse tobacco smoked in Russia mostly by soldiers and peasants. the Mammoth. mamant. in American usage before 1850. Olonetsian liüdi (? ad. Often applied to the fossil mastodon.. Russ. or ad. makhórka shag.S. Ludic. Hence also F. Malo-Russian n. mammont. Russ.152.g. 157. Russ.

b. mammoth powder (see quot. 1875); mammoth-tree, the Sequoia (Wellingtonia) gigantea, a large coniferous tree, native of California. 1866 Treas. Bot. 1051/1 The Wellingtonia of our gardens, and the Big or Mammoth-tree of the Americans. 1875 Knight Dict. Mech. s.v. Gunpowder, For very heavy ordnance a much larger grained powder_called mammoth powder, was introduced by the late General T. J. Rodman. 159. manna-croup [ad. Russian mannaya krupa (mannaya fem. adj. _pertaining to manna', krupa groats), or the equivalent in some other Slavonic language. The Ger. synonym is mannagrütze (grütze = grit).] a. A coarse granular meal consisting of the large hard grains of wheat-flour retained in the bolting-machine, or in the grooves of the grinding-stones, after the fine flour has passed through, used for making puddings, soups, etc. b. A similar meal made from the seeds of the manna-grass, Glyceria fluitans. e.g. 1872 Sowerby Eng. Bot. XI. 98 Floating Meadow-Grass._ In several parts of Germany this grass is cultivated for its seeds, which form the manna croup of the shops. 160. Markov Math. Also Markoff. [The name of Andrei Andreevich Markov (1856-1922), Russian mathematician, who investigated such processes.] Markov process: any stochastic process for which the probabilities, at any one time, of the different future states depend only on the existing state and not on how that state was arrived at. Markov chain: a Markov process in which there are a finite or countably infinite number of possible states or in which transitions between states occur at discrete intervals of time; also, one for which in addition the transition probabilities are constant (independent of time). Also Markov property, the characteristic property of Markov processes. e.g. 1973 Manch. Sch. Econ. & Social Stud. XLI. 401 (heading) A Markov chain model of the benefits of participating in government training schemes.

161. Marrism [f. the name of N. Ya. Marr (1865_1934), Russian linguist and archćologist + -ism.] The linguistic theories advocated by Nikolai Yakovlevich Marr, in which language is regarded as a phenomenon of social class rather than of nationality; the advocacy of such theories. Hence Marrist a. e.g. 1966 B. Collinder in Birnbaum & Puhvel Anc. Indo-European Dial. 199 Marrism, which was officially encouraged in Russia for political reasons, has raged as a kind of Asiatic flu in some European universities west of the Iron Curtain. 162. marsokhod Also Marsokhod. [a. Russ. marsokhód, f. Mars Mars (after lunokhod).] A type of Russian self-propelled vehicle for transmitting information about the planet Mars as it travels over its surface. 1970 Sci. News Let. 21 Nov. 397/3 In addition to discussing future Lunokhod explorations of the moon, the Soviets also described similar automated stations and robots for Venus, Mars and Mercury. These they call “planetokhods” or “marsokhods”. 163. maximalism [f. maximal a. + -ism or ad. Russ. maksimalízm.] The policy or theory of a maximum programme of some kind. e.g. 1967 C. Seton-Watson Italy from Liberalism to Fascism xii. 524 Maximalism_provided only revolutionary talk as a substitute for revolution. 164. Maximalist Also maximalist. [f. maximal a. + -ist or ad. Russ. maksimalíst, f. L. maximum, or ad. F. maximaliste.] A member of the more extremist fraction of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party which split off from the main body of the party in 1904 and which used and advocated terrorist methods. Later regarded as a translation of Russ. bolshevik and used as an alternative name for a Bolshevik. Also, a member of any similar group outside Russia. Also attrib. or as adj., of or pertaining to a policy or theory of maximum demands (of some kind specified in the context).

e.g. 1969 D. M. Smith Italy (ed. 2) vii. xxvii. 216 The maximalists were made strong and uncompromising by the belief that history was on their side. 165. mazut Also masut, mazout. [Russ. mazút, ad. Arab. makhzulat refuse, waste.] The viscous liquid left as residue after the distillation of Russian petroleum, used as fuel oil and a coarse lubricant. e.g. 1974 P. Highsmith Ripley's Game v. 47 He tackled with broom and dustpan the exterior of the pipes and the floor around their mazout furnace. 166. mendelevium Chem. [f. the name of Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834_1907), Russian chemist + -ium.] An artificially produced transuranic element, the longest-lived isotope of which has a half-life of two months. Atomic number 101; symbol Md (formerly Mv). e.g. 1967 New Scientist 21 Sept. 598/2 The new mendelevium isotope, with 101 protons and 157 neutrons, falls into the odd-odd class._ The long half-life will enable quite large quantities of mendelevium to be made. 167. Menshevik a. and n. (obs. Menshevist) [a. Russ. men_shevík, f. mén_she, compar. of mály_ little. The Russ. pl. men_shevikí has been used by some English writers.] A. adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of, the Mensheviks or Menshevism. e.g. 1975 Times Lit. Suppl. 4 July 740/5 When accused of holding menshevik positions, he replies that revolutionary virginity is not worth preserving at the price of inaction. B. n. A member of the political group or party forming the smaller part of the Russian Social-Democratic Party after the split with the Bolsheviks in 1903 and denounced as counter-revolutionaries after the October Revolution of 1917. Cf. Bolshevik n. Also transf. and fig. e.g. 1923 E. A. Ross Russ. Soviet Republic 322 The Mensheviks can get no paper, which is a government monopoly, for pamphlets or leaflets at election time. 1973 Listener 1 Feb. 135/3 The Provisionals by playing the Bolsheviks to the Officials Mensheviks---though not in ideology of course---have indeed become the party of the majority. 168. Menshevism [a. Russ. men-shevízm: see Menshevik a. and n.] The doctrines and practices of the Mensheviks. 1920 Glasgow Herald 14 May 9 Communism as it is offered to Trans-Caucasia has assumed the form of Menshevism. 169. meteoritics n. pl. (const. as sing.). [f. meteorit(e + -ics, as ad. Russ. meteoritika (Yu. I. Simashko 1889, in Niva XX. 82/2).] The scientific study of meteors and meteorites. e.g. 1975 Sci. Amer. Jan. 29/1 In recent years the discipline of meteoritics has moved beyond the taxonomic stage, and sound geochemical and physical reasoning has been applied in interpreting the masses of data. meteo-riticist, an expert in meteoritics. e.g. 1975 Sci. Amer. Jan. 29/2 Some meteoriticists boldly construct multistage scenarios of condensation, agglomeration, accretion, heating, metamorphism and differentiation to explain the accumulated facts. 170. minimalist n. and a. [f. minimal a. + -ist; tr. Russ. menshevík Menshevik a. and n.] A. n. 1. (Also with capital initial.) = Menshevik n.; more widely, a person who advocates small or moderate reforms or policies. e.g. 1918 E. P. Stebbing From Czar to Bolshevik iii. 25 The Social Democrats consisted chiefly of Bolsheviks with a smaller Menshevik group. The Social Revolutionaries were subdivided into Maximalists and Minimalists. 171. mir n [Russ.] A village community in pre-revolutionary Russia. Also attrib.

1975 Times 8 Jan. 15/7 The democratic and civic traditions of Russia, from Kievian Rus to the mirs and the Zaporozhean Republic. 172. miryachit Also erron. myri-. Path. [Russian miryachit_ (inf.) to be epileptic (Pavlovsky).] A peculiar nervous disease observed in Siberia and in some non-European countries, the chief characteristic of which consists in mimicry by the patient of everything said or done by another. e.g. 1902 Quain Dict. Med. 440 The subjects of Myriachit react only to impulses entering through the efferent optic and auditory channels. 173. Mordvin Also Mordv, Mordvian, Mordvine, Mordvinian. [Russ.] a. A member of a Finnish people inhabiting the region of the middle Volga. b. The Finno-Ugric language of this people. Also attrib. or as adj. So Mordva, this people collectively. e.g. 1971 P. Longworth Cossacks ii. 55 There was a ruling class of semi-nomadic Tatars and the primitive Ostyaks, Voguls and Mordvins paid them tribute. 174. moujik, muzhik Now Hist. Forms: musick, mousike, mousick, mugike, mougik, -jik, muzhik, mooshik, -zheek; mouzhik, mujik. [Russ. muzhik peasant.] 1. A Russian peasant. e.g. 1963 V. Nabokov Gift iv. 216 He began dabbling in propaganda by conversing with mujiks. 2. (In full moujik blouse, coat). A loose fur cape for ladies' wear. 1897 Westm. Gaz. 30 Sept. 3/2 This moujik coat is now too popular. 1901 Ibid. 4 July 3/1 The moujik, that little blouse coat, cut low in the neck and with open fronts [etc.]. 175. Mukuzani [Russ.] A red wine from Georgia, U.S.S.R. e.g. 1968 A. H. Gold Wines & Spirits of World 467 The wines tend to be full and the red ones dark. Mukuzani and Saperavi are two dark strong red wines of 14_ alcoholic strength from the eastern side of Georgia in the Tiflis region. 176. murmanite Min. [ad. Russ. murmanit (A. E. Fersman 1923, in Doklady Ross. Akad. Nauk 63), f. Murman, name of a shore on the north of the Kola peninsula in Russia + -it -ite1.] A hydrated silicate of sodium and titanium with lesser and variable amounts of manganese, zirconium, iron, calcium, and niobium, which is found as violet monoclinic crystals. e.g. 1968 I. Kostov Mineralogy ii. v. 298 Murmanite and lomonosovite form a complete isomorphous series and are monoclinic like sphene and fersmanite. 177. Muscovy Also Muskovie, muskevia, Muscovia. [a. F. Muscovie, earlier Moscovie, ad. mod.L. Moscovia, f. Russian Moskova Moscow.] The name of the principality of Moscow, applied by extension to Russia generally. I. 1. Used attrib. or quasi-adj. in the name of things belonging to, orginating or produced in and obtained from Muscovy, as Muscovy hide, leather, Russia leather; Muscovy glass, common mica; also, sometimes, = talc; Muscovy lantern, one furnished with Muscovy glass; Muscovy talc = Muscovy glass. e.g. 1825 J. Nicholson Operat. Mechanic 740 Substituting varnished metallic gauze in the room of Muscovy talc, a kind of mica. 178. NIR [f. the initials of Russ. Nauchno-Issledovatel_skaya Rabota scientific research work], a colour television system developed in Russia, similar to SECAM; 179. N.K.V.D. [Russ. Naródny_ Komissariát Vnútrennikh Del]

in Zapiski imperat. 210/2 The Nenets people. 1973 T. e. e. Russian mineralogist: see -ite1. niobium. narod people + -nik. Russian mineralogist: see -ite1. which is found as pale yellow orthorhombic crystals.g. Nauk SSSR C.] A white or pinkish aluminosilicate of magnesium and calcium belonging to the clay family and similar to montmorillonite. Russ. basic. 1880). their language. Abstr. 1967 J.A. 1296/1 In view of the great structural similarity between true montmorillonite and nefedyevite. Nentsi._ Associated with the alkalic rocks are nenadkevichite. magnesium. adj. calcium. doubling of the unit cell along the c axis can be expected. thorium. make their living chiefly by reindeer herding. 181. VII. [ad. 15.g.I. one who tries to educate politically communities of rural or urban poor while sharing the conditions of their lives. and a. Jackson Let. Allbeury Choice of Enemies vi. Narodnik Also narodnik. mineral. hydrated silicates of uranium(IV). in Doklady Akad.Ti)Si2O7. 186. [Russ. 21 He was wearing an NKVD uniform. -ki. Pl. Also nefediewite. Also nekulturniiy. Narodniks. the name of K. nenadkevit. f. We leave that kind of nekulturny behaviour to the West.. Mr. Narodniki. . Russ. 1971 Graphic (Durban) 7 May 12/2 Her aunts were active in the populist narodniki movement [in Russia]. Not having cultured manners. Obshch. C. nekulturny n. nefed_evit (P. 1917 Daily Chron 22 June 1/4 The Cossacks drove off the agitators from the station with their nagaikas. [a. -kas. 961 Doklady Earth Sci. e. and lead. uranium(VI). Brit. and transf. and titanium.g. Fores Desirable Dictator iv. a boor. nagaika Pl. (Na. Néntsy. A. in Soledad Brother (1971) 197 The dialectic between Narodnik and Nihilist should never break down. 1960 Mineral. of Turkic origin. XVI.g. Also attrib.] A Samodian (formerly Samoyedic) people inhabiting the far north-east of Europe and the north of Siberia. a member of this people. [ad. XIV. 180. e. as prec. 225/2 Localities are described representing the alkalic complex of Augusta County [Virginia].Soviet Commissariat of Internal Affairs e. 1972 Mineral.g. the theory of making political power a reality for the masses. Russ. the name of V. V. e.] A supporter of the type of populist agrarian socialism originating amongst the Russian intelligentsia in the late 1860s which regarded the peasants and intelligentsia as the only revolutionary forces and denied the revolutionary role of the working class..] Any member of a range of isomorphous. One who is by Russian standards considered unenlightened. [ad. e. calcium. 1970 G.] A. f. 184. 19th_cent. nekulturny_ uncivilized. Russ. 187. nenadkevite Min. nenadkevichite Min. 1159). pl. 97 We are not gangsters. e. astrophyllite. n. [Russ. Nefed_ev. CXXXV.g. boorish.Ca)(Nb.g. a Finno-Ugrian group formerly known as the Samoyed.] A thick plaited whip used by Cossacks. nenadkevichit (Kuz_menko & Kazakova 1955. Nenadkevich (b. 401/1 Rarer uranium deposits include those in which the ore mineral is the silicate nenadkevite.-Peterburgsk.2H2O. 185. Hence Narodnikism. XXIII. Abstr. 182.] A hydrated silicate of sodium. 25 Mar. Nentsy. nefedievite. Nenets Pl. S. [Russ. f. f. 183. Nénets. B. 1968 Encycl. nefedyevite Min.g. and bastnäsite. nielsbohrium Chem. Puzyrevsky 1872.

S. . Meiring Wall of Glass xvii. Russ. 1967 A. Octoberist. U. Russ.. So what? 191. 1970 Amer. a name used by G. Niels Bohr (see Bohr) + -ium. nags.g. e. (The name hahnium has also been proposed for it. 509 The mode of occurrence of obruchevite and its mineral paragenesis show that it forms during the latest stages of the replacement process. V. Also nudnick. etc. 194. see -nik. nu well. oktyabryónok. nordit (V. attaining the rank of oblast First Secretary. 1961 John o' London's 28 Sept. surprise. Abstr. doubt. Kurchatovium (Ku). (Chiefly in form Octobrist. and can be considered as an unusual combination of both. as ad. Gerasimovsky 1941. or as adj. boring. formed in response to the Imperial Constitutional Manifesto of the same date. Russ. f. well now. 1966 Z. -brist [f. 990 Nifontovite. Flerov and co-workers (e. 1971) 56). Mineralogist LV.S. 345/2 What a pair of nudniks they are. 192. 1941 and -ite1. e. 103_105 are Lawrencium (Lr). Nifontov. 1976 Survey Spring 57 He embarked on a successful career in party administration. 147 Nu? thought Geyra. e. núdny_ tedious.] In Russian politics. Nauk SSSR XXXII. the name of P. f. I. 20th-cent. [ad. of atomic number 105. Nuclear Res. [Russ. Russ.] A hydrated borate of calcium. 1972 New York 8 May 70/1 Too many of our nudnik moviegoers_dread the prospect of sharing their pleasures with the plain folks.] A silicate of sodium. the name of V. nifontovite Min. [ad. Kassof in C. nordite Min. 1961 Mineral. Russ. 189. a Russian province or region. or irritates. Dubna.g.R. [Yiddish nudnik. in Flerov & Zvara Report D7_6013 (Joint Inst. emphasis. in Doklady Akad.S. 1977). October + -ist] 2. f. nifontovit (Malinko & Lisitsyn 1961. 1960 A.g. Vlasov's Geochem. XXVIII. in Doklady Akad. 1971 D.g. & Mineral. 195 Pares was intimate with Gutchkov of the Octobrists. 1209/2 Proposed names for Nos. and Nielsbohrium (Bo). [ad. Russ. (1976) xxii.2_3H2O. Society v.S. 485 The Octobrists_includes members from seven through nine years of age. 193.g.[f. found as colourless monoclinic crystals. nu [Yiddish. strontium. XXXII.) 1973 Nuclear Sci. 188). and lanthanides.S. Nauk SSSR CXXXIX. a member of the League of the 17 October 1905 Old Style (30 October New Style). Lerman tr. calcium. oblast [Russ.g. 496): see quot. f..] A second-order administrative subdivision in Imperial Russia and the U. 3 c). oktyabríst. obruchevite Min. 190. [Russ. CaB2O4.] An exclamation variously used to express interrogation. Also attrib. e. manganese. Also attrib.] A mineral containing appreciable proportions of yttrium and uranium that was orig.] Someone who pesters. Russian geologist: see -ite1. Obruchev (1863_1956). nil_sbori_.. e. Ransome Autobiogr. Black Transformation Russ. found as light brown orthorhombic crystals. Also attrib. A. Russian geologist: see -ite1. 188.] (A name proposed for) an artificially produced transuranic element._ Small anhedral grains in skarn deposits in the Urals. Mag.) a. though no explicit coinage of the word has been traced in the literature available.] A member of a Russian communist organization founded in 1925 for young people below the normal age of the _Pioneers' (see pioneer n. b. 1167 The structure of nordite is closely related to the structures of melilite and datolite-gadolinite.g. e. N. regarded as a member of the pyrochlore group (see quot. obruchevit. E. nudnik U. Rare Elements II.g.R. e. a bore.

e. an image of a god or spirit supposed to be endowed with the power of the force it represents. Dict.g. Russ. [a. means both a spirit and the material representation of a spirit. 10 okrug committees_and 4. Old Ritualist [tr. W. oligo. f) in 1923 and was replaced by the N. [ad. 617/1 The lake water body is stratified. 1971 Nature 28 May 247/1 Structureless to planar cross-stratified. (N II. e. oligomictic a. (G. ongon [Russ. 2/7 The Soviet magazine Science and Religion_was criticising small groups of Old Believers_in Tuvinskaya province.g.P. Limnology. Sedimentary Petrology V. 155).] 1. staroobryádets] = Old Believer.g. e. an ongon can cure smallpox. 106/2 Rocks consisting of one to two dominant minerals are termed oligomictic and those composed of several minerals polymictic. Since the representation is the spirit. presumably long since out of date. “guarding. Harvester' Siberian Road i. omul [a. lit.g. 1287/1 Starovery. give protection to fishermen and so on. Russ. thus oligomictic. 1976 Survey Spring 65 There are [in the USSR] 14 union republic central committees. Shvetsov Petrografiya Osadochnykh Porod (1934) viii. Applied to a lake that exhibits a stable thermal stratification and only rarely undergoes an overturn. i. Drawings are made only of known spirits. “ongon”. and Bulg. 1968 R. okhrána. the drawings themselves become magical: according to the spirit. e.U. 1976 _S. Ogpu Also O._ The book is written in Russian._ The review is based on a typewritten summary in English. Russ. Okhrana Also Ochrana. the initials of the Russ. a fetish. ókrug. Chr. Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipel. and disbanded in 1917. 1972 T. keep young lambs healthy. each of which has particular magical powers. I.D. III.K.P.] An organization for investigating and combating counter-revolutionary activities in Soviet Russia. Ch. 201. 1935 Jrnl. 197. mixed + -ic.G. 248 For almost ten years an intensive chase after Agabekov was conducted by the men of the OGPU in Paris. Coregonus autumnalis. 196. Geomorphol. Wittlin Commissar (1973) xxxiv. [f. 1974 T.] In Russia and Bulgaria. Also attrib. 2.U. 18 The Cossacks went after sturgeon and omul.+ Gr. Old Believer.243 city and raion committees. okrug [a. Also called Raskolnik. 1970 New Society 5 Mar. Russ.g. a white-fish. [tr. starovér. . [f.195. had to do with service in the Tsarist secret police---the Okhrana.] e. sheet-like bodies of oligomictic conglomerates and subarkoses are interbedded. protection”. e. another name for the Russian sect of the Old Believers.] A fish of the salmon family. Russ. S. e.g. Petrol. Fairbridge Encycl. P. which superseded the Cheka and the G. 1957 Oxf. 393/1 The word. ii. found in Lake Baikal and regions bordering the Arctic Ocean. 1) in 1934. Russ. Ob_edinënnoe Gosudárstvennoe Politícheskoe Upravlénie United State Political Directorate. e.V. 67 Section 13. a territorial division for administrative and other purposes.g. 1973 Guardian 5 Mar. Whitney tr. 198. 199.] In the Shamanist religion of the Buriats of Mongolia.g. 200.] An organization of political police set up in 1881 in tsarist Russia after the assassination of Alexander II to maintain the security of the state and suppress revolutionary activities.] A member of that section of the Russian Orthodox Church which refused to accept the liturgical reforms of the patriarch Nikon (1605_1681). oligomiktovy (M. omul.

] A follower of Ouspensky or his teaching. the osseter (A. 672 The Retreat had begun and with the rest of the Otriad he had been flung into the little town of O. e. osseter Zool. e. 300 The glosses would probably be given in Ossetic. behind the Russian lines. 19 You're not a Pavlov dog. Ouspenskyist [f. one of the Eastern Iranian group. oset_i Ossetia (place-name) + -ian. 123 Anthropologically the Voguls and Ostyaks_are classed by anthropologists as Europo-Sibirid or Uralic. Pavlov Also Pavloff. 1974 Country Life 24 Jan. the name of Anna Pavlova (1885_1931). 209. Also Ouspenskian. e. 146/4 An Ossete folk-ballad. otriad [a. 4/4 An Englishman who works with a volunteer ambulance or otriad. Guldenstadtii). pavlova Austral. ershketras sturgeon. ostyák.] a. 12/4 A Pavlova. Also attrib. f.g.202. vii. Lith. e. Pinkerton Russia 215 From the ostrog we proceeded to the town hospital. e. etc. Lexicogr. and N. or as adj. B. Russian philosopher + -ist. o = ob about + sterech .] A dessert or cake. White Long Silence ii. Of or pertaining to this people or their language. 206. 204. 81 A radical Catholic priest and his Ouspenskyite mistress. Russ. passion fruit. the dictionary being determined for the Ossetes.] In Russia: a detachment. those connected with conditioning the salivary reflexes of a dog to the mental stimulus of the sound of a bell. inhabiting North Ossetia (the North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) and South Ossetia (an Autonomous Oblast of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic). ice cream and strawberries. osétr = Serb. Also Ossetan Osset(e) Ossetic [f. 1971 L. n. F. n. or in the possessive to designate aspects of his work. Russ. Ostyak Also Ostiac. Ossetian n. Obs. e. trained to bark when I ring a bell. Zgusta et al Man. Pol. osetín. Hajdu's Finno-Ugrian Lang. adapted by the poet Kosta Khetagurov (the Caucasian equivalent of Robert Burns). esp. the sewruga_. b. 1976 A. asetras. Russ. Also peech.] A house or village in Siberia.] A. and a.to guard. 208. 210. 1975 G. Russian ballerina. Georgian os. e. surrounded by a palisade or wall. 1975 Times 16 Dec. f. [a. belonging to the Ob-Ugrian group. The language of this people. adj. 1887 Chamb. Ostiak. e. peach. Cushing tr. (A member of) a Finno-Ugric people.Z. and serving as a fort or prison.g. The language of this people. the name of Peter Demianovich Ouspensky (1878_1947). also called Khantý. Bradbury History Man v. 1833 R. 1975 M. 1933 Vanessa iv. Also attrib.] A species of sturgeon.g. group of soldiers (see also quot.g. an Australian dessert_a meringue with cream. ostróg stockade. 1916). Acipenser Güldenstädtii.g. [a. jesiotr. Ouspenskyite adjs. 203. 630/2 The sturgeon_and its kindred the great sturgeon or beluga_. and fruit. i.g. Russ. You have a mind of your own. [f. 207. stove. ostrog [Russ. etc. The name of the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849_1936). otryád a detachment.g. Jrnl. & Peoples iii. 1916 Yorkshire Post 23 Feb. a.g. blockhouse. used attrib. and the small sturgeon or sterlet. Ostiack. petchi oven. IV.g. e. A member of a people of the Central Caucasus. [Russ. living in the Ob River basin in Western Siberia. whipped cream. now usually one made with meringue. b. begins: The fox has been whetting her teeth for the badger.] . 205. jesetra.

39/1 Let conversation turn to the perestroika and mostly you hear grumbles: about higher prices..g. [mod. 1972 Times 12 Apr. 212.g. 673)]. in pedological terms.] A herb or sub-shrub of the genus so called. pel'méni. but prob. 216. D.] In Russian cookery.) 25 Oct. etc. Russ. 327 A number of billets of wood are placed in the peech or stove. Russ. (Hakl. Pochvovedenie (1900) II. 213. A.] The restructuring or reform of the Soviet economic and political system. and classification.g. only in reference to foreign equivalents. with tall upright growths with grey-green aromatic leaves. phytosociologist. lit. G. 9). 9/2 Such Russian specialities as Pelmeny (a kind of ravioli). phytosociology [ad. harder work---and the vodka famine. geomorphology. xxviii. 1. soil science (cf.. Russ. The usual Russ. once governor of the Russian province of Orenburg.] The scientific study of soil. and_so warme the house.] The study of plant communities. Slovar_ (1898) XXIVa s. (1902) IV. given by Fallou as a synonym of pedologie). 74/1 There was no known method by which termites or pedological processes could bring about the observed accumulation of calcium carbonate in termite mounds. esp.A (Russian) stove. Russ. colourless triclinic crystals. N. F. 1974 Nature 4 Jan. Stamp Gloss. The Eng. fitosotsiologiya. e. ii/1 (Advt. their composition and structure. 1973 C. in Ezhegodnik_ po Geol. soil science. perestroika Pol. soils engineering and cement technology will find in this book a valuable research tool. 1987 Observer (Colour Suppl. according to L. e. a pentahydrate of calcium carbonate. G. occurring as small. 1977 Dćdalus Fall 130 In some of its branches. in Bull. phytosociologically adv. a. D. the systems of classification and quantitative description reached phantasmagoric extremes. in Zapiski Vsesoyuz. pedológiya (e. 140. 215. pentahydrocalcite Min. So phytosociological. Soc. e. pelmeny n. Fletcher Russe Commw. one engaged in this study. Obshchesvta XC. small pastry cases stuffed with meat. [a. pedology [f. CaCO3_5H2O. CaB2O4_5H2O. Brickell in A. 211.) 147 All the winter time_they heat their peaches. will reach four feet. pentahydroborite Min. first proposed at the 26th Party Congress in 1979 and actively promoted under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev from 1985. 1778 Phil. f. of or pertaining to pedology or soil. word for the subject has always been pochvovédenie. A. the natural occurrence of which is uncertain. Russ. [a. e. as regards pedology. pedo. pedologist. pochvovedenie. des Naturalistes de Moscou 15). i Mineral. the Fr.. one who studies pedology. Imp. Malinko 1961. 1591 G.g. of _ 1900_10. title of this periodical was La Pédologie from its inception in 1899). -_logical adjs. 214. with long sprays of lavender-blue in September. Min. word pedology occurs in the galley proofs of an unpublished dict. LXIX. [ad. e. perowskya. perovskia Also perowskia. a hydrated calcium borate. pentagidrokal_tsit_ (P. (G. Ross_i VIII. e. the name of V. Scientists interested in sediments and in allied fields such as pedology.+ -ology. native to temperate regions of west and cental Asia. and bearing panicles of deep blue flowers. nature. [ad. Hence pedologic. its formation. Also perestroyka.. Trans. such as biogeography and phytosociology.L.g.g.g. 217. pedologically adv. Cf.g. Gemmell Sunday Gardener iii. pentagidroborit (S. 85 Perovskia.v. Entsikl. which are made lyke the Germane bathstoaves. Soc. perestro_ka restructuring. pl. 1973 Nature 27 July p. belonging to the family Labiatć. bodenkunde. Terms (1961) 358. V.). Also -ni. pedologie (e. Fallou Pedologie (1862) 1. . Chirvinski_ 1906. Russ. Geogr. Perovski (1794-1857). 241)]. Karelin 1841.

plet n.). applied only to the ash-like layer itself. planetokhod Also Planetokhod.] a. 223.g. 51 Hannibalianus had been killed in 337 in the pogrom of his relations engineered by Constantius. 1975 R.g. called the plete. and esp. e.g.] A large pie. 137 The houses of later phases are represented by the celebrated ploscadki. 218 Valnikov held a paper plate stacked with golden pastries and said.] In Ukrainian sites of the Neolithic period. spec. and which occurs esp. 222. Pl. generally infertile soil which is characterized by a well-marked white or grey ash-like subsurface layer from which minerals have been leached into a lower dark-coloured layer. podzól. 1957 V. Childe Dawn Europ. destruction. 1973 Nature 23 Mar.] Small patties. My brother usually makes them both ways. e. usu. pirog Also piroga.) pirog. will eventually move over the surface of the Planets. pirogs. e. _Piroshki. e.] An acidic. whip. dim. G. of the nature of or resembling a podzol in possessing a layer from which some leaching of bases has occurred. e. XIX. Colinvaux Introd. Occas. e. 224. officially tolerated.g. [a. 1973 P. 221. applied to those directed against the Jews. a whip of twisted hide. retained at a few of the most distant Siberian prisons. Yiddish). 6) viii. 219. Russ. Also pirotchki. Ecol. Also fig. f. They're very light and filled with cheese or meat. 1979 O. [a.1 (after lunokhod). Yiddish (a. ploshchadka Archćol. Griffiths in Encycl. ploshchadki. In general use: an organized. named Planetokhod or Marsokhod..] A Russian self-propelled vehicle for transmitting information about another planet as it travels over its surface. [a. piroshki n. planéta planet n. A. . 1 The vehicle is called Lunokhod-1. literally big pies and baby pies. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) x. Russ. one formed of burnt clay from the debris of collapsed buildings. Orig. temperate climates (typically in parts of N. 1973 Sci. e. pirozhki. pleti scourge. 219/2 His remarks relating to the possible “planetokhod” exploration of Venus and the outer planets seem highly speculative. area. Russ. Russ. pogrom n. formerly used for flogging in Russia.g. pyrochki. b. 1977 J. 46 Some heath lands of northern Europe. iii.' 220. Brit. [Russ. pirogen (a.g. [Russian pogrom.g. Also podsol. in sing. piroque. Soviet scientists are predicting that other such vehicles. under coniferous trees or heath vegetation in moist. attack on any community or group.] A three-thonged whip loaded with lead. Russ. devastation. platform. Browning Emperor Julian iii. 1971 Guardian 23 July 9/6 Pirogi and Piroshki. reveal podzolic profiles. areas of baked clay resulting from the burning and collapse of walls and floors. podzol Soil Sci. planetokhód. f. Russ. 1885 A. Dec. pl. e. with acid litter and leached soils. 762/2 There is another flagellator.218.2 Also plete. [Russ. Cf. the Dayak peoples of Borneo call them kerangas: _land on which one cannot grow rice'.under. Civilization (ed. piroshki n. e.. piróg. wasn't another pogrom all he lived for.g. Pl. of pirozhók. An organized massacre in Russia for the destruction or annihilation of any body or class: orig.g. pirogi (a. 64/2 The tropical podzols are useless even for shifting agriculture. pirozhkí pl. Sela Petrograd Consignment 142 Wasn't he eager to go back to Russia to read the Protocols of the Elders of Zion again. and formerly also with capital initial. Russia).+ zolá ash. pod. a raised area or platform. 1970 Times 18 Nov. piro_shok [a. pl. plitt. podzolic (or -ds-) a. = ground. of piróg (pirog). Amer.

ad.c. in Zh. V. being scattered by impurities or lattice vibrations. [f. So Polovetsian.] A union of the nomad tribes belonging to the Kipchak Turks. 1930. politbyuró.g. Polovzi. + -ic.g. 230.] 1. moreover a high density of polarons can form a degenerate gas. Applied to a lake that has no stable thermal stratification but exhibits perennial circulation. 523/2 In addition there are_low-altitude tropical oligomictic lakes with irregular circulation. 1978 I. Also attrib. Szamuely Russian Tradition i. e. Southern Afr. cf. -buro. 821/1 Toward the end of 1874 Borodin's interest in Igor' was revived. (ed. Mus. 647/1 There will_be some stored energy involved in the system due to the polaronic nature of the moving charge carrier. 1827 Griffith Cuvier's Anim. poletuchi_ flying... root of pole. esp. -buro Also politbureau. e. III.). 167 Few of us would wish to see our army crossing the [Irish] border to fight Loyalist paramilitaries. 254 People sacrificed themselves for Stalin. K. poluinya a rotten place in the ice. 1978 Nature 16 Feb. as prec. and Comb. however. Also Polovtsi.g. pl.g. [Russ. Limnology. Petrol. which inhabited the steppes between the Danube and the Volga in the 11th_13th centuries. S. e. 594 The polatouche of Siberia. Fiziki XVI. polynyas (rarely ||polynyi. [F. 84 Their molars_are the same as those of the squirrels and polatouches. 13 The Kievan state had been engaged in perpetual warfare since its foundation. Murphy Place Apart viii. 1978 D. polyana field. in the Politbureau. B. H. [Russ. polaron Physics. e.g.S. 1969 S. Haughton Geol. Singer Shosha xiv. 155). Polovtsy---one wave followed the other. and high-altitude tropical polymictic lakes with continuous circulation. transf. polaronic a. Pl. polar(ization and related words + -on1. [a. an open place amidst ice. Polovtsian a. Hist. also as n. e. Asia. Polovtzi.g. I. eksper. in the arctic seas.. e. Sciuropterus volans. an organizer of or participant in a pogrom. and fig. collect. f. polit(ícheskoe political + byuró bureau. and in the following summer the famous dances. for every pogromist. attrib. of or pertaining to these people or their language. for Machno._will behave exactly like a heavy particle. the Secretariat and the permanent Departments of the Central Committee. .] The highest policy-making committee of the U. 1971 Mott & Davis Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials iv. 227. a district committee).] The small flying squirrel of Europe and N.] e.R. 225. [f.. iv. Sci.g. [ad._ If another _pogrom' situation did arise_it would make more sense to welcome_refugees into the Republic. polymictic a. Khazars. Shvetsov Petrografiya Osadochnykh Porod (1934) viii. orig. Russ. for Petlura.S. polyarón (S. 115 At low temperatures a polaron. Polovtsy n. ii.g. polynya Formerly also polynia. 344). 229. i teoret. letuchaya bęlka flying squirrel. f. Russ. 5) I.] A quasi-particle consisting of a free electron in an ionic crystal and the associated distortion of the crystal lattice. 1954 Grove's Dict. polatouche. e.g. Politbureau. the _Polovtsian March' was composed. e. & Technol. whether large or small.. Pechenegs. polimiktovy (M. 1974 T. 1861 Wood Nat. 1978 Whitaker's Almanack 1979 959/1 The real power of the Party is vested. polatouche Zool. Hist. or of some other Communist country or party (in quot. Russ.] A space of open water in the midst of ice. 228. Pekar 1946. formed as Russ. 2. 226. 89 At various horizons above the Intermediate Reefs bands of polymictic conglomerates occur. pogromist (also stressed ‘pogromist). 1966 McGraw-Hill Encycl.

Pomeranchuk Physics. hypercharge. One who sympathizes with the Communist movement without actually being a party member. with reference to the cooling that a mixture of liquid and solid helium 3 undergoes when it is solidified by compression. the Pomeranchuk trajectory must be present in all elastic scattering amplitudes. as Pomeranchuk pole. b. posnjakite Min. 58): see quot. 231.) 24 Oct. 1973 Ibid. 20/8 The Germans who fellow-travelled with Hitler in the 1930s were guilty of a gross dereliction of national duty. Roosevelt have acquired fellow-travelers. Russ. 232. 1976 N. n. as Pontic a. 471/1 The new phenomenon is the fellow-traveler. 23 Sept. ocherk' Khersonsko_ Gubernii (1869) xiv. Obshch. xix.g. in Zap. [Russ. chiefly attrib. the trajectory traced by a Pomeranchuk pole as _ increases. Pontian a. Fiziki (1958) XXXIV. intr. e. Used attrib. Fiziki (1950) XX. 1963 Observer 18 Aug. 1976 Ibid. as fellow-travelling vbl. Min. 725). The term has a Russian background and means someone who does not accept all your aims but has enough in common with you to accompany you in a comradely fashion part of the way. poud. e.000 puds of other foodstuffs from home stocks. 37/2 The present study was undertaken to measure the actual distribution of CO2 between the atmosphere and the sea over open leads and polynyi in the ice-covered Bering Sea. H. a theorem according to which the reaction cross-sections for a particle and for its anti-particle incident on the same target particle should approach the same constant value as the energy of the incident particle is increased. Russ. Pomeranchuk('s) theorem. Russian physicist. Barbot de Marny Geol. Carr Bolshevik Revolution II.000 puds of grain and 600. [Name of Isaak Yakovlevich Pomeranchuk (1913_66). pudu. 234. pertaining to. W. poude. trans. 106). Russian. The equiv.g.y. pood. and baryon number (_ being the trajectory function). 233. or slightly more than 36 lb.g.] . Geol. charge..g. to designate certain concepts relating to the scattering of sub-atomic particles at high energies. Dean Introd. 285 Kalinin estimated the total of relief supplies up to December 1921 at 1. or Norse pund pound. i teoret. LG.. 1952 E. [Described by Pomeranchuk in Zh. In this campaign both Mr. i teoret. poznyakit (Komkov & Nefedov 1967. 1971 Nature 1 Jan. [ad.. e. Also in extended uses.Y. Russ. to support (the Communist movement) as a fellowtraveller. because of the supposed initial appearance of the three-toed Hipparion in the lower part of the stratotype Pontian of the eastern Mediterranean.e. Landon and Mr. fellow-traveller transf. pood Forms: pode.g. 303 If all total cross sections are to become asymptotically constant. f. Strong Interactions xvi. pudde. popútchik (Trotsky) was used of non-communist writers sympathizing with the Revolution.g. equal to 40 lb.g. Also absol. (p_d). poad(e.] A Russian weight. and with zero isospin. e. Used. a special Regge pole with _(0) = 1 and even signature.] e.1: see -ian. or designating the uppermost stage of the Miocene series in Europe (sometimes regarded as the lowest of the Pliocene series). 235. avoirdupois. 1936 Nation (N. 1967 and -ite1.] Of. [ad. freq. 276/1 A pair of Pomeranchuk cells was used both for cooling the 3He into the superfluid A-phase and also for inducing a flow of liquid through the narrow tube which connected them together.] a. ad. e. Vsesoyuz. (proposed by Pomeranchuk in Zh. éksper. éksper. to be a fellow-traveller. Ponticheski_ (N. 15 June 391/1 Estimates by most vertebrate palaeontologists have ranged between 10_12 m. a. Pomeranchuk trajectory. pud.800. Hence (as a back-formation) fellow-travel v. and ppl. XCVI. 919.

and dark gray nodules in fine-grained halite-polyhalite rock.. investigator of Russian salt deposits: see -ite1. we have found specimens of the recently described species posnjakite in old stopes_above the deep adit level. 292 “I don't care if I'm six feet tall. Ya. ad. squatting on his haunches.g. 238. 704 Preobrazhenskite. pr_. f. (-kult). lemon-yellow. 240. Riasanovsky Hist. & Ideology v.g. police officer.] A dance-step in which the male dancer squats on his heels and kicks out each leg alternately to the front. [ad. .g. that occurs as dark blue crystals similar to langite. e. -cultural adj.. esp. 1974 L. proletAbbrev.” Valnikov said. post. Bks. Profintérn. the first woman to reach the Presidium of the Central Committee. lit. prezídium. preobrazhenskite Min. prikas. as in prolet-art. V. prćsidere (see preside v. 212 The authority of a prikaz extended over a certain type of affairs. f. [Russ. -cult.] A commissioner. Rev.Y. Yarzhensky 1956. 241. overseer. 129 Madame Furtseva. 239. a prefect. Preobrazhensky (1874_1944). 740 (heading) Posnjakite from Cornwall.g. one appointed or commissioned. e. 1889 G. prestave. the Trade Unions International. place. Eagleton Crit. preobrazhenskit (Ya. after Komintérn Comintern. Pl. I. Deighton Spy Story xiii. in the Supreme Soviet. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) xii.in proletkult for proletárskaya kultúra proletarian culture] of proletarian a. Russia xviii. [Russ. 1970 Mineral. _pr_stavu an inspector. e. Profintern [Russ.g.).g. 893/1 The original report of a Russian police pristav. e. founded in 1921 and dissolved in 1937. the name of P.] An international organization of left-wing Trade Unions. used to designate cultural activities (esp. [Russ. prisyadka. Mineralogist XLII.] A hydrated magnesium borate found as nodules in salt deposits in Kazakhstan. f. 236.. prolet. [after Russ. Cu4(SO4)(OH)6_H2O. Mag. Krásny_ Internatsionál Profsoyúzov Red International of Trade Unions. an order or a command.g. prikazy. -av (-aw). Also attrib. garrison.] In Russia: an office or a department. and n.). 1977 N. Gunnislake. 165 Such purely gestural.g. 1957 Amer. Apr. 237. 242. shamefaced materialism will provoke_the reaction of those who press their questioning of the intrinsic élitism of literature and its aesthetics to neo-proletkult limits. e.before + _stav_ti to set up. Ibid. -cultist. Presidium Also Prćsidium. L. XXXVII. bedell. Nauk SSSR CXI. 1963 N. Also -affe. prikaz Also pricasse. [Russ. 1977 J.A hydrated basic copper sulphate. Russ. 26 May 26/4 Nikolsky was a representative of the Profintern. in Doklady Akad. Also used for the dance itself. in the central administration (now only Hist. trying some prisiadka kicks that put him temporarily on his ass. f. such as foreign policy in the case of the ambassadorial prikaz. written upon a printed form._ It occurs in colorless. e. such as were started in Russia after 1917) which supposedly reflect or encourage a purely proletarian ethos. esp. e. e. prisiadka Also prisjádka. commissioner. 1976 T. While examining and surveying the disused workings of the Drakewalls mine. 1087). prćsidium. pristaf. Kennan in Century Mag.] The presiding body or standing committee in a Communistic organization.

249.] A chief priest. rabfák. in the Greek Church. 245. B.g.] A. it is a violent storm associated with an invasion of cold air. 122/2 As long as they are not forced. Bulbs vii.] A small spring-flowering bulbous plant of the genus so called.) 21 Feb.R. in Compt. was set up to control every branch of the administration. [a.g. b.g. Petropolitanć XIV. W. adj. 1805). the name of Wilhelm Ramsay (1865_1928). Also attrib. rab(ňche)-kr(est_yánskaya) in(spéktsiya) worker-peasant inspectorate. as the Commissariat was called. 1974 H. Esp. 1976 National Observer (U. Russ.S. Adams 1805. Na2Ti2Si2O9.R. 250. Kruschschev] was sent by the Party for a three-year adult education course at a “Rabfak”school.243.S. An admirer of Rachmaninov. .g. G. Sela Petrograd Consignment 105 Petrograd was a tedious panorama of featureless white. Gr. Nov. prospékt.S.g. occurring as orthorhombic crystals. f. Finnish geologist: see -ite1. 246. in Nova Acta Acad.] In the Soviet Union: a long.L.and pope n. Rachmaninovian a. 1900 Pilot 7 July 6/2 One formerly a playmate. Op. e. protopope [ad.2. 248. An attendant or guard on a train. puschkinia [mod. 1949 I. e.] An organization established in 1920 by Lenin to examine the conformity of state organizations to official policy.g. rabkrín. the name of Apollos Mussin-Puschkin (d. however. 55). e. 874/1 What Rachmaninovians ought to be shouting for now. Of or resembling the style or the works of Rachmaninov. XIX. 1979 O.] In the U. Russ. Rend.] A silicate of sodium and titanium.g. Russian pianist and composer. 1960 Twentieth Cent. n. to prepare workers and peasants for higher education. 244. de Russie A. protopapas. f. des Sci. So F. established after the Russian Revolution. e.] A blizzard of very fine snow in the U. F. Fogg Compl. 164).g. June 573 In 1922 he [sc. [a. belonging to the family Liliacea.g. Deutscher Stalin vii.S. is a recording of the Liturgy. 31. Russian chemist and plant collector + -ia1. a boulevard.] A workers' school. de l' Acad. Handbk. 230 The Rabkrin. A guide. Russ. used of the great avenues of Leningrad. also called the striped squill. ramsayite Min. [f. f. rab(óchi_) fak(ul_tét) workers' school. Rabkrin [a. or priest of higher rank. 247. an avenue. 574 A purga is not just any snowstorm. wide street. Sleds slipped noiselessly along the prospekts. Rabfak Also rabfac. and n. puschkinias can be grown indoors like crocuses. 1977 Ibid. Kostyleva 1923. e. ramzait (E. E. protopope. e.S. purga [Russ. f. [ad. Russ. the protopop Avvakum. (J. Russ. 7/2 A provodnik is shaving in one of the two lavatories at the height of the morning rush. Prospekt Also with small initial.: a. and bearing spikes of blue or white cup-shaped flowers. after eccl. provodnik [Russ. Nevsky Prospekt. e. 251. protopopu: see proto. e. the name of Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninov (1873_1943). but now the fiercest opponent of Nikon. 1978 Soviet Geogr. e. M.

collect. Raskól_nik separatist. Cf. e. luchízm. Larionov (1881_1964) and N. 253. raskól separation. f. e. XIV. 1897 Daily News 8 June 5/3 The Raskolnik who buried alive_twenty-five of his fanatic co-religionists. Rayonism. The schism in the Russian Church which resulted from the reforms of Patriarch Nikon. [Russ. [Russ. of or pertaining to Rayonism. Rayonnisme. a. e. a small territorial division for administrative purposes. Hence Rayon(n)ist a. residentura Also rezidentura. [ad. cf. rezidentsia. schism: cf. raskol Also rascol. in which projecting rays of colour are used to give the impression that the painting floats outside time and space.] An intelligence agent (in a foreign country). 1947 Partisan Rev. 76 Larionov founded the rayonnist movement. Rascholnik.] A style of abstract painting developed c 1911 in Russia by M. 1975 Times 16 Dec. Rayonistic a. resident.] A group or organization of intelligence agents in a foreign country. Tidsskr. Rayonnism Also rayon(n)ism. the _Old Believers'. 1959 Economist 14 Mar. [a. 1968 D. 254. A body of dissenters under the raskol (sense 1 a). Rayonist. the chaps at the local Agitpunkts seem to have been lying down on the job. otkáznik.. 252. Russ. . Russ. Peasantry II.g.S. 1980 Radio Times 29 Oct. Veronesi's Into Twenties iii. who excommunicated dissenters in 1667. 63/4 Tonight Avital talks about her life since she left Russia. rezident [tr.] A dissenter from the national Church in Russia. 69 In Rome he was met by a young man from the Residence. ||rayonnisme. refusenik Also refusnik [Partial tr. 396 Russian revisionism was a heterodoxy. f. 256. and Suprematist. rezidént. schismatic. Russ.g. loosely based on the concepts of the futurist movement. Russ.] 1. Cooper Cave with Two Exits i. 1969 K. luch ray. f._ The crystals range in length from about 0_1 mm to 1_5 mm.. 7/5 Herr Guillaume soon became a _resident'---the head of a group of spies. 259.] A Jew in the Soviet Union who has been refused permission to emigrate to Israel. 441 The Rascol proper. residentura. 1969 H. 1888 _Stepniak' Russ. rayon Also raion. They are colourless to greyish. rezidentúra] A group or organization of intelligence agents in a foreign country.g.] In the U. Raskolnik Also 9 Rasckolnick. e.S. e. 1967 Norsk Geol. a life of waiting and campaigning to free her husband and other Jewish refusniks from jail in the USSR.R. residence [tr.. also as n.g. Futurist.e.g. f. 1977 New Yorker 2 May 31/3 What makes it unique is the inclusion of some dazzling experimental pictures from the early twentieth century---Cubist. although a religious phenomenon. 257. 255. 946/1 In at least two of Moscow's fifteen raions. stem of otkazát' to refuse: see -nik. [Russ. F. H. The Resident himself was extremely secure. rayon rayon1 + -isme -ism. also rezident. XLVII. b. e. a fanatic schism. Barran tr.g. Dissent from an established orthodoxy. has been taken as a peasant reaction to urban culture.g. Minogue in Ionescu & Gellner Populism 203 The Russian raskol after 1654. 249 Ramsayite is an important constituent of the mosandrite pseudomorphs. rajón. Russ. 258. next. raskól separation: see prec. Goncharova (1881_1962). 2. His cover was strictly diplomatic. a raskol.

Russ. particularly those established at Kiev in the ninth century. E. 4d. e. 6d. [a. and engraved with the lines of the completed picture. with embossed silver-gilt riza_dating from the end of the 19th century. Florio (1611) defines Robbone as _a coine of gold in Muscouy called a rubble or roble'. whose settlements gave rise to the later Russian principalities. n. but see quot. ix. f. Rus' Arab.g. of doubtful origin.g. xxix. cxx. 1822 Byron Juan vii. Rus_. The current English spelling has been adopted from French. The Russian form Rossiya appears to have been adopted from Byzantine Gr. e. 1875 Bedford Sailor's Pocket-bk. e. 1882 Sala Amer.). e. rouble Forms: rubbel. Forms: Rows(s)e. The Russ flotilla getting under way. 1. I tried my hardest_to learn a little Russ. sterling. 130 A rezidentsia is a network of Soviet _deep-cover' agents working in a foreign country.). which she kindly gave him. Russe. 1617 here. Pagitt Christianogr. [Russ.g. Davidson Viking Road to Byzantium i. 13/7 The yearly pay of a private [in the Russian army] is 2 roubles 70 copecks. rubbell. ruble. riza [Russ. (1639) 17 Some of their Bishops have 2000. 2d.g. (ed. 24 Aug. Ryss. native name of the people and country. Russia [med. 2s. Russe. Some twenty times he made the Russ retire. 1855 Englishwoman in Russia 37 He came to borrow a few rubles. and F. 15 Oct. e._ For most western scholars. e. the hand-embroidered blouses of old Russia. Rus. Geographic Sept. ruble (also rublevik' silver rouble). A Russian. n.g. R. 100 Copecks = 1 Silver Rouble = 3s. and a.] A. 1972 Nat.] A metal shield or plaque framing the painted face and other features of a Russian icon. 2.] 1.e. The Russian monetary unit. who were well known to Arab geographers. rouble (rooble). 112d.. e. Cf. roble. riza garment. rubble. 1968 W. Rus. rubashka Pl. 401 The bearded men wore rubashki. Obs. the name Rus is taken primarily to denote the Scandinavian settlers in Russia. Russi the Russians: see Russ. 1635 E. Its members_are known as Illegals. and whom the Byzantine Greeks called Rhos. The paper Rouble is worth about 2s. f. Deep Freeze xi. (1885) 31. in early times a money of account equal in value to an English mark.g. 261. 1979 Daily Tel. The Russian language. Revis. 1891 Melbourne Argus 7 Nov.. subsequently a silver coin (worth. The rouble is now available primarily in paper form.] A type of blouse or tunic worn in Russia. Rus Also Russ. e. 56 It is in the ninth century that we first hear of the Rus.g.g. 2.] The name of a group of Swedish merchant warriors who established themselves around Kiev and the Dnieper in the ninth century. 12/5 Among the collection is a 17th century icon of the Virgin of Kazan. iv. OSlav. Russ. A paper money of less value than the silver rouble (see quots. some 3000 Rubbles per annum.] . Rousse. 66 The Russes and the Greeks do not elevate the consecrated Bread to be worshipped at the Altar. 1976 H.L.g. Russ. Russ. adj. 1956 is erron. e. B. G. Garner Deep. 1822 Byron Juan viii. Rush. robell. b. 260. Roubles of gold and platina have been coined in the 19th cent.. Pagitt Christianogr. e. 1978 Daily Tel. Paper money is the chief medium of payment. or 13s. Russian. rubel. An adherent of the Russian Church. 262. 1635 E. Now rare. rubashka in quot. Du. 263. [Russ. in 1897.g. rubashki. 2) 317.g. The pl. 5/2 The deputy chief of the KGB Rezidentura in Tokyo_maintains numerous contacts among the staff and research fellows. [ad. 264. Sw. rubashkas.

b.g.g. Singer Shosha ii. as they are here called.g. The language of Russia. 31 May 388/4 The growth of Great-Russian jingoism.. 165 It is not without reason that the expressions “Soviet Church” and “Soviet Patriarch” have now become common in the mouth of Russians. will_clear at the first leap a stockyard six feet in height. duck.The name of the country in the east of Europe. attrib. 1866). belonging to a breed once so called but no longer a distinct group. e. Little.). Russian Blue. Bull. for Russian cigarette. 1886 Encycl. Russianism. 1961 Even. Russian pony. 1876 Geo.g. as Russian bear (often fig. Comb. Russianness (shifts & Englishized forms) 265. xxxvi. cf. Russien.g.L. etc. a. Also Roosky. Of animals. Russian Merchant. a stocky. e. viii.1 1 a. the heavy dark fur of the sable. Austr. Freeling Because of Cats x. Rhoosian. long-coated cat with a relatively short tail. These are made respectively in two materials---Mohair and Silk. crash. n. as Great. gadus. Also Comb. In specific names or designations: a. b. or imitation Russia. f. e. 79/1 Three different branches can be distinguished among the Russians since the dawn of their history:---the Great Russians. Ruski. The scent of russia from the books. Russianize. in this sense. ellipt. a very durable leather made of skins impregnated with oil distilled from birch-bark. and pretty loose. linen. 1871 M. like Russians. Manuf. II. Index. Russia. e. Russia: see prec. 429/1 Russia Braids. VI. inhabiting. 1. a small. sable n. the Little Russians. native to. 1976 _M. Of or pertaining to Russia or its people. B. 103 An elegant morocco or russia-bound book. med. and Comb. Also with distinguishing adjs. 1885 Census Instruct.v. c. Rusiano. Der. Mech. as Russia ashes. 1. e. Rusky. Russian n. Russky. 1963 N.] A. ellipt. 1. & Merch. e. 163 He had juju cigarettes too. 1882 Caulfeild & Saward Dict. green eyes.g. e. 1976 Times 15 May 14/8 Sholem Aleichem came from a middle class Russian-Jewish background. for Russia iron. No. leather. and large pointed ears. or imported from. Little. Russkiy. So F. Russki. Eliot Dan. wheat. attrib. b.). 4027/4 With a new Russia Leather Saddle and Bridle. Mackenzie Emigrant's Guide 118 These wild Russians. 1963 T. .g.). 1704 Lond. ellipt. distinguished by greyish-blue fur. Russia. etc. chiefly made in. Russian Iron. XXI. B. dove. a. Ware Orthodox Church viii. Needlewk. (Philadelphia) 29 Mar. Suppl. Roos(h)ian. Cossack 2 b. 1963 Times Lit. 3.g.g. 1845 D. Barak' Secret List of Heinrich Roehm vii. b. drab. An unruly animal. slang or colloq. 1978 I. a. and n. Russian-us. extensively used in bookbinding. a lightly built short-haired cat belonging to the breed so called. a. roan pony belonging to a breed originally developed in Russia. 1846 G. Also with distinguishing adjs. [ad. and a. Collins Marq. as Russian-speaking. Hence Russki-land. Also colloq. (see quots. iron.to Russify. Brit. cf. White Russians (see quot. Russ. hardy. adj.g. etc. 77 You need Russian-speaking agents to infiltrate Russian circles. as Great. 2. eagle.. 2. e. White Russian e. In the specific names of various articles. Russia leather. The American product. a form or dialect of this. hemp. 772/2 s. Dodd Brit. A native or inhabitant of Russia. Sp. with a big mouth piece.g.g. 2. e. Gaz. 266. a. Russian long-hair(ed) (cat). e. n. characteristic of. 227 Russia leather odorous with the aroma of silver birchrind. also (with distinguishing adjs. and n.] Russian a.g. A member of the Russian church. Martes zibellina. Russian wolfhound = borzoi. and the White Russians. [ad. Russian sable. e.. e. braid. 1884 Knight Dict. Russianist. Trading with Russia or in Russian goods. used attributively. Suppl. Russia. and a. 38 A Russky with all these qualities is awaiting you there.. 22/3 (caption) Keeping up with the (Russki) Joneses.

Salsola kali. iron. a poplar native to north-east Asia. Russian egg. a style of ballet developed at the Russian Imperial Ballet Academy and popularized in the West by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russe from 1909. e. October Revolution s. 125/1 Ribbed Stitch_is also called Russian stitch. fenugreek. cf.. cases of special lay for type used in composing that language. Russian roulette. Hemingway For whom Bell Tolls ii.g. native to southern Turkestan and bearing clusters of white or pink flowers. Russian salad. Needlewk. S. the overthrow of the Tsar and the eventual establishment of the Bolshevik form of government in Russia between February and October (Old Style) 1917. Russian olive (U. e.g.g._ They were long narrow cigarettes with pasteboard cylinders for mouth pieces. as Russian bagatelle.g. one who performs a Russian folk-dance. Russian (spring_summer. crash. 267.. Russian boot. 8_ saffian. a tumbleweed. Of economic products. Russian thistle (U. Russian Easter egg. mat. of the family Polygonaceć. Penry iv.g. e. any of a set of hollow wooden dolls. holds the barrel to his head. Russian scandal. usu.. e. Russian doll. banque). also a group of dancers trained in this style. a savoury dressing with a mayonnaise base. rhubarb. Russian vine. and naturalized in parts of western North America. Russian Bank (Banker. the Russian language or literature. 2 a. Russian dancer. -ion. also fig.). blouse. a style of dinner in which fruit and wine are placed at the centre of a table and courses are served from a sideboard. Miscellaneous uses. 25 The stone arch_was half-blocked by the ruins of a ramshackle gate overgrown with Russian vine. a leather boot that extends to the calf. to force by Russian influence or pressure. a poached egg served on a lettuce leaf with mayonnaise. xlvi. the smallest of which fits inside the next smallest. 1882 Caulfeild & Saward Dict. It is much used for babies' socks and muffatees. 1940 E. (a) a game in which a whispered message. Russian tea. as Russian apple.e. and pulls the trigger. saffian Forms: 6 saphian. Hence Russian v. Polygonum baldschuanicum. 1977 V. (b) any tea laced with lemon or rum. and so up to the largest.v. O'Hara Ghost of T. 1888 Jacobi Printers' Vocab. Russian Revolution. a creeping prickly herb belonging to the family Chenopodiaceć. is contrasted in its original and final versions. = saltwort 1. 1977 K.g. Special collocations: Russian ballet. 776/2 Abusive parents are often the scarred survivors of generations of reproductive russian roulette. 11. e. Of or pertaining to. 212 Turgenev_wandered about in heavy Russian boots.S. 242 On the relative strength of hand_spun yarn rope_and Russian yarn rope. cabbage. maple. IV. braid. diaper. Of fruits or plants. a fast-growing deciduous climbing plant. 1874 in Ruskin Fors Clav.v. concerned with.) one chamber of a revolver. 59 He bought a pair of Russian wolfhounds (white). 117 Russian cases. (a) tea grown in the Caucasus or a drink made from this. Turkish a. Russian dinner. 1976 Botham & Donnelly Valentino viii. 3. Russian cigarette. after being passed from player to player. 1976 Lancet 9 Oct. the oleaster. The King of Prussia has been Russianed out of their [the French] alliance. Walpole Let. chess. birch.S. e. Russia 1). also fig. leather (cf. a viral encephalitis transmitted by wood ticks. stitch. a spiny shrub with silvery leaves belonging to the family Elćagnaceć. Populus maximowiczii. d. October 3 and revolution n. spins the cylinder. 1756 H. a card game similar to solitaire but played by two persons.. etc. . Elćagnus angustifolia. a salad of vegetables with mayonnaise. an act of bravado in which a person loads (usu. with a wide cuff. 20 Robert Jordan_brought out one of the flat boxes of Russian cigarettes. e. rope.g. an artificial egg shell designed as a container for presents given at Easter. Russian bath = Turkish bath s. embroidery.) encephalitis.). a cigarette with a hollow pasteboard filter. (b) gossip inaccurately transmitted. which has leathery leaves with whitish undersides. Russian dressing. b. to Mann 25 Jan. c. Pritchett Gentle Barbarian xiii. as Russian deal. nonce-wd. Russian poplar (Canada). poker. native to Europe and western Asia.

694 The formula of sakhaite was recalculated in an attempt to determine whether a relationship existed between sakhaite and harkerite.g. sashen.self + variti to boil. equal to seven English feet. or self-boiler_generally stands in the middle of the tea-table. sazhen. Also saffian leather. abbrev. They favoured a Sakmarian age for this marine incursion. . 1966.Y. in this form of publication. 1974 Nature 8 Feb. in Zapiski vsesoyuznogo min Obshchestva XCV. 268. II. f. e. name of the locality in Siberia where it was discovered: see -ite1. samizdatchik [Russ. Metrop. e. samizdat Also with capital initial. Kotzebue's New Voy. the brachiopod Attenuatella. Sakmarski_ (first used as a stratigraphical term by A. Turkish (Persian) sa_tiyan. 271. Russ. [Russ. 241/1 The underground distribution of manuscripts and their publication abroad means that the samizdat writers have---at least in the eyes of the authorities---opted out of the Soviet scheme of things. almost equal to that of Turkey. _self-boiler'. 1801 Shaw Zool. Barlow in Encycl. f. 92 To fill their reserves_the samizdatchiki seek ties with other cities. samovar [Russian samovar. Also transf. in Zap.] Name of a stage in the Lower Permian in the Soviet Union.] A Russian tea urn. absol._ They arrive with copies of the originals. Also sahaite.] A kind of antelope (Saiga tartarica) of the steppes of Russia. copying. Phr.g. 269. Times Mag. e. samizdatchiki). Cf.] A measure of length formerly used in Russia. 1978 Manch. 340 The Saigas are of a migratory disposition. saďga. 551/2 A valuable Saffian or dyed Maroquin leather. at 75 roubles per sagene (1 sagene = about 7 feet) for the first 100 sagenes [etc. is prepared at Astracan and in other parts of Asiatic Russia. one who takes part in the writing. f. a text or texts produced by this. Obshchestva IX. 272. 269).g. Rumanian saftian.] The clandestine or illegal copying and distribution of literature (orig. Russ.[a. 273. saiga [a. sakhaít (I. name of a river in the Southern Urals: see -ian. 1834_6 P. 339 The Saiga. Ibid. an underground press.g. 270. saf_yan. 1972 N.] A leather made from goatskins or sheepskins tanned with sumach and dyed in bright colours. Russ. and distribution of samizdat material (pl. and chiefly in the U. [ad. 9 sachine. [ad. which have been given abroad. a. e. 1896 Lydekker Brit. Guardian Weekly 27 Aug.]. and the geological age during which they were deposited. 285 Boring. sashine. (1845) VIII. of or pertaining to this stage and the rocks that characterize it. Sakmara. sagene Also 8 sajen.self + izdátel_stvo publishing house. Sakmarian a. -chik. 1830 tr.]_from the base of the succession near Kimberley.R. saffian.S. Ostrovskaya et al. 1896 Redwood Petroleum I. Ger. which was printed by the Prague Samizdat. samo. Imperatorskago Min. sa_ga. 1970 New Statesman 20 Feb.g.g. Russ. corruptly a. the crystals of which belong to the cubic system and occur as greyish white masses.S. and attrib. sakhaite Min. Geol. V. 1970 Canad. Sakha. f. 7 Jiri Hrusa's novel “The Questionnaire”. or as adj. 396/1 McLachlan and Anderson have recorded orthocerid nautiloids. [etc. 193). Freq. samo. agent suffix]. sajene. 22 note. ii. or Scythian Antelope.). e. A Samowar. [Russian sazhen. F. II. Mineralogist X. Mammals 305 The Saiga Antelope. 10 Sept. in samizdat. Karpinsky 1874.] A hydrous borate and carbonate of calcium and magnesium.. Cf. of samoizdátel_stvo self-publishing house. e. Also saiga-antelope.

W. a medical orderly in the army. subbótnik.] e. e. Forms: Samoit. aligned parallel to the direction of the prevailing wind. Samoied.g. Farmborough Nurse at Russian Front ii.g. n. [Russian samoyed. and distinguished by a thick.1882 Pall Mall G. Such a terminal piece is called a satellite. sevruga Forms: severiga. which stretched away to the north of the Quzint. A white or buff dog belonging to the breed so called. 1896 Daily Tel. either intercalary or. e. A species of sturgeon. sastruga [from Russian zastruga groove. sanitar [Russ. Samojede. (Flying Column)_was staffed with four surgical sisters. Samoyede. B. Samoed. forming part of the national dress of Russian peasant women. sarafan Also -phan(e. or sleeveless cloak. who used Russ. 1972 Language XLVIII.] A. is already mentioned by Purchas 1613.g. Hogarth tr.g. [The sense is due to S. e. after Russ. e. 275. their language. Also with small initial. maintains the water at boiling point with a minimum of evaporation.g. veil. Löve Plant Chromosomes i. adj. spútnik satellite (Izvestiya Imper. 279. Marton Alarum 61 The well-fed passengers_probably expected to be carried across immense ice fields by rough Samoyed dogs. and a. 1932 C. 1._two doctors. [f. stocky build.] A long mantle. 206 The Samoyeds make up only one small group of scattered tribes among the many non-Russian peoples who have inhabited Siberia. a hospital attendant. Akad. spec.] An English rendering of subbotnik. 26 A secondary constriction may demarcate a short part of the chromosome. Samoiede. shaggy coat. called sarafan. 278. pricked ears. & D. . sewruga._about 30 sanitars (ambulance orderlies) and an officer. 1975 A. Saturdaying vbl. i. with a few pieces of lighted charcoal dropped into the tube. sevruga. Saturday + -ing1. satellite n.g. G. and a tail curled over the back. myasoyed flesh-eater). from za by + struga deep place] One of a series of irregular ridges formed on a snow surface by wind erosion and deposition. 1982 B. 280. to live only for the _Saturdayites'. 378). Whatmough Language 28 In the north. Samoyed. Navashin. most frequently. [Russian sarafan. Samoyede. 30 The 1st Letuchka.g. 89 Only Yuli had experience of the tundras and zastrugi. A short section of a chromosome demarcated from the rest by a constriction (if terminal) or by two constrictions (if intercalary). e. 277. sevriúga. Also quasi-n.] In Russia. [Russ. The rendering _self-eater' (cf. Aldiss Helliconia Spring ii. a member of the same family as the Finnish dialects. Nauk (1912) VI.g.. 274. and which. e. e. n. One of Mongolian race inhabiting Siberia. Cytology. 2. Of or pertaining to the Samoyeds. 276. Samoyed n. terminally. Samoid. So Saturdayite.] 1. once used as working dogs in the Arctic. 14 June 2/1 The samovar is a tea-kettle which has its fire in a tube running through it. Kollontai's Free Love 233 She will persuade you_that it is necessary_to deny oneself everything that gives joy. 1977 G. 1956 J. interpreted as “cannibal”. Acipenser stellatus. 1974 F. 27 May 7/1 The Grand Duchesses wore the national veil or scarf. Also attrib.

[ad. brown. Art of Europe i. 2. etc. 837). Rev. Hence applied by extension to similar personages in other parts. (or attrib. akin to shamanism. 1964 A. Sci. 1/1 America lacks this type of magician---the shamans there are grander.R. 281. also. the Beluga. shapka [Russ. 1977 Times 16 Nov.) Of or pertaining to a shaman or to shamanism. shcherbakovite Min. 1979 London Rev.. I. Occasionally in wider sense: an adherent of shamanism. the term denotes esp. adj. Russ. Jan. [C17: from Russian shaman. A priest or priest-doctor among various northern peoples of Asia. sodium. terms sometimes applied to a female shaman. the spirit world which is usu. skewer. and niobium. e. CLI.g. 283. shashlik [ad. shtchi.Nb)2(Si2O7)2. barium. n. I have never been able to say “when”.S. more pretentious. Times 9 May l2/2 An outdoor shashlik stand just off Ashkhabad's Marx Prospekt was pulling in passers-by. Rev. with recognition of the widespread similarity of primitive beliefs. e. e.g. e..Ba)2(Ti. the Russian national dish of cabbage soup. shcherbakovít (Es_kova & Kazakova 1954. Turk. K. 1955 H. Also fig. sponsorship: variously used (see quots. a man or woman who is regarded as having direct access to. a shamanist. e. 1901 Contemp. 1964 Doklady Acad. 282. 286.: Earth Sci. shish kebab. in Doklady Akad. e. Launay Caviare & After i. stchie. B. from Tungusian saman.] A brimless Russian hat of fur or sheepskin.] Patronage.g. the name of D. orthorhombic crystals. manifested during a trance and empowers them to guide souls. Hodgkinson Doubletalk 120 Shefstvo.] Cabbage soup. sis a spit. e. Russ. e.] A silicate of potassium. cure illnesses.S. ult. 18/5. U. found as brittle. 285. . [Russian shchi kail. more worldly.g. shtshi. 95 The necessary spiritual gifts entitling to the Shaman-office often are bestowed. and influence in. stchi. ultimately from Sanskrit srama religious exercise] A. 25 Oct. Also more recently. = hat. f.. stchee. 271 He never removed either his fur-lined dressing gown or his lambskin shapka. 1977 N. shaman n.Na.g. [Russ.g.).Y. Bks. the Ocietrova or sturgeon and the Sevruga. Also attrib. shtchee. 1977 N.Y. (K.e. e. sheltopusik Also sch-. Sect. 26 In Siberia there were also women who were shamankas.g. Also shamanka. 14 Apr. whether it be a second helping of Sevruga or just another wee drop of the hard stuff. shamanin. 10/4 In exchange for a few dissident intellectuals the Ibanskians import from America tons of shchi. shashlýk.g. 18 There are three varieties of acipenser used in the production of caviare. 1963 V. Nabokov Gift iv. 129/1 The goniometric measurements were made on small long prismatic crystals of shcherbakovite from an arfvedsonite-feldspar vein in the Khibiny alkalic massif. from Pali samana Buddhist monk. shamanic a. shamaness.g. Nauk SSSR XCIX. titanium. 284. Sandars Prehist. f. Russian mineralogist: see -ite1. Shcherbakov (1893_1966). cf. Caviare made from the roe of this fish. esp. shefstvo Also chefstvo. Bks.] An Eastern European and Asian kebab of mutton and garnishings often served on a skewer.g. patronage exercised by a shef or chief is the Soviet equivalent of empire building in Western business and service jargon. a medicine-man of some of the north-western American Indians. shamanian n. 1968 N. 287. shchi Also tschee. of or connected with a shaman. etc.

Suppl. sierozem Soil Sci. shungite Min. Dregne Soil of Arid Regions 79 A typical Serozem_from near Isfahan in Iran_had a 1 cm. von Inostranzeff 1886. The _rural gathering' would consist of all the inhabitants with Soviet electoral rights within the area of a Rural Soviet. calcareous and poor in organic material. séry_ grey + zemlyá earth. 1976 H. e. Shunga). a piece of fur.) 656/2 Shungite. e. but it may represent merely impure graphite. mod.g. 1841 Penny Cycl. schungit (A. (and pre-Revolutionary Russia). southern Russia. Syryenian. G. 290. shoub).L. found interbedded among Precambrian schists. [Russian shuba. Macropćdia XVI. Russ. [f. Also rarely as sing.] e. of skopéts. coal-like material containing over 98% carbon. in many cases the descendants of exiled religious dissidents.). or as adj. 294. 295. It is probably the metamorphic equivalent of bitumen.g. the faith and practice of the Skoptsi.] In the U. pl. f. have a culture and an outlook differing markedly from those of the people of European Russia. 1911 Ibid. Pseudopus of Merrem.] A type of soil. skhod [Russ. Skopzy. Shanin Awkward Class ix. a tribe belonging to the Permian division of the eastern Finns. a hard.. 1264/4 The narrator [is] a typically Russian busybody in the skaz tradition. 735/1 The Glass-Snake (Pseudopus pallasii) or Sheltopusik (Russ. -jenian. i. amorphous.[a. Geol.] A fur gown or greatcoat. e. schub. Brit. zheltopuzik. anglicized shube ( shoube. and_Central Asia. [ad. pallasii). and is developed typically under mixed shrub vegetation in arid climates. Skoptzi. name of a village in Russia close to the Finnish border] e. e. Ziranian.] First-person narrative in which the author assumes a persona. 317/2 Syryenians (also Sirianian.R. Syrićnus (ad.S.] An ascetic Russian Christian sect. Schunga (Russ.S. 164 A _rural gathering' (sel'skii skhod) was to be established in parallel with the _land gathering'. known since the eighteenth century and now forbidden. 726/1 There were long-established Russian peasant societies in certain parts of Siberia. Sibiriak Also Sibiryak. Amy stood dressed in her fur shooba. f.g. XXI. Siryenian n. . Also attrib. Skoptsi n. 288. the ordinary name for a genus of Reptiles. 72/2 The Scheltopusiks. Ziranian. Zyrenian. 1904 F. Also Sirenian. coarse sandy loam 4 cm. für Mineral. Ibid. 92). soil. [ad. Also schungite. that is characterized by a brownish-grey surface horizon grading into harder. given to selfmutilation (see quots. E. member of Skoptsi. shub. 1882 Günther in Encycl. black. carbonate-rich lower layers. Russ. serozém. [Russ. 291. Brit. an assembly of villagers. Whishaw Tiger of Muscovy xxviii. and a. known as Sibiryaks or local Russians.g. 293.g. 1980 Times Lit. light brownish-gray. eunuch. thick desert pavement of fairly angular volcanic rocks overlying a loose.g. usu. Zyrian and Zirian). 289. thick. Also attrib. Also serozem. zyryánin.g. Hungary. Skoptsism. Syrianian. Sibiryák Siberian. (Amer. 1972 Gloss.) is common in Dalmatia. Syrjenian. skaz [Russ. XXVI. Inst.g. 25/2 Scheltopusik or Sheltopusik. in Neues Jahrb. Also selskii skhod e. 1972 T. Such people. Zyrenian. etc. Also occas. 1974 Encycl. e. 7 Nov. Russ. Geol. XIV. 292. [Russ. shoobe.] A Siberian descended from European Russian settlers. shuba Also shooba.] A lizard of the genus Pseudopus (P. pl. Also.

abbrev. e.R. Freq. sluggish [Rendering of Russ. also solods. and other metals found as a yellow oxidation product of cobalt and nickel ores. A. which is responsible for maintaining security within the Soviet armed and intelligence services. according to which the artist's or writer's work should reflect and commend the life and ideals of socialist society. Russ. e. Fitzpatrick Introd.S. usu. smetana Also with Fr. e. Soil Sci. S. Russ.g. sol. f. nickel.) solodi.g. as sing. LI.g. [a. leached subsurface horizon. schematic works of the Socialist Realists of our time. 218 The crude. Russ. Russ. socialist realism. 1977 Church Times 21 Jan.salt. has been found to carry small amounts of smolyaninovite. originating during the war of 1939-45. Smetat . “death to spies”. 1980 Prisoners of Conscience in USSR (Amnesty Internat. f. as smetana (or smitane) sauce. 301. Also soloth. sobornost Theol. in Doklady Akad. Andrei Ivanovich. 299. 296. A. Abstr. 388 A specimen purchased by the [British] Museum in 1927_from Schneeberg. e.to sweep together. of smert_ shpionam. lit. the name of N. 302. spelling smitane [a. Soc. e. Smersh [Russ. smolyaninovite Min. 119 Solods can be regarded as leached solonetzes in which the upper horizons are strongly bleached becoming pale grey or white. head of Smersh during the Second World War and Minister for State Security after it. 300. catholicity. 1977 V. 13/3 Sobornost furthermore provides a further incentive to Roman Catholic officialdom not to regard Church unity too exclusively from a juridical point of view. Walker Sex & Supernatural ix. 64/2 In 1934 the term “socialist realism” came into current use. [ad. hackneyed (schizophrenia). 1970 B.] Sour cream. Pritchett Gentle Barbarian xiii. collect.] Applied to an alleged type of schizophrenia ascribed to political or religious dissidents confined in state psychiatric hospitals in the U.] A unity of persons in a loving fellowship in which each member retains freedom and integrity without excessive individualism. e. 297. served with meat. 29 Apr. constituting a third occurrence of the mineral. e. [tr.g.S. K. 4885 (heading) Smolyaninovite. 1974 E. and architecture suffered from various interpretations of it. Nauk SSSR CIX. Also attrib. smetána sour cream. sobórnost_ conciliarism.e. 1957 Chem. Yakhontova 1956. Sotsialistícheski realízm. a new mineral. and occurring characteristically under grass or shrub vegetation in semi-arid and desert regions. Hence socialist-realist n. 1978 Jrnl. attrib. a sauce made with sour cream and seasonings. . from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. black and white. are two Abakumovs. Suppl. 1977 Mineral. Pl. solod Soil Science. 534/3 Missing.g. 2) 184 Schizophrenia. Mag. R. and a. smolyaninovít (L.g. worn.) (ed. 83 Any sort of sauce you like except tomato.g. vii. Smitane maybe.] A type of soil derived from a solonetz by leaching of saline or alkaline constituents.] The popular name of the Russian counter-espionage organization. Smolyaninov: see -ite1.] The official theory of art and literature of the Soviet Communist party.g. 1977 Times Lit. stértaya (shizofreníya). e. a mystical Russian sect which first came into prominence in the middle of the 18th century but which was said to have been in existence for at least three centuries before that.] A hydrated arsenate of iron. SMERSH. 1979 N. XLI. has been the diagnosis most commonly made of dissenters. Also smolia-. Russ. Arts Dec. 298. sólod. soloti. or _eunuchs'. 849). [a. 84 The best known of the modern castrant cults called the Skoptsi. having a pale. (sometimes const. often in its “sluggish” form. f. Saxony. cobalt. Freeling Widow xiv. and Viktor Semenovich.g.

now. solonetz Soil Science. is characteristically pale in colour. [a. 1977 J. Cruickshank Soil Geogr. a commander of a sotnia. = Soviet Union or its leaders). the formation of a solod by the leaching of salts from a solonetz. [a. f. one sotnia turned northward. alkaline soil that has little or no structure. sotnik.S. 1974 E. [Russ. solonetz. and occurs in conditions similar to those associated with solonchaks but having better drainage. altered by this process. [Russ. c. CXXVI. A citizen of the U. 1878 N. dark.S. iv. sodnick.g. solonetzic a. and fig. e. solonéts salt marsh. Glenny tr. sol-salt. 304. 74 If the parental material has a high salt content.] A type of salty. Latham Native Races Russian Emp. 306. 26 The cavilling system_was an embryo of workers' control. sotnia Now Hist. solonchák salt marsh. sotnya hundred. 1972 J. The soil is called a solonchak. G.g.R. e. (hence loosely. . 183 Salinization.. a. young men---what is it to be? Solyanka. intr. also. e. sol-salt. 1979 O. solodize v. and solodization_resulting in the formation of solonchaks. e. f. Also -nez. together with Rakovsky and Trotsky he [sc. In the U. e. Chiefly in pl. 1. solyanka Also soljanka. e. to change into a solod. being. Cleary High Road to China ii. salt lake. scrambled eggs?' said the old man invitingly.g. 56 Instead of the_Sodnick or head of a certain number of villages---these would have been the native nobles. -nietz.g. 307. [ad. Amer. columnar subsoil overlain by a thin. Also soviet. e. satam.] A soup made of vegetables and meat or fish. solonchak Soil Science. etc. meatballs.R. being. 1972 J. Cruickshank Soil Geogr. Soviet n. 303. or characteristic of a solod. f. Stacey Peace Country Heritage ii. Petersburg. 308. f. n. solonization. The term was also applied to various revolutionary councils set up prior to the establishment of socialist rule in 1917.g. related to Skr. or characteristic of a solonetz. a hardpan solonetzic soil will result. resembling. 305.. e. Helphand] had led the Soviet. Also ssotnik. sotnya] A local official among the Cossacks. 127 (caption) A solonetz profile in South Australia showing strong prismatic structure in the B horizon. b.g.] A type of alkaline soil that is rich in carbonates. Sela Petrograd Consignment 20 During the 1905 uprising in St. 422 _Well. In other countries: a similar council organized on socialist principles. Rev.] A squadron of Cossack cavalry. [Russ. and solodic soils respectively. 1972 History Workshop Pamphlet No. Russ. 45 The Bolshevists_in Saxony_have taken over some of the towns. 6. a. iv.. e.. transf. G. 150 On the 11th a party of Cossacks reached Pescherna_.g. Russ.solodic a. C. 2. centum._ It was a little Soviet which had grown up within the capitalist system.S. and occurs typically under salt-tolerant vegetation in poorly-drained semi-arid or desert regions. solodized (solot-) ppl. Russ.S. resembling. sotnik'. 1854 R. having legislative and executive functions. L. Now Hist. salt lake. 145 Where sodium salts exceed 2 per cent of the mineral matter.g. solodization (also solot-). Also solontschak. e.: one of a number of elected councils which operate at all levels of government. 1978 Faniran & Areola Essent.g. Soil Study viii. Solzhenitsyn's August 1914 xlii. consists characteristically of a hard. G. etc. 1972 M.g. sovét council. friable surface layer. sot-.] A. declared soviets. and a. a salic horizon is produced which may even be a salt crust on the soil surface under extremely dry conditions and high groundwater table.

Maclean Take Nine Spies iv. pertaining to. 1978 Detroit Free Press 5 Mar. etc. council of national economy. xx. 312. These councils were introduced in 1957 and abandoned in 1965.R. [a. adj. 1980 Daily Tel. sov(étskoe khoz(yá_stvo Soviet farm. the Russians. designating another country or people in the sense _Soviet and_'. 1978 F.R.g. an adherent of the Soviet system. a council having analogous functions in one of the republics of the U. e. e. -Chinese. sovnarkhozy. Of. as SovietAmerican. 313. 310. “travelling companion”.S. that loves the Soviet Union. abbrev. of sovét naródnykh komissárov.g. Sovietophile a. Sovnarkom [a. did not recede until 1964. spútnik. under the influence of. 1959 E. sovnarkhozie.S. Of. . Russ. or having. Russ. Study USSR (Munich) June 15 A wave of sovkhoz development followed which. Pl. 1983 N. a person with a specialist knowledge in some area of science. a1/4 It is not a dangerous situation_and we have no worries about the fate of this sputnik. -nik). e.R. of or pertaining to the (Russian) Soviet system.S.] In the U.e. agent suffix (cf.] In the U. beginning in 1954. s with + put_ way.R.Y. was the first artificial satellite. an Army captain named Kalmyk. a system of government based on soviets. e. f. lit. f. an engineer. or living in the U. etc.g.g. council of people's commissars.g. (usu. Sovietic a. introduced by Mr Khrushchev in 1957. Russ. sovkhos. or culture. of sovét naródnovo khozyá_stva. sovkhoz.) 14/4 Romanov would crack down on the mishmash of more than 100 government ministries and independent agencies that create confusion in Sovietland.e.S. a Russian one. pertaining to. (renamed the Council of Ministers in 1946). fear of the Soviet Union Sovietophobe.g.' B.. with capital initial) the proper name of a series of such satellites launched by the Soviet Union between 1957 and 1961. the (Russian) Soviet system. 1977 Times 14 June 16/7 He is a Soviet Jew whose family has been refused an exit visa to go to Israel. Sovietism.S. or Sovnarkhozy. abbrev.g. H. e. Times 7 Jan. 101 It [sc. the Tower of the Six Harmonies] is such a sturdy building that an army of “specialists” would have been necessary to demolish it. sovnarkóm. 34 _Who did Bülow meet in Dresden?'_ _A Soviet. journey + -nik. 311.g. The first Sputnik. Sovietist rare.S.] The highest executive and administrative organ of government of the U. Comb. i. 1. 2. Inst. 1242/2 The system of regional councils. [Russ. e. esp.] In Communist parlance.] An unmanned artificial earth satellite. Snieckus's Soviet Lithuania 16 The congress called for a socialist revolution in Lithuania and the establishment of Soviet power.S. spetsialíst. Also. In combination with adjs. 1977 C.S. launched on 4 October 1957.g. engineering. e.g. 3. spec. 1967 Bull. sovnarkhóz. 1964 Economist 12 Dec. 8 July 14 Should not the British media sort out this phobia? Otherwise Sovietophobes might well be in danger of alienating the most convinced of their potential allies. iv.R. sovkhozes. Soviet Union: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Leys’ Chinese Shadows (1978) ii. e. (now rare). McCarry Secret Lovers iii.. 1977 S.: a regional council for the local regulation of the economy. sputnik Also Sputnik. scientist.S. -German. sovkhoz Also sovhoz. Pl. 244 Even in the domain of treaty-making Sovnarkom acquired independent constitutional powers. Carr Socialism in One Country II. Sovietophobia.g. e.S. sovkhozy. 309. specialist [tr.: a state-owned farm. 158 The Soviet_German Pact of August 1939. 1974 tr. sovnarkhoz Also Sovnarkhoz. [Russ. e. 1976 Survey Summer-Autumn 237 After 1968 Sartre discovered that ultimately his philosophy was more likely to culminate in anarchy than in Sovietism. (Parade Suppl. Also attrib.

during the 1930s and 1940s. 1983 Church Times 4 Feb.S. stanitza Also staniza. staretz Pl. or chief of the village artel. sputnikitis (nonce-wds.g. starost(e. comes to buy the supply of material. [Russian starosta.S. too. a take-out double of a suit overcall of one's partner's opening bid. sputnik(e)ry. = (venerable) old man. attrib.g. e. 12/2 In a bitter statement. 315. 2.g.g. Stavka [Russ. Sputnik double Bridge. Polish starosta. adj. [Russian stanitsa. 549/1 Such Hollywood sputniks as Frank Sinatra and Sammy Davis Jnr. 1961 New Scientist 6 July 38/1 The narrower field of sputnikry. 319. 316.. .. district. or characteristic of such a worker or such workers collectively. Stakhanovist a.. Stakhanovite n. 318. Gui accused the Communists of practicing Stalinism. 317. Stakhanovism. whose counsel and prayer is an inspiration to many. and fig. stakhánovski_ adj. e.] The general headquarters of the Russian army. starosti. the head man of a village community. as Sputnik.] A Cossack community or township. 1968 [see loop v. and a. Ibid. stakhánovets n. 1901 Scotsman 5 Apr. Also transf. transf. as sputnik diplomacy. Also anglicized starust. startzy [Russ. The Soviet authorities publicized the prodigious output achieved by Stakhanov in 1935 as part of a campaign to increase industrial output.] In the Russian Orthodox Church. lit. 5/3 Though U. e. Iósif Stálin).g. stavit_ to put. 1895 Daily News 13 June 5/4 It were well. 1977 Time 21 Mar. Russ. leader of the Soviet Communist Party and head of state of the Soviet Union + -ism. n. a spiritual leader or counsellor. 1960 Spectator 10 June 826 The abnormal concentration of effort in such fields as sputnikery'. e.. f.R. accepting the patronizing title of “working wonders” in a kind of unofficial Stakhanovism.g.S.] The policies pursued by Stalin.b. based on but later deviating from Leninism.. calling himself the victim of the chamber’s “will for my political execution”. 7/1 They tell us of the hidden work of the Startsy. “elder”. also absol. working wives] pride themselves on the way they manage to run a home and hold their own in a job at the same time. a worker whose productivity exceeded the norms and who thus earned special privileges and rewards. 7/2 At Nijni Novgorod the starosta. following the example of Stakhanov. [f.1 6]. 1963 Punch 17 Apr. town. aimed at encouraging hard work and maximum output. stahrost. e. Stalinism [f. race. Joseph Stalin (Russ. 314. transf. the formation of a centralized. place. startsy. the elders or spiritual fathers. e. dim.). and n. one who is exceptionally hard-working and productive. pertaining to. objectivist government. starets. and Comb.g. a movement in the U. also transf.g. Greer Female Eunuch 123 Many others [sc.] In Russia. In the U.S. 1970 G. starosta Pl. the assumed name of Iosif Vissariónovich Dzhugashvíli (18791953). of stan station. 1977 Time 1 Aug. esp.S. they are veritable Stakhanovites compared with some of their European counterparts.. cf.R.] A.g. that a large number of Cossack stanitzas should be intermingled with the new colonists. e. e. totalitarian. elder. B. 275 Women's literature is full of the trumpeting of female Stakhanovists. workers have been regularly chided at home for goofing off on the job. Designating. 1966 Listener 19 May 729/3 In preparation for the creation of Moscow's own ring of Sputnik towns'--though this development may not happen until after 1980. e. the name of the Soviet coal-miner Aleksé_ Grigór_evich Stakhánov (1906_77) + -ite1.

g.. Cf.. is usually smoked and eaten raw. formed at very high pressure and found in meteorite craters. Wambaugh Black Marble (1978) i. 2.] 1. country. an extreme Radical.e. Micropćdia IX. 2. 1860 Wraxall Life in Sea v. strelits. another polymorph forming at even higher pressures. strelitzi. 1324 Syrian or *Steppe Rue. metropolitan”. and Comb. Arts etc. Stolichnaya [Russ. strelitz Hist.). G. stishovite Min. Reformer xvi. G. [a. sterlyadi.] 1. to designate a type of railway carriage made for the transport of prisoners. e. G. 1857 Dufferin Lett. sterlet. Whitney tr._Dec. Digby in Travel July 23 Sterelet. nepotism and intrigue. attrib.000 defendants. 21/3 The food in a Russian stolovaya (or “diner”). 321. 1909 J. Understanding Earth i. One of the vast comparatively level and treeless plains of south-eastern Europe and Siberia. sterlet Also sterledey. sterledy. attrib. 1890 R. i. often incorrectly as pl. steppe-murrain = rinderpest.. usually treeless. horse. strelsies. at a Duma then recently assembled in St Petersburg. 1982 Spectator 27 Mar. land. 3. Used attrib. besides embodying all the worst technical vices of Russian military bureaucracy. ( sterelet). was rotten to the core with dishonesty. Gass et al. 240 The Turkomans and other nomad races in the steppes often attribute a disease or illness to the devil. Boldrewood' Col. Stolypin [The name of Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin (1862_1911). Stolypin's necktie. as steppe bird. 1881 Spon's Encycl. steppe cat._ Within the few months of their existence they used Stolypin's necktie' (the noose) to execute more than 1. 35/1 The diamonds occasionally contain minute inclusions of coesite_but do not contain stishovite. strelitz. the noose.. tetragonal polymorph of silica. P. brought in the term on 30th November 1907. 37 [He] could let me have a steppe-ful of horses if I desired. 234/2 Stolypin's necktie (Europ. 1963 P. -travelling. Cf. 320. iv. pl. 1903 W. 1974 T. 322. 491 The prisoners got used to calling this kind of railroad car a Stolypin car.] The proprietary name of a variety of Russian vodka. One Rodicheff.] A canteen. sterlit. one of the numerous kinds of fishes found in Baikal. An extensive plain. lake.] A small species of sturgeon. 1876 Burnaby Ride to Khiva xxvi. 325.g. e. e. transf. This term was brought into fashion in 1907 (Nov. 1897). Ware Passing Eng. e.] A dense. district. . 3 He_stealthily withdrew the bottle of Stolichnaya from the pocket of his raincoat.g. M. steppe rue. strelitzes. Fisher tr. or. e. Russian conservative statesman. Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago I. R. starlett. High Lat. Forms: sing. Russian step_.g. sterlitz). 1974 Encycl. The monotony of Australian *steppe-travelling. the final halter. lit. Industr. e. 1915 B.g. more simply. Fleming Kolchak xiv. Russ. 583/1 Stolypin instituted a network of courts-martial. Brit. steppe. Russian geochemist.g. and F. e. Stishov. R. steppe-ful nonce-wd.g. 326. -ett. Schimper's Plant Geog. [a. Politics. colloq. the name of S. the manul (Felis manul or caudatus). ii. stolovaya [Russ. -id. 324. 1977 J. [f. (? pl.g. “of the capital.g. Acipenser ruthenus. e. 323. the seeds of which are sometimes eaten as a narcotic. who first synthesized it in 1961: see -ite1. steppe Also step. a cafeteria. found in Russia. the plant Peganum Harmala. 551 The steppe of the Hungarian plain exhibits close climatic similarity to that of South Russia. 1971 I. F. 124 Prince Potemkin is said to have frequently paid three hundred roubles for a Sterlet soup. sterled. 158 The swollen Stavka. strelsey. just a Stolypin. and absol. fauna.

sudak. 14 Soon after that there began the Communist _subbotniki'---_voluntary Saturdays'. 157 Did you get Gale to fix you_her strogonoff. in the Skipton Caves near Ballarat. 1973 Nat. for the benefit of the collective. Ser. are to be devoted to Vietnam. beef stroganoff.. Also (chiefly U.g. f.) sulfazin. e. 185 Sulfazin was one of the favorite narcotics of the KGB. or designating a metal capable of extreme plastic extension under load. subbotnik Pl. the practice or an act of working voluntarily on a Saturday. 532/3 The Vietnamese economy is in such an urgent state that 75% of the proceeds of this year's Subbotnik. May 612/1 All the strange but delicious bounty of the Volga. C. L. f.g. 272 Struvite in crystals occurs in guano. f. Whitney tr. Russian strie_lets.g. Jrnl. e. 1893 The Stundists 35 Ivan Golovtchenko. Russian diplomat Count Paul Stroganov. 1981 M. Sci.g. 330. Russ. e. L. Ulex 1846) f. fat fish with names like sazan. a Stundist preacher_was taken before the Court on a charge of propagating Stundist doctrines.g. involving or characteristic of such materials. the Molokani. G. strielyati to shoot with the bow. The practice originated with workers on the Moscow-Kazan railway in Moscow on 10 May 1919. 333. Russian minister at Hamburg. as a result of contact with German Protestant settlers. handsome. adj. Russ.. 1904 F.g. Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago II. i. superplastic.] A member of a large Evangelical sect (called stunda) which arose among the peasantry of South Russia about 1860. A superplastic metal. A. [a.[a. struvit (G. Petersburg from the Stundists. In full. Metallurgy. e. 'stroganoff Also stroganov. n. and the Baptists. a. b_uf stroganoff. name of Struve. e. [ad. N. attrib.S. agent-n. struvite Min. found in small yellowish-brown or greyish crystals.] In the Soviet Union. e.superplastically adv. subbótnik.] A dish of strips of beef cooked in a sauce containing sour cream. 1978 Nature 16 Nov. A Strelitz soldier lay sleeping at the door leading to the corridor. pertaining to. striela arrow. Stundist [a. ii. 331. Smith Gorky Park i. 209/2 The consolidated product can have very fine grain sizes which in turn leads to great ductility at ambient temperature---even to superplastic behaviour.] A soldier belonging to a body of Russian troops composed of infantry raised by the Tsar Ivan the Terrible (1533_84) and abolished by Peter the Great in 1682. Russ. 327. n. 1888 Stead Truth about Russia 363 Deputations came to St.] A drug consisting of a suspension of one per cent purified sulphur in peach oil. [a. f. = Saturdaying vbl. Mag. Geogr. and n._and follow the Boyar Nagoy. the Saturday in April when Soviet citizens contribute a day's work for the good of the economy. 1975 T.g. Whishaw Tiger of Muscovy xxxi. -niki. stundist. Of.] A species of pike-perch (a fish) e. 1979 Nature 16 Aug. strieltsy). B. xii. f. [a. 329. G. archer (pl.superplasticity e. Fr.g. Wilson Healing Art xiv. (anglicized) -niks. 1980 A. followed by bilberry strudel? 328. 1870 Amer. sulphazin Pharm. sudak [Russian sudák. 332. . strogonoff and with capital initial. Also attrib. and in opposition to the doctrine and authority of the Orthodox Church. said to be used by the German settlers as the name for their religious meetings: see -ist._ To the Strelitz the Tsar said: _Go quickly. the name of the 19th-cent. stunde hour. P. iii.] Hydrous phosphate of ammonium and magnesium. subbóta Saturday: cf. given intramuscularly to induce fever.

e. in Bauhausbuch No. 1980 I. tamizdat [Russ. 140/1 These are generally described in terms of bioclimatic zones---arctic. suslik. [Russ. N. Vsesoyuznogo Min. 1965 P. Svan Also _(pl. Suani (also used). O'Donovan et al. cf. Suprematism Also suprematism.] . suprematízm. then a fauve: a futurist. the zone of temperate coniferous forest stretching across Europe and North America. 63). 1962 D. Cf. L. Russ. 65 Dogmatism---or Talmudism.] The swampy coniferous forest area of Siberia. 270/1 The sousliks are very quarrelsome among themselves. CXVII. prairies. e.] A sulphide of copper and iron. e. found in Europe and Asia. 1971 Britannica Yearbk. the language of this people. the abstract. 1958 Spectator 14 Feb. f. 10 The Svans were cut off for centuries from the main stream of Georgian civilization.. hopefully says of his own filleted and rectilinear aesthetic “thus one may also call Suprematism an aeronautical art”. 1957 R. e. [ad. in Izvestiya Akad. use [tr. tundra. then a surrealist. Russ. Sci. CXXVI. Hence Su-prematist1 (a) n. 338.g. Ibid. sverkhplastichnost_ (Bochvar & Sviderskaya 1945. as Stalin at times called it---is defined as “the uncritical acceptance of dogma without considering the conditions of its application”. an adherent of Suprematism. found as yellow. & Future 1972 406 While the superplastics are only starting to shed their image as laboratory curiosities. 1969 Mineral. suslic. e. Hist.g. e. of izdat'el'stvo publishing house. M.g. and rain forest. [tr.e. Also attrib. Talnakh. pertaining to. Russ. Spermophilus citillus (or other related species). XXII. R.g. Arts Feb. [a. Nauk SSSR: Otdelenie tekhnicheskikh Nauk ix. a suprematist. after samizdat. or characteristic of Suprematism. C. United States iii. also. taiga [a. 1842 Ibid. boreal forest. abbrev. talnakhit (Bud'ko & Kulagov 1968. also. a constructivist. iridescent. usu. 148/1 (heading) The new mineral talnakhite---the cubic variety of chalcopyrite. Hunt Guide to Communist Jargon xviii. 334. name of a locality near Dudinka in northern Siberia: see -ite1. crystals of the cubic system.] An artistic movement initiated by the Russian painter Kazimir Malevich in 1913. the state or quality of being superplastic. Obshchestva XCVII. suslik Also souslik. in Pol. Swanian. 824)]. souslic. 56/1 Is this the victory of pragmatism over Constitutional talmudism? 339. f. 11.g.) Ssuanes. -lik. 688/1 When the temperature of the blank reaches 950_C the argon pressure is increased at a programmed rate to expand the blank into the tool superplastically. temperate deciduous forests. Abstr. tam there + izdat. the fiber composites have almost arrived. (b) adj. in Zap. 1980 Jrnl. Russ. F. talnakhite Min.g. geometrical style of art produced by this movement. [ad. 226/1 Malevitsch. Rev. 18 Svanian and Mingrelo-Laz_are separate languages.] A species of ground-squirrel. 335. Soc. Russ. 1978 Ibid. 337. 340. Also Svanian.] (A member of) a southern Caucasian people living in Svanetiya in western Georgia. 336. Georgia i. Cu9Fe8S16. of. 1955 Archit. desert savanna. taiga.g. Russ.. talmudízm] e... Talmudism fig. -lic. Lang Mod. 80 He became a cubist. Murdoch Nuns & Soldiers i.g. XX. 203/1 His Suprematist work exploiting a simple vocabulary of colours and shapes and rhythms.

also this system of publication.8 Also Tât. e. a mountain Jew from Daghestan in the Caucasus.] Rank. 344. tarantasu. the amiable youngster. Palache et al. 345. also. Russ. central Asia] An orthorhombic basic vanadate of copper and calcium. both unofficial Soviet and émigré publications). Voegelin Classification & Index World's Lang. 29 July 4/4 M.. Dana's Syst. f. tangeít (A. [ad. 1982 Times Lit. F. 5/2 Tass. 342. also. 135 A roofless. semi-cylindrical tumbril. the name of the Tange Gorge. e. Fergana. tangeite Min. sibirica. said_that _revisionist elements in the party' were trying to paralyse it.Russian writings which are published abroad and smuggled back into the U. Mr Irmiya Rabayev. tchetvero four. 343. b.g. The language of this people.g. 1890 Daily News 5 Nov.g. [a. [a. reporting from Warsaw. 341. that is a secondary mineral found as green or greenish yellow crystals. from Turkish. calciovolborthite.g. tarantass Also -as. esp. TyuyaMuyun. f. 1904 Daily Chron. the average for the last five years. 1951 C. [a. C. on a long flexible wooden chassis. Landell Through Siberia I. 5/6 Of rye. 32 The infection primarily occurs in a variety of wild rodents_such as the tarabagan in Mongolia. (A member of) a Finno-Ugric people (now called Nganasan) living between the Yenisey and Khatanga rivers in north-west Siberia._was a tool in the hands of the omnipotent tchin. e. or as adj. 1882 H. & F.S. e. person or persons of quality. mounted on poles which connect two wooden axle trees called by the general name of tarantass. 343 Yenisei Samoyed_appears to be transitional between Yurak and Tavgy Samoyed..g. 346. found in the steppes of eastern and central Asia. 6/5 A Tat.] A Russian measure of capacity. = . e.] a..68 of an imperial quarter. CuCa(VO4)(OH).R. iii. 816 Tangeite appears to be identical with calciovolborthite.g._there were yielded 113 million tchetverts. Suppl. tchetvert Also chetvert.S. 7) II. 24 Apr. Also attrib. the Iranian language spoken by this people. 239). tarbagán. the initial letters of Telegrafnoe agentstvo Sovetskogo Soyuza. tarbagan Also tarabagan. related to the Tajiks and living in Azerbaijan and Dagestan. [Russian tchetverti quarter. Russ.] A four-wheeled Russian travelling-carriage without springs. 3 Sept. Russ. e. 7_9. 1981 Guardian 27 Apr. 1981 Jewish Chron. Tavgi n. (ed. acronym f. 348. in Tavgi-Samoyed.e. 1977 C.. [a.. 950/1 It is thus a combination of samizdat and tamizdat (i. in Priroda No.) Also Tavghi. Tat n. springless. e. has been a refusenik for seven years. the pelt of this animal. Min. M. seatless. Comb. e. Marmota bobak or M. 31. 1971 P.g. Tass Also TASS. e.g. as against 112.] (A member of) an agricultural people perh. (and a. C.g. Russ. tchin [Russian chin rank. . Russ. Russ. Plehve_well knew that the Tsar. Garnham Progress in Parasitol. Fersman 1925. [ad.] A large long-haired marmot. Tavgy. 347. Tavghy.] The official Soviet news agency. the Russian quarter.

S. technicum. and the like reminiscent of karst. e. e. M.Y. 349.g. Whitney tr. a person who negotiates difficulties or arranges things. termokárst (M.] An electronic musical instrument in which the tone is generated by two high-frequency oscillators and the pitch controlled by the movement of the performer's hand towards and away from the circuit (see quot. teljčga. [Russ.). L. telega Also telego. S.g. hummocks.L. permafrost melt and thermokarst development. 1971). neut. e. 1984 N. and with capital initial. M. f. tokamak Physics. 352. 1976 Papers Geol. its windows strictly latticed. [a. topography in which the melting of permafrost has produced hollows. yakutsk.g. sing.R. 66/1 Tochilinite is associated with clear and white calcites. whence also F. 211)]. the name of M. 17 Jan. Pl. 351. [f. the All-Union Association for Trade with Foreigners. tolkat_ to push or jostle.g.. -s. technicum Also tekhnikum. ii. -y.] A mineral that is a complex of iron sulphide and magnesium and iron hydroxides. Russ. 421 A party of poor telega-drivers. the Latvian Technicum. Hist. Sil: Ser. tokamák. contraction of vsesoyuznoe ob_edinenie po torgovle s inostrantsami. Russ. 354. tekhnikum. teljęga. telaga.S. 1970 Globe Mag. of rough construction. Russ. the name of its inventor. e. terem Russ. and n.] In the U. in Trudy Soveta po Izuch. 1943 E. of technicus technical (see technic a. Organova et al. e. Rev. Thérémin (b. thermokarst [a. Abstr. e. XXX. 753 Moog recently recorded her playing the theremin. proizv. C. tolkach Pl.g. I. found as bronze-black grains and fibrous aggregates.R. Tochilin (1910_55). toroidal chamber with magnetic field. [Russ. distinguished by the fact that the controlling magnetic field is the sum of a toroidal field due to external windings and a poloidal field due to an induced longitudinal current in the plasma. 1982 New Scientist 16 Dec. 217 The premier practitioner of blat is the tolkach. Russian engineer. telegga. XXIV. f. tolkachi. télčgue..] A four-wheeled Russian cart.g. 1977 Western Political Q. 1896). 1 Apr. 357. Almedingen Frossia iv.g. He is the plant's representative who travels the country searching for needed supplies or unsnarling bureaucratic bottlenecks. f.] Secluded separate quarters for women. 355. Times Bk. f.1904 Contemp. mod. 76_ib. 1973 Mineral. [a.g. (telegue). P. 1971. “tower”. Mar. torgsin Also Torgsin. Princeton's tokamak (the original Russian acronym for a toroidal magnetic chamber) is pitted against_laser technology. tochilinite Min. e. e. Rev. [ad. without springs. 186/2 A new mineral tochilinite_occurs in two habit modifications. Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago I. tochilinít (N. a fixer. and the Latvian and Estonian newspapers were all closed down.S.] One kind of toroidal apparatus for producing controlled fusion reactions in a hot plasma. 23/2 In the race to achieve commercial success.] . 4/3 Even south of the Alaska Range there is much permafrost within the forested areas which will create further problems of heat loss. Obshch. Ermolaev 1932. Russ. Russian geologist: see -ite1. Survey Canada No.. a technical college. Aug. 356. in Zap.. 165 The dismal tchin-ridden Russian villages. theremin Also thérémin. 350. [a. 477). 72 In Leningrad. 1974 T. Vsesoyuznogo Min.] In the U. lit. Russ. toroidálnaya kámera s magnítnym pólem. some of which are coarse euhedral crystals.S. Russ. i. 169 The maiden lived in her terem. 1903 19th Cent. [ad.. 353.

Russ. tovarich Also tav-. trihydrocalcite Min. great prince'. 365. Also attrib. 360. tsaritsa. tosudite Min. the natural occurrence of which is uncertain. -istch. Russ. tsarevich.. Russian tsesarevich.] A daughter of a tsar. 142/1 The name tosudite is usually used for a regularly interstratified mineral with dioctahedral or di-trioctahedral chlorite component. Hydrated calcium carbonate. tundrite Min. továrishch comrade. 1904 Daily Record & Mail 22 Apr. spec. who described the Japanese occurrences. -itch. drawn by three horses abreast. images. 2.A Soviet trading organization in the 1920s and 1930s which sold goods only in return for foreign currency. and ideology never quite manage to be harnessed into a controllable troika.Grand Duke'. 362. (Not the official title in Russia. 1964 and -ite1. 1910 Mineral. i Mineral. [ad. for which A. tsarevna. e. tsa_revich. czarevna [Russ. (The Russian official title was impritsa empress. the first wife of Peter the Great. 563): see quot. Marvell used tzarskoy. Used attrib. Revolutionist (1908) II. 364. Russ. comrade (freq. emperor. . in honour of Toshio Sudo. lit.) e. in Ezhegodnik po Geol.g. she found at least one more torrid tovarish. czar-. CaCO3. [ad. by veliki knyaz .) e. 358. after the time of Paul I.). e. cz. zarewitsch. CaCO3. e.g. czaritza Also czarissa. the wife of the cesarevitch was the cesa_revna. a trihydrate of calcium carbonate. 1977 Time 28 Feb. Rosi VIII. (Superseded. e. 1964 Mineral.3H2O.] Of or pertaining to a tsar. 549/2 This newly characterized mixed-layer mineral consisting of unusual aluminian chlorite and montmorillonite is named tosudite. The eldest son or hereditary prince had the differentiated title cesarevitch. Russ. Kropotkin Mem.S. 92 Ideas. tsarowitz. e. occurring as a mould-like encrustation on chalkmarl near Nova-Alexandria. 363. -wi(t)ch Also spelt (after Polish) czarowitz. 432 Trihydrocalcite. in Pol. F. 1963. Obshch. tosudít (V. a three-person commission or administrative council. 1976 M. 241/1)]. 361. e. [f. See tsar. a basket sleigh on wooden runners. tovarish. -ishch. etc. 1890 Morfill Russia 343 The favourite of the Tsarevna Sophia. 204 If his Tsarish Grace should_find himself in danger. Mag. A group or set of three persons (rarely things) or categories of people associated in power. [ad. -witch. as a form of address). A. XV. Mag. etc.3H2O. Russ. 143 The Tsarevich began to scold the officer. Pl. trojka. tsarish.] A blue mixed-layer clay mineral (see quots.] A son of a tsar.S.g. of the tsar of Russia. [a. 1968 Listener 3 Oct. Chirvinsky 1906. -isch. carowicz. trigidrokaltsit (P. Min.a. 1890 Morfill Russia 183 The Tsaritsa Eudoxia. tsarevna. 12/3 To compensate for her lost lover. XCIII. troika [Russ. e. [a. 1904 Longm. Frank-Kamenetsky et al. formed on tsesar_ Cćsar.g. rendering the Russian adj. I crossed the Baikal in a troika. of tsari. son of a tsar. in Zap.] 1. tsa_ritsa. Abstr. XVI.g. Ger. N. See prec.] The Russian title for which tsarina was in ordinary English use. fem. tsarski. 4. 1976 Clays & Clay Minerals XXIV. Vsesoyuz.] In the U. 1906 P. Oct. 366. A Russian vehicle drawn by three horses abreast. ix.R.) e.g. -witch. -i.g. 434/2 It was fairly easy for us because of those Torgsin shops where you could really get everything. J.g. 359.g. tsar + -ish. Lasky Utopia & Revolution (1977) ii.g.

Slavonic. f. 1. kojibiose.] A. formed by partial hydrolysis of melezitose. first with the aid of shock workers or udarniki. Obshchestva XXI. Bryant Celtic Ireland 5 The early Finnish or Ugrian type. Kola Peninsula. -i. udarnik Pl.g. Russ. adj. [ad. e. [ad. 1982 L. Russ. in Zhurnal Russkago fiziko-khim. of or pertaining to. Semenov Mineralogiya Redkikh Zemel (1963) 209). Bryant Celtic Ireland 5 Later immigrations may have included mixtures of the Ugrian with the Celt. Nauk_ VI. Lithuanic. 3d-glucopyranosyl-d-fructose.] A soft Russian cheese similar to cottage or curd cheese. Alekhina 1889. 369. Ugrian a. f. 2.S. that wandered westwards from the north-east. or Caucasian Ibex. 633/2 Infra-red study of tundrite from a new locality in the Khibina massif showed bands of carbonate.g. Mineralogist L. the name given by early Russian writers to an Asiatic race dwelling east of the Ural Mountains. Capra caucasica. turanoza (A. Tyuya Muyun. Ugri. 1889 S. 1966 Economist 29 Oct.g. e. 1975 Nature 10 July 128/1 Maltose was slightly more effective. 464/1 Various forms of socialist competition were gradually introduced. Russ. a division of Ural-Altaic peoples. turanose. e. tvorog [a. Nepkha. LIX. D.or greenish-yellow crystals. 1979 Mineral. tundrite-(Ce)) or neodymium (tundrite(Nd)). and sucrose. The language of the Ugrians. 945). 367. B. I.g. Nenadkevicha 1913. tvórog. this was confirmed by spectra of the Greenland mineral. Morris Mammals 428 There are several other species which are also called Ibex.] A silicate and carbonate (essentially) of cerium (normal tundrite. tyuyamunite Min. 1889 S. 371. e.g. and titanium found as triclinic brownish. [Russ. Ugrian. Russ. tyuyamunít_ (K. Also attrib. some of the more important languages standing alone:---Celtic.g. e. Turan Turkistan.5-8H2O. Turkish. Lovozero tundra. XXX. 370. after Pers. turanose Chem. Ca(UO2)2(VO4)2. and n. e. VII.R. native to south-eastern Russia. trehalose and melezitose all inhibited binding at significantly lower concentrations than glucose.S. 1974 Ibid.g. e. place of origin of the manna used to prepare this] The reducing disaccharide sugar C12H22O11. 368. Akad. 372. Brit. U.g. and tyuyamunite is the most abundant secondary ore mineral. Coffinite is the most abundant primary ore mineral. name of a village near Osh. These include the Tur. túndra tundra (from its being first found on the Lovozero tundra near Murmansk): see -ite1. Chamberlain Food & Cooking of Russia (1983) 245 By Good Friday several pounds of tvorog (curd cheese) would have been sitting for at least 24 hours under a wooden press to extract the last drops of whey. tur [a.] A greyish-brown wild goat.] A hydrous uranyl vanadate of calcium. which includes the Finns and Magyars. 1877 Encycl. Russ. e. Russ. 183/1 The following is the order of the groups. sodium. tundrít (E. 1965 Amer. occurring as soft. A member of the Ugrian stock. Belonging to.g.] A shock-worker e. 2098 Tundrite occurs in 3 nepheline syenite pegmatites of Mt. A. yellowish orthorhombic crystals and mined for its uranium content. 418). and then by the encouragement of Stakhanovites. n. in Izvestiya imper. [f.[ad. . Abstr. 362/1 The San Rafael mining area is situated along the east flank of the San Rafael Swell in east-central Utah. Kirgiziya.

373. ukase Also oukauze, ukause, (o)ukaz. [ad. Russ. ukaz, f. ukazatj to show, direct, order, decree. Hence also F. ukase, oukase, Pg. ukase, Sp. ucase, G., Da., Sw. ukas.] 1. A decree or edict, having the force of law, issued by the Russian emperor or government. e.g. 1894 Times 11 Dec. 8/3 In execution of the Imperial Oukaz to the Minister of Finance. 2. transf. Any proclamation or decree; an order or regulation of a final or arbitrary nature. e.g. 1859 Kingsley Misc., Plays & Purit. II. 136 That New England ukase of Cotton Mather's, who punished the woman who should kiss her infant on the Sabbath day. 1880 Mrs. Whitney Odd or Even? xxx, Whatever the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table may have found true, or have recorded by his ukase, twenty years ago. 374. Uniat, Uniate [ad. Russ. uniyat, f. uniya union (spec. the united Greek and Roman Catholic Churches), f. L. uni-, unus one.] A Russian, Polish, or other member of that part of the Greek Church which, while retaining its own liturgy, acknowledges the supremacy of the Pope and is in communion with the Roman Catholic Church; a United Greek. e.g. 1883 A. Beresford-Hope Worship & Order 127 The restoration of the uniates to Eastern communion. b. attrib. or as adj. Of, adhering or pertaining to, or denominating the United Greek Church. e.g. 1905 Times 22 Sept. 7 The much persecuted Uniate or Greek Catholic creed. 375. uprava [Russ., = authority.] In Imperial Russia: the executive board of a municipal council. e.g. 1954 G. Vernadsky Hist. Russia (ed. 4) x. 221 The representatives elected a board known as the uprava for a term of three years. 376. uralborite Min. [ad. Russ. uralborit (S. V. Malinko 1961, in Zap. Vsesoyuznogo Min. Obshchestva XC. 673), f. the name of the Ural Mountains: see -ite1.] A basic calcium borate, CaB2O4, occurring as colourless monoclinic crystals. e.g. 1977 Soviet Physics---Doklady XXII. 279/1 The most interesting feature of uralborite is the [B4O4(OH)8]4 island groups, which are overlapped by the Ca deltadodecahedra forming a threedimensional cationic skeleton. 377. ureilite Geol. [ad. Russ. ure_lit (Erofeev & Lachinov 1888, in Zhurnal Russ. fiziko-khim. Obshchestva pri Imper. St. Petersburgsk. Univ. XX. 213), f. the name of Novo-Ure, a village near Penza, in the vicinity of which a meteorite belonging to this class fell.] Any of a group of calcium-poor achondrite meteorites that consist mainly of olivine and pigeonite. e.g. 1971 I. G. Gass et al. Understanding Earth viii. 116/1 The presence of diamond in the small group of ureilites appears to be due to extraterrestrial shock effects. 378. Uzbek Also formerly Usbeck, Usbeg, Uzbeg, and other varr. [a. Russ.] One of a Turkic people of central Asia, forming the basic population of the Uzbek SSR (Uzbekistan), and also living in Afghanistan; the language of this people. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1976 Times 3 Nov. 16/5 A dark-haired agronomist from an Uzbek collective farm. 379. valenki n. pl. Also valinki, -ky. [Russ., pl. of valenok felt boot.] Felt boots of a type worn by Russians. e.g. 1981 M. C. Smith Gorky Park i. viii. 107 The girl dressed in the kind of felt boots called valenki. 380. Varagian, a. [f. mod.L. Varagi (pl.), ad. Old Russian Variagi.] = Varangian a. The form Varegian (after the mod.L. variant Varegi) has also been employed. e.g. 1841 Penny Cycl. XX. 258 A Varagian (probably Danish) freebooter of the Baltic, named Rurik.

Varangian n. and a. Hist. [f. med. or mod.L. Varang-us, ad. med.Gr. ad. (through Slavonic languages) ON. Vćringi (pl. Vćringjar), app. f. vár- (f. pl. várar) plighted faith. In the Old Russian chronicle of Nestor the name occurs as Variagi and Variazi (pl.), and survives in mod.Russ. varyág a pedlar, Ukrainian varjah a big strong man.] A. n. 1. One of the Scandinavian rovers who in the 9th and 10th centuries overran parts of Russia and reached Constantinople; a Northman (latterly also an Anglo-Saxon) forming one of the bodyguard of the later Byzantine emperors (see B.). e.g. 1889 Baring-Gould Grettir xliii. 379 The company called the Varangians, who acted as a bodyguard to the Emperor. 2. The language spoken by these. e.g. 1831 Scott Ct. Rob. iii, Mustering what few words of Varangian he possessed, which he eked out with Greek. B. adj. Of or pertaining to the Varangians; composed of Varangians, etc. e.g. 1900 Hector H. Munro Rise Russ. Empire ii. 17 A Varangian power had sprung up among the tribes of the Slavic hinterland. b. Varangian Guard, the bodyguard of the Byzantine emperors, formed of Varangians. e.g. 1831 Scott Ct. Rob. ii, This account of the Varangian Guard is strictly historical. 381. vedro. Also 8 wedro. [Russ. vedró pail.] A Russian liquid measure equal to 2.7 imperial gallons. e.g. 1907 Edin. Rev. Jan. 224 The peasants of that province drank this year 62,924 vedros of vodka more than last. 382. Vepsian Also Veps, Vepsic, Vesp, Wepsian, etc. [f. Russ. Vépsi + -an, -ian.] a. (A member of) a Finnish people dwelling in the region of Lake Onega, now in the north-west of the U.S.S.R. b. The Finno-Ugric language spoken by this people. Also attrib. or as adj. e.g. 1964 Language XL. 98 The Veps, Votic, and Estonian cognates. 1977 Ibid. LIII. 477 Since the boundaries of the European continent make up the geographical frame work of H's analysis, he includes such little-known languages as Votyak, Cheremis, and Vepsian (Uralic), and Bashkir, Karaim, and Kalmyk (Altaic).

383. vernalization [f. vernal a. + -ization, as tr. Russ. yarovizátsiya.] The technique of exposing seeds, young plants, etc., to low temperatures in order to hasten subsequent flowering; also, the natural process induced by cold weather which this technique imitates. Also transf. and fig. e.g. 1971 E. O. Wilson Insect Societies viii. 154/1 The vernalization (chilling) effect that renders Myrmica and Formica brood queen potent can be interpreted as a token stimulus. Hence (by back-formation) vernalize v. trans., to treat or affect (seeds, etc.) in this way; vernalized ppl. a. (in quots. transf.), vernalizing vbl. n. e.g. 1976 Sci. Amer. Sept. 99/3 The crop flowers and produces grain in the spring after being vernalized, or induced to flower, by the low temperatures in winter. 384. verst Forms: werste, werst, worst, wurste. verst, verste, vorst; verse (pl. versse), ferse. [ad. Russ. verstá, partly through G. werst and F. verste.] A Russian measure of length equal to 3500 English feet or about two-thirds of an English mile. e.g. 1864 Burton Scot Abr. II. ii. 204 A country house of the Tzaar's seven versts from Moscow. 385. vigorish U.S. slang. Also viggerish, etc. [prob. f. Yiddish, ad. Russ. vyigrysh gain, winnings.]

The percentage deducted by the organizers of a game from the winnings of a gambler. Also, the rate of interest upon a usurious loan. Also transf. and fig. e.g. 1978 Film Rev. 1978-9 13/1 The companies are not in any way stealing from the picture-makers. They have to have built-in vigorishes---or else they'd go broke. Who pays for the 21 million dollars lost on The Sorcerer? The Studio! 386. virgin land, previously uncultivated land, spec. [tr. Russ. tseliná] in Western Siberia and Kazakhstan, land made the subject of an intensive agricultural programme by the Soviet government since 1954 e.g. 1967 C. Cockburn I, Claud xxxv. 438 Hardly anyone can be packed off to some social equivalent of the Russian “virgin lands” for lousing things up. 387. vladimirite Min. [ad. Russ. vladimirit (E. I. Nefedev 1953, in Zap. Mineral. Obshch. LXXXII. 317), f. the name Vladimir: see -ite1.] A hydrated arsenate of calcium, Ca5H2(AsO4)4.5H2O, occurring as colourless acicular monoclinic crystals. e.g. 1978 Mineral. Rec. IX. 73 Vladimirite. Fine, acicular, brilliant, colorless crystals in quartz cavities or with talmessite crusts were found in 1963 at the Irthem mine [in Morocco]. 388. vodka Also vodki, -ky, wodky; votku, votky. [a. Russ. vódka (gen. sing. vódki)] a. An ardent spirit used orig. esp. in Russia, chiefly distilled from rye, but also from barley, potatoes, or other materials. Also, a glass or drink of this. e.g. 1891 Blackw. Mag. Oct. 470/2 Anything which his understanding failed to connect directly with the price of bread and “vodky”. b. attrib., as vodka bottle, flask, glass, etc.; vodka Collins; vodka gimlet [gimlet n.], a cocktail made of vodka and lime-juice; vodka martini, a martini cocktail in which vodka is substituted for gin; vodka-tonic, a drink consisting of vodka and tonic water. e.g. 1974 R. B. Parker God save Child ix. 61 Can I get you a drink? Would you take a vodka gimlet? 1976 J. Hayes Missing (1977) iii. 61 She poured another vodka-tonic. 389. Vogul Also Vogoul, Wougoul, Wogul, Wogule, Vogule. [a. Russian vogul, G. Wogul, etc.] a. A member of a Ugrian people inhabiting Tobolsk and and Perm. e.g. 1948 D. Diringer Alphabet 483 The Voguls in the Ural mountains. b. The language of this people, belonging to the Ob-Ugrian group. e.g. 1980 Amer. N. & Q. Oct. 29/1 Marianne Sz. Bakró-Nagy has pulled together some 500 terms on the bear as a tabu animal in the Urals among the Ostyak (Khanty) and Vogul (Mansi) speaking peoples. Wogulian (-olian); Wogulic a. e.g. 1925 P. Radin tr. Vendryčs's Language ii. iii. 118 In Wogulian mini he goes[is] formed like puri “taking”. 390. volborthite. Min. [Named (1837) after its discoverer, Alexander von Volborth, a Russian scientist.] Hydrous vanadate of copper, barium and calcium, found in small, yellowish-green crystals' (Chester). e.g. 1844 Dana Min. (1868) 611. 1878 Lawrence tr. Cotta's Rocks Classified 41 Volborthite occurs as an accessory ingredient in many sandstones of the Permian formation of Russia. 391. volost [Russ. volost_.] The smallest rural administrative subdivision in Imperial Russia and the U.S.S.R. (abolished in 1930). e.g. 1974 Encycl. Brit. Macropćdia XVI. 59/1 Kiselev provided for a measure of self-government under which the mayor of the volost (a district grouping several villages or peasant communes) was elected by male householders.

) Also Votiak. and the Lac des Isles deposit. Vsesoyuz.g. vysotskit (Genkin & Zvyagintsev 1962. [a. Russ.g. iv. 1932 W. n. 424/2 General Uborevich. e.000) is situated between the Viatka and the Kama. Votyak n. 395. C. The language of the Yakuts. (a. an Altaic one usually placed in the Turkic group. Pertaining to or designating the Yakuts. [ad. Brit. Sapir Language ix. belo. (Pd. 393. 289 Even the top functionaries were subject to Stalin's supreme power. Yakute.g. the twenty-eighth letter of the Russian alphabet. viii. Vysotsky (d. A member of a Finno-Ugrian people inhabiting the Udmurt republic in the northwestern region of the U. Brit. White-Russian. Obshch. B. 1977 Word 1972 XXVIII. e. Belorussian a.] A.] A. Also Yakouti. 1958 Economist 1 Nov. one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. in Zap. or as adj.Ni)S.] A sulphide of palladium and often nickel.g. 1978 Amer. 1959 W. XCI.g.] A leader. Boland tr. Treadgold Twentieth Cent. 1976 “S. 1932). = White Russian e. a. 396. and the word Vozhd (Leader) came to be used openly to acknowledge and proclaim that fact. L.S. yamshchik. Yakut n. Russ. 212 Both nasalized vowels and the Slavic “yeri” are demonstrably of secondary origin in Indo-European. from the Stillwater Complex of Montana. Min. Ginzburg's Within Whirlwind ii. e.S. yeri [a. 2. yems(t)chick. 165 The middle-aged woman translated what he said into a language he took to be Yakut. yamstchik Also yamsheek. adj. Russ. XXV.. 42/1 The Vozhd of Moscow made his exit in triumph. to the Russian statesman Joseph Stalin (1879-1953). -schik. = chief'. 1974 Encycl.] The name of the Russian vowel y. Also attrib. e. 718). adj. its people or its language. Russia xviii. 832/1 Vysotskite has since been reported.g. Russian mineralogist: see -ite1. 394. f. Belorussiya Belorussia. f. e. 1921 E. Harvester” Siberian Road xiv. Mineralogist LXIII. and a. 1978 Encounter Feb. b. B.white + Russia + -an. Ontario. vozhd [Russ. 1981 M. found as minute silvery tetragonal crystals having a metallic lustre. and n. n.] 1. 313/1 In the lud sanctuaries of the Votyaks. Smith Gorky Park i. e. The language of this people.392.[Russ.g. the name of N.R. 107 Some twenty-odd Russians and Yakuts surrounding a small group of Westerners and Japanese.g.g. lit. f.2] The driver of a post-horse. . Yakuty. worship was performed by members of the family. K. Russ. [Russ. Also Byelorussian [f. Of or pertaining to Belorussia. belonging to the Permian branch of the Finno-Ugrian family. 249 The /ď/ is a back unrounded vowel. 15/1 Parties of yamshiks-a special organization of Old Russia entrusted with the maintenance of horses for postal communication. 1911 Encycl. yam yam n. (A member of) a Mongoloid people of north-eastern Siberia which now constitutes the majority of the population of the Yakutsk Republic of the Soviet Union. one who is in supreme authority: applied esp. yamshik. similar to the Russian yeri. 1981 I.g. Macropćdia VII. e. e. commander of the Byelorussian district. 218 He was a Yakut boy---or at least his mother was Yakut. 398. Graff Language & Languages 406 Votyak (about 400. e. 397. vysotskite Min.

Zyrian n. (and esp. 407. e. zemlya earth).g. zemmi. adj. [ad. y(o)urte. Russ. yuft Also youghten. Syryane.g. Zyryánin: see -ian. usually formed of timber covered with earth or turf. e.] The European bison or aurochs. n. juchten. Also Syrian. 1981 Nordic Skiing Jan. Belonging to Nova Zembla. 406. 404. Buffon's Nat. yurta. Pl. 1956.] A. b. jurt. b. zubr Also zuber. and a. Spalax typhlus. juft. Anat. rare. arctic. Russ. 403. [f. dyed red with the aromatic saunders wood.399. -ka (-k) [Russian. S. and titanium.. all usually served with vodka. 1983 P.g. A member of the Komi people of northern central U. smoked sausage. in Doklady Akad. a. n. 1836-9 Todd's Cycl. 400. Russ. e. 4) II. Also transf. 1749 Cawthorn Poems (1771) 179 Thy unwearied soul_gave to Britain half the zemblian sky. 51/2 Skiing the system of five yurts set five miles apart in the Sawtooth Mountains is what Leonard Expeditions is all about. 6440 (heading) The new mineral zirconolite. which is of the same genus with the zisel. n. L. yort. 402.. the mole-rat. 1957 Chem. a group of islands in the Arctic Ocean north of Archangel in Russia. Borodin et al. 1806 Shee Rhymes Art (ed. yurta. created by Alexander II in 1864.g. 122 Members of local zemstvos might soon enjoy a voice in the internal government of the country. yukht. the zemni-rat. 405. C. a member of zemstvo. Zembl(i)an. hence. zemstvo Also zem(p)stwo. f. [a.. zirconium. jurte. [ad. schenók zemnói “puppy of earth” (zemnói adj. Martin Ox 8/1 He who kills a zubr without permission of the Russian government. yourt. = Komi b. [Short for Russ. 401.] Russia leather. whence also G.R.g. [Russ. tsirkonolít (L.g. 1905 Times 8 May 5/3 The Zemstvoists have split over the question of universal suffrage.S. II. 1853 Ure Dict.) Zyryan. and n. 232 In Poland and Russia there is another animal called ziemni or zemni.zolotnik. Novaya Zemlya “new land”. 845)] A mixed oxide of (essentially) calcium. 60 The Russians have long been possessed of a method of making a peculiar leather. [ad. . Hence zemstvoist. juften. Hist. a circular skin. Nauk SSSR CX. yurta. youft. yuert. e. f.] The blind mole-rat. and attrib. [Russ. 3) 10 Lybian sands. yurt Forms: jourt. or a cold dish such as radishes in sour cream. e. through F. LI. zirconolite Min. 1785 Smellie tr. etc. as the mole. a complex oxide of the type AB3O7. e. Syryen. yourte or G. 571/2 Some are devoid of the auricle. with collapsible frame.] An elective district or provincial council in Russia for purposes of local government. zemni Also ziemni. or Zemblan snows.] a. 1847 W. yuft. e. Abstr.] A semi-subterranean dwelling or hut of the natives of northern and central Asia. juff. zemlya land. Arts (ed. Ustinov My Russia xi.or felt-covered tent. e. A native or inhabitant of Nova Zembla. Also zemni-rat. Also. now regarded as identical with zirkelite. zemstva. (Nova) Zembla = Russ. yurt. (1791) VIII. Bos bonasus. from zakusit ' to have a snack] Russian cookery.g. jucten. See Columna lui Traian (1875) 97 ff. Russ. zemstvos. sing. The language of this people. zakuski or zakouski pl. used by the nomadic peoples of Siberia and Central Asia.g. consisting of tiny open sandwiches spread with caviar.S. hors d'oeuvres. has to pay as a fine 2000 rubles. dial. called by them jucten.

Praze (1901-2) III. catapult.. Czechish adjs. and a. Pol. dumkas. 8. obus bomb-shell.] e. ad. e. Gr. F. haufnitz. popular for playing country and western music. B7/6 The ornate surface of Ben Eldridge's banjo and the brittle precision of John Duffey's mandolin were answered by the warm and elastic dobro of Mike Auldridge. Also Tshekh. f. e. may also help to explain the choice of this form. Czechize v. so called from their encampment on a craggy height. howitz.) for a type of acoustic guitar with steel resonating discs fitted inside the body under the bridge. found chiefly in the work of Slavonic composers. 410. akathisie.g. haubitz.g. akathisia.L. also 17th c. language.] trans. 1978 K. Czech + -ize. 412. e. now the town of Tabor in Bohemia. Boh. U.) 5 June 20/5 These country people have rough but honest faces. [a.]. taborzhina. tabor tabor n. Obs. the coincidence with Czech dobro (the) good. haubitze. Forms: _. 951/2 The native home of the Czechs today lies in the Czechoslovak republic in the western parts of which they are the dominating and almost the sole population. v. 119 It was true that Cooper never sat. hau-. Podolsky Encycl. (Introduced into German during the Hussite wars. Also used joc. Brit. 1861 J.1. 10/1 Increasing Czechization of industries and railways. 1938 Times 26 Aug. Czech. 68 The Calixtines might be styled the Gallicans of Bohemia.] A member of the extreme party or section of the Hussites led by Zizska.prefix ) + sitting] Inability to sit. 1953 E. e.B. morbid fear of sitting. the name of its Czech-American inventors. and a. dumka Mus. = plaintive song. haufenitz. Boh. hob(b)its.) From the Ger.g. Beckett Murphy vii. howitz. adj. akathisie (L. Ger. Bohemian. elegy. Amer. Czech. Taboriten pl.. .g. etc. a good thing. [Czech.1.. 1938 S. [etc.. 8. f. Rev.3 Bohemian & Czech 8. 1976 National Observer (U.] The name (proprietary in the U.3. G. dumky. love strangers. (quot. Also = Czechoslovakian n.] The native name of the Bohemian people. 1781 in Sparks Corr. [f. [f. some howitz. 409. Of or pertaining to this people or their language.g. 1938). look to have the moral fiber of birch. 413. obice. Czech. the Do(pera Bro(thers. houfnice stone-sling. e. [Boh. [mod. obiza. ad. play fiddles and dobros. (1853) III.g. and perhaps a mortar. in 15th c.S. Fr. Pl.g. Aberrations 3/2 The inability to sit down or the dread to sit down is known as acathisia. To make Czech in character. It. howitts.1.3.1 Bohemian 408. Klin. acathisia Path. Czechic.2 Czech 411.] An alternately melancholy and gay piece of music. 1984 Washington Post 24 Dec. ad. the language of this people. his acathisia was deep-seated and of long standing. 488 Two field-pieces. Czechian. So Czechization. 1957 Encycl. e. 193). Taborite [ad. (a. hawbitz. Haskovec in Sborn. Rédei (title) Zyrian folklore texts. hau-. priv. dobro orig. Gill Banished Count vi. VI. Czekh n.S. and the Taborites the Protestants. Cech.S.

1962 New Scientist 21 June 658/2 Biologically active iron compounds such as transferrin. spec. e. 1). 414. Era xvii. kolachi. Czech kolác. halére). Johnson White House Diary 7 July (1970) 545 For dessert a typical specialty of the area---“kolaches”. koruna Also erron. 419. Laufberger 1934. preserve. lit. e. Pl.g. ferritin Biochem.] trans. from Zeravice. v. 302 Dvoršák was less regionally limited than Smetana. kolo wheel. 1947 are erroneous. To place in the foreground. Einstein Mus. he also wrote waltzes and mazurkas. the name of Jaroslav Kokta. Kostov Mineral. kolache kolaches. 1 Kcs = 100 hellers (halér. 1948 Mineral Abstr. Struct.g. 1961 H Watney tr. koktaite Min. f. 415. and haemosiderin.. L. [Czech. in Linguistics [rendering Czech aktualisace modernization (Havránek and Weingart Spisovná čeština a jazyková kultura (1932))].g.] The basic monetary unit of Czechoslovakia. B. and replaced and revalued after the 1939-45 war as the crown of the Czech and Slovak State (abbrev.] A water-soluble crystalline protein containing ferric iron that occurs in many animals.g.after ferratin. koruny. i. [from Czech] A diacritic mark (ˇ) placed over certain letters in order to modify their sounds. in Acta Acad. e. e. Nat. etc. . [Czech. Kokta). as in the affricate ´and the fricative trill ąused in Czech. with Miss Sasha Machov to teach them the authentic style in polka and furiant. kolach Also kolache. f. 1962 S. Slavic Lang. 1967 Mrs. 352 Artificial ammonium-syngenite has the composition (NH4)2Ca(SO4)2H2O (analysis by J. Garvin Prague School Reader p. and is involved in the storage of iron by the body. 1947 A. ferri. 418.e. 417. e. a coin corresponding to this unit. (NH4)2Ca(SO4)2H2O. and agrees in the optical data with the mineral. 1943 Times 11 Nov. Poetry ii. Czech mineralogist] Hydrated calcium ammonium sulphate. ii.g. Levin Ling. 420. 77). Brízová's Cooking Czech Way 143 Kolache (flat fruit buns) and filled rolls made from yeast dough are typically Czech. X. 6/5 The ballet. Pl.g. 416. Sekanina 1948. [ad. and furiants. although he still wrote polkas. Sci. used in Slavonic languages to indicate various forms of palatal articulation. ix. crown. the n. L. Also attrib. 1968 I. Stankiewicz Grammars & Dict.] A type of Bohemian dance. korunas. ferritin.g. foregrounding---in Czech aktualisace---on the other hand refers to a stimulus not culturally expected in a social situation and hence capable of provoking special attention. viii. the use of unorthodox or unexpected devices in language. or its music. Kcs). in quick triple time with frequently-shifting accents. 1964 P. n. topped or filled with a sweet mixture.] A small tart or pie popular in Czechoslovakia. e. Rom. named koktaite. esp. Kc). 3 Hus replaced the medieval system of digraphs with one of diacritics. in Biologické Listy XIX. kolachy. introduced as the Czech crown after the 1914-18 war (abbrev. [a. Czech ferritin (V. hácek n. 1984 E. furiant Mus. Automatization refers to the stimulus normally expected in a social situation. 504 Syngenite and koktaite are isotypic. occurring in acicular monoclinic crystals and identical with artificial ammonium syngenite. circle. a rich pastry that has a center of dried apricots or prunes. R. korona. in the liver and spleen. among which the dot (later replaced by a hácek) marked the palatals. esp. dumkas. [f. [ad. Czech koktait (J. 17 Foregrounded linguistic elements call attention to themselves. Also. Hence foregrounding vbl. f. foreground. pl. The forms KC and KCS (for Czech Kc and Kcs) in quot. Moravo-Silesiacae XX.

p. hence polka-dotted adj. (rev. or in its time or rhythm. J.g. Czechoslovakia. 421. [a. 1975 Times 18 Jan. primary source). polka-dot. Pilsen (Czech. or as adj. (1875) 218 Morning *polkeries in Grosvenor Square. E. The dance being of Bohemian origin (orig.R. Also attrib. polkery. the music for which is in duple time. pils(e)ner glass.g. 1898 in 1).. On account of the popularity of the dance. class 2 beer] was available in two strengths---a middle European Pilsner beer. Bohemia. xxvi/3 An annual turnover in the region of 6. attrib. 12/1 A “sight of the world” through the bottom of a Pilsner glass. 1980 Brit. the music for such a dance. 1960 P. Another suggestion is that the actual form.U. at Vienna 1839. 916/1 It [sc. Richardson Social Dances of 19th Cent. James' Gaz. 1846 G. i. A pale-coloured lager beer with a strong hop flavour. f. is due to the Polish Polka. 1845 M.e. ad. Pilsener. 422. e. e. whether or not altered from pulka. Wood James Bond & Moonraker xi.. an assembly for polka dancing.g. fem.] A Bohemian folk dance. Braddon R. J. as Pils(e)ner glass. -iste. 29 Mar. Pilsner [G. W. e. 3.. robot [Czech.. polka-mazurka. it has been suggested that polka was a corruption of Czech pulka half. danced as a ballroom dance in countries of Eastern Europe. also fig. Beer from Plzen itself is known as Pils(e)ner Urquell (G. and Ger. robota forced labour. Warburton Hochelaga I. 93 Some of them are the best waltzers and *polkistes I have ever seen. f. a Polish variation of the polka. polka-gauze. in 3/4 time.] . 424. 16 The guard's horn playing a joyous polka made itself heard among the trees. in Western Europe developed into a dance in relatively quick triple time. polka-time. 1967 Chujoy & Manchester Dance Encycl. one who dances the polka. the polka curtain-band (for looping up curtains). Special Combs. trans. polonaise (also a dance).) 738/2 Polka-Mazurka. intr. 423. polka: of uncertain origin. London in the spring of 1842: see Memoirs of Anna M. b. Paris 1840.g. of the character of a polka. ed. a characteristic feature being its short half steps'. Czech rejdovák. to wheel about. News 11 May 301/1 You perform the galop waltz. rejdovati to steer. attrib. and a somewhat stronger English lager type. Plzen). 1867 M. Eng. quot. 28 Apr. or Ger. used by Karel Capek (1890-1938) in his play R.] 1. 1844 Illustr. a tall beer glass tapered at the bottom. f. S. called Nimra).] In full Pils(e)ner beer.. a pattern consisting of dots of uniform size and arrangement. manipulate (as with a carriage pole).. A lively dance of Bohemian origin.g. polkist.000 million koruna (just under 900 million). 5/1 It was Taglioni who introduced into England the polka. e. 1884 St. e. polka was prefixed as a trade name to articles of all kinds (cf. polkamania. F. The name now designates type rather than origin. e. 2. a modification of the mazurka dance to the movement of a polka. Pickering (1903) xvi. substituting the Polka step just described. a mania for dancing the polka. and as v... Lond. ix. Danced at Prague in 1835. A piece of music for such a dance. Med. 112 She had big puffed sleeves and a petticoat effect of overlapping polka-dotted skirts. Hence (nonce-wds. to dance the polka. polka n [= Fr. of Polak a Pole: cf. a province and city in W. polka hat.g. (“Rossum's Universal Robots”) (1920). 1979 C. polkaic a. Higgins Ess. Godwin I. 1967 Economist 19 Aug. and mazurka. redowa. but only about three veteran couples were able to perform it.) polka v. redowa Also redowak. 99 As late as 1894 or 1895 I can clearly remember being present at a popular assembly in London when the Redowa was announced.g. Jrnl.

g. -land. robotnik [-nik]. system. defined as vd/u (or u/vd) where u is the fluid velocity.g.g. Barnes Oceanogr. -pilot. [ad. CXCVIII. bearing the falcon as its ensign. robot teacher. and Comb. 1980 Times 1 July 19/5 A real robot is programmable. a person behaving with mindless obedience to authority. satellite.g. “falcon”. robot train. 500 Slavikite is trigonal. found in minute uniaxial negative crystals tabular on {0001}.. Czech. Also. as robot army. (a member of) a club in this society. 175 The results are expressed in the form of Strouhal number: S(R) = fd/Uo. Czech scientist. & Marine Biol. it can be programmed to perform different. 425. and aiming to promote a communal spirit and physical fitness. 1944 J.. A person whose work or activities are entirely mechanical. Slavikite Min. -like (also adv. lit. Ústavu Cesk. e.1959 H. e. and d the effective diameter of the body. 1935 H.1. hence. -maker. a machine (sometimes resembling a human being in appearance) designed to function in place of a living agent.). an automaton. In 1978 Japan put 1. robot bomb = flying bomb s. usually fastened to a pole. W.. Soc. Chiefly S. Toffler Future Shock ix. n. II. Sokol [Czech. the roboteers are moving forward. esp. 1977 G.] e. etc. queen n. the name of Frantisek Slavík (1876_1957).. (petrol) station.100 playback or programmable robots into its factories.v. slavíkit (Jirkovský & Ulrich 1926. (a) = queen bee s. of or belonging to a robot or robots. Lampe God as Spirit ii. 1968 I. Strouhal Mech. temporarily reduced to the status of a robot. temporary. (b) = robot bomb. in Vestník Státního Geol. an electronic teaching aid. [The name of Cenek (or Vincent) Strouhal (1850-1922). Afr. 1944 Daily Tel. flying vbl. R. 1974 Eastern Province Herald 2 Oct. Repub. attrib. -brain. astronaut.. an expert in the making of robots.. a. e. 2. d. clerk. 180 Despite setbacks and difficulties. b. 1978 Chicago June 56/2 The program will include folk dancing as well as calisthenics and apparatus work. 14. Sponsored by the Central District of the American Sokol Organization. a robot-controlled underground train. e. a place for the storage of robot bombs. Hence roboteer. One of the mechanical men and women in Capek's play. f. v the frequency of the vibration. 177 It is convenient to mount a Robot-type camera in a water tight case. robotesque a. An automatic traffic-signal. Wells Things to Come 13 All the balderdash about “robot workers” and ultra skyscrapers. 345). A. mechanical behaviour or character. where R = Uod/v.] Strouhal number: a dimensionless number used in the study of the vibrations produced in a body by a fluid flowing past it. Lees-Milne Prophesying Peace (1977) 86 From here Jamesy saw his first robot. roboty a. robotian a. the condition or behaviour of robots. 1949 Proc. 427. should be cleared out of your minds.v. robot-controlled. one which carries out a variety of tasks automatically or with a minimum of external impulse. e. c. Kostov Mineral.g. e.. 3. 1970 A.g. and changing tasks. -run adjs. robot plane. robot roost. H. 9 Vandals removed the lamps from seven traffic robots and the flashing head from a warning pole. resembling or suggestive of a robot. robot-like. 426.] A Slav gymnastic society first formed in Prague in 1862 (and disbanded in Czechoslovakia in 1952). G. -worker. 51 The person who is “seized” by the Spirit is thought of as a passive object. 11 July 1/5 Many of the robots launched against England on Sunday night finished up in the sea. robotry. masses.g. . Czech mineralogist: see -ite1. etc. robotism. type. A robot bomb.

g. 1972 D. Atanasoff 1932. 433. [a.g. Gamza Also Gumza. vrbaite Min. e. 1952 E.g. Also (erron. 1925 Glasgow Herald 2 Oct. Bohemian mineralogist: see -ite1. 42/3 For an isolated stationary cylinder the Strouhal number is fairly constant for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. leva. Bulgare. 188 Bulgaria had borrowed from France 245 million leva in 1904 and 1907.4 Bulgarian 429. Gumza grapes are grown in some neighbouring countries. the name of K.. Found embedded in realgar and orpiment from Allchar. Vrba (1845-1922). 13 Feb.g. orthorhombic crystals. raki. 1959 Wine & Spirit Trade Rev. Pomak [Bulg. Bulgarize v. ad. lev (pl. a virus disease of plum trees characterized by yellow blotches on the leaves and pockets of dead tissue in the fruit. rakia Also rakija. = prec. 204/2 A disease called plum pox.. arsenic. Bulgar). Sb) chains. 5 Fully Bulgarised Macedonians. Balgarin. and settled what is now Bulgaria. Ramsden tr. liquor. . med. levs.] A dark red grape of Bulgaria. lion.L. 49)]. Bolgárin sing.] A sulphide of thallium. Bulg. 1961 Spectator 7 Apr. so Bulgarization. e. which included 16. Macedonia. Macedonia.d. The typical Gumza red wines are made mainly in northern Bulgaria. 1959 World Crops XI. 428. Dakin Unification of Greece xiii. 432. Bulgarian sharka na slivite (D. tabular or prismatic. e.] The basic monetary unit of Bulgaria.g. [ad. or as adj. xxvi. e. and antimony. Jezek 1912. Blugarinu (Bulg. levas. XXI. 431. e. Abstr. found as dark grey. Czech vrbait (B. Dakin Unification of Greece 269 The Slav minority. Bolgáry pl. 434. 32/2 Mavroude and Gamza [are] dark reds. 1965 H. leva). becoming Slavonic in language.g.). rather like a Beaujolais. mercury. Russ. f. which is fresh and flavoury. Pl. a native or inhabitant of Bulgaria. to make Bulgarian in character.) leva. 1972 D. was about 80. Smyser in Bessinger & Creed Medieval & Linguistic Stud. also known as sharka. lev. XXIV. in Godishnik na Sofiďskiya Universitet Agronomski Fakultet XI.000. in Rozpravy Ceské Akad. Gram & Weber's Plant Diseases ii. 111/1 The most universally grown is the Gumza red grape. rakíya. 1913 Mineral Mag. 375 Vrbaite.] In the Balkan countries: brandy. trans. 93 The Bulgars and the socalled Jewish Khazars. 8. or the red wine made from it. Bulgarian.000 Pomaks.] A Muslim Bulgarian. Bulgar n.Vrbaite is the first structure with mixed (As.. 1973 Mineral. probably occurs as far north as Bohemia and Holland. XVI.] Any member of an ancient Finnish tribe who conquered the Slavs of M_sia in the seventh century a. [ad. Serbo-Croat rakija: cf. plum pox [tr. G. Also attrib. well known in Bulgaria. 22/2 The structure was determined on vrbaite from Allchar. e. about whom Ibn Fadlan learned from his Bulgar hosts. e. Tl4Hg3Sb2As8S20. M. OBulg. Also attrib.1975 Offshore Engineer Dec. [Bulg.g.1. 495 The red Gamza. the type locality. [Bulgarian.g. e. 2). Bulgarus (F. 430.

in reference to hanging or strangling. 1905 Westm. M.. also to a long woollen comforter wrapped round the neck to protect from cold out of doors. 1909 Q. and much attention was bestowed upon it as an ornamental accessory. -je. walh. M. Bulg. Smith Plant Viruses (ed. Gaz. 4) 186 Cravat. e. 1980 J. sharka Also (rare) sarka. walch. worn by women. Hone Flowers of Forest i. [Bulg. e.g.g. 1721 De Foe Mem. 355 The troops are filled with Cravates and Tartars. a coin of this value. or Cravat Goose L'Oie ŕ cravate of the French. volokh Walachian. G. a Walachian or Romanian. 13/2 The cravat effect of the ermine on the shoulders is charming. 1795 Hull Advertiser 13 June 4/1 With cravat puddings battle wage. Dict. Surg.000 to five million Bulgarians will go through the motions of electing a new Sobranye.] A Bulgarian unit of currency. a bandage made from a triangular cloth. vii. cravat-string. walah. and tied in a bow with long flowing ends. xii. wloch Italian.g. 1752 Hume Ess. Italian. fur. Bulg. 5/4 Some 4. lxxxix. 3903/2 Monsieur de Guiche Colonel-General of the Regiments of Horse called the Cravates. from the white mark on its throat. 1974 K.g.g. cravat. I.5 Croatian. c. Gould Pocket Med. sabránie assembly. an application of the national name Cravate Croat. of which Croat is another modification: cf. 48 I'll bet you fifty stotinki that he'll start telling us anticommunist jokes. d. vlah. cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies have been observed. Sobranye Also Sobraniye. No. 1976 A. Vlach Also 9 Vlache. Croatian. Cavalier (1840) 119 We fell foul with two hundred Crabats.] The parliament or national assembly of Bulgaria. 1820 Byron Juan v. or of muslin edged with lace. Vlachian a. XI. one-hundredth of a lev. a name for the Canada Goose (Bernicla canadensis). In this form it was originally also worn by women. the following 1703 Lond. 1902. vlakh or Serb. Russ. Khruvat. [a.g. (ed.. ii. More recently the name was given to a linen or silk handkerchief passed once (or twice) round the neck outside the shirt collar and tied with a bow in front. OE. Serbian.] e. 236 Dickens wore one of the large cravats which had not then gone out of fashion. applied especially to Celts and Latins. 5) ii. ( gravat). 11 Nov. 438. e. Croato – Serbian.] 1. cravate (1652 in Hatzfeld). 1888 Frith Autobiog.e.g 1900 G. III.500. 2. Krabate (Flem. . 21 Playing chess over a bottle of rakia somewhere in Yugoslavia. 437.g. 1957 Times 21 Dec. Pol.g. cravatt. sobránie and quot. F. [a. Krawaat. An article of dress worn round the neck. e. cf. When first introduced it was of lace or linen. It came into vogue in France in the 17th c. a. 1838 Penny Cycl. cravat n. MHG. the part by which the cravat was tied. 580/1 The Greek bands fell to murdering the leaders of the Vlach movement. Bulg. these terms are Slavonic adoptions of the Germanic walh (OHG. [ad. Gaz. crevet. OSlav. attrib. -ki. e. 13 In the parenchyma cells of fruit from plum trees infected with the “Sharka” virus. vlakhu Romanian. 308 The Canada Goose. A scarf or necklet of lace. Forms: 7 crabbat. stotinka Usu. and Comb.Croatian 439. Croato-Serbian Khrvat. cravett.1. crabat. Grey Bulgarian Exclusive vii. woloch Walachian.g. Subranie. April 681 Not the least interesting constituent of this chaotic population is the Vlachian. With tough strings of the bow. To give some rebel Pacha a cravat. crevat. e. in imitation of the linen scarf worn round their necks by the Croatian mercenaries. = OSlav. Rev. etc. [f. sharka na slivite pox of plums. Italian. 435. plum pox. chiefly by men. Serbo . e.g. Hussars and Cossacs. e. fig. e. in pl. Czech vlach Italian. ORuss. b. ad. 436. as cravat-goose.] A member of the Latin-speaking race occupying portions of south-eastern Europe. wealh) foreigner. Hrvat. a. 8. 1905 Speaker 23 Sept.

C-.000 and 150. 1927 Economic Jugoslavia 34 The National Bank has paid up capital to the amount of 30 million dinars. 1859 Chamb. Serbian cetnik. cravatless a. wearing a cravat. 1943 Ann. Of. guzla. 16 A viol having only one string accompanies the passages in verse. 1849 A. usually having only a single string. The young man handsomely cravatted. e.. Reg. ceta band. 1814 Syd. 1969 Observer 26 Jan. I coated and cravatted. -cchi (also Croatian Morlak. [Serbian. pertaining to.cravat v. 1949 F. freebooter. of. and a similar instrument seems to be used among the orthodox Guslars of Bosnia and Herzegovina. kursar pirate. player of the gusle (the Montenegrin lute) and author. trans. Also Morlacchi (pl. 441. crack shot. Fair I.] A. cvi. I redoubled my attention to my dress.] The monetary unit of Yugoslavia (formerly of Serbia). Maclean Eastern Approaches ii. from the twelfth to the fifteenth centuries. (1855) II. dinar [a. Hungarian huszar. preserved only in certain Roman Catholic liturgical books found in Dalmatia. -are. iii.g. pl. Ibid. e. L. gursar. B. Low tr. without a cravat. to furnish with a cravat. in parts of maritime Croatia and northern Dalmatia. 1834 Blackw. being later incorporated with Slavic peoples. e. gustlé. A member of a Vlach people centred on the eastern Adriatic port of Ragusa (mod. e. So: guslar 445.g. xii.g. from Serbo-Croatian glagolica the Glagolitic alphabet. Douglas alarmed us the other night with the croup. 1848 Thackeray Van. robber. [a. XI.g. [a. OSerbian husar. It. ad.g. and fringed it with leeches. and used chiefly to accompany and support the chanting of the epic poems of the southern Slavs. Glagolitic [from New Latin glagoliticus. or denoting a Slavic alphabet whose invention is attributed to Saint Cyril.] . 779 Pozzlethwayte was cravat-less. Kraljevic's Ballads p. & Lett. 32 The Morlack principle is to allow the man to grow as the beast of the forest. 319 The master of the wardrobe put the cravat round the royal neck. husare. 440. hursar. I cravatted his throat with blisters. 1922 D.g. 1891 E. Serbian dinar. 1968 Ibid. ad. hussar n. A. chetnik Also cetnik. XXXVI. free-lance”. 1942 207 A well-organised guerrilla army in Yugoslavia consisting of between 80. 93/2 There were also colonies of the Morlachs in the interior of the ancient Serbia. corsare. cravatted a.. n. troop. while the “cravatteer” tied it. corsaro. f. Hartland Sci. 279 The resistance of General Mihajlovic and his Cetniks to the enemy. intr. to put on a cravat. viii.). gusle Also gusla. In 1775 a translation by Werthes of the Morlacchian section was published at Berne.] A bowed stringed musical instrument found in the Balkans. Morlacco. Smith Mem. and a. relating to. later “light horseman”. or characteristic of Morlacchia or its people. Fairy Tales i. S. Morlak. forming the country known eventually as Morlacchia. Paton Highlands & Islands of Adriatic II. XXIII. 444. 32/5 This was the residence of Petar Petrovic Njegos II. [ad. Also hussayre. one who plays the gusle. 33 The Morlack is the best soldier and the worst citizen in the Austrian empire. Morovlachus. cravatteer. guslar (pl. orig. a singer of traditional epic poems. 443. denarius. guslari). f. Morlacco.. Morlacchian. adj. prince. 442. “freebooter. (vs(s)aron). fig.) e. late L. corsair. -laci. pl. Dubrovnik) and. It. guszla. 1827 Lytton Pelham xxxiii. Mag. Morlach n. e. to cover as with a cravat. Morlack. ad. also gusar.000 chetniks. related to Old Church Slavonic glagol° word] adj. one who ties a cravat. Jrnl.] A member of a guerrilla force in the Balkans. (All more or less nonce-wds. H. also Morovlah).

J. and Comb.1. 1851 Gallenga Italy 471 Squadrons of hussars and Hulans were scouring the plain in every direction. two special characteristics being the dolman and busby (the former of which is now abandoned in the British army). In local use. or whatever you call them. 1815 Sir C. XXV. intr.] 1. fig. one of the “Black Brunswickers” (hussars with black uniform) who. 1768 Foote Devil on 2 Sticks 11. a free-lance in literature or debate. 1800 A. e. as he called them. Europe 155 The “pandurs” came to fetch him. 1834 Medwin Angler in Wales II. also as pandur in Romanian. a watcher of fields and vineyards'. Trav. to carry on light warfare like a hussar. is absolutely baseless. transf. The alleged derivation of the word from Pandur or Pandur Puszta. bŕndor. and made Pandour synonymous in Western Europe with “brutal Croatian soldier”. attrib. the name of light cavalry regiments formed in imitation of these. Ger. and adv. F. with all or some of the senses mentioned above. or to some Italian or Venetian word akin to this. given in Ersch & Grüber's Cyclopćdia. your police. 287 [He had] a smart hussar cap of green chestnut burrs. e. For ulterior etymology see Note below. A skirmisher. bailiff.g. “a follower of a standard or banner” (see banner). boot.g. to the young empress. [a. 3. [= F. all a.g. Cf. these being distinguished by uniforms of brilliant colours and elaborate ornament. in Croatia.] A. Collier Mus. apparitor”. beadle.g. which were subsequently introduced. or catchpole.. and repeated in many English Dictionaries. Ibid. Trenck offered his own and the services of his men.) hussar v. and long confined to the Hungarian army. But Slavonic scholars are now generally agreed in referring it through the earlier bŕndur. summoner. e. . hence. The word is not native either in Magyar or Slavonic. are those of “guard of cornfields and vineyards”. 1846 Knickerbocker XXVII. which are both senses of pŕndur. Serb.L. I belong to the Black Hussars of Literature. Hungary. to Jas. a constable. b. Carlyle Autobiog. jacket. broth. 2. is found in nearly all the South-Slavonic (Serbian) dialects. who neither give nor receive criticism. Hence (nonce-wds. Serbe. his regiment of Pandours. neither gave nor received quarter. subsequently enrolled as a regiment in the Austrian Army. under Trenck. Tucker E. Bell Let. This was a Brunswicker. Serbian Srb.g. who had no steady views to direct him. including that of Great Britain. Serbia. 1843 Penny Cycl. your mounted constabulary. where. One of a body of light horsemen organized in Hungary in the 15th c. 432 He was a mere hussar. pandour. hence fig. Serb n. bŕndor. a mounted policeman or guardian of the public peace. The name borne by a local force organized in 1741 by Baron Trenck on his own estates in Croatia to clear the country near the Turkish frontier of bands of robbers. etc. 1816 Scott Let. and still exist. Also 9 Syrbe. to G. livery. orig.: A guard. 1886 W. an armed servant or retainer. e. as hussar blue. The dress of the Hungarian force set the type for that of the hussars of other nations. The sense in which the word became known in Western Europe is involved in the history of Trenck's body of pandours. hussar-like adj. e. their rapacity and brutality caused them to be dreaded over Germany. cap. J. Black or Death Hussar. 211 He wore a deep green hussar jacket. the former is still used in and near Ragusa. and fig. Bell 2 July in Lockhart Scott.. 185/2 On Maria Theresa's succession to the throne. 2. n. Earlier forms in Magyar and Serbo-croatian were bŕndur.] 447. pandur. Serbo-croatian pŕndur.. saddle. are they of no use? [Note. war. made or ornamented like that of a huss 446. it has entered Turkish as pandul. waistcoat. hussared a. 1774 J. also “summoner. e. Among senses evidenced by Du Cange for banderius (and bannerius). to med. 169 These Pandurs. and dragged him before the commission. and in Magyar. 1809-13. Ballantyne ibid.. a member of the local mounted constabulary. pandoor Also pandur.. etc. and the question of its origin and course of diffusion in these langs. in most European armies.g. and a. It. in the war with France. In pl. regiment. The hussars and pandours of physic rarely attack a patient together. banderius. The word pandur. of the Black or Death Hussars. “a village in Lower Hungary”. (1775) 60 A pair of hussar boots laced at the seams. having also in earlier times the duty of guarding the frontier districts from the inroads of the Turks. pandour.. is involved in considerable obscurity. banditore (Venetian bandiore) has also the sense of “summoner”. a.

that is larger than a uvala and usu. 204 The interfluvial areas are finally reduced to little hillocks known as hums. b. 2. Croate. e. 448. usually conical. Namier Conflicts 48 In Yugoslavia the conflict between Croats and Serbs offered the Nazis rich opportunities for political intrigue. G. 450. Used attrib. Wissensch. 449. Also attrib.] A small. Also attrib.g. 41 Some of the largest polja are found among the Dinaric Alps in the hinterland of Split. Also polye. one of a race descended from the people which occupied that country in the seventh century. W. now forming part of Yugoslavia. hum n.) Croatae (F. a Serbian. The Serbian language. . 1969 R. Serbian.g.g. 1977 K. B. = wheel. e. 53 The table was set with dishes ranging from the delicate flesh tones of Parma ham. kolo [Serbo-Croatian. Also attrib. hill characteristic of karst topography. 451. [etc. in Sitzungsber. Akad. 328/1 A stronghold to the Servians in their wars with the Turks. zu Berlin: Klasse für Sprachen. 4. CXXIV.g. 40 Everyone. 1969 Daily Tel. to designate various dishes flavoured with either the condiment or the vegetable. Servian. Croat [ad.g. Nov. (after Ger. e. The orange-red colour of paprika. 3. 1905 Macm. kept their old name. ground fruits of certain varieties of the sweet pepper. 453. 5 Nov.g. ii. speaks Serb only. Mag.] A steep natural shaft leading from the surface of the ground in a karstic region. e. adj.g. De Sola Dict. f. H. 33 The Serbs have. e. 42 Franz Ferdinand replied. Yugoslavia.) poljen. III. and paprika with wine/yellow plaid. Pl. 1972 Guardian 11 Aug. Serbo-Croatian Hrvat. Jrnl. J. has steep enclosing walls and a covering of alluvium. 1942 L. 1876 A. Serbo-Croat pŕpar pepper (see H. bearing mildly flavoured fruits. The language of the Croats.] a. paprika [Hungarian. Evans Through Bosnia i. e. = hill. e. a. (Cf. 1978 Times 16 Mar.] A Yugoslav dance performed in a circle. ponor Physical Geogr. Bielfeldt 1965. esp. 9/6 The colour combinations are: lemon with navy/lemon plaid. Kunst i. mod. 1958 Geogr. or as adj.1. 25/4 The paprikas grow freely [under glass] as though Holland were a tropical country. d. [Serbo-Croat polje field. b. Lit. polja. Sorb. A condiment made from the dried. 1959 J. Kroat). Cooking 168/1 Paprika butter. deutsch. 1971 B. 13/6 The dancers launched themselves on an old Bosnian dance.L. composed mainly of Croats. Sparks Rocks & Relief v. [Serbo-Croat. a silent kolo from Glamotch. and fig.] An enclosed plain in a karstic region. whether Christian or Moslem. Benton Red Hen Conspiracy ix.] 1. Capsicum annuum. 1972 Science 12 May 664/3 The perennial flooding of the farmlands in the poljes of Yugoslavia.g. 452. ad. 20). 16 The barbarous Serb races who settled in the Danubian basin in the fifth and succeeding centuries.) Obs. butter sauce colored and flavored with paprika. (pl.]. & D. c. Physical Geogr. poljes. A Wend of Lusatia. unlike the Russians and other Slavs. e. B. d.of several European varieties of the sweet pepper. A native or inhabitant of the former Austrian province of Croatia. A soldier of a former French cavalry regiment. [Serbo-Croat. Capsicum annuum. 1835 Penny Cycl. ending with a sentence spoken in Croat. Remak Sarajevo iii.g. polje Physical Geogr. 1883 Morfill Slav. A native of Serbia. the rusty scarlet of paprika sausage. e. Literatur u.

Maksimovic 1957. the rising accent is a disyllabic one. Stokavian. a name-day. slatko [Serbo-Croatian. Derbyshire Geomorphol. slava [Serbo-Croatian. 68/3 He remembers the priest blessing the house on his father's slava.g. an imposing majority was ready to follow him. a member or supporter of the Croatian separatist movement. Pl. Sforza Fifty Years of War & Diplomacy in Balkans iv. tamburitza Also tamboritsa. -se.] The national assembly of Yugoslavia. 91 In štokavian Serbo-Croat (on which the standard language is based). & Climate iii.g. Štokavian n.. or name day. from sljiva plum] a plum brandy from E Europe. etc. 172 A flask of excellent Prizren slivovic. with rounded hills. 1941 R. -sa. lit. etc. skupa together. 11/3 In the hostelry guests are offered slatko. tamburica. Skupstina Also Scubsch'tina. [a. Jennings Karst vi. Serbo-Croat takovít (Z. slivovitz n. Drustva za 1955 God.)] A widely spoken dialect of Serbo-Croat on which the literary language is based. honour. -s. the ceremonial offering of sugar or jam. Also attrib. or as adj. Serbo-Croat Štokavščina (Štokavski adj.e. in Zapisnici Srpskog Geol. the ceremonial offering of sugar or jam and glasses of cold water.] A festival of a family saint in Yugoslavia. 460. . 1976 S. [f. [Serbo-Croat. 139 In some poljes certain ponors change function for a period in the wet season and spew out water. reflected in a powerful one-chamber Skupština. Ustashi n. e. 1977 Archivum Linguisticum VIII. 1979 United States 1980/81 (Penguin Travel Guides) 263 This is a Serbian restaurant where you can dine to the tune of tinkling tamburitzas. Also attrib. e.g. West Black Lamb & Grey Falcon II. Skupshtina. stokavian.] (Members of) a party and separatist movement of Croatians.] (See quots. e. formerly. 461. 459. 1940 C. N. 1958 P.g. 22 In the elections Pashich won a complete victory. 1971 J.] A stringed musical instrument of the Balkans resembling a guitar or mandoline. f. insurgent rebel. Serbo-Croatian Ustaše pl. -s. Kemp No Colours or Crest viii. Trudgill in E.. where the visitors are given slatko. 1976 New Yorker 22 Mar. takovite Min. 1961 Times 9 Sept.) Also -chi. dolines and ponors.g. pl. here walled in though it is open in most monasteries.g. Skoupschina. name of a place in Serbia] A bluish green clay-like mineral that is a rhombohedral hydrated basic aluminate and carbonate of nickel. -n. is established with greater certainty. e. e. 458. Mineralogist LXII. 47/1 He sits by the kitchen window of his little flat. 1976 New Yorker 22 Mar. Tákovo. with pl. f. the soldiers and supporters of the autonomous Croatian régime between 1941 and 1944: as sing.g. 463/1 The formula of the Australian takovite. 454. e. 111 The gallery.) e. Ustaša sing. (Also taken as sing. 74 This Constitution created a precedent by recognizing the concept of popular sovereignty. 219). 1968 F. skupiti to assemble. -si. [from Serbo-Croatian şljivovica.g. [Serbo-Croatian skupstina. -sha. 457. 92 They observed in the Kuh-E-Parau limestone area of Iran how the overall form on a large scale is solutional in origin. [ad. for which only kaolinite is a significant impurity. lit. 455.. Hondius Yugoslav Community of Nations ii. T. renown. 456.. 1977 Amer._drinking the slivovitz he smuggles into Sweden each September in carefully emptied beer bottles. W. sugared fruit.) Also Shtokavian. In the Skupshtina. (and a. of Serbia or Montenegro. -ci.

463. a peri. comb. b. wili. A native or inhabitant of Yugoslavia. form of jug south + G. association. 12/7 The new Electra is Danica Mastilovic. [Serbo-Croat. 468. Jugoslawe (F. Also Jugo-. [Ger. Serbo-Croat uvala hollow.g. e. a native or inhabitant of the State of Yugoslavia. vilas. adj. e. Also ouvala. Fleming On H.] In Slavonic mythology: a fairy. a. 44/2 She gazes out of the fascinating portrait that Henri Lehmann painted of her in 1843 like some supernatural being. Cf. willi Slavonic Mythol. adj.g. 464. and n. 152 In many areas closely adjoining sotchs have amalgamated. Yougo-Slave.] A. vila Pl. f.” 1982 I. Yugoslav n. 1/4 The Greek and the Yugoslavian were accustomed to the heat. G. . orig. 1973 Times 29 Oct. Yugo colloq. Magdalen' Search for Anderson i. anyway?” “One of the Yugos. and n. Of. Yougoslave). pertaining to. 1405/1 Frequent statements that the Ustasha exists in Australia and that the croatian community condones terrorist acts. e.M.e. Chiefly used in connection with the ballet Giselle. e. comprising the Serbs. rare. 1981 L. through lateral extension. wili. prec. B. uvala Physical Geogr.g. or Fr. Bertil. zadruge. since 30 Oct. 96 White boy says: do you speak Jugoslavian? 1983 Times 3 Oct. Deighton XPD xxviii. = Serbo-Croat e. or a refined succub. Low Kraljevic's Ballads iv. a spirit.g. 467. e. wili. a willi. Cf.g.g. 21 In Serbian song Vilas are represented as jealous and capricious beings but on the whole not unfriendly to mankind. = Yugoslav a. abbrev. Small Study of Landforms iv. or designating the people or state of Yugoslavia. a clan or family cooperative. 1918. Slawe Slav n. a nymph. 1949). rare. zadrugas. [a. 1963 I. I. also. x. The Slavonic language dominant in Yugoslavia. to give larger depressions comparable with the “uvalas” of the Karst proper. 13 Oct. comprising an extended family group which worked the land and lived communally round the main house. [Serbo-Croat and Slovenian.g. Yugoslavian a. willi. The Serbo-Croat language. Iugo-Slav. b. It stank. of Yugoslavian a.] A depression in the ground surface occurring in karstic regions (see quots. = patriarchal commune. Secret Service xi. 265/3 The Ustashas were Croat Fascist collaborators. Serbo-Croat vila nymph. J. e. vile. n. 1943 L. and Slovenes. (Melbourne) 24-30 Aug. Adamic My Native Land 214 From their Russian homeland the Slavs brought a democratic institution called zadruga. 466. Bks. 117 “Which one was it. 949 E. 462.] A type of patriarchal social unit traditional to (agricultural) Serbians and other southern Slavic peoples. which some of the tribes tried to extend and adjust to the wider forms of government necessary in their new homelands. 1922 D. 47 There was something wrong about that Yugo shoot-out. zadruga Pl.Y. (A member of) various groups of southern Slavs. 1973 Nation Rev. a Yugoslav. H. n. B. [ad. 226 The duty officers could be sure of a bottle of Yugoslav riesling.] A. vila.g.g. depression. Also with capital initial.). Croats. ad. making her debut in the house. a. Also Jugo-. Rev. 465. Pound Pisan Cantos lxxx. Serbo-Croat jugo-. 1980 Listener 28 Feb. willi. 1970 R.] (See quot. + -ian. Yugo-Slave. 1977 N. e. fay. [f. and a. the customs and rules associated with this type of unit.

] 1. hord. hordia. It. transf. hetmanship. called also Polish Marmot.. [Ultimately ad. XCIV. clan. Da. the great. Golden Horde. horde n. horde. ordu. or for war or plunder. britzskas and phaetons. X. Kertesz Lang. 1881 Athenćum 30 July 147/1 Kostomarof has completed an extensive monograph upon the Hetmanship of Mazeppa. horde (1559 in Hatz. A loosely-knit social group consisting of about five families.g. britzka. name for a tribe who possessed the khanate of Kiptchak. b. e. esp. The initial h appears in Polish. crew. britska. commander = Boh. app. which are sub-divided in turn into sub-districts (gminy).8. Tooke View Russian Emp. . 1939 Geogr. 1959 Chambers's Encycl. for each of the territorial divisions. was the largest political unit known to the Australians. horde. britzska Also britschka.G.] A local division of the Polish administrative organization. hord were due to the various channels through which the word came into Eng. horde. hetman (Russ. 1901 Westm. e. the middle and the little hordes. orda. 78 The Kirghises have always been divided into three hordes. Sp. Pol. 89 Davidson points out that the horde. 472. [Polish hetman captain. The various forms horda. 1894 Daily News 23 Oct.g. hetman Also hettman. crowd. 1968 F. Subordinate Cossack chiefs had also the title (ataman). [Pol. 8 For purposes of local government the provinces are divided into districts.6 Polish 469. gminy. 1592-1654. of bryka goods-wagon. from the 13th century till 1480. 6/1 During the hetmanate it had fortifications of which traces are still extant. E. a gang. ordá horde. 1863 Kinglake Crimea (1877) I. Little Russ. whence subsequently retained as a title among the Cossacks. heitman.] An open carriage with calash top. and thence in the Western European languages. or uncultivated. bobac Also boback. e. bobak. 5/3 The bobac. Gaz. 473. uncivilized. in all some thirty-five persons. britzschka. a. Sw. i. Anthropol. also ord.] A burrowing-squirrel found in Poland and adjoining countries. a. hoord.g.). Fair lxii. bobak. attaman. 5/3 The Czar's Body Regiment of Cossacksreceived a congratulatory telegram from the Czar: “I drink with your hetman (the Cezarewitch) the health of the regiment”. landaus. hauptmann captain. 471. Polish bryczka (cz = t) “a light long travelling wagon”. A great company. 1866 M. of the savage.1. Brit. 31 Dec.g. 2. Hence hetmanate. [a. the title Hetman (ataman) of all the Cossacks' was an appanage of the Cesarevitch. who was represented by a “hetman by delegation”.g. Believed to be derived from Ger. In the late 19th c.] A captain or military commander in Poland and countries formerly united or subject to it. troop. 799 W. 470. urdu camp (see Urdu). e. through early mod. A tribe or troop of Tartar or kindred Asiatic nomads. Ger. e. the still living marmot of the Siberian steppes. and space for reclining when used for a journey.Darm. [Polish. horda. Lord Bareacre's chariot. Nuclear Sci. Jrnl. hejtman. II. a unit of about five families. e. Also applied to other nomadic tribes. the hetman of the Cossacks' was a semi-independent prince or viceroy. 1879 Encycl. and migrating from place to place for pasturage. Turk orda. Forms: horda. Pr. XI. hord. Braddon Lady's Mile ii.. dim. britzka and fourgon. Under the suzerainty of Poland. but the power and privileges of the office were gradually curtailed and abolished. ataman).g. 1848 Thackeray Van. in Eastern Russia and western and central Asia. His title and authority were at first continued after the acceptance of Russian suzerainty by the Cossacks in 1654. whence Russ. F. 2 Nations trembled at the coming of the Golden Horde. heubtmann and Boh. 12 The underground nuclear tests at Los Alamos were designated first by burrowing mammals such as Bobac. 14 The fashionable world had gone homeward in barouches. dwelling in tents or wagons. c. gmina Pl. horda. troop.

Lekh n. f. qui Marić vitam imitantur. 857/2 Mariavites. and Felicia Kozlowska. A member of an early Slavonic people once inhabiting the region around the upper Oder and Vistula. Polish kroméczka. Kaszuby). -eski Also crom-. 678/2 Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic. [Asserted to have been derived from the name of a Polish count. 1888 H. -esque. 479. kielbasa Also kolbasa. also attrib.] A croquette made of meat or fish minced. 1966 New Statesman 1 Apr. to congregate or live as in a horde. a Polish sect.] . rolled in bacon or calf's udder and fried. Kashubian. Lech. e. 1951 Good Housek. e. a highly seasoned garlicky sausage. 133 The accent is free in North Kashubian. 60 Kielbasa or kolbasi (Polish sausage). a stocky man in mud-spotted trousers. adj. and organisms resistant to it are often cross-resistant to other macrolides. [Pol. e.] A Jew from Lithuania or its neighbouring regions. 482. such as erythromycin. a Tertiary sister. -i. e.g. 348/2 A coating batter is used for making fritters. Hence horde v. Kaszube.g. 476. Mariavite [Pol. Katula 1958. Litwak Lithuanian. Litvak Also Litvok. -esqui. e. marrowsky Also marouski. e. Scudder in Atlantic Monthly Aug. also. or as adj. [Yiddish. oleandomycin. Dict. with which it forms the Lech group.g. doubtfully identified with Count Joseph Boruwlaski. smoked. Kowalski. Polish makrolid (Z. Also Lach. b. and spiromycin. f. Kashubia (Pol. XVIII. phr. It comes fresh. I. 1957 Oxf.g. 1864 Swinburne Atalanta 823 Wolves in a wolfish horde.g.] e. Marowsky. L. 1955 Archivum Linguisticum VII. macrolide Pharm. E. A member of the Slavonic people inhabiting Kashubia. Of or pertaining to the Lechs or their language. B. f.] a. Dosiviadczalnej XII. little slice. 474. kolbasa sausage. Lechitic n. Also attrib. 1965 House & Garden Jan. f. e. O. and a. Pol. & Q..g.g. lyakh. i Med. 465/2 A yellowing piece of paper testifying that in 1952 its bearer danced the Krakowyak satisfactorily before an audience of experts.g. 209 My fathers' house shall never be a cave For wolves to horde and howl in. i. [Polish. 227/1 This great horde of young readers in America has created a large number of special writers for the young. 1821 Byron Sardan.5 and a. a region of Poland west and north-west of Gdansk. and a. intr.] A. b.g. So Cassubian.e. Russ. Mariawita.] A kind of light and lively Polish dance.] A member of a Polish Christian sect which flourished in the early 20th century. [f. Home Encycl. 1968 New Scientist 28 Mar. [ad. Cracow). e. v.g. See N. Krakowiak Also -wyak. on their excommunication from the RC Church. morowski. *lech. but usually must be poached before it is eaten. whose descendants are the Poles.Russ. [ad. 478.] Any of a class of antibiotics containing macrocyclic lactone rings. Ch. and adjs. a city and region in southern Poland. 491): see macroand lactide. in Postepy Hig. G. uncooked and cooked. 437. 480. L'ach [ad. The Slavonic language spoken in this region. 467. Kashubish. Kassubian ns. Lech. a priest of Warsaw. kromeskies. Malamud Tenants 209 A middle-aged Litvak. Kashube Also Kashub. Cf. kromesky. 475. Kraków (Eng. 13th Ser. 481. 161/2 The nearest relative of Polish is Polabian. 1971 B. Lechish n. Of animals: A moving swarm or pack. the name of a legendary ancestor of this people. O. 477. mowrowsky.. kielbasa sausage. Chr. 331. founded in 1906 by J. n. etc. 1929 Ibid.Pol. to form a horde.

a. but which she termed morowskis. Europe xvii. A. Hence metapsychism. etc. Jespersen Lang. pl. 331/2 In my childhood an old cousin used to entertain me with what we now call spoonerisms.] A native Pole of regal or ducal rank.) of the mechanical sequential scanning method exemplified by the Nipkow disk. (1847) V. 11 Poland had. so that on each revolution of the disc an area is scanned equal in height to the radial distance between the first and last apertures. the name of the good peasant (reputed to have lived in the 9th c. 1885 Mabel Collins Prettiest Woman x. 486. 105/2 Until the advent of electronic scanning. XXI. metapsychist. metapsychika (W. f. 2). 245/1 A group of investigators are not prepared to accept the explanation in terms of human survival and therefore dislike the term spiritualism. Lutosawski 1902. -urke. the music is in triple time. one who uses marrowsky language or makes marrowskies in his speech. or composed in its rhythm. Macropćdia XVIII. The Austrian brass band plays the most delightful mazurkas and waltzes. An instance of this. a student of metapsychics. Ranke's Hist. etc. & Q. the name of Paul Nipkow (1860-1940). [a.. marrowskying vbl. Soc. Kerr tr. 1957 Encycl. 1923 in N. Also marrowsky language.g. Hence marrowskyer. mazurka. 1976 Times 23 July 11/3 The Mazowsze Song and Dance Company from Poland whirl through oberek and mazurka. e.g. syllables. In Fr. and the “Marowsky” language. viii. 483. e. n. metapsychics n.g. 1974 Encycl.g. characterized by transposition of initial letters. 27 Oct. under the last Piasts. [f. A. e. or parts of two words. Sala Living London 491 The vocabulary of Tim Bobbin. The after-supper-dance is called the White-Mazurka. 14 The kings of the Piast race made frequent and able efforts to create a gradation of rank in the midst of that democracy.g. in Wykady Jagiellonskie II)] A name applied to a science or study of certain phenomena which are beyond the scheme of orthodox psychology. masurka. A piece of music intended to accompany this dance. attrib. Brit. 150 “Marrowskying” or “Hospital Greek” transfers the initial letters of words. Polish electrical engineer. F. masurka. mazourka. 1847 Mrs. a man of genuine Polish descent. in order to obtain protection from a similar subjugation. allied itself more closely to the Western States. 1833 Alison Hist. as renty of plain. Polish mazurka woman of the Polish province Mazovia. 487. . all workable television systems depended on some form or variation (e. oberek = obertas [Polish. mirror drums. Ger. mazurka Also mizurko. Piast [Polish. after Piast. e. Pol.) from whom the Polish kings were said to be descended. because it is kept up till the daylight is broad and clear. or a slip in speaking. [ad. preferring to employ some noncommittal term such as metapsychics or parapsychology. Richet 1905. Josh Billings.g. 1883 G. the intentional or accidental transposition of initial letters. -ourka. Servia i. polka and Krakowiak.g.g. 1928 Daily Express 27 June 6/4 What a palpitating problem for the psychologists and the metapsychists! 485. hence. in Proc. métapsychique (C. e. Brit. 1922 O. Nipkow disc Television. 484. e. 1854 Thackeray Newcomes xxviii. mazourca.] A scanning disc used in some early television transmitters and receivers having a line of small apertures near the circumference arranged in a spiral of one complete turn.g. who invented it in 1884. Psychical Research XIX. 2.] A lively Polish dance in triple time. e.] 1. related to the mazurka. lensed disks. e. b. A variety of slang. A lively Polish dance resembling the polka..

(Suppl. A Poland fowl. polacca [It. pl. consisting of the nobility and gentry summoned to serve for a limited time. e. 492. and particularly in the obviously Slavonic episodes_. 2. 324/1 The emperor Nicholas exercised the utmost severity against the Poles. the king of Poland.g. field-dwellers.] The Polish militia. a female Pole. B. b.] 1. Pol.. Pole. 1872 I. psychofonetych (J. 1975 Gramophone July 174/2 In the finale with its polacca rhythms. Polaque. prec. 1859 Sala Tw. 102 A young Poless of the highest personal attractions. psychophonetically adv. ad. sing. e.g. [f.] A woman's tight-fitting jacket. Also attrib.) Polones [from L. Polish woman. Cf. 1885 Bazaar 30 Mar. and women's ware of all sorts. polka n. fem. Also with hyphen. n. and in phr. [a. n. e. (const. with reference to Polish Polka a Polish woman: cf. rare. XVIII.g. psychophonetics. Pol. universal”. of polacco Polish.. 1671 Fraser Polichronicon (S. laden with pretty gimcracks. Golden spangled Poles. Polack. [f.g. -ach. Poland. disparaging) term for a Polish immigrant or person of Polish descent. of Polish origin or descent. alla polacca. e. of Polen. in MHG. Ger. neuter. n. 489. by their Lithuanian co-religionists. Pullack and with lower-case initial. 493. 1976 National Observer (U. Poole. the Broadwood does increasingly suggest a Hungarian cymbalom. XXXVII. A native or inhabitant of Poland. perh. A Jew from Poland. A native of Poland. the---Polacks would grovel at our feet---! 2. F.488. e. de Courtenay 1894. also the music for it. e. a name given to the Jews of the Polish provinces. 129). 491. e. pole field. 2nd Ser. Ger. Padover Let Day Perish 140 You cowardly little sneak! It's craven pups like you that make the Polacks trample on us! If we Jews would learn to kill like they do. Polish Poljane lit. Earlier names were (pl..] A Polish dance. (a.g. Pole. ( -ak) Pollack. adj. 199 Any sign of that goddamn Polack sub? 490. as n. . = pospolite ruszenie general levy. Polâne.g. a native of Poland. adj. Linguistics. orig. V. usually knitted: more fully polka-jacket. Umiejebnosci: Wydzia_ Filol.) Polack.g. Ess. in quot.H. perfect birds. prints. pl. pl. 1268/3 Polands. Also. e.+ phonetics n. Amer. f. Polak a Pole. Also applied more widely to other music of a (supposed) Polish character. “general. 1828 Carlyle Werner Misc.) 491 After the peace he went up to Pole with other Scotsshmen. 3. in Rozprawy Akad. 1974 L. -eak.) 26 June 1/3 The Crusher's a clean-living Polack from Milwaukee who don't truck with no drugs or bad women. Hence poless. [a. polonaise. 1. 1933 S. wax flowers and Berlin and crochet work. Polaque. e. Polak a Pole. Dict. e. round Clock (1861) 185 Stalls. Rev. Polish.). Polack n. Also Poyle. a Pole.S. 1909 Cent. Obs. 1840 Penny Cycl. and polkas. as sing. Polân.g. a. Deighton Spy Story xix. So psychophonetic a. pospolite [Polish posspolite adj. a polonaise. N.] A. Pol.] That branch of phonetics which deals with the mental correlates of speech-sound production. psycho. K.g. Ger.S. Polack.g. a. 1822 Edin.] (1555 Eden Decades 278. 1609. So Polaker Obs. B. 493 They continued to regard the Pospolite as the impenetrable bulwark of the Commonwealth. n. A (usu.) Also Polake.

sherryvallies were indispensable to the traveller. Also attrib. now commonly sharwal (pl. F. Bible 1611 “coats”. Linguistic Terminol. and generally worn over other pantaloons. 500.g. late and med. sharaw_l). chapska. e. Lee Let. 1778 Gen. szlachta Hist. saravara. Sejm Also Seym. Pei Gloss. Pol. polku a regiment. who were only holders of starostees. schapska Also chapska. (since 1921) the lower house of the Polish parliament.S. spec. 325/2 Starosts without jurisdiction. Pg. starost starosta.. the ultimate source is by some scholars supposed to be the Persian shalwar (see shalwar) of the same meaning. 1976 Interim IV. e. (1792) 430 If you find them to be green breeches patched with leather. for their public services or expenses. [a. a. zaragüelles pl. rendzina Soil Science. Russ. 497.]. 1796 Morse Amer. 1848 Thackeray Contrib. starostei or F. the name given to those lands and estates bestowed by the Crown upon individuals. I will submit in silence to all the scurrility which [etc.] A regiment of Cossacks. sherryvallies n. 302 Two pulks of cossacks. which in Dan. sirwal. polk. Syriac sharbĺlĺ. iii.] In the former kingdom of Poland. Fr. Also transf.g. a Polish aristocrat from the Galician szlachta. e. Russian sharavary. 1981 Financial Times 13 Jan. a parliament. polk [a. Masters Nightrunners of Bengal xxiv.] The aristocratic or land-owning class in Poland before 1945. 21.. Reg. 20 Dec.g. Our first quot. [ad.. margin “mantles”. sherrivalleys. Also shorrevals. The Biblical Aramaic sarbal_n pl. e. [The proximate history is obscure. Hist. but this is very doubtful. Gen. humus-rich surface layer above a softer pale calcareous layer formed by the breakdown of the underlying rock. and not actually legitimate sherry vallies. 1951 J. saraballa. ad. signifying a kind of trousers: cf. Many years ago. [a. the treatment of a phoneme as the image aimed at in the speaker's mind (Courtenay. each pulk consisting of 500 men. 225 Psychophonetics. 195 Now charging a pulk of Chartists. U. Pol. 1840 Penny Cycl.. Anderson in Cockburn & Blackburn Student Power 264 Bronislaw Malinowski. 14 Chalk rendzinas go straight from the A horizon to the C.). etc.] A flat-topped cavalry helmet. to “Punch” Wks. Arab. Lee had been aide-de-camp to the king of Poland.g. when journeys were made on horseback. Geog. Gr. 494. has been regarded as identical (Eng. 1/3 It will be discussed at a special Polish Communist Party congress this spring. Entwistle). in Mem.g. 9 starostee. 495. XVIII. sarabara. 6 The starosties. 331 A horseman galloped up. The Polish word is starostwo. e. C. pulk. . Sherryvallies. They are now chiefly worn by teamsters. but the word must be an adoption of some one of the many forms of a widely diffused word of oriental origin. (see Du Cange).. friable. sarabala. II. [Pol. 498.g. pantaloons made of thick velvet or leather. Polish szarawary. word.g. [Polish. Amer. 499. He wore a black schapska with a gold bag tied to its side. schapska. 496. Gr. chalk and some limestones) and has a dark.g. czapka cap. the domain of a starosta. starosty Also 8 starostie. buttoned on the outside of each leg. 1848 Bartlett Dict.] e.S.1966 M. might suggest Polish as the probable proximate source for the U. 1969 P. 1886 XXIV. starostie. whence Sp.. Russ. and Latin. saraw_l. e. 27 is rendered by the like-sounding words in Syr.L. rendzína. 1884 Revised “hosen”). ceroulas pl. such as his Majesty of Poland wears.. Polish redzina. f. iii. ad.] In Poland: a general assembly or diet. 1795 Ann. C. an army.] A fertile lime-rich soil which occurs typically under grass or open woodland on relatively soft calcareous bedrock (e. pl. pulk. G. or crown estates. then go for approval to the Sejm (Parliament).

) 20 July 2/1 Tietze's disease can be mistaken for angina. e. J. W. Obs.g. Brit. March 212 The so much vaunted liberty of the Ukrainian Kozaks. LVIII. yarmulke Also yarmulka. Europe 265 The cavalry officer. from zlyoto gold. n. represents in most cases blood and fortune. 14/5 The zloty. 54 Witzchouras had not yet [c 1806] come into vogue. uhlan or ulan n. Hence uhlaner. beside + kra_ edge. marches. brink. e. be he of the huszárs. printing in Ukrainian is prohibited. 572/2 It is not suggested that these rib changes are necessarily due to Tietze's syndrome. 1835 Court Mag. Hunter in Skrine Life xviii. a member of a body of lancers first employed in the Polish army and later in W European armies. 1816 Gentl. 1977 Daily Colonist (Victoria. Tietze Path. 6 March 5/2 Those uhlans of commerce who have lately been so urgently calling for the establishment of railway communication with China through Burmah. Polish wilczura wolf-skin coat. yarmolka. or of any other mounted body of men. a. divided into 100 groszy. 502. 1812 Examiner 7 Dec. 1984 Times 24 Sept. The Slavonic language spoken in the Ukraine. 1923 Times 13 Aug.501. [a. [f. observed the number of sows that were about in the Ardennes. [via German from Polish ulan. B. drawn close at the back. e. Hans Breitmann. with large Turkish sleeves. A native or inhabitant of the Ukraine. Polish jarmulka cap. 1886 W. an extensive district in the south of Russia. zloty n. ad. formerly also called Malo-Russian. the nominal unit of Poland. from Turkish lan young man] History. 781/1 Three Uhlan regiments of Guards. e. wilk wolf n. or gold franc. serving as a uhlan. 1889 Baden-Powell Pigsticking xi. 829). Loyd tr.] A. v/1 [The mantle] is of the Witzchoura form. LIII. Ukrainian a. -tys or -ty [from Polish: golden. 1886 Encycl. etc.g. F. Mag. related to Russian zoloto gold] the standard monetary unit of Poland. 1898 M.g. Also attrib. vitchoura. transf. p.. and by other male Jews on religious occasions e. Tucker E. (1901) 367 The horses go well. 71 In that campaign. Assoc. f. attrib.g.g. a. adj.at. witzchoura. 506. b. e. pl. u. Polish surgeon. e. Ozanne's Fashion in Paris iii. VI. Polish Ukraina or Russ. 4/6 The captain. [ad. Yiddish yarmolke. Tietze (1864-1927). specific use of ukraina border. syndrome: a condition in which there is painful swelling of one or more costal cartilages without evident cause. who described the condition in 1921 (Berlin. and Russification is being carried on among Ukrainians by the same means as those employed in Poland.] A skull-cap worn by male Orthodox Jews at all times. e. Ukraina.) fashionable c 1820-35.g.g. Med. Ukraine.g. 503. and a deep falling collar. 505. 1945 Canad. ad. B. and my Uhlan groom is careful and intelligent. f. 80/2 In western Russia. . and n. Jrnl. etc.g. Of or pertaining to the Ukraine. Wochenschr. klin. 1887 Sir W. [The name of A. (more rarely) jarmulka. 1886 Pall Mall G. who wore Israeli army uniform with a red yarmulka fringed with gold on his head. the uhlaners.] A style of lady's mantle (see quots. Ruthenian. XXI. 504. e.C. frontier.] Tietze's disease.

8. Brit. Slovak. Slovakian.000. n. 9 The dialect. e. 1905 Contemp. 2. etc. SLAVONIC 510. Slowak. n. Philol. in LG. gley Soil Science. occasionally used by Russian composers. Encycl. gleization. Slowaken). 1971 Nature 1 Jan. 1959 Collins' Mus. Slovak n. and n.gopak Also hopak [Russ. A person belonging to a Slavonic race dwelling in Slovakia. shows some connexion with Slovakish. and n. 1862 Latham Elem. Slováci). and in Orkney and Shetland. w. 628 The Slovak. L. gopák. besmers. now the Slovak Socialist Republic and part of Czechoslovakia. gleying. Brit.] A lively Ukrainian dance in 24 time. [a. I was brought before her and told to dance a gopak and a lesginka. 1. Apr. Da. e. e. XXII.1. 324/1 Hopak. e. 1969 Jrnl. Rev.] 1.).] A blue-grey soil or soil layer in which iron and manganese compounds are reduced through being waterlogged. bezmen'. a Slavo-Lithuanic word. bezmenas. Slovak and Czech Slovák (pl. 150/2 Slovenish exhibits an older form of Slavonic than Servian. in Lettish besmens.1. 1887 Encycl. ON. bysmer. Hence gleyed ppl. f. bezmian.7 Slovak 507. 1883 Morfill Slavonic Lit. formerly part of Hungary. XX. soil. e. such a soil mottled with brownish oxidized patches as a result of periods of relative dryness. [a. The fifteen-spined stickle-back: .. 153/2 For a long time the Slovaks employed Chekh in all their published writings. 207 Failure to distinguish between sulphide-containing and sulphide-free gley soils causes considerable confusion. 509. XXII. f. 45/1 Marked peatiness of the soil and gleying are only found toward the upper limit of lower Montane forest. . Sw.9 SLAVIC. Pol. Comp. The language or dialect spoken by this people. B. Soil Sci. 8.] A. .g. also.g. bismer. = sticky bluish clay. and a. 8. e. Russ. of Holstein besemer. (obs.bismar Sc. Russ. bissimar. -more. 1880 Tylor in Academy 18 Sept.g. with a minimum amount of literary culture. just as Slovak is earlier than Bohemian.000. Also glei. Pigott in D. 204/1 A rude kind of steelyard or bismar. Ukrainian hopák. Of or belonging to the Slovaks. 1956 C. dial.g. to weigh out pounds of cheese with.8 Ukrainian 508.g. a Russian folk-dance in a lively 24 time. Linton Sheffield 80 Where water-logging occurs the soils are gleyed and in many places the ground flora is almost exclusively dominated by Allium ursinum. i. cogn. Pol. 584 The Slovak nation in Hungary numbers more than 2. [Ukrainian. adj. A kind of steelyard used in the north-east of Scotland. 1887 Encycl. 2.g. Also bismer. Lith. Slovakish a. gleiing vbl. bismari steelyard. clay n. a. Also gley horizon. G. the stem Slov-: see Slovene.1. 1962 Observer 20 May 21/4. e. turned into a gley. Also Slovac(k. or their language. Slowake (pl. besmar. the formation of a gley.g. Ugro-Slovenish. Hence Slovakian a. D.

g. kolaska. of kolasa “wheel-carriage”. Gaskell Cranford (1873) 52 Three or four ladies in calashes met at Miss Barker's door. angourie. 515. angúrria (obs. used for pickling. Ger. the Russian [etc. 1822 Edin. 10 The Canadians were riding about in caleches. as in calash-driver.. form calčche is frequent in modern writers in reference to the Continent or Canada. 222/1 Gherkin Cucumber beds.2 Chiefly Sc.g. To play (the bagpipes).] 1.Gr. calash n. but it means a grape. ( gerckem. but the Fr. 512. In Canada. these words have a diminutive suffix. Serbian ugorka (the Hungarian ugorka. a bagpipe. and in Poland of the liveried personal followers or attendants of the nobles. hayduk. from German Kalesche. haiduk. and projecting beyond the face. lang. but Lane regards this as adopted from Gr. I am wearied wi' doudling the bag o' wind a' day. The primary form is not recorded in Slav. -head. but appears in late Gr. gurke. 1816 Scott Old Mort. Polish dudlió). with a seat for the driver on the splashboard. dudeln in same sense (of Slavonic origin: cf. 1856 A. Arabic has ajur cucumber. f. [a.] A term app. dim. kolésa. *agurkkijn (now gurkje. e. kolaska calash. a twowheeled. augurkje).g. agurk). [a. agurkas. iii. attrib. usually without a cover.. Sw. Sp.] trans. Ronan's (1832) 233 [The vehicle] had a calash head. marauder. hajdúk. meaning originally “robber. brigand. heyduc.] A young green cucumber. Da. Church Slav. augurk (also shortened gurk). early mod. perambulator. Roman. Smith Mr. i. Turkish haidud robber. for gurkens. Pol. in Bulg.]. 1849 Sir R. 117 The calash of a bathing-machine. 514. [ from French calčche. hospodar . Slovenish ugorek. A calash is a covering worn over caps not unlike the heads fastened on old-fashioned gigs.Du. 211/2 The best sorts of cucumbers are. ogorek. gherkin Also ger-. holds the horse of the fat monarch. 3. Polish ogurek.. A kind of light carriage with low wheels. kolesó wheel.). 4. Serv. Also doodle-sack.. brigand” (a sense still retained in Serbia and adjacent countries). dudelsack bagpipe: prob. Ledbury I. hajdutin. mod. gurchen). 1867 Mrs. are adopted from Slav. Rev.: cf. 1882 Garden 1 Apr. from Slavonic: Boh. gurken.' 513. Lith.1805 Barry Hist. F.) The Fifteen-spined stickleback (gasterosteus spinachia) is here denominated the bismer. [a. attrib. kolo wheel: cf. e. cucumber.g. -top. but the word must have been indirectly adopted from some Slav.g. also. the hood of a bathing machine. doodle v. The Persian angur is sometimes given as the etymon. after many eccentricities. dim. angurie (Cotgr.). XXXVII. Also doudle. heyduck Forms: heyduque. having a removable folding hood or top. ogour_ts_. one-seated vehicle.g. e. A woman's hood made of silk. Form caleche. or a cucumber of a small kind. from the resemblance it is supposed to bear to the weighing instrument of that name. 255/4 His sketch of the calash-driver. heiduc. hajduk. The folding hood of such a carriage. iv. the word settled down as calash. -duke. the proximate source is uncertain (cf. VIII. -duck. Boh. associated with tootle. e. chaidoutes. *gurkkijn. Form calash. Orkney 289 (Jam. gurka. e. F. Russ. -duck. 1824 Scott St. angurka. which in Hungary became the name of a special body of foot-soldiers (to whom the rank of nobility and a territory were given in 1605). Wilson Life (1862) I. supported with whalebone or cane hoops. from Czech kolesa wheels] [a. Magyar hajdú pl. The ultimate origin is unknown. In Eng. which is replaced by another suffix of like function in the Russian ogurets. Pol. xv. Formerly in common use. 511. of agurk. Ger. calčche. e.. anguria a kind of cucumber. 1866 Thoreau Yankee in Can. etc. Czech okurka. 1837 Penny Cycl. Lettish gurkjis. e.g. etc. earlier also gurchen. 1889 Athenćum 15 June 768/1 One of that extinct species of servants.) water-melon: see Anguria. the heyducs. 2.. girkin. whence It. 129 Sleeping in the Calash.

1979 Listener 19 July 71/1 “Another pivo. a fur-bearing animal. lasset. -weasel. Pol. elend.] a. jelen. which represents a Romanic derivative from the same Slavonic word. olen. OSl. e. cf. Sorbian knjez. 362 His father.] A former title among Slavonic nations = “prince”. A. pivo. formerly borne as a title of dignity by the governors appointed by the Ottoman Porte for the provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia. e. VII. Polab Also Polabe. See also zibeline.] Also lasset-mouse. los'. also quasi-adj. Romanian hospodár. Du. Pol. the Ollen and the Losey [elk]. From Slov. knjaz:---Old Slav. safali sable (the animal). Obs. deriv. [Russ. 519. Obs. OTeut. Also attrib. forms cited s. sabulle. Brit. [a. transf. the territory governed by a hospodar. squire?” 520.] . 1974 Encycl. OF.. czoboly.g. sabelum. the Lasset Mouse. sabalas. Alban. of Slavonic origin. called Kneas. ellend.] A red deer. Halliday' Dolly & Nanny Bird xviii. sabell. in martre sable (“sable marten”) as the name of the animal and its fur. Sw. 1613 Purchas Pilgrimage iv. saible sable fur. a stag. adopted from Slavonic: cf. sabellum sable fur. jelen_. The West Slavonic language of this people. the sable. the office of a hospodar. Lith. gospodár (in South Russia “master of a house”). lord. Hence hospodariat. knez. stag = OSlav. usually englished “grand duke”. sometimes merely rank. Polish. kunenz_. the Nobility. e.[a. the ermine or miniver. Beasts (1658) 424 There is no difference between the Lascitt mouse and the Lascitt weesill. e. also Romanian knęz.g. Also laset. F. sobel). lasica. xvii. king. o_len' deer. hospodorate). Servia 45 After consultation with the Kneses. had retired into private life. los): see also eland. 1833 Fraser's Mag. beer. prehistoric a.sovereign. safal. 1607 Topsell Four-f. lasquette. piva [Slavonic pívo (Russ. G. Hung. pívo. by “duke”: cf. *kuning.L. now extinct. and such like. laska. to the elk (Russ. the Gentry and the Peasants. word was prob..v.. Micropćdia VIII. as in Russia: often rendered in western langs. 1886 Dowden Shelley II. 1976 D.king. whence Ger. e. cebal. a beast that beares the Furre which we call Mineuar. 516. élnís. The OF. 431 They worship the Sunne. for a time hospodar of Wallachia. 196 The hospodariats were sure to become dependencies of Muscovy. Russ. [Slav. lascitt. Russian lastka. it may possibly be a shortening of one of the Rom. po on. -iot. elendthier. ollen. Labe Elbe. 244 Someone had produced pivo and his minions were shouting and spraying the workshop with beer. ellenís stag. the title velikie knjaz “great prince”. Czech sobol (whence G. form cebal is of obscure origin. Czech lasice. of Slavonic origin: possibly from Little Russ. sable n. 1847 Mrs. sable. of gospód. Russian sobol. Another Russian form of the word is gosudár.1 Forms: sabylle.] A word meaning “lord”. Rat de Lasse. ix. [A Slavonic word: Serbian. 1710 Whitworth Acc. Icel. OLith. sable. -iate (erron. sabill. Lith.g. A member of a Slavonic people once inhabiting the region around the lower Elbe. The rare 17th c. Da. knez Also knes.lord. [a. 517.. 1611 Cotgr. ellan. hospodár = Russ.g. Slov. knez. knez. etc.g. Pol. lassitz. 518. sabil(le. Russia (1758) 31 They are divided into three ranks. zibeline. sir.g. the tax was imposed proportionably on the respective districts. Boh. e. sometimes implying sovereignty. elen. Pol.g. 72/3 By the early 9th century the Polabs were organized into two confederations or principalitie 521. knias. sable-fur. piwo. lasset. Magyar kenez. as in Montenegro and formerly in the various Danubian Principalities.). sabel. e. Kerr Hist. zobel. sabel sable-fur. cf.] An Eastern European beer made from barley malt or a similar fermented beverage. med. b.

e. sabraka. and Flem. Also Russian. siska). MLG. XXII. muff. 207 Sables are standard painting tools for all water-based mediums--watercolor. F. Dict. Du. A superior quality of Russian iron. e. Slovene n. 1884 ---. (made of the fur of sable) sable-coat. pl. Mustela zibellina. Birds 354 Chrysomitris pinus. n. 1839 Ure Dict. also called aberdevine. Pol. 2. F. Taubes Painter's Dict. Also objective. tippet. iii. Sw. G. Papers (1877) II. Brit. Moore Gray Eye or So III. dial. Europe 213 Their shabracks ablaze with precious stones. 4. martryn sable. which are app. Applied with defining words to various small birds related to or resembling the siskin. pl. By older writers sometimes identified with the greenfinch. (made of the hairs of the sable) sable-brush. a. 385 A less well-known member of the siskin group is the citril finch (Chrysomitris citrinella).g. form based on MHG. is now regarded as a geographical variety of the Old World species. Czech cabrak(a.g. A member of the southern Slavonic group of peoples.. of Eastern Europe: cf. Slovenec. 1922 Joyce Ulysses 457 A *sabletrimmed brick quilted dolman. [a. A small song-bird. shabracque. as Slovene. chaprak. G. and a. shabrack Also shubrach. sisik. group. (hence -coated adj. called from its mark ccnd. 385 From Japan to the British Isles the common siskin (Chrysomitris spinus) is found in suitable localities. nearly allied to the martens. 524. Hist. 1. 1894-5 Lydekker Roy. as siskin finch. and Comb.] A saddle-cloth used in European armies. 1877 Coues Fur Anim. martre sable. III. Slovenen. Nat. e.). simple attrib. Styrian.g.. (used for taking the sable) sable-trap. chizh'. and one bear-trap. chizhek'.---which require large. a light green inclining to yellow. The red or Tatar sable is the Siberian mink. schabracke. Siberian sable. siskin-green.1.g. e. Arts 462 Those [files] made from the Russian iron. sijsken. 2. Turkish capraq.g. b. In a few more years they would be hanging that coat on the wall-like a painting.g. Mowbray's set of sables had cost seven hundred guineas. -pencil. A brush made of the sable's hair. the animal and its fur are called also martrix sable. The skin or fur of the sable. Painting. sable-mouse e. 1784 J. [ad. acrylic. Putorius sibiricus.). 522. III. in some respects closely allied to the goldfinch. siskin-parrot. sisgen. zeisig). sisken. a. e. 188 We saw abundance of *sable-traps. e. thin passages of fluid color. czyzik.g. sisschen or zeischen. so called from being originally stamped with a sable. and is supposed to be derived from the stem of slovo word. 1973 F. etc. from some lang. (chabrague. Amer. Russ. and native of the arctic and sub-arctic regions of Europe and Asia. gouache. a dim. The American sable. b. 1894-5 Lydekker Roy. 3.g. shabraque. G. In ME. sisk. dwelling in southern Austria and in Slovenia (formerly part of Austria.N. now a constituent republic of Yugoslavia). sable-trimmed adj. sijsje).g. 523. siskin Also sysken-. czyz. 3. The language of the Slovenes. . sisek (Norw. G. 95 The Sable is principally trapped during the colder months. [a. = older Flem. are excellent. 1700 W. etc. ziseke. native of the arctic and sub-arctic regions of North America. schabraque (also chabraque). sloviti to speak. a. American Siskin. casein. Mustela Americana. 2.] 1. 1887 Encycl. formerly also called Wend e. zîsec (also zîse.g. Da. Nat. 105 She eyed the sable some more. they will bite it. 1908 Bain Slav. attrib. 147/2 The Slovenes have preserved an old form of the family name. capraka. a small parrot of the genus Nasiterna (Cent. e. Magyar csabrág. Belknap in B. King Transactioneer 81 Sable-Mice are so fierce and angry that if a stick be held out at them. schabraque. Short for sable coat. Russ. 1893 F. A small carnivorous quadruped. 1977 J. after OF. as sable-skin. e. cijsken (Kilian. 211 Mrs. cf. Hist. of Slavonic origin. Slovenci. known by the name of old sable. ad. the name is a survival of the old native designation of the Slavs. which appears in OSlav. Slovene (Slowene). as sable-hunter.] A. b. shabrag). Crosby Company of Friends xvi. attrib.

Slovenian. II. Russ. opyr.] .. 387 Sukkenye. A double-leaved trap-door. transf.g. Slovenish. Magyar tábor.. one who preys ruthlessly upon others. Pol. suckeney. upyr. [a. e. a. Birkenhead Rudyard Kipling vii. [a. You're not buying the rugs or the lamps or the tsatskes. Taylor Home & Abroad III. a word of Slavonic origin occurring in the same form in Russ. vampyrus. transf. surkney. vampire n. Czech. vampir. sukkenîe.. Da. Sw. of the Czech and Slovene languages with the German.] 1. c. F. Rev. c. 527. 1774 Goldsm. It. e. Russ. a loose frock.] An encampment. Polish. 215 In the German language there is no epithet which exactly translates our word “bore”. Times 12 July 31 Décor doesn't add to the glamour of a suit. [a. S.. Serb. vepir. 1867 Chronicle 5 Oct. 526. B. Magyar vampir. 119 An animal not so formidable. Gilbert Foggerty's Fairy i. b.] A trinket or gewgaw. Pg. Also vampyre. “vampyre”. e. whence also MHG. known or popularly believed to be blood-suckers. 1862 B. The deadly tarantula spider or “vampire” of the prairies. a. (1824) II.. but still more mischievous than these. The devil-fish. such as_the individual cases of Slovene in Southern Austria. Applied to a mosquito. [Boh.L. is the American Vampyre. Also tabour. G. The tarantula spider. Zool. or its intensification. upior. tabor. Cf. Ruthen.S. a ghoul. e.satske tchotchke U. Polish suknia coat).. with such variants as Bulg. cf. vepyr. Rev. colloq. 669 This giant of the Cephaloptera is simply a monstrous Ray. Nat. used in theatres to effect a sudden disappearance from the stage. Also sukkenye. tabor. most are on minority languages. b. Edward Hyde. it is in no way formidable save from its enormous strength and bulk. 1902 Q.g.L. a vile and cruel exactor or extortioner. 2. ad. or do harm. Miklosich suggests north Turkish uber witch.. e. an affectionate diminutive of tsatske. also sor-. suff. 3. Where's my vampire? .g. Pol. suckeny. as a possible source. A person of a malignant and loathsome character. 1886 Sat. vampiro.. soscania) of Slavonic origin (cf. 1974 N. sousquenie. 1881 W. e. a reanimated corpse). rare1.] A smock. 5/4 At Podgoritza_15 tabors of Nizams and four tabors of troops of the reserve are being concentrated preparatory to offensive operations against Montenegro. (1874) 58 A sharp prick and the little vampire is drinking your blood. 525. n. f. Violet xliv. vampire. surquanie (earlier soschanie. vapir. a man or woman abnormally endowed with similar habits. and though SeaDevil and Vampire are assigned to it as trivial names. soucanie. chiefly South American. vampyr.g.g. by sucking the blood of sleeping persons. A preternatural being of a malignant nature (in the original and usual form of the belief. rather than meet [Stevenson's] Mr.. a.Y. vampyr.e. 1843 Marryat M. 99 A grim but authentic picture of callow subalterns trotting beside the rickshaw wheels of faded provincial vampires. One or other of various bats. Yiddish. adj. e. 1877 Daily News 25 Oct. 1980 English World-Wide I. closing by means of springs. 528. 1885 Dillon Fairholt's Costume Eng. in all public offices. Turkish tabor camp (anciently a camp of nomads formed by a circle of wagons or the like). rare1. tsatska). 1978 Ld. Sp. July 169 The equalisation.g. 4. mod. Also tsatskeleh [Yiddish -le dim. Serb. ii.g. Slavonic (cf. 9 Jan. Hist. 1864 Geikie Life Woods iv. an owner pointed out. vopyr.g. med. and Bulg. vampir. or even a vampire gladly. esp. slang. a pretty girl. An intolerable bore or tedious person. upir. Du. OF. 55 We would welcome a spectre. supposed to seek nourishment. Hist. 256 Of the remaining essays not involving English.

g. attrib. 133 The inside is lined with skins of ermine and zibelline. Bulg. the acts of a vampire. trans. walh. attrib. [ad. Pol. [a. adj. 198 Religious references to the Virgin Mary behaving in a way that is distinctly vampirish have been glossed over. II.g. vampiric a. etc. 1901 Speaker 21 Sept. 23. OE. -wode. 1868 Daily Tel. from Old Italian zibellino. e. . ORuss. corpse. a thick cloth made of wool or other animal hair. voevoda. vlakh or Serb. voivode. vojevoda. wojewoda. walah. volokh Walachian. 16/1 This Vlach or Rouman race occupies a far wider area than that included in the present Roumanian kingdom. which oft hath flung into black And *vampyre-winged pannels back. these terms are Slavonic adoptions of the Germanic walh (OHG.. woivode. vampire bat. Brit.. woloch Walachian. Russ...g. 1888 E.g. ] 1. of the nature of a vampire. 1886 Encycl. a. a sable or the fur of this animal. relating to.. Hence vampire v. Gerald Land beyond Forest xxxiii. 1981 N. MHG. XXI. Brit. lord of its lake. Pol. voivoda. April 681 Not the least interesting constituent of this chaotic population is the Vlachian. e. voyvode. 19/1 The officials bearing for the most part Slavonic titles derived from the practice of the Bulgaro-Vlachian czardom. -fanned adj. 1844 Hugh Murray Trav. Czech. and Serb. 1886 Encycl. [ from French. voivode Forms: voy-. 683/2 The alliance would array the scattered Vlachs of Macedonia once more on the Greek side. 1946 Blunden Shelley x. XXI. 135 Byron began and dropped a thriller which was becoming vampirine.L. uoiuod. 530. having a long nap and a dull sheen. to assail or prey upon after the manner of a vampire. whence also Rom. Tucker Child & Book vii. Italian. of. wloch Italian. attrib. -vod. 84 Only such Tziganes are supposed to be eligible as are descended from a Woywod family. vampirine a. 529. the state of being a vampire (sense 1). Vlach Also Vlache. vampiredom. ruler of its river. Marco Polo i. 1884 W. walch. and woiwode of its woods. voivodeship 531. spell. Hence Vlachian. legend.. To be prince of its park. wealh) foreigner. vampirish a. or resembling a sable e. vampire trap.. 1909 Q. and Comb.. Carr Montenegro 22 By repeated efforts the voivode maintains with difficulty a position on the coast. vlakhu Romanian. Rev. vojvoda. ultimately of Slavonic origin. e. voiuoda. mod. applied especially to Celts and Latins. Czech vlach Italian. zibeline n.] A member of the Latin-speaking race occupying portions of south-eastern Europe. voevoda. 1 Sept. 3.g. as vampire bookseller. a Walachian or Romanian.5. vlah. Italian. Bulg. 2. 1831 Poe Poems 64 Some tomb. woywod. = OSlav.] e. voivoda.

....1...................................................1...........................................11 3.......................... LOANWORDS FROM SLAVIC LANGUAGES: WHY............................................................................. INTRODUCTION.1..........................................4 The languages in the corpus..............1.........................................................................................2 THE PERIOD BEFORE THE 20TH CENTURY.................. CORPUS ANALYSIS................................................1.................1 2...........1 THE 20TH CENTURY....1...3 2.......................................... WHEN.......... AND HOW ?..1 Eastern subgroup............10 3............12 3......1..............................................................................5 2.......................10 3.....9 3................................1 A CONCISE OVERVIEW OF SLAVIC (SLAVONIC2) LANGUAGES......2 The West Slavonic branch...........2 Western subgroup......................................................................................................11 3.....................................TABLE OF CONTENTS 1................................. AND THEIR APPEARANCE IN THE CORPUS................11 3.............................................3 The East Slavonic branch.............1........2 ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS ACCORDING TO THE DIVISION ................................1 The South Slavonic branch....................................................14 3...........................3 SUMMARY................................................................................8 2.13 3.....

..............34 3.........45 Amelioration...................TRANSLATIONS..... REFERENCES......3..68 8........19 3................................134 8..........4..............................................4 Slavic casuals................................................................. DENIZEN AND NATURAL...................................................................................................................................................................3..................................................................................3.3........................4.....133 8.9 Slavic.......................................................... SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS: CHANGES IN MEANING................................. THE STATUS OF SLOVENE IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.20 3.....................21 Slavic aliens.............2 Russian.................................................................4 Bulgarian......139 8.......4......................................55 Summary..1..... Croato – Serbian.............1................1 3...............1 3..........................................68 8......... Slavonic.....1........................................................................69 8........35 3.3 Bohemian & Czech.....................66 8..........4 ANALYSIS OF THE CORPUS ACCORDING TO MURRAY’S DIVISION OF LOANWORDS INTO CASUAL...............................................2..........................3.....................................................................................................................................1 Bohemian......1...................................................6 Polish.3 3................ Serbian...............4 3........145 8.................................2 Summary.4..... APPENDIX...................................................... NOTES.............................................2 3.............152 ..................................................................................7 Slovak.........................................................4.............................. CONCLUSION..............................68 8....................59 4..........60 5..........29 Summary..........1.......................62 6........1.....................................................................................................15 3....................1...1 Frequency of occurrence.......................................................152 8........................................................................1... CORPUS.......152 8...1......................3....23 Slavic denizens...133 8..................2 Czech........................................... Serbo – Croatian...........1 Introductory remarks...........................................................................54 Pejoration or deterioration.138 8.....1.................5 Extension or generalization....................... ALIEN............................................3 3..............................................2 3.........64 7................................5 Croatian.................................................................................................................................................................................36 Narrowing or specialization...........................8 Ukrainian...................................................16 3...............................................................................................................2............1......................................................................1............4................................

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