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WATER POLLUTION

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Any change in the chemical, physical and biological properties of water that has a harmful effect on living things is water pollution. Polluted water is not only unfit for drinking and other consumption purposes, but it is also unsuitable for agricultural and industrial uses. The effects of water pollution are detrimental to human beings, plants, animals, fish, and birds. Polluted water also contains virus, bacteria, intestinal parasites, and other pathogenic microorganisms. Using it for drinking purpose is the prime cause for waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, and typhoid.

Pollution of Water

Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. About 20% of the world's population lacks access to safe drinking water, and about 50% lacks adequate sanitation.

SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION


There are two main sources of water pollution; point sources and non-point sources. Point sources include factories, wastewater treatment facilities, septic systems, and other sources that are clearly discharging pollutants into water sources. Non-point sources are more difficult to identify, because they cannot be traced back to a particular location. Non-point sources include runoff including sediment, fertilizer, chemicals and animal wastes from farms, fields, construction sites and mines. Landfills can also be a non-point source of pollution, if substances leach from the landfill into water supplies.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) divides water pollution into the following six categories:

Biodegradable waste: It consists mainly of human and animal waste.

When biodegradable waste enters a water supply, the waste provides an energy source (organic carbon) for bacteria. Organic carbon is converted to carbon dioxide and water, which can cause atmospheric pollution and acid rain; this form of pollution is far more widespread and problematic than other forms of pollutants, such as radioactive waste. If there is a large supply of organic matter in the water, oxygen-consuming (aerobic) bacteria multiply quickly, consume all available oxygen, and kill all aquatic life.

Plant nutrients: They enter the water through sewage, and livestock and

fertilizer runoff. Phosphates and nitrates are also found in industrial wastes. Though these chemicals are natural, 80 percent of nitrates and 75 percent of phosphates in water are human-added. When there is too much nitrogen or phosphorus in a water supply (0.3 parts per million for nitrogen and 0.01 parts per million for phosphorus), algae begin to develop. When algae blooms, the water can turn green and cloudy, feel slimy, and smell bad. Weeds start to grow and bacteria spread. Decomposing plants use up the oxygen in the water, disrupting the aquatic life, reducing biodiversity, and even killing aquatic life. This process, called eutrophication, is a natural process, but generally occurs over thousands of years. Eutrophication allows a lake to age and become more nutrient-rich; without nutrient pollution, this may take 10,000 years, but pollution can make the process occur 100 to 1,000 times faster.

Heat: As the water temperature increases, the amount of dissolved oxygen

decreases. Thermal pollution can be natural, in the case of hot springs and shallow ponds in the summertime, or human-made, through the discharge of water that has been used to cool power plants or other industrial equipment. Fish and plants require certain temperatures and oxygen levels to survive, so thermal pollution often reduces the aquatic life diversity in the water.

Sediment: It is one of the most common sources of water pollution.

Sediment consists of mineral or organic solid matter that is washed or blown from land into water sources. Sediment pollution is difficult to identify, because it comes from non-point sources, such as construction, agricultural and livestock operations, logging, flooding, and city runoff. Each year, water sources in the United States are polluted by over one billion tones of sediment! Sediment can cause large problems, as it can clog municipal water systems, smother aquatic life, and cause water to become increasingly turbid. And, turbid water can cause thermal pollution, because cloudy water absorbs more solar radiation.

Hazardous and Toxic Chemicals: They are usually human-made

materials that are not used or disposed of properly. Point sources of chemical pollution include industrial discharges and oil spills. The Oil Pollution fact sheet includes more detailed information about oil spills, as well as other sources of oil pollution. Non-point sources of chemical pollution include runoff from paved roads and pesticide runoff.

Many people think industries produce the greatest amount of chemical pollution. But domestic and personal use of chemicals can significantly contribute to chemical pollution. Household cleaners, dyes, paints and solvents are also toxic, and can accumulate when poured down drains or flushed down the toilet. In fact, one drop of used motor oil can pollute 25 liters of water! And, people who use pesticides on their gardens and lawns tend to use ten times more pesticide per acre than a farmer would!

Radioactive Pollutants: They include wastewater discharges from

factories, hospitals and uranium mines. These pollutants can also come from natural isotopes, such as radon. Radioactive pollutants can be dangerous, and it takes many years until radioactive substances are no longer considered dangerous. The seventh category of water pollution is pharmaceuticals and personal care products (often abbreviated PPCPs), including medications, lotions and soap, are being found in increasing concentrations in lakes and rivers. Scientists have discovered that many PPCPs act as hormone disrupters, which means that the synthetic hormones in the products interfere with the natural hormones in animals, especially fish that live in the water. There has not been enough research to determine the effects that PPCPs can have on humans, but there is evidence to suggest that these chemicals may be partially responsible for an increase in cancer and birth defects.

COMMON POLLUTANTS OF WATER

Biological Impurities
Bacteria,

Virus and Parasites Years ago, waterborne diseases accounted

for millions of deaths. Even today in underdeveloped countries, an estimated 25,000 people will die daily from waterborne disease. Effects of waterborne microorganisms can be immediate and devastating. Therefore, microorganisms are the first and most important consideration in making water acceptable for human consumption. Municipal supplies are relatively free from harmful organisms because of routine disinfection with chlorine or chloramines and frequent sampling. This does not mean municipal water is free of all bacteria. Those of us with private wells and small rural water systems have reason to be more concerned about the possibility of microorganism contamination from septic tanks, animal wastes, and other problems. There is a little community in California, where 4,000,000 gallons of urine hits the ground daily from dairy cows! Authorities say that at least 4000 cases of waterborne diseases are reported every year in the U.S. They also estimate that much of the temporary ills and everyday gastrointestinal disorders that go routinely unreported can be attributed to organisms found in our water supplies.

Sources of Water Contaminants

Inorganic Impurities

Dirt and Sediment or Turbidity

Most waters contain some suspended

particles which may consist of fine sand, clay, soil, and precipitated salts. Turbidity is unpleasant to look at, can be a source of food and lodging for bacteria.

Total Dissolved Solids or TDS These substances are dissolved rock and

other compounds from the earth. The entire list of them could fill this page. The presence and amount of total dissolved solids in water represents a point of controversy among those who promote water treatment products. Here are some facts about the consequences of higher levels of TDS in water:

High TDS results in undesirable taste which could be salty, bitter, or metallic. High TDS water is less thirst quenching. Some of the individual mineral salts that make up TDS pose a variety of health hazards. The most problematic are Nitrates, Sodium, Sulfates, Barium, Copper, and Fluoride.

The EPA Secondary Regulations advise a maximum level of 500mg/liter (500 parts per million-ppm) for TDS. Numerous water supplies exceed this level. When TDS levels exceed 1000mg/L it is generally considered unfit for human consumption.

High TDS interferes with the taste of foods and beverages, and makes them less desirable to consume. High TDS make ice cubes cloudy, softer, and faster melting. Minerals exist in water mostly as INORGANIC salts. In contrast, minerals having passed through a living system are known as ORGANIC minerals. They are combined with proteins and sugars. According to many nutritionists minerals are much easier to assimilate when they come from foods.

Water with higher TDS is considered by some health advocates to have a poorer cleansing effect in the body than water with a low level of TDS. This is because water with low dissolved solids has a greater capacity of absorption than water with higher solids.

Toxic

Metals or Heavy Metals Among the greatest threats to health are the

presence of high levels of toxic metals in drinking water - Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead,

Mercury, and Silver. Maximum limits for each are established by the EPA Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Other metals such as Chromium and Selenium, while essential trace elements in our diets, have limits imposed upon them when in water because the form in which they exist may pose a health hazard. Toxic metals are associated with nerve damage, birth defects, mental retardation and certain cancers.
Asbestos

Asbestos exists as microscopic suspended mineral fibers in water. Its

primary source is asbestos-cement pipe which was commonly used after World War II for city water supplies. It has been estimated that some 200,000 miles of this pipe is presently in use to transport our drinking water. Because these pipes are wearing, the deadly substance of asbestos is showing up with increasing frequency in drinking water. It has been linked with gastrointestinal cancer.
Radioactivity

Even though trace amounts of radioactive elements can be

found in almost all drinking water, levels that pose serious health hazards are fairly rare--for now. Radioactive wastes leach from mining operations into groundwater supplies. The greatest threat is posed by nuclear accidents, nuclear processing plants, and radioactive waste disposal sites. As containers containing these wastes deteriorate with time, the risk of contaminating our aquafiers grows into a toxic time bomb.

Organic Impurities

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Tastes

and Odors If our water has a disagreeable taste or odor, chances are

it is due to one or more of many organic substances ranging from decaying vegetation to algae; hydrocarbons to phenols. It could also be TDS and a host of other items.
Pesticides

and Herbicides The increasing use of pesticides and herbicides

in agriculture shows up in the water we drink. Rain and irrigation carry these deadly chemicals down into the groundwater as well as into surface waters -- There are more than 100,000,000 people in the US who depend upon groundwater for sources whole or in part of their drinking water. As our reliance upon groundwater is escalating, so is its contamination. Our own household use of herbicide and pesticide substances also contributes to actual contamination. These chemicals can cause circulatory, respiratory and nerve disorders.
Toxic

Organic Chemicals

The most pressing and widespread water

contamination problem is a result of the organic chemicals created by industry. According to the EPA, there are 77,000,000,000 pounds of hazardous waste being generated each year in the US. 90 percent of this is not disposed of properly. This would equal 19,192 pounds of hazardous waste disposed each year on every square mile of land and water surface in the US including Alaska and Hawaii! Chemicals end up in our drinking water from hundreds of different sources. There are hundreds of publications each year highlighting this problem. The effects of chronic long term exposure to these toxic organics, even in minute amounts, are

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extremely difficult to detect. Contaminated drinking water may look and taste perfectly normal. The users symptoms might include recurring headache, rash, or fatigue - all of which are hard to diagnose as being water related. The more serious consequences of drinking tainted water are higher cancer rates, birth defects, growth abnormalities, infertility, and nerve and organ damage. Just how toxic these chemicals are may be illustrated by looking at two examples: TCE is a widely used chemical which routinely shows up in water supplies. Just two glassfuls of TCE can contaminate 27,000,000 gallons of drinking water! One pound of the pesticide, Endrin can contaminate 5,000,000,000 gallons of water.
Chlorine

Trihalomethanes (THM's) are formed when chlorine, used to disinfect

water supplies, interacts with natural organic materials (e.g. by-products of decayed vegetation, algae, etc.). This creates toxic organic chemicals such as chloroform, and Bromodichloromethane. A further word about chlorine: Scientists at Colombia University found that women who drank chlorinated water ran a 44% greater risk of dying of cancer of the gastrointestinal or urinary tract than did women who drank non-chlorinated water! Chlorinated water has also been linked to high blood pressure and anemia. Anemia is caused by the deleterious effect of chlorine on red blood cells.

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HEALTH HAZARDS CAUSED BY WATER POLLUTION

It is a well-known fact that clean water is absolutely essential for healthy living. Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is a basic need for all human beings on the earth, yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this. Water-borne diseases are infectious diseases spread primarily through contaminated water. Though these diseases are spread either directly or through flies or filth, water is the chief medium for spread of these diseases and hence they are termed as water-borne diseases. Most intestinal (enteric) diseases are infectious and are transmitted through faecal waste. Pathogens which include virus, bacteria, protozoa, and parasitic worms are disease-producing agents found in the faeces of infected persons. These diseases are more prevalent in areas with poor sanitary conditions. These pathogens travel through water sources and interfuses directly through persons handling food and water. Since these diseases are highly infectious, extreme care and hygiene should be maintained by people looking after an infected patient. Hepatitis, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid are the more common water-borne diseases that affect large populations in the tropical regions.

Causes

Water-borne diseases

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Bacterial Infections

Typhoid, Cholera, Paratyphoid fever, Bacillary dysentery Infectious hepatitis, Poliomyelitis Amoebic Dysentery

Viral Infections Protozoal Infections

Pesticides The organophosphates and the carbonates present in pesticides

affect and damage the nervous system and can cause cancer. Some of the pesticides contain carcinogens that exceed recommended levels. They contain chlorides that cause reproductive and endocrinal damage.
Fluoride

Excess fluorides can cause yellowing of the teeth and damage to

the spinal cord and other crippling diseases.


Nitrates

Drinking water that gets contaminated with nitrates can prove fatal

especially to infants that drink formula milk as it restricts the amount of oxygen that reaches the brain causing the blue baby syndrome. It is also linked to digestive tract cancers. It causes algae to bloom resulting in eutrophication in surface water.
Petrochemicals

and Chlorinated solvents

Petrochemicals can cause

cancer even at low exposure levels and chlorinated solvents are linked to reproduction disorders.

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Other

heavy metals Heavy metals cause damage to the nervous system

and the kidney, and other metabolic disruptions.

Effects of Water Containing Lead and Arsenic

Exposure to polluted water can cause diarrhea, skin irritation, respiratory problems and other diseases, depending on the pollutant that is in the water body. Stagnant water and other untreated water provide a habitat for the mosquito and a host of other parasites and insects that cause a large number of diseases especially in the tropical regions. Among these, malaria is undoubtedly the most widely distributed and causes most damage to human health.

GLOBAL WARMING

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Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected continuation. In the last 100 years, Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 C (1.4 F) with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized countries.

Global Warming

An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and a probable expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events including heatwaves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to

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shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional changes is uncertain. In a 4 C world, the limits for human adaptation are likely to be exceeded in many parts of the world, while the limits for adaptation for natural systems would largely be exceeded throughout the world. Hence, the ecosystem services upon which human livelihoods depend would not be preserved.

CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING


One of the biggest issues facing us right now is global warming. Its effects on animals and on agriculture are indeed frightening, and the effects on the human population are even scarier. The facts about global warming are often debated in politics and the media, but, unfortunately, even if we disagree about the causes, global warming effects are real, global, and measurable. The causes are mainly from us, the human race, and the effects on us will be severe. Global warming is also caused by natural causes.
Greenhouse Gases

The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption

and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planets lower atmosphere and surface. Naturally occurring amounts of greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 C (59 F). The major greenhouse gases are water vapor, which causes about 3670 percent of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 926 percent; methane (CH4), which causes 49 percent; and ozone (O3), which causes 37 percent.

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The build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere during the 20th century has resulted from the growing use of energy and expansion of the global economy. Over the century, industrial activity grew 40-fold, and the emissions of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) grew 10-fold.

The amount of CO2 in the air increased from some 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv) at the beginning of the century to 383 ppmv at the end of 2007. The amount of CO2 varies within each year as the result of the annual cycles of photosynthesis and oxidation (see graph). Of the other greenhouse gases, methane (CH4), which is formed by anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, rose from a preindustrial atmospheric concentration of around 700 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to about 1789 ppbv by 2007.

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Other important greenhouse gases include the oxides of nitrogen, notably nitrous oxide (NO2) and halocarbons, including the CFCs and other chlorine and bromine containing compounds.

The build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere alters the radiative balance of the atmosphere. The net effect is to warm the Earth's surface and the lower atmosphere because greenhouse gases absorb some of the Earths outgoing heat radiation and reradiate it back towards the surface. The overall warming from 1850 to the end of the 20th century was equivalent to about 2.5 W/m2; CO2 contributed some 60 per cent of this figure and CH4about 25 per cent, with N2O and halocarbons providing the remainder. The warming effect that would result from a doubling of CO2 from pre-industrial levels is estimated to be 4 W/m2.

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Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning power plants and burning gasoline for transportation

Peoples ever increasing addiction to electricity from

coal burning power plants releases enormous amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. 40% of U.S. CO2 emissions come from electricity production, and burning coal accounts for 93% of emissions from the electric utility industry. Every day, more electric gadgets flood the market, and without widespread alternative energy sources, we are highly dependent on burning coal for our personal and commercial electrical supply.

With our population growing at an alarming rate, the demand for more cars and consumer goods means that we are increasing the use of fossil fuels for transportation and manufacturing. Our consumption is outpacing our discoveries of ways to mitigate the effects, with no end in sight to our massive consumer culture. The emission of carbon dioxide into the environment mainly from burning of fossil fuels (oil, gas, petrol, kerosene, etc.) has been increased dramatically over the past 50 years.

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Methane emissions from animals and agriculture Methane

is another extremely

potent greenhouse gas, ranking right behind CO2. When organic matter is broken down by bacteria under oxygen-starved conditions (anaerobic decomposition) as in rice paddies, methane is produced. The process also takes place in the intestines of herbivorous animals, and with the increase in the amount of concentrated livestock production, the levels of methane released into the atmosphere is increasing. Another source of methane is methane clathrate, a compound containing large amounts of methane trapped in the crystal structure of ice. As methane escapes from the Arctic seabed, the rate of global warming will increase significantly.
Deforestation

The use of forests for fuel (both wood and for charcoal) is one

cause of deforestation, but in the first world, our appetite for wood and paper products, our consumption of livestock grazed on former forest land, and the use of tropical forest lands for commodities like palm oil plantations contributes to the mass deforestation of our world. Forests remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and this deforestation releases large amounts of carbon, as well as reducing the amount of carbon capture on the planet.

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Increase in usage of chemical fertilizers on croplands

In the last half of the 20th

century, the use of chemical fertilizers (as opposed to the historical use of animal manure) has risen dramatically. The high rate of application of nitrogen-rich fertilizers has effects on the heat storage of cropland (nitrogen oxides have 300 times more heat-trapping capacity per unit of volume than carbon dioxide) and the run-off of excess fertilizers creates dead-zones in our oceans. In addition to these effects, high nitrate levels in groundwater due to over-fertilization are cause for concern for human health.
Ozone Depletion

In 1985 Joe Farman, of the British Antarctic Survey,

published a paper showing the decline of ozone levels over Antarctica during the early 1980s. The response was dramatic: large-scale international scientific programs were mounted to prove that CFCs (used as aerosol propellants, in industrial cleaning fluids and in refrigeration equipment) were the cause of the problem. Even more important was immediate international action to curb the emissions of CFCs. Plummeting ozone levels in the stratosphere over Antarctica during September and October are the result of complex chemical processes. The return of the Sun at the end of winter triggers photochemical reactions that lead to the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. The October values of ozone have declined by up to 70 per cent compared to the pre-ozone hole years, and the size of the ozone hole had grown to more than 25 million km2 (twice the size of Antarctica) by 2000.
The ever-increasing global population

One of the most dangerous man-made

causes for global warming is the increasing population. More people means more food and more methods of transportation; which means more methane and more cars which lead to more pollution of earth. Since CO2 contributes to global warming,

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the increase in population makes the problem worse because we breathe out CO2. Also, the trees that convert our CO2 to oxygen are being cut down because we're using the land that we cut the trees down from as property for our homes and buildings. We are not replacing the trees (trees are a very important part of our ecosystem), so we are constantly taking advantage of our natural resources and giving nothing back in return.
Aerosols in the atmosphere

Atmospheric aerosols are able to alter climate in

two important ways. First, they scatter and absorb solar and infrared radiation and, second, they may change the microphysical and chemical properties of clouds and possibly their lifetime and extent. The scattering of solar radiation acts to cool the planet, while absorption of solar radiation by aerosols warms the air directly instead of allowing sunlight to be absorbed by the surface of the Earth.
Solar Variation Climate changes in

orbital forcing and solar luminosity are also

responsible for variation in surface temperatures. Variations in solar activity are being held responsible for most of the global warming, since the 1950s. According to recent research, solar output variations are possibly amplified by galactic cosmic rays. The magnetic activity in and around the sun plays a major role in deflecting cosmic rays. These in turn are responsible for cloud condensation and climatic changes. Increased solar activity could be the result of excessive warming of the stratosphere. Solar cycles lead to an increase in brightness and heat generation. The light and heat get trapped in the stratosphere.

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Solar irradiance spectrum above atmosphere and at surface

The relation between solar radiation and global warming is yet to be proven and is one of the most speculated topics deliberated upon in recent times. The link between changes in cosmic rays and temperature is being studied alongside human induced reasons for the phenomenon.

CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING


The effects of global warming could be enormous. Relative to the hectic pace of our daily life, global warming is a slow-moving problem. But that does not mean we should wait and see what happens. If we wait, we may be creating an unsolvable problem, an unstoppable climatic shift that could have devastating impacts in years to come.

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Impacts of Global Warming

Destroying earth as we know it

Global warming does not occur evenly across

the world. Temperature changes have been, and will be, much more extreme in the Arctic and Antarctic. A 5 degree Fahrenheit warming for the whole world means only 1 degree at the equator, but 12 degrees at the poles. Global temperatures have already risen about 0.8 degrees Celsius, or 1.4 degree Fahrenheit. The arctic tundra is melting already, which may be causing an increase in methane levels in the atmosphere. A mysterious spike in atmospheric methane was measured in 2007. In addition, the rate of carbon increase in the atmosphere is accelerating each year, which may also be related to the thawing of arctic areas. We may be contributing to a positive feedback loop whereby the warming of Polar Regions puts more carbon and methane into the atmosphere, thus causing yet more warming in an unstoppable cycle.

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Hazardous Weather Patterns Increased

storm activity and intensity is caused by

global warming. Severe drought and flooding will occur as weather pattern become more extreme. Unfortunately, the worlds economic and agricultural systems rely on existing patterns of weather, and as global warming changes these patterns, our ability to produce food is declining. Increased overall average temperatures cause more extreme weather, more devastating storms, and more severe and prolonged droughts and floods. These changes impact ecosystems and the human economy.
Unstable Agriculture and Economy

The price you pay for food is getting higher

already as a result of global warming effects on agriculture. Whats worse is that this is leaving many of the worlds hungry in a desperate situation, unable to afford adequate food. We depend on a predictable climate to keep our agricultural markets and our economy as a whole stable. Climate change makes our markets unstable, less efficient, and thus more expensive. Prices are increasing for a number of reasons, a few of which are not related to global warming, but global warming induced heat waves have already been shown to reduce grain harvests in India, Canada, and the U.S. significantly. Drought conditions have doubled since 1970. Many plants become less productive or will not pollinate when it gets too hot. For all of these reasons, we should be concerned about the impacts of climate change on agriculture and food scarcity.

Effects on Animals and Widespread Extinction of Flora and Fauna

The danger to

animals is severe as well. As sea levels rise and lowland coastal areas are flooded,

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many animal species will be harmed. Coastal areas serve as natural hatcheries for fish and are home to a greater diversity of land and sea creatures than any other ecosystem. The flooding of coastal estuaries by rising sea levels would have dramatic effects on animals across the world. A rise in global temperature will also hamper the rich biodiversity of various ecosystems. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on (IPCC), an increase in global temperature by 1.5 to 2.5 degrees will make 20 to 30 percent of species vulnerable to extinction, while a rise of about 3.5 degrees will make 40 to 70 percent species vulnerable to extinction. Climate change will result in loss of habitat for many animal species like polar bears and tropical frogs. More importantly, any change in the climate patterns will seriously affect the migration patterns of various bird species. Irregular patterns of precipitation will affect animals and humans alike.
A Hostile Planet for the Next Generation

As the temperature increases, the ice

cover on the planet will start melting. The water from these melting glaciers will end up in the oceans, which will lead to a rise in the sea level. Over the last century, sea levels have increased by 4 to 8 inches, and by 2100, it's expected to increase to 35 inches. An additional 2 degree rise in global temperature will lead to the complete melting of the Greenland ice cap, which will cause the sea level to rise by 5 to 6 meters. Such a rise will cause many of the low lying areas, such as the US Gulf Coast and Bangladesh, as well as islands, such as Lakswadweep, to submerge underwater. If the whole of the Antarctic ice sheet melts, the global sea level is expected to rise by 10.5 meters. Scientists have come up with the firmest evidence so far that global warming will significantly increase the intensity of the most extreme storms worldwide. The

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maximum wind speeds of the strongest tropical cyclones have increased significantly since 1981, according to research published in Nature this week. And the upward trend, thought to be driven by rising ocean temperatures, is unlikely to stop at any time soon.

The Bottom Line If we really value the severe impacts of Water Pollution and Global Warming, we must make efforts to keep our earth inhabitable. Nothing can save our planet if we dont stay away from destructive activities. So, if we care for ourselves, we must care for our world and answer the following question which may seem easy but carries a lot of significance.

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