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METHOD STATEMENT
Building Movement Control during Construction

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METHOD STATEMENT
Building Movement Control during Construction

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Date

Description

Prepared

Reviewed

Approved

01 00

17-Aug-09 04-May-09

Ha T.H Ha T.H

Ryu Y.M Ryu Y.M

Kim D.S Kim D.S

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CONTENTS

Page

1.
1.1 1.2 1.3

GENERAL
Scope Definitions Related Documents

3
3 3 4

2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

EXECUTION
Analysis & Prediction Material Testing Field Measurement & Survey Specialist Organization Performance Target

5
5 13 18 44 45

3. A.
A.1 A.2 A.3

DELIVERABLES APPENDICES
Technical Specification of Instrumentation and Monitoring Equipments Sensor Installation Drawings Curriculum Vitas for Specialty Organization

47 48
49 89 97

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1.

GENERAL
This method of statement outlines the DAEWOOs proposed building movement control (also called the Work hereafter) methods necessary to ensure accurate construction of KLCC Tower (also called the Tower hereafter) with allowable building movement during construction.

1.1

Scope
The works undertaken by DAEWOO include the following major activities: 1.1.1 Theoretical prediction of the Towers movement during construction con-

sidering construction sequence and time-dependent material properties. Using structural analysis software, the movement of the Tower is computed in 3-dimensional coordinate and appropriate corrective actions are suggested for adverse effect of the Towers movement. 1.1.2 Laboratory material testing of concrete to enhance the accuracy of the pre-

diction including compressive strength of cubic and cylinder specimen time-dependent variation of modulus of elasticity, specific creep values and ultimate shrinkage values. 1.1.3 Field measurement and survey to verify the predicted movement, to update

the suggested corrective actions. The targets of monitoring include building settlement at P4 level, elastic shortening of columns and walls, deflection of transfer beams, longspan beams and slabs, concrete tensile strain in transfer beams, tower verticality, and axial load in temporary props supporting the transfer beams.

1.2

Definitions
1.2.1 Axial shortening of a building is defined as the vertical displacement of the

building and results from the sum of axial deformation of vertical members at each level. Three major factors affecting axial shortening are loads, geometry, and material proper-

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ties of the vertical members in the building. 1.2.2 Target time shall be basically designated as 7 years after the roof of the Tower

has been completed as defined in the Section 01400 of the clients specification. It is noted that, however, different target time will be adopted in the theoretical analysis of building movement whenever it is necessary, e.g. building movement at construction of transfer beam level, etc. 1.2.3 UPTO movement at a specific time refers to the movement amount which has

already developed and accumulated up to the time when the building elements under consideration are installed from the start of structure construction. This amount vanishes if a building is constructed so that every element of the building conforms to its designed location at the time of construction.

1.2.4

SUBTO movement at a specific time refers to the movement amount which

has developed and accumulated at target time subsequent to the time when the building elements under consideration are installed. This amount causes the relative movement of adjoining/adjacent building element and, therefore, additional (locked-in) forces on structural members and adverse effects on non-structural elements such as faade and elevators.

1.3

Related Documents
This method statement contains DAEWOOs opinion in carrying out the Work with regard to the clients specification. Refer to the following sections of the specification on related topics:

01400 Building Movement Control During Construction 01420 Instrumentation and Monitoring Works 03300 Cast-In-Place Concrete

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2.
2.1

EXECUTION
Analysis & Prediction
2.1.1 Scope Building movement is predicted by the following three-staged analysis.

A. One-column shortening analysis phase In this initial stage analysis, individual vertical members of the Tower is modeled to calculate their respective/relative shortening amount and to suggest corrective actions. This analysis is performed using DAEWOOs in-house programs C-SAP (Column-Shortening Analysis Program). The applied load on each member is obtained from the analysis results of general-purpose 3-dimensional structural analysis programs such as ETABS and MIDAS. Material and geometric properties are input from code provisions mostly ACI 209 and relevant drawings, respectively. This analysis is usually performed before the commencement of the construction of the lowest structure. At the time of submission of this method statement, the analysis is completed and the onecolumn shortening analysis report is being prepared. The results of the analysis are summarized in Sec. 2.1.3. B. Construction stage analysis phase More detailed analysis of axial shortening and other building movements are carried out by ASAP (Axial Shortening Analysis Package) considering the effects of real construction sequence and restraint action of neighboring structural members such as beams and slabs. The main focus of this phase is set to evaluating the building movement induced by the progress of construction, i.e., the increment of gravity load and time-dependent material properties. Building movement in the horizontal direction as well as in the vertical direction can be predicted at any stage of construction. Additional forces developed due to construction in horizontal members such as transfer beams, outriggers, and belt walls/trusses and the effects on other non-structural elements are evaluated. C. Time history analysis phase While the one-column shortening analysis and

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construction stage analysis are carried out for designated target time, in the time history analysis phase, the variations of building movements according to time (with progress of construction) are predicted for necessary cases and compared with the data from field measurement and survey. The results of construction stage analysis phase are updated in this phase as frequently as needed.

2.1.2

Analysis software

A. C-SAP was developed by DICT (DAEWOO Institute of Construction Technology) in 1997 and has been successfully used more than 10 years on over 18 tall building projects including Malaysia Telekom Headquarters (77 stories) and SONGDO North East Asia Trade Tower (68 stories). The program was verified in the development stage with many published research data and SOMs in-house program, and was also compared with ARUPs in-house program during PUGOK PRUGIO Project in 2004. The shortening calculation process within the C-SAP program is basically the sum of elastic, creep, and shrinkage shortenings. The equations for each component are mainly dependent on the equations in ACI 209 and PCA report (Fintel, Mark; Ghosh, S. K.; and Iyengar, Hal, Column Shortening in Tall Structures Prediction and Compensation (EB108.01D), Portland Cement Association, 1986). B. ASAP is actually an upgraded version of C-SAP and was also developed by DICT in 2007. It is based on the same algorithm as C-SAP but is able to perform a construction stage analysis considering restraint action of neighboring structural members such as beams and slabs as compared with the one-column shortening analysis in C-SAP. This program is still under development to incorporate material test analysis and time history analysis features. C. General-purpose 3-dimensional structural analysis programs such as ETABS and MIDAS are used to support running C-SAP and ASAP, and to perform conventional structural analyses.

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2.1.3

Summary of one-column shortening analysis

As an initial prediction of the vertical movement of the Tower, individual columns and walls are analyzed for their axial shortening amount and corresponding compensation strategies. Target members are chosen as shown in Figure 1 considering the symmetry of the Towers plan and member connectivity. Loading sequence on the members are based on the construction schedule planned by the site team on 7 FEB 2009 and the loads are calculated from the 3-dimensional structure model using MIDAS as shown in Figure 2. The input data used in the analysis are summarized as follows:

Figure 1 Location of walls and columns under consideration of shortening prediction

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(a) Structure modeling w/o slab

(b) Running analysis of model (a)

(c) Structure modeling w/ slab

Figure 2 Structure modeling of the Tower for building movement control

a. Target time is 7 years after the completion of construction as designated in the clients specification; b. Concrete strength used is mean compressive strength of the cylinder specimens at 28 days, fcm fck 8 MPa ; c. Elastic modulus of concrete is calculated from its strength according to ACI 318;

d. Specific creep values are calculated from the concrete strength to range from 0.41E-06 to 0.52E-06 in/in/psi based on the PCA report; e. Ultimate shrinkage value is set to 750E-06 in/in from DICTs previous experience; f. Relative humidity of Kuala Lumpur is set to 80%, which is taken from BBC weather report (See http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT002590); g. Construction load is divided into three categories, i.e., structural dead load (DL), superimposed dead load (SDL), and live load (LL): and h. Reduction factor for LL is chosen to be 0.5, which is sufficient as compared with the minimum 0.4 for high-rise office building.

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Axial Shortening Distribution of CW3 (UPTO & SUBTO)


P2 4 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 59
0

20 40 60
80 100

120 140 160

SUBTO Shortening

UPTO Shortening

180

200

Axial Shortening Distribution of CW3 (Elastic, Creep & Shrinkage)


P2 4 10 17 24 31 38 45 52 59
0

20 40 60
80 100

120 140

Shrinkage Shortening Creep Shortening Elastic Shortening

160
180

200

Figure 3 Distribution of axial shortening of CW3 (See Figure 1 for member location)

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Axial Shortening Distribution of J1 (UPTO & SUBTO)


1 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56
0

20 40 60
80

100 120 140


160

SUBTO Shortening UPTO Shortening


180 200

Axial Shortening Distribution of J1 (Elastic, Creep & Shrinkage)


1 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56
0

20 40 60
80

100 120 140

Shrinkage Shortening Creep Shortening Elastic Shortening

160

180 200

Figure 4 Distribution of axial shortening of J1 (See Figure 1 for member location)

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Table 1 Maximum absolute shortenings after 7 years of completion of construction (mm)


Member CW1 CW2 CW3 A2 A3 A3a-4 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 J1 J2a J3 J4 W1 W2 W3 W4 F2-W5 W6 H1-W7 Average Total shortening 140 118 160 81 106 85 61 86 94 97 81 134 149 138 136 135 135 143 152 160 157 141 122 SUBTO shortening 32 29 52 29 42 29 20 33 38 40 35 40 47 41 40 46 47 53 61 51 50 43 41 Stories 44F 18F 28F 14F 15F 17F 16F 16F 18F 18F 27F 39F 27F 27F 39F 48F 48F 48F 48F 27F 27F 27F Type Core walls

Perimeter columns at rectangular plan

Perimeter columns at triangular plan

The results of analysis are listed in Table 1 and Table 2 for absolute and differential shortenings, respectively, and example graphs for the distribution of the shortening amount across entire building height are shown for CW3 and J1 in Figure 3 and Figure 4, respectively. The results can be summarized and some tentative conclusions can be drawn as follows: Total shortenings are relatively small 0.429mm per 1m compared with other high-rise buildings with similar height with the Tower; SUBTO shortenings covers about 34% of the total shortening; Shortening amounts are well distributed evenly across the plan so that the differential shortenings are very small average maximums are only 11mm between core walls and perimeter columns, and 9mm between adjacent columns;

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Table 2 Maximum differential shortening after 7 years of completion of construction (mm)


Core walls vs. perimeter columns Differential Members Stories shortening CW1 | CW2 CW2 | CW3 CW1 | A3a-4 CW1 | A3 CW1 | C1 CW1 | D1 CW1 | E1 CW1 | F1 CW2 | F2-W5 CW3 | W6 CW3 | J3 CW3 | J4 10 24 7 14 8 10 12 6 24 11 11 12 50F 29F 30F 13F P1F 21F 21F 27F 47F 6F 30F 28F Between adjacent columns Differential Members Stories shortening A3 | A3a-4 A3 | A2 A2 | B1 B1 | C1 C1 | D1 D1 | E1 E1 | F1 F1 | F2-W5 W6 | F2-W5 W6 | H1-W7 J1 | H1-W7 J1 | J2a J3 | J2a J3 | J4 15 13 9 14 11 5 11 18 3 7 4 8 6 2 9 6F 15F 12F 13F 28F 30F 7F 18F 15F 27F 24F 19F 18F 27F

Average

11

Compensation program for axial shortening can be established based on the decision, where whether the entire shortening is compensated for the Towers design height or only differential shortening is compensated for floor flatness. At the kick-off meeting held on 4 FEB 2009 at KLCC office, DAEWOO asked for Meinhardts opinion and Meinhardt answered that Major concerns are for differential shortening between core walls and columns, and shortening analysis done by Meinhardt itself did not exhibit much differential shortening.

Judging from the magnitude of the differential shortening amount and considering that the one-column analysis results are generally conservative, compensation for differential shortening of columns and walls seems unnecessary; and

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2.2

Material Testing
Properties of concrete used in the initial analysis and prediction of the Towers movement are mostly based on the design values or code provisions. Actual properties of concrete such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, specific creep, and ultimate shrinkage are tested during construction and the results are used to increase the accuracy of the analysis. Scope Testing of concrete for building movement control covers the following

2.2.1

type of test: A. Compressive strength test for cube specimens sampled from all types of member (columns, walls, slabs, and beams) to verify that the design strength is attained. One set of three cylinder specimen is also sampled at each placing of concrete for columns and walls to be tested for their compressive strength at 28 days. This was recommended by Meinhardt in their comments dated on 10 MAR 2009 for the purpose of comparison of the strength of high strength concrete between cube specimen and cylinder specimen. B. Modulus of elasticity test for cube and cylinder specimens sampled when placing concrete for columns and walls to verify its development with time. The tests are performed at 7, 14, 56, and 90 days of concrete placing. Tests for 150mm cylinder specimens were recommended by Meinhardt.

C. Creep test for cylinder specimens sampled when placing concrete for columns and walls to verify the specific creep value and creep development with time. The tests are performed from 28 days of concrete placing and continued at least three months. D. Shrinkage test for cylinder specimens sampled when placing concrete for columns and walls to verify the ultimate shrinkage value and shrinkage development with time. The tests are performed concurrently with creep test.

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2.2.2

Specimens Summary of test specimens related with the Work is shown in

Table 3. They are grouped by target member for testing, sampling frequency, specimen type and age of concrete, respectively, and required numbers of specimen for each testing are designated. Tests for compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are performed at test room in the site, while the specimens for creep and shrinkage shall be moved to DICTs laboratory in South Korea after seven days of site curing by air transportation (FedEx) in moist-cured condition for each grade of concrete above G55, since there is no climate chamber available near the site. Table 3 Test specimens related with building movement control
Test item Target member Sampling frequency Specimen type Concrete age 7 Columns & walls Compressive strength Slabs & beams Each grade / every 5 Modulus of elasticity Columns & walls Each grade Creep & shrinkage Cylinder (150mm) Cylinder (150mm) floor
th

Specimen number 2 4 2 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Remarks Discard specimen for 56 days if 28day strength is reached Diameter of cylinder specimen is 100mm Three specimens = one set Grades for columns & walls are above G55 (G55, G60, G65, G75)

Cube Each grade / each placing Cube Cylinder

28 56 28 7 28 56 7

Cube

14 56 90 7 14 56 90 28 28 ~ 28 ~

For strength For creep For shrinkage

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2.2.2

Procedure

2.2.2.1 Casting Specimens are cast in accordance with the requirements of ASTM C192-90A. Plastic molds are used for the specimens. All specimens are cured in molds for 204 hours after which they are demolded and placed in specified curing conditions. The specimen molds and specimens for creep and shrinkage testing are clearly marked with DICT project number. Each specimen has a unique identification number. 2.2.2.2 Curing Specimens are cured for seven days at the Towers site to simulate the site curing condition, which was recommended by Meinhardt in their comments dated on 10 MAR 2009. After seven days, the specimens are moistcured at 232C and 100% relative humidity until the commencement of the testing. The specimens for creep and shrinkage testing shall be transported to DICT in South Korea after site curing. Those specimens requiring external strain gauge attachments are instrumented after preload curing. Four concrete strain gauges are attached on the side surface of the cylinders for modulus of elasticity, creep, and shrinkage tests in the middle at right angles. 2.2.2.3 Testing The procedure for testing specimens for compressive strength and modulus of elasticity is performed in accordance with applicable provisions of Sec. 7 of ASTM C39-86. Diameters are measured for all test equipments. All test specimens are loaded until failure and subsequent fracture to allow for the determination of the type of failure. Specimens for determination of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity shall have ground ends rather than capped with a sulfur-based capping compound meeting the requirements of ASTM C617-87. Specimens to be loaded in creep frames shall have ends surface ground to meet the requirements of ASTM C617-87. Control shrinkage specimens shall have ends coated with a resin-based was or epoxy to retard moisture evaporation. Creep test is conducted in the climate chamber located in the laboratory of

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DICT in accordance with ASTM C512-87. All creep specimens are preloaded to produce a stress of 200 psi in the test specimens. The preloading period does not exceed 15 minutes and is used to adjust uniformity of load application. The temperature and humidity of climate chamber are recorded concurrent with creep and shrinkage measurements for specimens stored at 232C and 40% relative humidity as suggested by ACI 209R-92. Creep specimens are under 30 to 40% of ultimate cylinder strength for more than three months. Shrinkage test specimens are kept in the same environment as the creep test specimens without any loading. The applied load in the creep test is recorded and the relaxation in the load should be recovered to the recorded value at the time of data readings. Data readings from the strain gauges are recorded with varied intervals during three months. As a minimum, the following strain measurements shall be made:

Immediately before and after loading; Two to six hours later; Daily for the first week; Weekly after the first week until the end of the first month; and Biweekly after the first month until the end of the test.

2.2.2.4 Analysis Nonlinear regression analyses of the test results are performed to simulate the time-dependent variation of modulus of elasticity, specific creep, and ultimate shrinkage. The measured data from each strain gauge are first averaged for respective specimen before doing analysis using MathCAD. The results of analysis are used to verify the assumed value in the initial prediction of the Towers movement and update the properties of concrete.

2.2.3

Instrumentation and Equipments

2.2.3.1 Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity test The equipment used to conduct these tests is in conformance with the applicable provisions of ASTM C39-86. The testing machine and scales to measure cylinder weight are cali-

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brated no more than 12 months prior to test. Calibration certificates for DICT scales and testing machines are available for inspection at DICT. The minimum mass to be weighted on any scale shall be at least 10 percent of the capacity of the scale and no more than 90 percent of the capacity of the scale. 2.2.3.2 Loading frame for creep test Creep tests are conducted in loading frames in which springs are used to maintain the required load. Creep load is applied using a portable hydraulic jack equipped with a pressure measuring gauge and external digital indicator for easy data reading. The pressure measuring gauge conforms with ANSI/ASME B40.1-1985 Grade 3A with an accuracy of 0.25%. The load application system is calibrated before use and on an annual basis thereafter. Calibration is accomplished by placing the hydraulic jack in a testing machine and applying load to the test machine using hydraulic jack. The test machine used to calibrate the hydraulic jack system is calibrated in accordance with ASTM E4-89, Standard Practice for Load Verification of Testing Machines, no more than 12 months prior to use in calibrating the hydraulic jack system. At least 10 test loads are used to establish a calibration curve for the hydraulic jack system. The curve relating hydraulic pressure to applied load is determined by linear regression and is considered acceptable if the correlation coefficient is 0.99 or greater.

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2.3

Field Measurement & Survey


Predicted building movements are verified and tentative compensation values are updated based on the results from measurement and survey conducted at the site. Scope Measurement and survey for building movement are performed to ve-

2.3.1

rify the following sources: A. Axial shortening of columns and walls Two types of method are adopted for measuring actual shortenings during construction. First, the compressive strains of columns and walls due to load application and environmental effects are measured by vibrating wire strain gauges (EM-5) embedded in the member. The preferred levels to be measured are level P4 (the lowest level where the shortening from all the following load applications can be recorded) and level 30 (the last rectangular level, above which the shape of plan becomes triangular). Target members are basically selected as the same members for level survey, i.e. seven members at level P4 and five members at level 30 which are located on the right of gridline E. Second, the development of the axial shortening of the Tower is to be surveyed at every tenth level to the accuracy of 1mm. Axial shortening markers are installed at columns and core walls specified in the civil & structures drawing No. 901 and the changes of the level are recorded until completion of the Tower. Considering the allowable tolerances of construction at every level and the dormant survey errors, the survey result generally does not accurately convey the predicted axial shortening but represents the general tendency of shortening development. Therefore, the level survey is not deemed to be necessary at every level of concrete pouring as provided in the clients specification. B. Foundation settlement, deflection of transfer beams, long span beams and slabs, and verticality of the Tower The settlement of the whole Tower is measured by surveying the main columns and core walls at level P4 as determined by the ER. The surveyed results shall be compared with predicted foundation settle-

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ment values provided by Meinhardt on 24 MAR 2009 and combined with the result of survey of axial shortening to present the total Tower movement in the vertical direction. Deflections of transfer beams, long span beams and slabs are also measured until completion of the Tower construction as specified in the tender drawings. The verticality of the Tower can be checked by measuring the orthogonal coordinates of the survey columns and core walls when performing the survey for axial shortening. The schedule and accuracy of the survey is the same as for the level survey, i.e. at every tenth level to the accuracy of 1mm. C. Concrete tensile strain in the transfer beams and axial load in the temporary props (struts) supporting the transfer beams Vibrating wire strain gauges are installed at transfer beams specified in the civil & structures drawings No. 901 to 903 to check the structural stability and safety during construction. Stresses in the temporary props under the transfer beam (SV8) in the street level are measured using attached/weld type of vibrating wire strain gauges (SM-5). Load cells are provided at concourse level for calibration purposes. A correlation is established between the data from strain gauges and load cells first, and the same type of strain gauges shall be used to monitor other struts without load cells. D. Remote data acquisition Measured strains from vibrating wire strain gauges are transmitted by wire and stored in the data logger (CR1000) set up in a specific location safe and easy to access. The data in the data logger are then transmitted to the main control computer in the site office for handling. For the initial stages of construction where the site office is outside from the Tower, the logger data is wirelessly transmitted by Bluetooth serial adapter (Parani-SD1000). After the site office moves into the Tower, the data logger and the control computer is wired for more stable data transmission. The data logger can be automatically triggered or manually controlled by the control computer at the site office. All the wires from the installed strain gauges are first connected to multiplexer, which is connected to the data logger by a single wire. As the construction of the core wall precedes that of outer floor and columns, minimum of two multiplexers are needed if both the core walls and columns are to be measured. See the diagram Figure 5 for the data flow.

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Figure 5 Data flow from sensor to remote computer

2.3.2

Instrumentation and monitoring equipments

A. Vibrating wire strain gauges Composed of tensioned steel wire protected in a tube, end clamps and blocks, electrical coil to vibrate the wire, and signal cable, the vibrating wire strain gauges shall have a variation in the vibrating frequency if the end clamps are displaced in relative manner. Since the frequency of the wire is varied in proportion to the square root of the tension in the wire as follows, the strain developed in the wire is proportion to the square of the frequency. Two types of vibrating wire strain gauge are used to measure the strains in individual members. One is an embedment type (EM-5) and the other is a surface-mount type. Both of them are manufactured by a Canadian company, ROCTEST TELEMAC, which has been providing vibrating wire and fiber optic solutions for geotechnical application for more than 50 years. The main specifications of the strain gauges are the same and listed below and detailed information can be found in Appendix A.1 or at the following link: http://www.roctest.com/index.php?module=CMS&id=75

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Range: 3,000 Resolution: 1 Operating Temperature: -20C to +80C Thermistor: 3k Electrical Cable: IRC-41A

B. Data loggers and multiplexer Two types of data loggers are used collect data from strain gauges. First, the CR1000 from CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC is used for continuous monitoring of the strains. It provides precision measurement capabilities in a rugged, batteryoperated package. It consists of a measurement and control module and a wiring panel. Standard operating range is -25C to +50C; an optional extended range of 55C to +85C is available. For initial data readout, MB-6T from ROCTEST TELEMAC is used. It is a portable, battery operated readout unit designed to read data from vibrating wire gauges and Thermistor. Multiplexers are used to increases the number of sensors that can be measured by a CR1000 data logger or there is a construction time gap between the installation of more than two sets of strain gauges. They are very useful when sensors installed at different levels are to be monitored by a single data logger. The AM16/32A sequentially multiplexes 16 groups of four lines (a total of 64 lines) through four common (COM) terminals. Compatible sensors include Thermistor, potentiometers, load cells, strain gauges, vibrating wires, water content reflectometers, and gypsum soil moisture blocks. Detailed information of the data loggers and multiplexer can be found in Appendix A.1 or at the following links: CR1000: http://www.campbellsci.com/cr1000-datalogger MB-6T: http://www.roctest.com/index.php?module=CMS&id=73 AM16/32A: http://www.campbellsci.com/am16-32b

C. Wireless data transmission (Parani-SD1000) The Parani-SD1000 is a Class1 type of Bluetooth serial adapter that supports 100 meters of wireless transmit-

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distance by default. The Parani-SD1000 has an extension option so that users can extend the transmit distance up to 1000 meters using optional antennas. It supports Bluetooth v2.0+EDR specification. Parani-SD1000 has two battery-pack options, standard and extended battery pack. By these options, Parani-SD1000s portability is more enhanced. Detailed information can be found in Appendix A.1 or at the following link: http://www.sena.com/products/industrial_bluetooth/sd1000.php

D. Survey equipments SURVEY21s involvement in the previous South East Asia projects has placed the company in an excellent position to determine the best instruments to be used in controlling high-rise projects in the climatic conditions of Kuala Lumpur. The bench marking of instruments to determine the accuracy of instruments when used in such conditions has already been undertaken. As a minimum we recommend that there be one high end Total Station Theodolite to provide accurate control for the total site. This instrument shall maintain the integrity of the total grid system and the primary control and shall also be used in some of the monitoring procedures. High precision LEICA Total Station Theodolite and digital levels are part of the equipment currently being used on the Burj Dubai project site and shall be considered for this Project. All instruments shall be capable of uploading and downloading coordinates into the instrument and recording set out points within the instrument. The equipment has been selected so that should one instrument require servicing or replacement due to breakage or accidental damage, the survey program will not be affected. The instrument recommended and purchased by JB & SURVEY21 to be used for the primary control network, grid positioning and monitoring is the LEICA TCRA 1203. This is a robotic Total Station Theodolite with a 3 angular precision and a repeatable accuracy distance measurement to a prism of 2mm.The instrument also has the capacity to read objects without the use of reflectors to a range of over 400m and an accuracy of 2mm. The Theodolite is fully programmable and in addition to its primary function of monitoring for building movement it shall be invaluable in field checking control or elements to design positions and shall also be used

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in transferring the horizontal control up internally within the building post construction to establish the adjusted control for the Faade on the tower. To control the grid transfers and plumb the tower and the lift cores the LEICA 1203 Total Station shall be used. This shall provide this project with the best outcome and provide comprehensive survey set out and checking procedures emanating from the software packages held within the instruments. Followings is the equipment list used in the survey. LEICA TCRA 1203 Total Station Theodolite is used for primary control work and monitoring, providing results of a higher order than construction tolerances and is suitable for the vast majority of work expected on this project including lift core plumbing. For the technical specifications see the Appendix A.1 or follow the link below: http://www.leicageosystems.com/common/shared/downloads/inc/downloader.asp?id=2629 LEICA Digital Level DNA10 is used for height measurements with 0.9 mm standard deviation per kilometer double leveling (invar staff). It provides sub millimeter accuracy, reads automatically by scanning a bar code and records results in a module. This instrument is sufficient for any predicted primary control positioning and monitoring. The instrument is ideal for foundation settlement monitoring surveys. For the technical specifications see the Appendix A.1 or follow the link below: http://leica.loyola.com/products/levels/dna.html LEICA NA730 Levels the most precise 30x telescopic magnification meets the highest standards in construction, engineering and topographic surveys. Level for secondary control transfers. This instrument shall be used for all construction control where precise leveling is not required. For the technical specifications see the Appendix A.1 or follow the link below: http://www.leica-geosystems.com/corporate/en/lgs_4455.htm

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LEICA GFZ3 Diagonal eyepiece for Total Station Theodolite used for plumbing has approximately the same accuracy of 0.3mm to 0.5mm in 100m as the LEICA ZL Plumit but with the advantage of multiple use for vertical transfers and distance measurement and 30x magnification opposed to a 24x magnification for the ZL Plumit. This attachment to the LEICA instruments serves duel purposes in that it enables surveyors to provide control to elevated works and also provides the ability to accurately transfer horizontal control up the building. For detailed information follow the link below: http://www.leica-geosystems.com/corporate/en/lgs_1746.htm

2.3.3

Sensor locations Refer to Table 4 and drawings in Appendix A.2 for location and required number of sensors, data loggers, and multiplexers.

Table 4 Required sensors for measuring building movement


Level P4F P3F P2F P1F Concourse Street 5F 6F 29F 30F Total 5 7 12 1 2 3 10 12 5 8 4 39 1 41 10 1 1 3 4 Axial shortening Core Column Slab Tensile strain Beam Column Temporary prop load 2 2 2 2 2 Total 2

9 2 3 2 10 13 5 13 4
63

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2.3.4

Sensor installation

2.3.4.1 General installation sequence for embedded vibrating wire strain gauge is as follows: (refer to Figure 6 for detailed sensor location in the member)

a. Determine installation location and mark it clearly; b. Install strain gauge using fixing jig, wire, and turnbuckle; c. Measure initial data readout using portable data logger (MB-6T);

d. Extend gauge cable covered with protective pipe to the location where automatic data logger (CR1000) shall be located; and e. Connect gauge extension cable to the automatic data logger and start unattended monitoring.

Fixing Jig Wire Turnbuckle

200 Sensor(EM-5) Strain Gauge

100

171

Wier

Detail "A" Fixing Jig

Lead Cable

Figure 6 Installation of embedded vibrating wire strain gauge

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2.3.4.2 General installation sequence for surface-mount vibrating wire strain gauge is as follows: (refer to Figure 7Figure 6 for detailed sensor location in the member)

a. Determine installation location and mark it clearly; b. Attach sensor fixing jig to the surface of member by welding; c. Locate sensor to the installed sensor fixing jig;

d. Attach protection cover to the surface of member by welding; e. Measure initial data readout using portable data logger (MB-6T); f. Extend gauge cable covered with protective pipe to the location where automatic data logger (CR1000) shall be located; and g. Connect gauge extension cable to the automatic data logger and start unattended monitoring.

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Strain Gauge

60 Welding
70

Protection Cover

Sensor fixing Jig

Welding

60

Sensor fixing Jig

Lead Cable Detail "A"

Sensor(SM-5)
200 149 132

Protection Cover

Figure 7 Installation of surface-mount vibrating wire strain gauge 2.3.4.3 Installation sequence of strain gauge during construction is explained in detail in the following taking the installation sequence of strain gauge inside a core wall and a column at level P3 for example.

a. Preinstall protective pipe inside formwork for core wall at level P4 before concreting and make outlet at slab location of level P3;

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b. Install rebar for core wall at level P3 and extend the protective pipe to the location where the strain gauge is to be installed;

c.

Install strain gauge and connect sensor cable to extension cable;

d. Lead the extension cable through the protective pipe to the slab at level P3;

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e. Install protective pipe and extension cable for column strain gauge and data logger at level P3 after slab rebar is installed; f. Enclosure for data logger is fixed at temporary angle after slab concrete is cast;

g. Install data logger and connect the extension cable for strain gauge inside core wall to the data logger;

h. Start monitoring before concrete casting at core wall. Extreme caution is advised

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for concrete or vibrator not to damage the strain gauge; i. Install column rebar and strain gauge, and connect the preinstalled extension cable to sensor cable;

j.

Connect the extension cable to data logger and start monitoring;

k.

Install formwork for column and cast concrete. Extreme caution is advised for concrete or vibrator not to damage the strain gauge.

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2.3.4.4 Snapshots for installation of strain gauges and other monitoring system

Installed strain gauge

Concrete pouring

Protective pipe installation

Connect extension cable and data logger

System setting and automatic monitoring

Data logger enclosure & temporary angle

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Outlets in core wall and slab connection

Enclosure for multiplex

Installed multiplexer

Installed wireless modem

2.3.5

Survey detail

2.3.5.1 Implementation strategy The initial works for the project have been undertaken by others and prior to major structural works under this stage of the project (construction) the horizontal control provided by others shall be checked between themselves and government-provided points. If there are any discrepancies in control a decision shall be made in relation to which control point should be finally adopted. A full review of all survey control existing as of MAR 2009 shall be undertaken and a primary survey control plan shall be prepared showing the external sur-

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vey points to be used for all future works. In addition to the horizontal control, the vertical control shall be checked against the datums provided by the government and a physical project datum shall be established for use for all future works and checked against that currently in use (for in ground works). The PRIMARY CONTROL (horizontal and vertical) shall be expanded and additional coordinated points and level control points shall be established at stable points away from the construction zone and these points shall be used as the basis for all future works for all stages of the project. The critical activities requiring survey control shall be identified and survey procedures examined and/or developed to adequately cover the project requirements. Where technical issues are identified that require survey input, Mr. Andrew Strachan (Director of SURVEY21) shall investigate the technical issues and where appropriate develop method statements and or procedures to cover these issues. Regular survey monitoring results shall provide Meinhardt with up to date movement of the structure and where necessary, the Meinhardt shall be able to revise predictions and the survey shall modify procedures accordingly. This method statement for survey has been developed taking into account all the known factors available. However experience has shown that for some aspects of survey, the method statement should not be fixed: as the construction techniques or unforeseen site constraints force survey procedures to be reviewed. The specific items below describe the general principles for construction control that will be adopted to meet the demands of this challenging project.

2.3.5.2 Client-supplied information and checks Surveys shall be undertaken to check the location of the points provided by the client with regard to boundaries and grids. Additional control points provided by others shall be checked and from this control survey a primary perimeter control network shall be adopted. If in the course of the verification survey, points are discovered that are signifi-

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cantly different from those expected then the contractor shall be notified and decisions made as to action to be applied. Where appropriate, design plans used for set out shall be checked for mathematical correctness but because of the volume of plans, the amount of checking shall generally concern the location of grids and critical element set outs.

2.3.5.3 Extended primary horizontal control Information obtained for the survey above shall be used as the basis for the provision of extended primary control to the site. This primary control shall include but not be limited to seven external monitoring stations established on stable concrete foundations that are not subject to long term settlement (on piled structures). The external points shall be established as control recovery points that shall be used to replace secondary control on the project when and if required. Some of the external primary control shall be prisms or reflective targets mounted on adjacent buildings or structures and coordinated onto the project co-ordinate system. This shall enable accurate primary control to be used directly for much of the early construction phase.

2.3.5.4 Primary level control The level control for the project is based on level values, provided by the authorities to the project. A survey shall be undertaken to level between the Towers control points and if it is discovered that there is a discrepancy between these points and the datum being used as of handover to DAEWOO on site, then the contractor shall be notified and a decision made on the datum to be adopted for all future works. A control point shall be established at a stable column on an adjacent building founded on piles at a distance of over 100m from the project and this datum point shall be tied to the initial site datum described above. This point shall be used for all initial works and shall be the known as the Off Site Project Datum (OSPD) point. There shall also be a minimum of an additional seven Off Site Datums established as redundancy points to the primary adopted point

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(OSPD). These additional external level datum points shall be established on the adjacent piled buildings and these shall be connected to the OSPD using precise leveling techniques. All points shall be monitored on a monthly basis using precise leveling techniques to establish if there is any movement in the primary level control. The frequency of this monitoring may be adjusted after consideration of the results and any movement detected.

2.3.5.5 The Project Building Datum Point (BDP) Once the lift core for the Tower has been established and the shutter systems lifted above the raft, level control shall be transferred from the OSPD to a point established at approximately 1000mm above the floor at level P4 on the base of the Towers core. This datum point shall be used as basis for all future level transfers to each floor of the Tower and as primary level point to monitor the Towers rafts and the podium floor/columns for shortening and subsidence or settlement and the Tower for differential movement. Precise leveling techniques shall be adopted in the transfer and checking of the level from the OSPD point to the BDP. It is noted that all building works shall relate to the point established on the lift core (once established) and external OSPD point shall be used only in relation to monitoring building settlement.

Figure 8 Level P4 plan showing location of Building Datum Point

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2.3.5.6 Foundation monitoring for settlement In addition to monitoring the structure, the foundations of the Tower at level P4 shall be monitored at locations shown in Figure 9. The precise monitoring of these foundation points on the Towers raft/core and on selected podium columns around the Tower shall be undertaken on a monthly basis with the results provided in a schedule form. The precise leveling shall originate from the OSPD external benchmark outside the construction zone and shall also be connected to the construction benchmark on the core of the Tower. A precise digital level will be used to obtain monitoring results to sub-millimeter accuracy and presented to 1mm

Figure 9 Level P4 subsidence monitoring plan showing points to be monitored

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2.3.5.7 Axial shortening monitoring The core datum shall be monitored on every fifth floor above level P4 on a monthly basis. The monitoring shall be achieved by measuring the distance between the building datum points on the Towers core at level P4 (see Figure 10) to the datum on street level, level 5, level 10 etc. Two methods of monitoring core datum have been adopted by SURVEY21 on high rise projects in the past and have proven to be very successful. The first method involves measuring the distance between floors using an EDM Total Station Theodolite reading vertically through penetrations and transferring the measured distance back to the lift core monitoring points using leveling techniques. In the second method, distances up the cores are determined by measurement with a precise toughened calibrated stainless steel tape. A tape shall be purchased and used for vertical transfer purpose only. Proper surveying measuring techniques with the tape under tension and the temperature measured at the time of the observations being taken into account shall be applied to all measurements. The building monitoring surveys shall be undertaken in conjunction with the foundation monitoring surveys each month. The schedule in Figure 11 represents the number of surveys projected to be undertaken to monitor the lift core positions (shortening) and to level the points established at level P4.

Figure 10 Typical lower level core monitoring points

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Figure 11 Schedule of survey to monitor core datum

Each month at the time the core monitoring surveys are being undertaken, the surveys to each of the nominated floors (every fifth level) shall be undertaken to determine if the level of the perimeter columns of the Tower have changed relative to the datum on the lift core for each of these floors.

Figure 12 Axial shortening monitoring points at level 10 and typical upper level

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The results of these surveys shall be tabulated and provided to DAEWOO and Meinhardt immediately after each survey. We recognize that as the building proceeds some of the monitoring floors shall be lost due to occupation but the results will provide good trend data.

2.3.5.8 Deflections Deflections due to dead load and winds are predictions made by Meinhardt. Surveys shall determine if the loads being applied are causing deflections greater or less than predicted. If required monitoring of targeted elements shall provide trends and real time movements. The documentation prepared shall be structured in such a way that monitoring surveys would reflect the different times that surveys were undertaken and the times and conditions to assist in the analysis of results.

2.3.5.9 Slab, beam and transfer beam deflections To determine if the floor slabs and perimeter beams deflect after pouring, points shall be established along the perimeter beams at columns and mid span points along the beams. The first nine plans (to Level 32 see the next pages) are client nominated points and the following plans are additional points to be monitored. In addition to the perimeter beams, points on the slab shall also be marked and monitored to determine if there is any slab deflection or differential movement between the slab and the perimeter beams and lift core. The purpose of the survey shall be served by sampling the nominated floors as shown on the plans on the next pages to provide typical floor segments. The perimeter beams shall be monitored relative to the lift core datum on the same floors where core and column monitoring is to take place and shall be included in the monthly surveys to these floors (i.e. every fifth floor) but commencing at level 10. The slab deflection surveys shall be undertaken as follows: 1. On the day the floor is poured; 2. Immediately after back propping has been removed from the floor below;

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3. Three months after the pouring of the floor. This survey shall be repeated on levels 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Transfer beams shall be monitored on a monthly cycle to continue with the column and core monitoring at the points shown on the plans below. The frequency of these surveys shall be reviewed once a series of results have been obtained.

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2.3.5.10 Building verticality The initial horizontal control transfers to each new slab shall position the control onto new concrete that shall be subject to (at a later date) lateral movement due mainly to shrinkage and slab tensioning. The amount of movement of these control points shall be monitored on every fifth level. 1. Initial survey to position control

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2. Re-establish (primary control) to the slab approximately six (6) weeks after the initial survey using the optical instruments listed in this MS to establish adjusted control for the curtain wall and measure the shift from the initial transfer marks. 3. When establishing the next monitoring floors adjusted control, the survey shall be extended to check the location of the monitoring floor below. For example, when establishing the adjusted control of L15, the adjusted control on L10 shall be checked to see if there has been any further movement. If further movement is detected then these surveys are repeated on a monthly basis until no further movement is detected. The results of these surveys shall be provided to the contractor during the week following the survey.

2.3.5.11 Penetration investigation

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Architectural, structural and service plans have been reviewed and the best locations for penetration for slab control and core control have been determined. The review was to avoid penetration passing through beams or clashing with services. This review is still subject to further investigation. Subject to further on site investigation the penetration positions are shown on the plan above.

2.3.5.12 As-built to boundary completion survey After the footprint of the building has been completed at Ground floor and all of the external finishes attached, a survey shall be undertaken by a licensed surveyor to provide the consultant with a plan showing the relationship of the building with the property boundaries. Original extended project recovery control points set up at the time of establishing the boundaries shall be used to redefine the boundaries, grid lines and to locate the buildings perimeter footprint. A plan shall be prepared in the results of the survey and this plan shall be certified by a licensed surveyor.

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2.4

Specialist Organization
A construction engineering team will be organized to perform the Work and support the site operation regarding the Work. The team is composed of the following specialist organization (See appendix A.3 for members CVs):

2.4.1

DAEWOO Institute of Construction Technology (DICT)

Founded in 1983, DICT has continued to serve as an R&D center for DAEWOO E&C and is currently a member of KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme). It has conducted axial shortening prediction and compensation projects for more than 18 high-rise buildings including three oversee projects in Malaysia and Vietnam. DICT will play a core roll in conducting the Work for the Tower: predicts the Towers movement, takes corrective measures, conducts time-dependent material testing, and compares data from field measurement with predicted values.

2.4.2

Shine Tech

It is a Korean company which has a specialty in geotechnical engineering, especially in axial shortening measurement. The chief engineer, Chuljin Yoon, of Shine Tech has conducted many engineering services relating to building and civil structure such as bridges and dams. Shine Tech will take part in installing strain gauges, setting up and maintaining data logger system, and providing the collected data to DICT and DAEWOO.

2.4.3

JB & SURVEY21 Joint Venture

Licensed surveyors appointed by DAEWOO. They will reside on the construction site to continue to keep records of the Towers movement. Mr. Andrew Strachan (Director Engineering) of SURVEY21 is an acknowledged expert in the field of high-rise construction and has developed and implemented many of the techniques used by the company. He will oversee the implementation of the contract.

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2.5

Performance Target
DAEWOO is well aware of the fact that the levels stated on the drawings apply on the completion of the Tower. The effects of the Towers movement will be taken into account by DAEWOO in accomplishing the performance target listed below and determining the appropriate corrective actions for construction. These targets are set by the guidelines given in the clients specification, relevant codes of practice, and DICTs previous experiences in conducting axial shortening projects.

2.5.1

Level: Vertical dimension between any two adjacent levels should not exceed

5mm or 0.05% of the vertical distance, whichever is the greater, with the provision that the overall vertical tolerance for the Towers height does not exceed 2mm per level or 0.05% of the vertical distance, whichever is the smaller

2.5.2

Plumb: Vertically of any point on any survey location above the corresponding

point on the adjacent lower survey location should not exceed 3mm or 0.05% of the vertical distance between the two points, whichever is the greater, with the provision that the overall out of plumb over the total Towers height does not exceed 50mm.

2.5.3

Floor Flatness can be guided by the maximum permissible computed deflec-

tions of slab presented by Sec. 9.5.2.6 of ACI 318-08 (TABLE 9.5(b)), where, for roof or floor construction supporting or attached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections, immediate deflection due to live load is limited to SPAN/360 and that part of total deflection occurring after attachment of non-structural elements (sum of the long-term deflection due to all sustained loads and immediate deflection due to any live load) is limited to SPAN/480.

2.5.4

Relative movement between the structure and non-structural services such as

faade and elevator rail will be calculated and informed to the subcontractors on time for the required tolerance to be allowed.

2.5.5

Additional (locked-in) forces inevitably occur in the beams and slabs connect-

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ing two vertical structural members with different axial shortening amount. These forces cannot be removed by compensation during construction but only be compensated by design changes. The locked-in forces will be calculated at the construction stage analysis phase with appropriate corrective measures.

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3.
NAME

DELIVERABLES
MAIN CONTENTS Results from one-column shortening analysis using C-SAP More accurate results from material testing and construction stage analysis using ASAP Verification and update of predicted movement by comparison with measured/surveyed value Summary of movement development and corrective actions Strain readouts of creep and shrinkage test, and the results of nonlinear regression Strain readouts of vibrating wire strain gauges and comparison with theoretical values Survey results and comparison with theoretical values TIME (INTERVAL) Before the start of field measurement and survey One month after the first material testing is completed At least three months after the measurement has started At the end of construction Two weeks after each type (strength) of material testing is completed At least three months after the measurement has started and every month Two weeks after every survey has been carried out

Initial analysis report 1st reanalysis report

2 reanalysis report

nd

Final report

Material testing record

Measurement record

Survey record

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A.
A.1

APPENDICES
Technical Specification of Instrumentation and Monitoring Equipments

A.2

Sensor Installation Drawings

A.3

Curriculum Vitas for Specialty Organization