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ACI MATERIALS JOURNAL

Title no. 108-M42

TECHNICAL PAPER

Effect of High Temperature on Tensile Strength of Different Types of High-Strength Concrete


by W. Khaliq and V. K. R. Kodur
The strength and stiffness properties of concrete deteriorate with an increase in temperature as encountered during exposure to fire. High-temperature tensile strength is crucial in evaluating the extent of spalling and fire resistance of concrete structures. This paper presents the variation of tensile strength of new types of concrete as a function of temperature. Specimens made of high-strength concrete (HSC); fiber-reinforced concrete (with steel, polypropylene, and hybrid fibers); self-consolidating concrete; and fly-ash concrete are tested at various temperatures in the 20 to 800C (68 to 1472F) range to measure splitting tensile strength. The test results indicate that the presence of steel and hybrid fibers slows the loss of tensile strength of concrete with temperature. Data generated in these tests are used to develop simple relationships for expressing tensile strength as a function of temperature. These relationships can be used as an input parameter in computer models for evaluating the spalling and fire resistance of HSC structural members.
Keywords: fiber reinforcement; fire resistance; fly ash; self-consolidating concrete; spalling; splitting tensile strength.

INTRODUCTION Fire represents one of the most severe environmental conditions to which structures may be subjected; therefore, the provision of appropriate fire safety measures for structural members is an important aspect of building design. Generally, structural members made of conventional concrete exhibit good performance under fire situations. In the last two decades, however, a number of new types of concrete have come into the marketplace as a result of significant research and development activities. These new types of concretes, such as high-strength concrete (HSC) and fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC), have excellent strength and durability properties but have questionable performance under fire conditions.1-3 Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) is another type of concrete that has been developed over the last 15 years and has found applications from residential dwellings to large infrastructure. The advantage of SCC is its improved work environment due to its flowability under its own weight and its ability to reach constricted spaces, such as dense steel reinforcement, without mechanical consolidation. Fly-ash concrete (FAC), which is produced by recycling waste from power plants, has also recently gained popularity due to growing environmental awareness. With the increasing use of HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC in building applications, there is a need for understanding the fire resistance properties of these concretes. Generally, concrete has excellent fire resistance properties as compared to other construction materials. It has been shown, however, that the new types of concretes (HSC, SCC, and FAC) may not exhibit the same level of fire resistance as that of normal-strength concrete (NSC). This is mainly due to the faster degradation of strength at higher temperatures 394

and the occurrence of fire-induced spalling. Spalling is the falling off of chunks of concrete and occurs when pore pressure in heated concrete layers, generated by water vapor, exceeds the tensile strength of concrete. Higher-strength concretes are more susceptible to spalling due to lower permeability (dense mixture) of concrete, and the extent of spalling is primarily dependent on the type of fire exposure, permeability, and tensile strength of concrete. Some recent studies2,4,5 have shown that the extent of spalling in HSC can be minimized through the addition of steel, polypropylene (pp), or hybrid (steel + polypropylene) fibers. Predicting the occurrence of spalling requires the temperature-dependent tensile strength properties of concrete. There are currently very limited data on the high-temperature tensile strength properties of HSC, fiber-reinforced HSC (FRHSC), SCC, and FAC. This aim of this study is to evaluate the high-temperature tensile strength properties of HSC, FRHSC, SCC, and FAC. The unstressed tensile strengths of the different concrete types were measured using a splitting tensile test procedure in the 20 to 800C (68 to 1472F) temperature range. Data generated from these tests are used to develop simplified relations for expressing tensile strength in terms of temperature. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE The fire performance of concrete structural members is dependent on a number of material parameters, including compressive and tensile strength; stiffness; and the extent of spalling, which is a function of splitting tensile strength. The strength and stiffness properties of concrete deteriorate with increasing temperature. There is a lack of data on the effect of temperature on the splitting tensile strengths of HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC. This paper presents test data on the tensile strengths of HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC in the 20 to 800C (68 to 1472F) temperature range. Data from these tests are used to propose relationships for tensile strength as a function of temperature. These relationships can be used as input parameters in computer programs for evaluating fire-induced spalling and the fire resistance of concrete structural members. TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE: STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW General The tensile strength of concrete is much lower than its compressive strength due to the ease with which cracks can propagate under tensile loadsunlike compressive loads,
ACI Materials Journal, V. 108, No. 4, July-August 2011. MS No. M-2010-084 received March 19, 2010, and reviewed under Institute publication policies. Copyright 2011, American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved, including the making of copies unless permission is obtained from the copyright proprietors. Pertinent discussion including authors closure, if any, will be published in the May-June 2012 ACI Materials Journal if the discussion is received by February 1, 2012.

ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2011

ACI member W. Khaliq is a PhD Candidate in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Michigan State University. He received his MSc in civil engineering from the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan, in 2006. His research interests include the characterization of high-performance concrete materials at elevated temperatures. V. K. R. Kodur, FACI, is a Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. He is Chair of Joint ACITMS Committee 216, Fire Resistance and Fire Protection of Structures, and a member of ACI Committees 440, Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement; and 544, Fiber-Reinforced Concrete. His research interests include the evaluation of fire resistance of structural systems, characterization of materials under high temperature (constitutive modeling), performance-based fire safety design of structures, and nonlinear design and analysis of structural systems.

Fig. 1Schematic of temperature and stress increments for heating and loading. ASTM specified test procedures at room temperature can be applied to evaluate the tensile strength of concrete at elevated temperatures. In evaluating the tensile strength, however, the type of fire exposure conditions has a significant effect. There are three steady-state test methods (conditions) to determine high-temperature strength properties: residual, unstressed, or stressed.3,11 In the case of the residual test method, the specimen is heated to a target temperature until reaching a steady state and then is allowed to cool down to room temperature. The specimen is then loaded to failure at the ambient temperature to obtain the residual tensile strength. The residual tensile strength, which is representative of the post-fire exposure behavior of concrete, is less applicable for predicting fire-induced spalling. In the case of the stressed test method, the specimen is heated to a target temperature with a specified preload applied at room temperature. The specimen is further loaded to failure once it attains a steady state at the target temperature. In the unstressed test method, the specimen is heated to a target temperature without any external load. After attaining a steady state, the specimen is loaded to failure through either the flexure, direct, or splitting tensile strength test method to obtain the respective tensile strength of the concrete at that temperature. Figure 1 illustrates the schematics of temperature and stress measurements for the heating and loading of test specimens for the unstressed method. The tensile strength obtained by the unstressed test method is more applicable in simulating the behavior of heated concrete. Previous studies The tensile strength of concrete is dependent on the compressive strength of concrete, the water-cement ratio (w/c), the aggregate-paste interface transition zone, the presence of any flaws, and the microstructure of the concrete.12 A review of the literature indicates that there have been limited studies on the high-temperature tensile strength of concrete. It is also worth noting that all previous studies on the tensile strength of concrete are based on residual strength tests that are applicable for concrete members cooled after fire exposure. This residual tensile strength property cannot represent the tensile strength behavior of hot concrete, which is required for predicting spalling. Figure 2 illustrates the variation of the splitting tensile strength ratio of NSC and HSC as a function of temperature, as reported in previous studies.7,9,13,14 The ratio of tensile strength at a given temperature to that at room temperature is plotted. The shaded area in Fig. 2 shows the range of variation in the splitting tensile strength obtained by various researchers for NSC with conventional aggregates.15 The decrease in the tensile strength of NSC with temperature can be attributed to the weak microstructure of NSC, which allows initial microcracks. At 300C (572F), concrete loses approximately 20% of its initial tensile strength. Above 395

when cracks tend to close. Thus, the tensile strength of concrete is often neglected in strength calculations at room temperature. It is an important property, however, because cracking in concrete is generally due to tensile stresses and the failure in tension is often governed by microcracking.6 Under fire conditions, tensile strength can be even more crucial in cases where fire-induced spalling occurs in a concrete structural member. Fire-induced spalling is one of the major concerns with new types of concrete because spalling might reduce or even eliminate layers of concrete cover on steel reinforcement, thereby exposing the reinforcing bars to a high temperature. Fire-induced spalling is dependent on a number of factors, including the permeability of concrete, the type of fire exposure, and the tensile strength of the concrete.1,4,7,8 Different researchers7,9 have suggested that the addition of pp or steel fibers in concrete can mitigate fire-induced spalling. When a concrete member with pp fibers is exposed to fire, the fibers melt at a relatively low temperature of approximately 162C (324F) and create channels within the concrete through which generated water vapor pressure and any other gaseous products get released.4 In the case of steel fibers, the tensile strength of the concrete is enhanced and this will delay the occurrence of spalling as long as the pore pressure is less than the tensile strength of the concrete. Thus, information on the tensile strength of concrete, which varies with temperature, is crucial for predicting fire-induced spalling in concrete members. Even to date, however, data on the temperature-induced tensile strength of new concrete types are scarce. Types of tensile strength The tensile strength of concrete is generally measured through flexural tensile, direct tension, and splitting tensile strength tests. Flexure tensile strength is obtained through subjecting a concrete beam to third-point flexural loading (ASTM C78). The direct tensile strength is measured by testing cylinder or prism specimens by applying axial tensile load in a suitable test machine until the specimen breaks in direct tension (ASTM C1583). The direct tension test is less reliable, as the specimen-holding devices (grips) introduce secondary stresses, leading to unreliable strength data. In the splitting tensile test, a compressive load is applied on the generatrixes of the specimen, which are diametrically opposite (ASTM C496/C496M). The load is increased until failure occurs due to splitting of the specimen along the vertical diameter. At an ambient temperature, the splitting tensile strength is usually 50 to 70% greater than the direct tension strength, whereas it is 40 to 50% lower than the flexure tensile strength.10 ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2011

Fig. 2Variation in relative splitting tensile strength as function of temperature. 300C (572F), the tensile strength of NSC drops at a faster rate. This is due to the more pronounced thermal damage in the form of microcracks in NSC. Carette et al.13 investigated the effect of temperature on the tensile strength of NSC. The authors tested the concrete cylinders at a 75 to 600C (167 to 1112F) temperature range through the residual strength technique. They reported a 65 to 70% reduction in the splitting tensile strength at 600C (1112F), and concluded that the w/c and the type of aggregate has a significant influence on the splitting tensile strength of NSC. HSC maintains its initial tensile strength up to 100C (212F), which could be attributed to the superior microstructure of HSC. Above 100C (212F), the ratio of the loss of tensile strength in HSC is higher, which can be attributed to thermal damage in the form of microcracks in dense HSC. The effect of temperature on the tensile strength of HSC becomes more pronounced at higher temperatures, as the development of pore pressure in dense microstructured HSC causes a rapid loss of tensile strength. Felicetti et al.9 investigated the residual tensile strength of HSC from room temperature to 600C (1112F) by testing two types of HSC through the direct tension method. They noticed a reduction in tensile strength to zero at approximately 600C (1112F). They observed that concrete softens at a high temperature and that temperature has a marked effect on its tensile strength. Recently, Behnood and Ghandehari7 reported the residual splitting tensile strength of plain and pp FRHSC up to 600C (1112F). The authors inferred that the decrease in splitting tensile strength is due to the decomposition of hydrated cement products and the thermal incompatibility between aggregates and cement paste. They also observed that there was no noticeable difference in the splitting tensile strength of pp FRHSC up to 600C (1112F) in comparison to plain HSC. Li et al.16 conducted tests for the residual splitting tensile strength of HSC in the 200 to 1000C (392 to 1832F) temperature range. The HSC contained 27% fly ash as a cement replacement. The reduction in the splitting tensile strength with temperature was attributed to thermal stresses induced in the dense microstructure of HSC, which resulted in many microcracks and a few macrocracks. Chen and Liu17 experimentally studied the residual splitting tensile strength of HSC and FRC for a temperature exposure up to 800C (1472F). The authors found that FRC displayed a higher residual splitting tensile strength. The steel fibers 396

were observed to provide restriction against the initiation and expansion of cracking; the pp fibers provided microchannels resulting in a reduction of thermal stresses. Anagnostopoulos et al.18 investigated the residual splitting tensile strength properties of SCC with different fillers at 20, 300, and 600C (68, 572, and 1112F), respectively. A sharp loss in tensile strength was observed and was attributed to the micro- and macrocracks produced in the specimens due to thermal incompatibility. The SCC with limestone filler was reported to have displayed a better performance at a high temperature by preserving its splitting tensile strength. In this study, explosive spalling was also reported in high-strength SCC at 600C (1112F). Eurocode 1992-1-2:200414 fire provisions recommend accounting for the tensile strength properties of concrete in simplified and advanced calculations. It treats both NSC and HSC alike for the temperature-dependent tensile strength of concrete and does not specify the type of tensile strength to be used in calculations. Eurocode 1992-1-2:200414 provides a simple relationship for the representation of the tensile strength of concrete with temperature. On the other hand, ACI 216.1-07 does not provide any guideline or relationship for the tensile strengths of concretes. Most other codes also do not provide any data on the high-temperature tensile strength of concrete. The aforementioned review illustrates the inconsistencies in the reported test data and these differences can be attributed to various factors, such as different test methods, techniques, test conditions, heating regimens, the w/cm of the mixture,7,9 and the permeability and porosity9,10,15 characteristics of the concrete. Almost all the reported studies are on the residual tensile strength of concrete, which is representative of concrete cooled after exposure to fire. This residual tensile strength data cannot be applicable for predicting fire-induced spalling because spalling occurs under hot (fire) conditions. For realistic spalling predictions, the splitting tensile strength corresponding to a hot condition is required. TEST PROGRAM A comprehensive test program was designed to undertake tensile strength tests on four types of concrete: HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC. To study the effect of different types of fibers on tensile strength, three fiber typessteel, pp, and hybrid fiberswere added to the HSC mixture. Mixture proportions and test specimens Six batches of concrete were used to fabricate the test specimens. The specimens are designated HSC for highstrength concrete; HSC-S, HSC-P, and HSC-H for steel, pp, and hybrid (steel + pp) FRHSC; SCC for self-consolidating concrete; and FAC for fly-ash concrete, respectively. All batches of concrete had ordinary Type I portland cement, a limestone (carbonate)-based coarse aggregate with a maximum size of 10 mm (0.394 in.), and a natural source sand fine aggregate. To achieve the desired strength and workability concrete properties, the optimum amount of mineral admixtures, such as silica fume, Grade 120 slag, Type C fly ash, and chemical admixtures were added to the batch mixture. The HSC and SCC mixtures were batched and delivered by a premix plant and three types of fibers were added to the HSC concrete mixture on site with due consideration to keep the w/c constant. The FAC batch mixture was prepared in a laboratory under controlled conditions. ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2011

Table 1Mixture proportions in HSC, SCC, and FAC batches


Components Cement, (Type I), kg/m (lb/yd ) Fine aggregate, kg/m3 (lb/yd3) Coarse aggregate (maximum size 10 mm [0.4 in.]), kg/m (lb/ yd ) Silica fume, kg/m3 (lb/yd3) Fly ash (25% replacement of cement), Class C, kg/m (lb/yd ) Slag (Grade 120), kg/m3 (lb/yd3) Water, kg/m (lb/yd ) Water-cement ratio (w/c) Retarding admixture, mL/m3 (oz/yd3) Air-entraining admixture, kg/m (lb/yd ) High-range water reducer and plasticizer, kg/m (lb/yd ) Slump, mm (in.) Slump flow/spread, mm (in.) VSI index Ambient humidity at casting, % Ambient temperature at casting, C (F) Concrete mixture temperature at casting, C (F)
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

HSC 560 (944) 630 (1062) 1090 (1837) 42 (71) 140 (236) 0.25 3403 (88) 230 (9) 44 23 (74) 20 (68)

FAC 420 (26) 708 (1193) 1040 (1752) 42 (71) 140 (236) 76 (128) 135 (228) 0.32 5357 (138) 100 (4) 47 24 (75) 20 (68)

SCC 327 (708) 735 (1238) 904 (1523) 65 (110) 76 (128) 143 (242) 0.44 3 (5) 80 (135) 440 (17) 0.5 45 23 (74) 20 (68)

Table 2Compressive strength of different concrete types


Compressive strength, MPa (psi) Age of concrete, days 7 28 90 HSC 71 (10,295) 81 (11,745) 90 (13,050) HSC-S 80 (11,600) 89 (12,905) 90 (13,050) HSC-P 72 (11,440) 75 (10,875) 82 (11,890) HSC-H 74 (10,730) 76 (11,020) 86 (12,470) FAC 53 (7685) 72 (10,440) 98 (14,210) SCC 46 (6670) 57 (8265) 72 (10,440)

For the FRHSC, steel and pp fibers were added. The steel fibers were 38 mm (1.50 in.) in length and 1.14 mm (0.04 in.) in equivalent diameter and had a specified tensile strength of 966 MPa (140 ksi). The pp fibers in the HSC-P and HSC-H mixtures were nonabsorbent with a length of 20 mm (0.79 in.), a specific gravity of 0.91, and a melting point of 162C (324F). The steel fibers in the HSC-S mixture were 42 kg/ m3 (71 lb/yd3) in a cubic meter of concrete, representing 0.54% by volume. In the HSC-P mixture, the pp fibers were 1 kg/m3 (1.69 lb/yd3), representing 0.11% by volume. In the case of the HSC-H mixture, the proportion of the steel and pp fibers was 42 kg/m3 (71 lb/yd3) steel and 1 kg/m3 (1.69 lb/yd3) pp, representing 0.54% and 0.11% by volume, respectively. From each batch of concrete, a total of eighteen 100 x 200 mm (4 x 8 in.) cylinders and forty-four 75 x 150 mm (3 x 6 in.) cylinders were fabricated for both the compressive and splitting tensile strength tests, respectively. The specimens were demolded 1 day after casting and cured under controlled conditions of 60% humidity and a temperature of 20C (68F). From each mixture, 25% of the 75 x 150 mm (3 x 6 in.) cylinders were instrumented with Type K thermocouples (TCs)one placed at the center and another placed on the surface. The instrumented cylinders were used as control specimens to determine the time required to attain a target temperature under steady-state conditions. The compression tests were conducted using 100 x 200 mm (4 x 8 in.) cylinders at 7, 28, and 90 days after the casting of the specimens. The details of the mixture proportions and laboratory conditions for casting for three concrete mixtures are given in Table 1. Silica fume, fly ash, and slag are the industrial byACI Materials Journal/July-August 2011

products with cementitious properties and were added to attain HSC. Chemical admixtures, such as a high-range water-reducing admixture, retarder, and water reducer were added to the batch mixtures to achieve the desired concrete properties in the HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC. Table 2 gives the compressive strength results of these concretes. Test apparatus and test procedure The test setup consisted of a furnace to heat the concrete specimens, an insulated steel bracket frame to transfer the heated specimen from the furnace to the strength test machine, and a strength test machine to undertake the splitting tensile strength test. The electric furnace shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b) is specially designed for simulating high-temperature conditions and can produce maximum temperatures up to 927C (1700F). It is equipped with internal heating electric elements, a ramp, and a hold temperature controller that is capable of generating different heating rates. The heating chamber with internal dimensions of 100 x 200 mm (4 x 8 in.) is lined with a steel jacket to withstand any possible spalling in the concrete specimens. A specially designed steel bracket frame was used to transfer the heated cylinders from the furnace to the strength testing machine, as illustrated in Fig. 4. The specimen inside the bracket frame was insulated with thermal wool and an average drop of 10C (50F) was observed in the specimens from the beginning to the end of the strength test. The splitting tensile strength test was carried out using an 1800 kN (400,000 lbf) load-controlled compressive test machine, which is capable of loading specimens up to 318 metric tons (700,000 lb). 397

Fig. 3Split tube electric furnace for heating concrete cylinders. Fig. 5Time-temperature graph showing ramp and hold times at each target temperature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Splitting tensile strength The recorded applied load at which the heated cylinder split in tension was used to compute the splitting tensile strength at each temperature. The splitting tensile strength values are plotted for HSC, SCC, and FAC in Fig. 7(a) as a function of temperature. In these three concretes, the physical and chemical changes under a high temperature lead to a significant reduction of tensile strength. The tensile strength of HSC, which is 4.6 MPa (670 psi) at room temperature, decreases faster up to 300C (572F), becomes steady up to 500C (932F), and again reduces at a faster rate beyond 500C (932F). Upon heating, the free moisture in the concrete converts to vapor and this generates pore pressure buildup, which leads to an early strength loss up to 300C (572F). The steadiness of tensile strength in the 300 to 500C (572 to 932F) range can be attributed to the reduction in the dehydration of the cement matrix. Beyond 500C (932F), dehydration of both calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) layers and calcium hydroxides (Ca(OH)2) takes place, which generates more vapor and causes a significant reduction in tensile strength. This is the main cause for the faster reduction of tensile strength in the 500 to 800C (932 to 1472F) range. Other changes, such as the weakening of the aggregate-paste transition zone, decomposition, and differential expansion of aggregates, also contribute to the faster degradation of the tensile strength beyond 500C (932F). HSC exhibits a higher splitting tensile strength as compared to FAC in the entire temperature range, and this is mainly due to the increased binding properties of C-S-H, resulting from a lower calciumsilicate (C/S) molar ratio in HSC as compared to FAC.6 In the case of FAC, which has a lower tensile strength of 3.3 MPa (480 psi) at room temperature, the reduction in tensile strength is gradual and almost linear in the 20 to 800C (68 to 1472F) temperature range. The gradual degradation of strength (without substantial changes) can be attributed to better hydrated cement products and a better matrix in the concrete that results from the fly ash reaction with calcium hydroxide. Both HSC and FAC display a significant loss of splitting tensile strength at temperatures beyond 500C (932F) and the strength almost reaches zero at 800C (1472F). SCC exhibits a much slower loss of splitting tensile strength throughout the temperature range as compared to the other two concretes. The loss of tensile strength is negligible until 400C (752F); this loss increases by a small amount up to 600C (1121F). Beyond 600C (1121F), the degradation ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2011

Fig. 4Insulated steel bracket frame to transfer hot specimen from furnace to strength test machine. The splitting tensile strength tests were carried out at various temperatures using the unstressed test method (Fig. 1). The high-temperature tests were carried out on 75 x 150 mm (3 x 6 in.) cylinders. The test specimens were exposed to target temperatures of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 800C (212, 392, 572, 932, 1112, 1292, and 1472F) in an electric furnace at a heating rate of 2C/min (36F/min) as per the RILEM19 test procedure. When the target temperature was attained in the furnace, the cylinder continued to be maintained at this temperature (in the furnace) for 2 hours until the desired steady-state condition was reached throughout the specimen. The time-temperature graph shown in Fig. 5 illustrates the ramp and hold times required to achieve a steady-state temperature in the specimen at each target temperature. After achieving a steady-state condition, the hot cylinders were taken out from the furnace, placed in the steel bracket frame, and transferred to the splitting tensile strength testing apparatus, as shown in Fig. 3(c). As no specific test procedure for high-temperature tensile tests is available in ASTM C496/C496M, the procedure specified for the room-temperature splitting tensile strength test was used for the hightemperature tensile strength tests. The specimen was loaded in increments until the splitting of the cylinder and the failure load was recorded. Heating regime/characteristics Figure 6 illustrates the temperature development in the furnace on the surface and at the center of the 75 x 150 mm (3 x 6 in.) HSC cylinder for the case of the 600C (1112F) target temperature. Three Type K TCs were used to record the temperature in the furnace and at the surface and middepth of the cylinder. As expected, the rise in temperature at the center of the specimen was much slower than the surface and furnace temperature and this is due to the low thermal conductivity of the concrete. It was observed that a hold time of 2 hours was required to reach a steady state (uniform temperature distribution) in the specimen at all target temperatures. 398

Fig. 6Heating characteristics of specimen at 600C (1112F).

Fig. 7Splitting tensile strengths of HSC, SCC, and FAC at various temperatures.

Fig. 8Splitting tensile strengths of HSC and FRC at various temperatures. of the splitting tensile strength for SCC is quite fast. The better display of tensile strength in the case of SCC is attributed to the lower w/c to attain high strength and the excessive use of admixtures to attain flowability. Less dehydration of the matrix takes place in SCC because of the lower amount of evaporable water, resulting in less thermal stresses and, therefore, a lesser loss of tensile strength. Beyond 600C (1121F), the dehydration of C-S-H and Ca(OH)2 layers takes place, resulting in microstructure collapse; thus, a faster loss of tensile strength is observed in this temperature range. The ratio of the recorded splitting tensile strength at the target temperature ( ft,T ) to the splitting tensile strength at room temperature (ft) for HSC, SCC, and FAC is shown in Fig. 7(b). The test data indicate that HSC, SCC, and FAC ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2011 have approximately 38%, 73%, and 22% ft,T /ft at 600C (1112F), respectively, that is in the range of data reported by other authors for other types of tensile strength.7,13 The measured values, however, are much higher than the Eurocode 1992-1-2:200414 provisions, which assume it to be zero at 600C (1112F). The rate of the loss of strength in HSC is higher up to 400C (752F) in comparison to FAC, but it becomes slower beyond 400C (752F). This can be attributed to the physical and chemical changes under high temperatures that affect HSC more than FAC. The rate of the loss of splitting tensile strength in the case of SCC is much lower than that of HSC and FAC throughout the temperature range. This is attributable to a comparatively lower amount of thermal stresses borne by SCC, as explained previously. 399

Table 3Tensile strength reduction factor T at different temperatures


Tensile strength reduction factor T Temperature, C (F) 20 (68) 100 (212) 200 (392) 300 (572) 400 (752) 500 (932) 600 (1112) 800 (1472) HSC 1 0.86 0.75 0.64 0.53 0.42 0.31 0 HSC-S 1 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.70 0.52 0.34 0 HSC-P 1 0.82 0.60 0.52 0.42 0.32 0.22 0 HSC-H 1 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.64 0.48 0.32 0 SCC 1 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.83 0.54 0 FAC 1 0.92 0.79 0.66 0.53 0.40 0.27 0

Figure 8(a) presents the splitting tensile strength of different types of FRHSC in a 20 to 800C (68 to 1472F) temperature range. The tensile strength of all three FRCs becomes enhanced in comparison to plain HSC at room temperature. Shah20 deduced that fibers substantially enhance the room-temperature tensile strength of concrete, as fibers suppress the localization of microcracks into macrocracks and consequently, the tensile load capacity of the concrete increases. Beyond room temperature, the tensile strengths for all concretes decrease with temperature. The tensile strengths of HSC-S and HSC-H follow a similar trend; they first reduce until 100C (212F), remain almost constant up to 300C (572F), and then decrease at a faster rate beyond 300C (572F). It can be observed that HSC-S and HSC-H display a significant improvement in their splitting tensile strength throughout the temperature range tested. This enhancement results from the contribution of steel fibers, which prevents the initiation and expansion of cracks. In the case of HSC-H, the melting of the pp fibers reduces the stress concentrations on the crack ends and helps alleviate and release vapor pressure, which also partially contributes to the higher splitting tensile strength. The loss of tensile strength in HSC and HSC-P is gradual throughout the temperature range tested and follows quite a similar trend. This indicates that pp fibers do not contribute much to tensile strength when used without steel fibers. The splitting tensile strength observed for HSC-P is the lowest as compared to other fibers throughout the temperature range. This results from macrochannels developed by the burning of the pp fibers that leads to the development and augmentation of microcracks to macrocracks in HSC-P, resulting in a reduction of tensile strength. A comparison of the relative splitting tensile strengths of different concretes is shown in Fig. 8(b). There is a considerable initial loss in the tensile strengths of plain HSC and HSC-P up to 300C (572F); however, the rate of loss of tensile strength in HSC-S and HSC-H is slow in this temperature range. Eurocode 1992-1-2:200414 provisions state the tensile strength of concrete to be zero at 600C (1112F); however, test data indicate the splitting tensile strength to be 20% of the room-temperature tensile strength at 600C (1112F) for all HSC types. Above 800C (1472F), the splitting tensile strength approaches zero. At approximately 800C (1472F), the dehydration of the concrete leads to softening and coarsening, resulting in excessive macrocrack development, matrix decomposition, and decomposition of the aggregate, leading to a complete loss of splitting tensile strength. 400

SPALLING BEHAVIOR No major spalling was observed in the aforementioned high-temperature splitting tensile strength tests on HSC, FRHSC, SCC, and FAC. This may be attributed to the low heating rate of 2C (3.6F) per minute used for property tests as per RILEM test specifications.19 This heating rate is considered to be low and thus cannot be representative for evaluating the spalling performance in these concretes. Spalling in concrete generally occurs at higher heating rates of concrete specimens that might be present in rapidly growing fires. The increased splitting tensile strength and increased porosity in FRC after the melting of the fibers, however, help to minimize such fire-induced spalling. A fiber dosage of 0.1 to 0.5% by volume of pp fibers1,4,21 and 0.5 to 0.7% by volume of steel fibers8,22 has been recommended to mitigate fireinduced spalling in concretes with higher strengths. RELATIONSHIPS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE TENSILE STRENGTH Data generated from the aforementioned experiments are used to develop tensile strength expressions for HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC over a temperature range of 20 to 800C (68 to 1472F). The relationships were arrived at based on linear regression analysis. For the regression analysis, the measured splitting tensile strength values at a high temperature were used as response parameters with the temperature as their predictor parameter. Commercially available statistical software was used to find a linear fit through regression analysis. The accuracy of the statistical model is represented by the coefficient of determination R2, which represents the proportion of the sum of squares of deviations of the response values about their predictor.23 The value of R2 ranges between 0 and 1, where 1 is the perfect fit of the equation to the underlying data. The R2 value obtained for the proposed equations lies between 0.94 and 0.99, which represents a good confidence level from a design perspective. The variation of tensile strength with temperature (ft,T ) can be related through a coefficient T, representing the ratio of the splitting tensile strength at the target temperature to the room-temperature splitting tensile strength ft. f t, T T = -------f t (1)

The value of T at different temperatures can be obtained from Eq. (2) to (17) for HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC, respectively. The tensile strength of all the concretes is specified as zero at 800C (1472F), as minimal strength is available at this temperature. The values are obtained for specific temperatures ACI Materials Journal/July-August 2011

at which the specimens were tested; the values in between these temperatures can be interpolated linearly. Instead of equations, reduction factors T given in Table 3 at different temperatures can be used for evaluating the splitting tensile strength. These values can be used for HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC up to a compressive strength of 100 MPa (15,000 psi) and a tensile strength of 7 MPa (1000 psi). Figure 9 illustrates the relative decrease in the splitting tensile strengths of different concretes represented by these equations as a function of temperature. HSC T = 1 T = 0.97 0.0011T T = 20C (68F) 100C T 800C ( 212F T 1472F ) HSC-S T = 1 T = 0.9 T = 20C (68F) 100C T 300C ( 212F T 572F ) 400C T 800C ( 752F T 1472F ) (4) T = 1 (5) T = 1.05 0.0013T (6) DESIGN APPLICABILITY The current approach of evaluating the fire resistance of concrete members through standard fire tests is expensive, time-consuming, and has numerous drawbacks. An alternate approach is to use calculation methods for evaluating fire resistance. Such calculation methods should account for fireinduced spalling, which is a major concern with new types of concrete. For reliable spalling and fire resistance predictions, high-temperature splitting tensile strength is required. Based on experimental data, simplified relations for hightemperature splitting tensile strength of HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC are proposed. These relations can be used as input data in predicting the spalling and fire resistance of concrete members instead of full-scale tests. The proposed equations provide rational and simplified relations for the hightemperature tensile strength properties of HSC, FRC, SCC, and FAC, and thus are attractive for incorporation in design standards. CONCLUSIONS Temperature has a significant effect on the tensile strength properties of concrete, especially in the case of HSC. The rate of decrease in tensile strength is much faster beyond 300C (572F). The addition of steel or hybrid fibers to HSC significantly slows the rate of loss of tensile strength up to 300C (572F). The addition of pp fibers alone to HSC does not enhance the tensile strength of concrete. SCC exhibits a higher percentage of splitting tensile strength as compared to other concretes in the 20 to 800C (68 to 1472F) temperature range. FAC exhibits a lower tensile strength compared to HSC throughout the 20 to 800C (68 to 1472F) temperature range. 401 100C T 800C ( 212F T 1472F ) (17) (2) Fig. 9Relative decrease in splitting tensile strengths of different concretes represented by proposed relationships. T = 2.28 0.0029T 0 500C T 800C ( 932F T 1472F ) FAC T = 20C (68F) (16)

(3) (15)

T = 1.42 0.0018T 0

HSC-P T = 1 T = 1 0.002T T = 20C (68F) 100C T 200C ( 212F T 392F ) 300C T 800C ( 572F T 1472F ) HSC-H T = 1 T = 0.78 T = 20C (68F) 100C T 300C ( 212F T 572F ) 400C T 800C ( 752F T 1472F ) SCC T = 1 T = 1 0.00033T (10) (7)

(8)

T = 0.82 0.001T

(9)

(11)

T = 1.28 0.0016T

(12)

T = 20C (68F) 100C T 500C ( 212F T 932F ) (13) (14)

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The proposed relationships for splitting tensile strength can be used as input data in computer programs for evaluating the spalling and fire response of concrete structures. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The research presented in this paper is supported by Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, through Strategic Partnership Grant (Grant No. 71-4434). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors.

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