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Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011

Text Book : • Measurement Systems Application and Design ,E.O.Loebelin,1975 References : • Experimental Methods for Engineers, by J.P Holman,1990

Contents :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction and the Basic Concepts The Generalized Mathematical Models of Measuring System Vibration and Motion Measurements Electrical Signal and Signal Processing Resistive Strain Gage Temperature ,Flow and Pressure Measurements

**I-Introduction and the Basic Concepts
**

Measurements Science: Deals with the analysis of instrumentations and their Basic Concepts and Definitions

Measuring instruments or devices may be regarded as a controlling systems in which the input represents the desired measuring physical quantity, the out put is the actual reading of the instrument, and the controlling processes are the elements of the device that covert the input variable to another more suitable variable, to provide the necessary information or display the out put. For example in the thermometer – see the figure below- we wish to measure the temperature of a fluid (i.e: the input is fluid temperature Ti), the device function is to convert the thermal energy to a variable displacement due to the expansion of the mercury (i.e: thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy) this variable displacement can be simply read by eye (i.e: the output is the variable displacement Xo) dynamical behaviors in order to reach the maximum performances and minimize the error, for the most useful engineering applications, and, also for analyzing and controlling the physical variables.

Measuring instruments can be classified in several ways such as the following :Classification of Measuring Instruments According to their Functions :1. Monitoring of processes and operations: some applications of measuring instruments may be characterized as having monitoring function for example thermometers, barometers, are used to monitor the temperature and pressure of fluid and gas . 2. Control of processes and operations :in this case the measuring devices are used as a feedback controlling device (usually called a Transducers or Sensors) for the physical variables in controlling systems .for 1

Measurements

Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011

example in home heating systems the thermostat is widely used to maintain a specified temperature in this case the room temperature is measured by the bimetallic sensor which provide the information necessary for proper function of the thermostat 3. Experimental engineering analysis:-in solving engineering problems, theoretical and experimental methods are used, in some cases since theoretical analysis is not available or it is complicated to be solved the experiments methods can be served. Active and Passive Instruments Classification:When measuring device or transducer is attached a media it require some energy for its operation:If the operation of the device tend to absorbing a power from the media the device is called Passive transducer, for example the thermometer absorbed some thermal energy from the fluid media when it used to measure the fluid temperature In the other hand, if the device operates by an auxiliary source of power it is called Active transducer. for example the oscilloscope use the A supply for its operation and not need a power from the measuring media . Analog and Digital modes of operation Classification: Signals that vary in a continuous form and can take an infinity of values in any given rang are called analog signals .the devices that produce such signals are called analog device .for example Dial gage ,spring- type ammeter,thermomerter,…..

Analog Signal Representation

Digital Signal Representation

On the other hand, signals that vary in discrete steps and can take only a finite number of different values in any given range are called a digital signal ,the devices produce such signal are called digital devices for example ,Digital voltmeter, wire wended potentiometer ,……… Deflection and Null Types Classification:In Deflection- type device the measured quantity produce some physical effect that cause a similar but opposite effect in some part of the instrument this effect is usually a mechanical displacement and can easily observed by some human sense the opposing effect increase until a balance is reached at which the output is observed .for example the pressure gage ,dial gage ,thermometer, manometer In Null-type device attempts to maintain deflection at zero by suitable application of an effect opposing that generated by measured quantity for example the dead weight pressure gage ,normal balancer ,Winston bridge

Basic Definitions

The following are some of basic definitions and factors currently used in measuring devices;1. Readability :the ability of reading the measuring value ,depend on many factor like scale length, spacing of graduations 2. Sensitivity: is the smallest change in measuring variable can be detected by the output deflection or recorder . If the relation between the input X(t) and output Y(t) for a measuring device or transducer(or Transfer function) are known the sensitivity (k) calculated as:-. K= ∂y /∂x 3. Hysterics: The different between reading when the measuring value taken at increasing and decreasing path. 2

Measurements

4. Accuracy: deviations of reading value from a known input. The deviation is called the error. The error can be caused by some factors: a) Due to instrument in- accuracy and uncertainty. b) Due to environmental variables. c) Due to human limitations d) Due to the wrong applications.

Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011

5. Error and Uncertainty: when the measuring value is not known in this case the instrument reading can not be checked and yet we may feel confident that the instrument is within a certain plus or minus range of the true value .In such case we say that the plus or minus range express the uncertainty or error of the instrument reading. Let an instrument contain a number of independent variables x1,x2,x3…… xn..and are related as follow:f = f (x1, x2, x3…. xn) Let wR be the total uncertainty for the instrument and w1, w2, w3,…… wn .be uncertainties in the independent variables. Then the total uncertainty for the instrument can be calculated as follow :-

**wR = [(w1 . ∂f /∂x1)2 + (w2 . ∂f /∂x2)2 +(w3 . ∂f /∂x3)2 +……….(wn . ∂f /∂xn)2]1/2
**

Ex:1 An instrument function is depend on the change of resistance .If it use resistance of a certain size of copper wire and its properties given in the following relation:R=Ro[1+ α (T-20)] Where Ro=6Ω±0.3% at 20˚c, α = 0.004˚c-1±1%, T= 30 ±1˚c.Calculate the nominal resistance and the uncertainty for the instrument Solution: The nominal value for the resistance is:R= 6 [ 1+(0.004)(30-20)]=6.24 Ω The uncertainty of the components are :∂R/∂Ro =1+ α (T-20) = 1+(0.004)(30-20) =1.04 ∂R/∂ α=Ro(T-20)=6 (30-20)=60 ∂R/∂T=Ro α = 6 (0.004)=0.024 w Ro =6 (0.003)=0.018 w α =0.004(0.01)= 4x 10-5 wT =1 Thus the total uncertainty in resistance :wR = [(1.04)2 (0.018) 2+(60) 2 (4x 10-5) +(0.024) 2 (1)2] ½ = 0.0305 Ω or 0.49% Calibrations : to reduce errors in accuracy to the minimum ,calibration for instrument is necessary .It is achieved by checking the instrument reading against a known standard values .This process can be done either by using known input standard values (standard weights, standard velocities……. Etc) or by comparing the instrument with another known accuracy or calibrated instrument.

**The Static Measurements
**

When the measuring quantity is not various with time it called static .For example measuring the deflection under a load or measuring the DC voltage …. etc.

**The Dynamic Measurements
**

3

Rise time and Time constant: these factors are used in case of transient response to a step input and we shall discuses them in details in the Control subject. this is due to the distortion in the instrument The distortion increases at poor frequency response or poor phase shift .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Most measuring devices are deal with quantities various with time in this case we refer to a dynamic measurements like motion .so that linear response can be get and out of this range the instrument error and the distortion become high and the device will lost its accuracy.flow . 4 .There are many types of distortions:a) Amplitude distortion b) Frequency distortion c) Phase distortion 4. 3. Usable range :is the range at which the response of instrument is as flat as possible . Time Delay.vibration . Distortion: In many cases the output is differ from input in amplitude . Amplitude and Frequency response: the ability of the system to react in a linear way to various input amplitude and frequencies so that the ratio of out put to input amplitude remains the same over the frequency range desired.heat flow …………In this case the measuring instrument is highly affected by some important factors Dynamical properties for instrumentations:1. 2.frequency and phase shift .

Dynamometer 4. 2.mechanical…) for suitable treatments in the next stage . amplification … to make it easy to record or controlled. Orifice and Venturi meter …. Flow measurements (Flow meter. Force. Electric measurements (like AVO meter. Barometer …. torque.Thermocouple …) The Generalized Measurement System.gage is used to measure the deflection of a beam the dial gage it self represent additional axial load or it add impedance to the system .) 6. Terminating stage: In this stage the final output for the measuring quantity either recorded or used for controlling process. Oscilloscope (CRO).When the instrument is attached to the measuring media or system it makes an external load on the measuring media for example when a dial. Most measuring system may be divided to the following main three stages:1. 3.) 3. Pizometer ……. accelerometer. Motion and vibration measurements (Seismic.this impedance can be calculated to minimize the error Ex2 :.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Instrument impedance: (also called instrument loading error) .) 5. R : The resistance (impedance) of voltmeter In order for accurate reading of the voltmeter we must have:E AB = E This cannot be done exactly but we can approach this when R>>Ri Types of measurements:In mechanical engineering applications the measuring devices can be calcified to the following basic types:1.if we wish to measure the voltage across the points A and B using the voltmeter as in figure below :- We have: Where: E AB =E (R/ R+Ri ) E AB: the measuring voltage E : the true voltage Ri : the internal resistance of the system. Temperature and heat flux measurements( Thermometer . Pressure measurements (Pressure gage. Watt meter …) 2. 5 . Detection or transducer (or pick up ) stage :detect and change the physical variable to other effect (electrical . Intermediate stage: In this stage the detected signal has some processing like filtration. and shaft power measurements( Strain gage .

2 sec 3.P1.4 psia ± 0.005 P1.5A C (2 g P1 ΔP/R T1) ½ P1-1/2 6 . A thermometer is initially at 70˚F immersed in a liquid of 300˚F .92 ± 0.Estimate the time constant for this device .2 % of (300-70) = 143.If it indicate 200 ˚F after 3 sec and 270˚F after 5 sec . A certain obstruction type flow. upstream pressure = 25 psia ± 0. Solution The first stage is the detection stage in which the mercury in the bulb represents the detector which senses the temperature and expands due the heat transfer from the media The second stage is the intermediate stage in which the amplification of mercury expansion due to the change in crosses sections between bulb and the capillary tube .T1) ∂ m·/∂C= A (2 g P1 ΔP/R T1) ½ ∂ m·/∂A= C(2 g P1 ΔP/R T1) ½ ∂ m·/∂P1= 0. Solution Initial temperature = 70˚F Steady state temperature = 300˚F To find the time constant we must calculate 63.001 in2 Calculate the uncertainty for this device .3˚F 143.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Problems: 1. Consider an ordinary mercury thermometer as measuring system . 2.005 psia A = 1 in2 ± 0. ΔP.5 psia T1= upstream temperature = 70 F˚ ± 2 F˚ ΔP = 1.C: Discharge coefficient = 0.3 + 70 = 213.3/200) * 3 =3. Solution :m· = f (C.3˚F From the known time and using the interpolation :We have at 200˚F the time is 3 sec → time constant = (213.meter used for measuring flow rate of air . The third stage is the terminate stage which represent the scale indicator due to mercury movements .The relation describing the flow rate is :m· =C A [2g P1 (P1-P2) / R T] Where.Analyze it as a three-stage generalized system.A.

Where :7 . (1) from P=E2/R and (2) from P= E I .172% 4. ∂ P/∂R = E wp/P = [ ( wE /E)2+ (wI / I)2] 1/2 Substitute values given the result of uncertainty = 1. I = 10 A ± 1% Solution We must calculate the uncertainty for the two cases and select the case of minimum uncertainty For case (1) P= E2 / R ∂ P/∂E = 2E/R .tube manometer the following data are obtained : Pressure (pas) 10 20 30 40 H (mm) 2 5 8 11 Find the sensitivity of the instrument . A meter has 20. Which of the two methods is more accurate ? .005/ 1.001/1) 2 + 1/4( 0. Q2: A power measuring instrument has the following relation between the force (F) and the angular movement (Φ)of the scale :Φ =0.236 % For case (2) P= E I ∂ P/∂E = I .In (1) only a voltage measurement will be made .2 *100 =20% Tutorial Sheet (1) Q1: In a certain calibration test for a U. Q3: prove that the accuracy (A) for an instrument is :A = qo/(qi K ).2 = 0.4) 2 + ¼ ( 2/530) 2}1/2 = 1. Solution We have E AB = E [R/ (R + R i)] E AB / E = [R/ (R + R i)] = 5000/(5000+20000) = 0.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 ∂ m·/∂ ΔP = 0.414 % Then case (2) is more accurate 5.When the measured values of E and I are :E = 100 V ± 1% .C A (2 g P1 ΔP/R T1) ½ T1-3/2 The total uncertainty (Wm) relative to the nominal value of m· is:Wm/ m· = [(wc/C)2 +(wA/A) 2 + 1/4( wP1/P1) 2 + ¼ (w ΔP/ ΔP) 2 + ¼ ( wT1/T1) 2}1/2 =[(0.005/0.Find the percentage error in measuring the internal voltage .a voltage is impressed on the resister .While in (2) both current and voltage will be measured .000 Ω used to measure voltage for electric circuit which has an internal resistance of 5000Ω . and the power dissipation is to be calculated in two different ways .5/25) 2 + ¼ (0. A resister has nominal stated value of 10Ω ± 1 % .5 A C (2 g P1 ΔP/R T1) ½ ΔP -1/2 ∂ m·/∂T1= . ∂ P/∂R = -E2/R2 wp/P = [ 4( wE /E)2+ (wR/ R)2] 1/2 Substitute values given the result of uncertainty = 2.26 W -20 Find the sensitivity for this instrument.92)2 +(0.

Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 qo: out put .…….it has been shown that at 15 psi the diaphragm move 0.5m length under loading range (0 to 1000N) by using a dial gage instrument.Let the out put measuring value denoted 8 .find :a.if it to be used to measure the force at an external spring has stiffness K prove that the required condition for accurate measuring is:.the values of reading that give 40% error Q5: Periodic force signal is recorded by using an oscilloscope .Ks>>K II-The Generalized Mathematical Models of Measuring System : see Pages 101 to 133 .Wx3/12 ) Q7:A spring.the true and the recorded signals are shown below :- Find the percentage values of .b2.06 psi/ in.…………an ) and (b1. sensitivity A diaphragm pressure transducer has sensitivity of 0.phase distortion .. Loebelin Let an instrument contains (n) physical parameters denoted by ( a1.a2.frequency distortion and Amplitude distortion Q6: It is required to measure the deflection of simply supported beam has 5000 (Nm2) rigidity and 0. 5 in find the accuracy of the device . If the available gage has scale range of (0 to 3 mm ) suggest the best place to locate this device on the beam.qi : input .bn) is used for measuring an input physical variable denoted by (qi) .type force measuring instrument has stiffness Ks . Accept the deflection formula :( EI y = WL2/16.K.the usable range b. Q4:The characteristics curve for an ampere meter is as shown below .

qo= k qi Where:k= bo/ ao is a “ static sensitivity “ Example: The Potentiometer (see figure below) it is a variable resistance available in linear or rotational types.1) is reduced to the following algebraic equation:ao qo= bo qi Or.and the transfer function relating the input/output can be written as :(bn Dn + bn-1 D n-1+……………+ b1 D +bo ) ( qo/ qi)(D) = --------------------------------------(an Dn + an-1 D n-1+……………+ a1 D +ao) Spatial cases 1. x : axial displacement e : output voltage .(1) Where : D represents the first differentiation with respect to time = ( d /dt ) D2 represents the second differentiation with respect to time = ( d2 /dt2 ) ……………. For Angular potentiometer we have:e /E = θ/Φ → Static sensitivity = k = E/ Φ 9 .. Such instrument is called “ the n-order instrument “.The general dynamical mathematical model indicates the relations between the input and out put can be written in the following general D. Linear Potentiometer Angular Potentiometer For axial potentiometer we have:e /E = x/L → Static sensitivity = k = E/L E: supply voltage L: total length of potentiometer.E of the form :(an Dn + an-1 D n-1+……+ a1 D +ao)qo = (bn Dn + bn-1 D n-1+……+ b1 D +bo)qi ------. It is used to detect axial or angular displacements . The zero-order instrument:It is the simplest case and occurs when all derivatives (D) are zero. and so on .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 by (qo) . then (Eq..

1 reduced to:(a1 D +ao)qo= boqi ----------------------------------------------------(2) In this case we define:Static sensitivity k= bo/ ao and .in practice this case is not true for example the potentiometer is not has a pure resistive it also contains some capacitance and inductance which are variable with the time (i. θ : Angular displacement Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 The zero-order instruments are an ideal device . 10 . 2-The first-order instrument:In this case Eq.but their effects are so small and can be neglected .contain terms of D ).(3) Example .also when this device is used for motion measurement the moving parts which attaché it will make some inertia force (also terms of D ) .Measurements E : supply voltage Φ :total angle of potentiometer.e . ρ :mass density of thermometer fluid Ab: heat transfer area C: specific heat for thermometer fluid.the out put is Xo which is the displacement of the thermometer fluid . Time constant τ = a1/ ao (qo/ qi )(D) = K/ ( τ D +1) -------------------------------------.(a) Where: Kex :the difference expansion coefficient between bulb and fluid Vb: volume of bulb Ac: area of capillary Tf: :temperature of fluid in bulb When the temperature various with time we have the following relation :Heat in – Heat out = Stored energy U Ab(Ti-Tf ) dt – (0) = Vb ρ C dTf ----------------------------------------( b ) Where : U : Over all heat transfer coefficient.The relations between these variables are:- Xo= (Kex Vb/Ac) Tf -------------------------------------------------.: The thermometer when immersed in fluid it detects the input physical variable Ti(t) which is the temperature .

Step response . If a step input is subjected to the First –order instrument denoted by qis ( see the figure ) By applying this input on ( Eq.(a) to get:(ρ C Ac/ Kex) d Xo/dt +(U Ab Ac / Kex Vb ) Xo = U Ab Ti or :[(ρ C Ac/ Kex) D +(U Ab Ac / Kex Vb )] Xo = [ U Ab ]Ti Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 When this equation compared with standard first order instrument equation ( Eq.we can calculate the two important quantities (sensitivity and time constant ) as follow :Static sensitivity k= bo/ ao = Kex Vb / Ac Time constant τ = a1/ ao = ρ C Vb / U Ab Dynamical response 1. Frequency response : When a sinusoidal input is subjected to the First –order instrument then the solution from ( Eq.(3) In this case we define:Static sensitivity k= bo/ ao Natural frequency ωn= √ ao/ a2 Damping ratio ζ = a1 /2√ aoa2 Equation (3 ) can be re-written in the following general form :(D2 / ωn2 +2 ζ D/ ωn +1)qo = K qi 11 .3) can be written as :For amplitude ratio qo / qi = K / √( ω τ)2+ 1 And phase shift Ф= tan-1(-ω τ) 3--The Second-order instrument:In this case Eq.1 is reduced to:(a2 D2+a1 D +ao)qo= boqi -------------------------------------------. the solution is :qo = K qis (1 – e (-t / τ) ) The error (em) can be calculated as .2) .(b) to get :Vb ρ C dTf /dt + U Ab Ti = U Ab Ti Make use of Eq.qo / K = qis .Measurements Arrange Eq. em = True value – measured value = qi .3).qis (1 – e (-t / τ) ) em / qis = e (-t / τ) ------------------------------( c) 2.

ramp response :- For this case see the solutions given in eqs .ζ2 ) 3.Terminated.( 3.Step response :For this case see the solutions given in eqs . (m D2+c D +ks)x= Fi From this equation we can calculate the following properties :Static sensitivity k = bo/ ao = 1/ ks Natural frequency ωn = √ ao/ a2 = √ ks /m Damping ratio ζ = c /2√ ks m Dynamical response 1.233 ) page 128 for the three types of damping ( over .239 ) page 131 for under– damping . The important relations for this case is the calculating of the following errors :Steady state error = 2 ζ / ωn T Transient error = 1/( ωn T√ 1.( 3.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Example : The force measurement by spring shown in the figure :- We have :∑F=ma mx¨ +C x˙ + ksx =Fi or .231 to 3.Ramp response :12 .237 to 3.critical and over – damping ) 2.

P1) will reduce to: (qo/ qi )(D) = K or qo= k qi .05 = 1 – (100/20 K) K= 5.Vb . Kex are constant since the fluid (Alcohol) is fixed . Solution : The input physical quantity is the stress and it clear that it is a step input ( sudden change from 0 to 20 ) in this case we have the error is :em = qi .Choose the best parameter to increase its sensitivity.Calculate the sensitivity for this device when its accuracy is 95%.A thermometer is using Alcohol as a fluid .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 For this case see the solutions given in eqs .A piezoelectric transducer is used to measure the stress by converting it to a voltage signal.26 V/N/m2 4.P2 the sensitivity k= bo/ ao and it will be equal .Frequency response:See eqs .qo / K Divide by qi :em/ qi = 1 – (qo / qi K ) = 0.qo / K Divide by qi :em/ qi = 1 – (qo / qi K ) -------------------------------( P3) Error = 100% -95% =5%=0.ρ. So the best way to increase sensitivity is to reduce the cross section of the capillary tube Ac. Vb . to increase sensitivity ( k = Kex Vb / Ac ) we must either increase Vb or decrease Ac . C.( 3.this represent a zero –order instrument ----------------------------------------( P2 ) in both Eqs P1. C.What is the maximum allowable time constant ? .Prove that when the First –order instrument has a very small time constant.241 to 3. but increasing Vb also cause increasing in the time constant (τ = ρ C Vb / U Ab ) and it is not desired .05 Substitute into (Eq.order instrument and its sensitivity do not alter due to this approximation.Ac.( 3.243 ) page 133 for the three types of damping ( over . 3. Solution: The mathematical model for the First –order instrument is: (qo/ qi )(D) = K/ ( τ D +1) -----------------. Solution : We have the following parameters for the thermometer: . P3) to get :0. U .( p1) When time constant τ is so small → τ = 0 then (Eq.244 to 3. What will be the phase shift at 50 and 100 cps? Solution:em = qi .Kex. b) U the overall heat transfer coefficient depend on the media and can not be modified .Ab a) ρ. 2. c) Hence.95 ------.A first – order instrument must measure signals with frequency contents up to 100 cps with an amplitude inaccuracy of 5% . it can be approximated to the Zero.(a) For sinusoidal input we have the amplitude :qo / qi = K / √( ω τ)2+ 1 → (qo / qi K ) = 1 / √( 2π x 100 τ ) 2+ 1-------------(b) 13 .critical and over – damping ) 4.If the measuring stress is suddenly changed from zero to 20 N/m2 and the measuring scale indicate 100 mV value .246 ) page 134 Problems 1. it considered as a First –order instrument .05 → (qo / qi K ) =0.

704= 1.3 (20-0 ) = 13c → time constant τ = 10 sec qo = K qi (1 – e (-t / τ) ) 20 = 1. If the fluid temperature is suddenly increased from 0 to 20 c find the rise time for the thermometer knowing that the sensitivity for this device is 1.3 x 10-4) = Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 5. From the arm we have : X1/a = X2 / b → X1 = (a/ b) X2 --------.A thermometer need 10 sec to reach 13 c is to be use to measure a fluid temperature .(a) For potentiometer we have :e / X2 = E / L → X2 = (E/L) e ------------(b) From (a) and (b) we get :X1=(E a / b L ) e Considering it as zero order instrument we get:Sensitivity K = E a / b L 6.find the sensitivity .Find the sensitivity and phase shift between out put and input . 62. Solution:This is a First –order instrument with step input .42 x 20 (1-e(-t / 10) ) 0.e(-t / 10) → -1. 7.2 = .The arrangement shown in the figure is used for measuring the displacement .In the figure shown an instrument is used to measure the force .( t/ 10) → t = 12 sec is the rise time .42 mm/ c.3 x 10-4 sec Phase shift = tan-1(-ω τ) For 50 cps = tan-1(-2π x50x 5. 14 .Measurements Solve (a) and (b) to find :τ = 5.3 x 10-4) = For 100 cps = tan-1(-2π x100x 5.

62c and after 20 sec indicates 106.The time required for reading at accuracy of 99% Solution: As it is clear from the figure below the input is step function for this First – order instrument .A thermometer is initially at 30 c it is suddenly immersed in a fluid at constant temperature of 110 c .(a) → ( 85.find :a.It is important to note that this step is from 30c to 110c since the reference is 30c and not 0 c .12-30) = K (110-30) (1 – e (-20 / τ) ) ----(c) Solving Eqs .3.c) simultaneously give :K=1.(b.05 sec 9.An elastic member is used for force measurement as shown in figure .62-30) = K (110-30) (1 – e (-10 / τ) ) ----(b) and at t=20 sec at 106.12 c .It is noted that the device after 10 sec indicate 85.assume the damping ratio is ζ=0.(a) → ( 106.m L θ¨ L – FL = J θ¨ Arrange ( J + m L2 )/L θ¨ + C L /4 θۛ + k L /4 θ = F As it is compared with the second order instrument model (m D2+c D +ks)x= Fi we have :Sensitivity k = 1/ Ks = 1/ (k L /4) = 4/ k L Damping ratio ζ = a1 /2√ aoa2 =(Cl/4) / 2√ (KL/4) ( J + m L2 )/L = C L /8 √ (K/4) ( J + m L2 ) Ф = sin -1[ √ 1.C 2 L 4 / 64 (K/4) ( J + m L2 ) ] 8.01= e (-t / 10) → t = 46.qo = K qis (1 – e (-t / τ) ) -----------.so that we must subtract the initial value from all calculated variables .the error = 1% =0. 15 . a.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Solution: ∑Mo= Jθ¨ (+cw) -k(L/ 2) θ (L/2) – C (L/2) θۛ (L/2) .Sensitivity b.1 (sensitivity ) τ = 10 sec c.Time constant c.ζ2 ] = sin -1[ √ 1.At accuracy 99% .01 em / qis = e (-t / τ) 0.62 c .(a) we have t =10 sec at 85. Eq.Find the steady state error and transient error in measuring the applied force shown in the figure .12 c . Eq.

Fig.ζ2 ) = 1/ 0. or acceleration is indicated by the relative motion of the mass with respect to the case.23 = 6.ζ2 = 1/ T √ 3EI/m L3 (1. III-Vibration and Motion Measurements (Ref Theory of Vibration with applications.(1) It depending on the frequency range.93 x 10-4 Transient Error etr = 1 / ωn T √ 1.3] = 2.32 ] / 0.2√ 3x5000/0.32 ) = 1.3 / 0.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Solution: This is equivalent to mass spring system . To find the behavior of this device we consider the equation of motion:16 .so the problem reduced to find the natural frequency ωn = √ ks /m ks = Load / deflection Deflection at the end = δ=pL3/3EI ks =P/ δ=3EI/ L3 ωn=√ 3EI/m L3 Steady state Error ess = 2 ζ / ωn T = 2 ζ / T √ 3EI/m L3 = 2 x 0. displacement.2 √ 3x 5000/ 0.1 rad.2 x 10-3 Phase angle = Ф = 2 tan -1[ √ 1. velocity.23 ( 1.1 x 0.ζ2 ] / ζ ] = 2 tan -1[ √ 1. Pages 76-80) The basic element of vibration measuring instruments is the seismic unit see figure (1).0.0.1 x 0.

mω2)}= Φ = tan-1 ( 2ζ ω / ωn)/ (1 – (ω / ωn) 2) ---------.(1) As we see it is a second. The relative motion z is usually converted to an electric voltage by making the seismic mass a magnet moving relative to coil fixed in the case as shown in the figure(3) :- 17 . One of the disadvantage of the seismometer is its large size which increase the loading error .and Z is the relative amplitude between the mass and case and it is the out put value to be recorded by the instrument .order instrument.Ф) When it is substituted into Eq (1) we get the steady state amplitude:Z/Y= (ω / ωn) 2 √[ (1 – (ω / ωn) 2] 2 +(2ζ ω / ωn) 2] And the phase angle:Φ = tan-1 {(c ω)/(k . X is the absolute amplitude of the mass . Seismometer ( low natural frequency instrument ):In this device we have:ω > ωn this mean that ω / ωn approaches a large number .(2) Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Important note: Y. y =Ysin ω t (since harmonic motion) .(2) As is indicated from the figure the type of instrument (seismometer or accelerometer) is determined by the useful range of frequencies with respect to natural frequency of the instrument .Measurements Denote the displacement of measuring vibration body by: y and for the mass is: x ∑ F= mx¨ -k(x-y) – c(x˙-y˙) = m x¨ Let z = x-y . A plot of the dimensionless ω / ωn and amplitude Z/Y for different values of ζ is shown in figure (2) .(see the shaded area in the above figure) .This means that the mass ( m ) remain stationary while the supporting case (which is detect the vibration ) vibrates .- Fig . is the input measuring amplitude which transmitted from vibrating body to the case of the instrument . The steady state solution:Since z is harmonic motion let the solution be in the form :z = Z sin (ω t. we get :m z¨ +c z˙ +k z = -my¨ = mω2 Ysin ω t (m D2+c D +k s) z = mω2 Ysin ω t -------------------------------------.in this case Z approaches to Y for any values of ζ or (nearly: Z = Y) .

(4) The practical value for ζ is taken as (0.with useful range of 0 to 2 ωn with maximum error of less than 0. Examination of Eq. the output of the instrument will be proportional to the velocity of the vibrating body.for higher frequency a piezoelectric accelerometer is used. and a useful range of (10 to 2000Hz).type accelerometer for low frequency vibration .7) . and maximum displacement limited to (0. A typical instrument of this kind may have natural frequency between (1 to 5 Hz).The useful range can be seen from plotting the MF with ω / ωn ratio for various damping ratios:- Fig.(1) show that the factor √[ (1 – (ω / ωn) 2] 2 +(2ζ ω / ωn) 2] ( called the magnified factor : MF ) MF approaches to 1 for ω / ωn = 0 So that Eq. Accelerometer ( High natural frequency instrument ):When the natural frequency for this device is high compared to the frequency of vibration to be measured ω > ωn . the instrument indicates acceleration.01%.(1) simplify to :Z = Y (ω / ωn) 2 = a / ωn 2 Where: a is the acceleration = Y ω 2 Thus Z become proportional to the acceleration of motion .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Fig(3) Since the voltage generated is proportional to the rate of cutting of the magnetic field.type accelerometer (see Fig. Both the displacement and acceleration are available from velocity type transducer by means of integrator and differentiator provided in most signal conditioner units.also.5 cm) peak to peak. (5) ) generally used . strain gage. Electromagnetic. 18 . The sensitivity (defined as the ratio between out put voltage to input speed) between (20 to 350 mV/cm/s).

5 x 40 = 624 mV.5 cm/s At f2 = 1000 Hz → ω = 2000π f =20 π → V m = 9.1.measuring quantity .75 Hz and damping ratio factor of 0. (5) Problems 1. if 1g acceleration is maintained over this range .62 mV 19 .75 = 15.65} ω / ωn) 2] ) / Y Eliminate Y. We have:ω / ωn = f / fn = 4/1 = 4 Z/Y= (ω / ωn) 2 √[ (1 – (ω / ωn) 2] 2] = 16 / (1.45 Hz 3-An un-damped vibration pick up having natural frequency of 1 cps is used to measure harmonic vibration of 4 cps . Z/Y= (ω / ωn) 2 √ [(1 – (ω / ωn) 2] 2 + (2ζ ω / ωn) 2] Y: is the actual amplitude Z: is the measured amplitude Error = (actual amplitude – measured amplitude) / actual amplitude (a) for error 1% =0.347 x 4.Effect of damping .What is the lowest frequency that can be measured with (a) 1% error (b) 2%.000155 m/s =0.052 /1.8 /20 π = 0.State the main difference between the seismometer and accelerometer according to the following :.65.8 /2000 π = 0. (b) Same procedure for error 2% → ω = 7.0155 x 40 = 0.066 = 0.if the amplitude indicated by this device is 0. Solution .066 cm Z= 0.347 → ω = 3.loading error 2-Vibration pickup has a natural frequency of 4.0155 cm/s Out put voltage range: at f1 = 15.what will be the output voltage at this range ? Solution: Sensitivity = output voltage / speed Maximum amplitude = Y Maximum velocity V m = ω Y Maximum acceleration am = ω 2 Y Vm=am/ω At f1 = 10 Hz → ω = 2π f =20 π → V m = 9.052 cm → Y = 0.16) = .01 0.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Fig.01 = (Y .048 cm 4-An accelerometer pickup has a sensitivity of 40 mV/cm/s between 10 and 1000 Hz.052cm . at f2 = .155 m/s = 15.9 Hz. and solve for ω / ωn to get:ω / ωn = 3.Y (ω / ωn) 2 √ [(1 – (ω / ωn) 2] 2 + (2 {0.Frequency ratio .find the actual amplitude . Solution .

and oscilloscope .since it is easy to deal with and processed . As shown in the figure below:- 20 .stages to achieve this process for example in measuring vibration of beam we need to connect the strain gage (which picks up the motion) to some external electric circuits like bridge . In analog signal we mean that the current and voltage is treated as a continuous variable that we can measure and plot the magnitude of them with a higher degree of precision .and nearly all data processing . Experimental Methods for Engineers Pages: 100 -181) Nearly the most measuring devices depend upon some basic electrical principles for their operation .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 IV-Electrical Signal and Signal Processing (Ref.filter .transmission and analysis systems depend on electrical ( or electronic ) devices .while in a digital signal we can only treat the signal in discrete values . In analyzing the signal we have two types of signals which are analog and digital signals as we mentioned before .amplifier .also many measuring system need a multi.

blow some of them:• Potentiometer: it coverts the displacement to electric voltage signal and by means of some resistance circuits this voltage is converted to a current signal . also due to the change in the material specific resistance. temperature. according to the following formula :- d R = GF R ε --------------------------------.Basic Electrical Transducer Devices The first stage of electrical measurements is the transducer. Resistive transducers. it is a device that picks up the physical variable (velocity. The transducer efficiency is highly affected by its sensitivity and this will be high affected the total accuracy of the instrument. and display in electrical measurements is shown.…) as input and coverts it to an electric current or voltage as output .This output is called the signal. Here are some of these transducers.As we mention before this relation is :e /E = x/L e /E = θ/Φ • Resistive Strain gage . 1.( 1 ) ε = strain GF: gage factor and is a constant R : resistance of the strain gage 21 . They are based on the change in the resistance. conditioning. processing. It is based on the fact that the electrical resistance of conductor is change when it is subjected to a mechanical deformation .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Analog Signal Representation Digital Signal Representation The block diagram for multi stages electric measurement In this diagram the general method for sensing. A. flow.for example when this conductor is subjected to tensile or compressive stresses its resistance will change because of dimensional change (length and area) and.

• Thermocouple: When two dissimilar metals are joint together. Formula:R=Ro[1+α (T –To)] Ro : Initial resistance. resistance at temperature T α : temperature coefficient To: initial temperature. • Taco.It is widely used in temperature measurement and control. Magnetic effect transducers.it is used for measuring angular velocity.it is used to measure temperature. R. • Electrical resistance thermometer: It is based on the fact that the resistance of some materials change with the change in the temperature .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 dR: variation of resistance due to strain When the gage connected to electric circuit (normally a Wheatstone bridge ) with a supply voltage a current or voltage signal can be generated .It is used to measure angular velocity and for speed control. C are constants 2. Formula:E = A T + 1/2 B T +⅓ C T2 E: emf generated T: measured temperature A. heat flow and other heat properties. an “emf” will exist which is a function of the junction temperature . B. Formula:- Erms = (1/√2) N A B ω 22 . E= Kn ω E : generated voltage Kn: Taco coefficient • Magnetic searching coil: When a coil cuts a magnetic field it generates voltage .generator: It is a DC generator where the generated “emf” is proportional to the angular velocity .

Solution : Hall coefficient for Bismuth = -1x10-8 EH = KH (I B / t) = (-1x10-8)(3)(5000)/(2 x 10-1) = -7.find the flux density for the coil . number of turns of coil A :cross-sectional area B: flux density ω : angular velocity Ex A rotating searching coil has 10 turns with cross-sectional area of 5 cm2 .B =√2 E / N A ω = √2 (0.the output voltage is 40 mv .It rotates at constant speed of 100 rpm .It is used as velocity and position detector and for measuring the magnetic field .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 N.5x10-4 V 3.A 2 mm slab of Bismuth is used with 3A current . Capacitive transducers: When two equal metal plates of area A (cm2) spacing distance d (cm) the value of the capacitance between them ( in Farad ) can be find as : 23 . • Hall Effect: When a semiconductor piece is supplied with a current and subjected to a magnetic flux it generate voltage proportional to the magnetic flux magnitude .04)/ (10) ( 5x10-4) [(100) (2π )/60] = 108 Wb/m2 • Differential transformer: When the core of this transformer subject to axial motion it generate a voltage proportional to this motion.Find the output voltage for the device . EH = KH (I B / t) EH :Out put hall voltage KH: Hall coefficient I : supply current B: flux density t : thickness Ex Hall effect transducer is used for the measurement of a magnetic field of 5000 G . Solution : From the above equation we have .

impedance in Ω f: frequency in Hz C: capacitance in F 4.055V.Calculate the voltage output.055 (2x10-3)( 200)(6. It is used for measuring a change in the distance or the relative motion between the two plates. The output impedance for the capacitor is:Z = 1/2π f C Z. Solution E=gtp E= 0. Piezoelectric transducer Some materials like Quartz and many semiconductors have the ability of producing electric charge when it stressed by external force this called the Piezoelectric effect .8 V B.this voltage can be calculated from the formula:- E=gtP t: crystal thickness (m) P: pressure excreted (N/ m2) g: voltage sensitivity (V/m/N/m2) Ex : Quartz Piezoelectric of 2 mm thickness and 0.0885 ε A/ d (in SI units) C= 0.m/N is subjected to a pressure of 200 psi .895x103) = 151. There are many circuits for these purposes:1-Simple current and voltage –sensitive circuit:As shown in the figure below it is a simple series circuit to give either current or voltage:- 24 .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 C= 0.The input circuits :The output for the transducer is very small electrical signal and must be connected to an electrical circuit to get a readable voltage or current which is proportional to the measuring quantities.225ε A/ d (in British units) Where ε is dielectric constant.

R : variable transducer resistance Examination of these equations indicate that the out put current (I) or voltage (E) are not change in linear way with the change of the transducer resistance R 2-Bridge circuit: It is widely used as a transducer electric circuit.etc. it may be used either as a null (balance) circuits or unbalance circuits If the bridge is balanced we can calculate the unknown resistance Rx as the follow:Rx= R1 R3 /R2 At unbalance bridge we can find the out put voltage across the gage (G) we have :Ig = Eg /(R + Rg) Where R= [ R1 R4/ (R1+R4) – R2 R3/(R2+R3)] is the equivalent resistance for the bridge . the frequency signal.so it is necessary to reject this nose by using the filters .so amplifiers must be used .since amplifier can not distinguish between the desired and the noise that may interfere with the signal it may amplify both signals and the desired signal may be lost . • Amplifiers Suppose a weak voltage signal Ei is supplied to the amplifier the output amplified signal Eo Open Loop Gain Amplifier Feed Back Gain Amplifier The value of amplification is called the “voltage gain “which is defined as the ratio of output to input voltage :A=E o/E i When a fraction of the out put voltage of value ( k Eo) is feed back into the input we have :Af = E o/E i =A /( 1+ k A) 25 .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 I = E/( R+ Ri) and e = E R /( R+ Ri) Ri: internal resistance Rm : total transducer resistance . voltage signal from capacitance transducer .Signal Conditioning Experimental measurements occurs in many forms . Rg: resistance of the gage Ig : gage current Then the output voltage across the gage is :Eg = E [ (R1 /(R1 +R4) . In many cases the signal is weak to drive an output device or there is an impedance mismatch between them .R2/(R2+R3) ] C.the voltage output of bridge circuit.

Impedance matching 2.Operational amplifiers: The block diagram and pin configuration for OP amp.it is desired that the out put voltage to attenuated (reduced) 3 dB at 100Hz .59x10-3 s 26 .Find the required value of time constant.off frequency (fc). low pass filters: it allow to pass signals at low frequencies and reject the signals at higher frequencies at a value called cut.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 A: amplifier gain (open loop gain) A f : feed back gain For a very high gain we have kA >> 1 → A f =1 /k Amplifiers are of many types such as the following . Adder or subtract of many input signals 4.It is important to reduce or reject this nose for this purpose the filters is used . Solution E o/E I = . is shown in the figure below :- The Operational amplifiers can be used for many purposes like the following:1.3 dB -3 = 20 log E o/E I → E o/E I = 0.Filters are of many types (see figure below ):1. Integrator or differential of the signal Differential amplifiers: A device which provides for two inputs and an output proportional to the difference in the two input voltage. Inverting of signal 5. • Filters Noise is always present in physical situations with the desired input signal or measuring signal . in this case we have :E o/E i = 1/√1+ (ωT)2 T =R C is the time constant ω = Frequency Ex:A simple R C circuit is to be used as a low pass filter . A comparator 3.708 ω =2π f = 2πx100 E o/E i = 1/√1+(wT)2 T= 1.

E.Dc amplifier .- F= N B I L The disadvantage for such meter is the inaccuracy of reading since it depend on the observer error . 1. This device is a complicated electronic instrument contains a multistage of electronic circuits like. Band pass filters: it allows passing signals at a certain range of frequencies (between selected frequencies f1 and f2) . power supply .delay .The Recording stage The final stage for reading and analyzing the measuring quantity is the recording stage . 3. It gives excellent accuracy also it have very high impedance than the analog meter .The analog meter When a current (I) flow on the coil of length (L) and number of turns (N) between a magnetic field (B) a force (F) perpendicular to the plane defined by the coil and the magnetic field will be exerted .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 2.There are some of such instruments which are used for recording stage. 2-The Digital meter It is an electronic device in which a measuring value is shown directly as a series of digits on a digital display (similar to the display of the calculator).and CRT drivers which control the cathode ray tube to scan the output on the screen .and its low impedance resulting some loading error .The oscilloscope can give the instantaneous out put as function of time moreover it can give a comparison between the input and out put quantities like phase shift . 27 .saw tooth generator . In analog and digital meters only the average value (called RMS ) can be read while the instantaneous value can not known which is important for analyzing the results especially when the input measuring quantity is various with time . 3-The oscilloscope.The basic operation for this device is that the measuring signal is converted from analog to digital and by using an oscillator with a fixed frequency (called clock ) a series of pulses is counted from this clock to get the output reading value .horizontal and vertical amplifiers . High pass filters: it allow to pass signals at high frequencies and reject those at lower frequencies lower than fc.modulation and attenuation. The impedance for oscilloscope is very high.this force will move the coil in a proportional relation with the current magnitude according to the following formula .

00866 = 0.225)(1.0.1 wb/m2 .25x 103 pF/in c.0006)(1)/ (0.l =0.The sensitivity b.The tolerance of uncertainty .513 pF Hence the tolerance uncertainty in C is wc = (22.1= 0.866% The nominal value of C = (0. Sensitivity we must have R=Ri 3-The primitive ammeter constructed as the shown in the figure below.0001/0. If it have the following values: B=0.04/ 1 = 0.0001 in distance in air calculate a.what deflection results when Dc current of 4A flows through the meter.04 N At spring F=KX X= 0.04 m = 4 mm (the deflection of meter ) 28 .C = 0.005/1)2 ] ½ → wc/C = 0.1 m and k= 1 N/m .225)(1.d=0.01 ± 0.005 in2 area separated by 0.513) ( 0. Solution e = E R /( R+ Ri) Sensitivity k = de/dR = E Ri /(Ri+R)2 For maximum sensitivity we must have :dk/dRi = 0 → E(R-Ri)/(Ri + R)3 = 0 → R=Ri Hence for max.225 ε A/ d2 = .1x 4x0.0006 Solution a.00866)= ± 0.01) 2 = -2.195 pF 2.0006)(1)/ (0.(0.take dielectric constant for air as 1.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Problems 1.01) = 22.225ε A/ C wd/d = [ (wc/C)2 + (wA/A)2 ] ½ 0.01 =[ (wc/C)2 + (0. A capacitance transducer is constructed of two plates of 1± 0. For this device .225ε A/ d Sensitivity =∂ C/∂d = .Prove that the maximum sensitivity for the simple voltage – sensitive circuits occurs when the transducer resistance equals the internal resistance of the circuit . F= N B I L ( in this case N=1) F = 1x 0.

01) 2 =1.(0.59 V This voltage must amplified to 750 V for voltmeter reading and must be the out of amplifier Feed back Amplifier Gain A f =E o/E i = 750/ 7.01 in . Stress = F/A = E ε ε = F/ A E For strain gage we have : d R = GF R ε → dR = GF R( F/ A E) Sensitivity = dR / F = GF R / A E 6.125x 103 pF/in 5.055 (2x10-3)( 10)(6. amplifier and digital voltmeter are used .loop gain amplifier is used:A f =1 /k → k=1/100 =0. Solution This arrangement represents two capacitors in parallel C t = C+C =2 C 2C = 0.225ε A/ d→ Sensitivity =∂ C/∂d = .Five 1-in2 plates are arranged as shown .0.Select a feed .The arrangement is to be used for a displacement transducer .calculate the sensitivity for the device assume that the plates separated by air .225 ε A/ 2d2 = . Solution For transducer we have:E=gtp E= 0.225)(1.The plate spacing is 0.If the maximum pressure to be measured is 10 psi and the voltmeter has full scale reading of 750 volt .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 4.055V.In vibration of beam test the following stages are used :- Where the specifications for the devices are given in the following table:29 . Find the sensitivity for these arrangements.59 = 100 If a high open.back gain for the amplifier to meet this requirements .For measuring pressure A Quartz piezoelectric transducer(of 2 mm thickness and 0.neglect the effect of impedance matching.An elastic bar of length L is used for measuring the static force by using the strain gage as shown.m/N is ).895x103) = 7.01 7.0006)(1)/2 (0.

Solution 1-For accelerometer :Vm=am/ω At f1 = 100 Hz → ω1 = 2π f =200 π → V m = 9.555 mV 2-For amplifier :E o/E i =A /( 1+ k A) The range of out put voltages are:E o = 78x10000/(1+0.8 /200π = 0.001x10000) = 1413 mV= 1.9 volt E o = 1.0311 x 50 = 1.8 /10000 π = 0. Frequency range :100 – 5000 Hz 30 . Feed back= 0.001 Time constant =1.6 V E o = 1. at f2 = 0.Cut off frequency= 6000hz Select the desired Oscilloscope to measure the natural frequencies for the beam if the theoretical analysis for the beam shows that they are between 100 and 5000 Hz.56 x 50 = 78 mV.7 / √1+ (2π x 6000 x 1.56cm/s At f2 = 5000 Hz → ω 2= 2π f =10000 π → V m = 9.001x10000) = 70909 mV= 70. Acceleration =1 g Open loop gain= 10000. Neglect wire impedance and the impedance mismatching . the oscilloscope must be selected according to the following specifications : Voltage range : 0 – 61 volts .7/1.555x10000/(1+0.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 Device Accelerometer Amplifier Filter Descriptions Sensitivity 50 mV/cm/s.59x10-5)2 = 70.59x10-5 s.0155 m/s = 1.66=0.66=60.413/1.413 / √1+ (2π x 6000 x 1.0311 cm/s Out put voltage range: at f1 = 1.85 V Hence .59x10-5)2 = 1.413 volt 3-For filter:E o/E i = 1/√1+ (ωT)2 E o = 70.

Since we have :R= ρ L / A To find this change we differentiating this equation and divide it by the total resistance R to get :d R/ R = d ρ/ ρ + d L/L – d A/ A -----------------. It is based on the fact that the electrical resistance of a conductor is changed when it is subjected to a mechanical deformation . we get :d R / R = ε (1 +2 ν) + d ρ/ ρ Divide by ε to get:( d R / R)/ ε = [(1 +2 ν) + (d ρ/ ρ) / ε] ----------------(d) The term Between [ ] is called the Gage Factor (GF) . also due to the change in the material specific resistance .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 V-Resistive Strain Gage .(a) we can get:d R / R = d L / L (1 +2 ν) + d ρ/ ρ Since the strain ε = d L / L. 1 indicate that the resistance change for the strain gage (d R) is proportional to measuring physical variable ε .Un bounded – it Consist of 4-wires stretched between two rigid frames one of them is fixed and the other frame is movable as shown in the figure below.for example when this conductor is subjected to tensile or compressive stresses its resistance will change because of dimensional change (length and area ) and.ν d L/L The cross section for the wire of strain gage is circular.(c) into Eq. Types of strain gages 1. hence if (d R) is measured the strain can be measured .(a) But : d A = .ν d L/ L ) d A / A = -2 ν d L/L + ν 2 ( d L / L ) 2 which can be approximated to the form :d A / A = -2 ν d L/L --------------------------------( c) Substitute Eq.( 1 ) Where:ε = strain GF: gage factor and is a constant R : resistance of the strain gage dR: variation of resistance due to strain Eq. then the diameter will change from d o to df due to the strain which can described as :d f = d o ( 1. 31 . then Eq.d become (GF) = (d R / R)/ ε Normally GF can be known from the manufacture so we can write the basic equation for strain gage:ε = (1/GF) (d R/ R) and the change in resistance for strain gage is :d R = GF x R x ε --------------------------------.

it is very important to compensate the effect of temperature in the laboratory .5.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 In either directions of motions two of wires are become in tension and two in compression .To do this two gage are used the first is called the Active gage which read the strain and the second is called the Dummy gage is used for temperature compensation .the four wires are connected to a bridge circuits from which the strain is calculated as proportional to the voltage generated form this circuit .this cause an error on the measuring quantities since the major function of strain gage is depend on the change in the resistance . Wire gage or foil gage (called grid) is usually sandwiched between two sheets of papers or other backing material to form bonded and insulated piece .while in metallic type give up to 3. and force measurement with high stability . Effect of temperature on strain gage In general the resistance is effected by temperature in some cases it reduce it and in other it increase it this depend on the alloys and materials .This gage is bonded directly to the surface of the specimen being analyzed with a thin layer of adhesive which serves to transmit strain form specimen to the gage wire . Strain gage circuits 32 . Bonded strain gage manufactures either from metallic or semiconductors.bonded – wire strain gage . pressure . 2. in the second type the gage factor is very high and about 130. This arrangement can be used for acceleration.

Δ R4/ R4) ----------(3) Where: r = R2 / R1 Wheatstone bridge sensitivity The sensitivity for strain gage defined as the change in out put voltage relative to the input stress that is: S = ΔE / ε By making use of Eq .………. ΔR2.3 we get:S = (V/ ε )[ r/ (1+r)2 ] { Δ R1/ R1.also it may be used as a null balance system where the output voltage is adjusted to a zero value by mean of adjustable resistance at the bridge arm .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 The Wheatstone bridge: It is used for static and dynamic measurements . In this case if the resistance for strain gage is Rg and its current is Ig and the bridge is balanced we have :- 33 . substitute into Eq.Δ R2/ R2 + Δ R3/ R3 .(2) At balance E =0 then we have :R1 R3 =R2 R4 Consider an initially balanced bridge ( E= 0) . .R2.the terms (Δ R/ R) can be replaced using the following modification:Sg = (Δ R/ R)/ ε → Δ R/ R= ε GF ----------------------.Δ R4/ R4)-----(4) When a number of gage (n =1 to 4) are placed instead of the resister .when the values of R1.(6) describes that there are four cases to connect the strain gage and there are four possible sensitivity will be got :Case 1:When only one gage connected to the bridge.R3 and R4 increased by small amount of Δ R1.(2) we get :ΔE = V [ r / (1+r)2 ] { Δ R1/ R1. ΔR3 and ΔR4. 1.R4+ Δ R4 ).Δ R2/ R2 + Δ R3/ R3 .(5) Substitute Eq .it may be used as direct readout device where the out put voltage ΔE is measured and related to strain .to the new values ( R1+ Δ R1. Analysis of direct readout bridge : VAB = V(R1/R1+R2) and VAD= V( R4/R4 + R3) E= VAB – VAD Solve the three equations to get :E = V (R1R3 –R2 R4) / [ ( R1 +R2) ( R2 + R4) ] -------------.5 into 4 to get finally :S= V ( r / r + 1) n GF -----------------------------------(6) Eq.

Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 V= Ig ( R1+R2) = Ig Rg (1+ r) The sensitivity can be found as . we have:- 34 .so we have:R1=R2=Rg → r =1 Then we have :V= 2 Ig Rg S= ½ Ig Rg GF Case 3 : If the dummy gage is connected in the arm of R4 instead of R2 we have:- V = Ig (R1 +R2) = Ig Rg ( 1+r ) S= (r / r+1) Ig Rg GF Where: r = R2 / R1 Case 4: When four gages are used as shown in the cantilever shown below.S= (r / r+1) Ig Rg GF Where: r = R2 / R1 Case 2 :In this bridge employs one active gage in arm R1 and one dummy gage in arm R2 which is used for temperature compensation .

the potentiometer is adjusted until the galvanometer read zero current in this case the balance will be reached .the results of analyzing is :ε =(2/ GF )( Δ R5/ R2)[1/(1+R5/R5)] Where . Some of Strain Gage Applications – 1. Torque measurements P 354 3. Analysis null balance bridge The same arrangement mentions above can be used for a bridge but the different is the addition of potentiometer and a sensitive galvanometer .Δ R5/ R2 : called the increment of potentiometer Hence the value of strain can be found from the adjustment of the potentiometer. pressure P388 35 . force measurement (load cell) P 339 2.Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 V= 2 Ig Rg R1=R2=R3=R4=Rg S= 2 Ig Rg GF 2. Null balance with a potentiometer Assume active gage is connected instead of R1 .

36 .Loebelin Text Book and are given briefly in form of homework’s such as the following homework’s :1-Analyze the diaphragm type presser measurements 2-Analyzing of flow measurement and pressure measurement .usable rang .O. 2-Illistrate the order of the measuring devices and list their main measuring characteristics such as sensitivity .Measurements Al-Nahrain: 2 / 11 /2011 VI Temperature .Flow and Pressure Measurements These topic are found in PART TWO E.time delay .damping .…etc .

- Loc, Los and Loes at-speed Testing Methodologies for Automatic Test Pattern Generation Using Transition Delay Fault Modelby International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

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