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ANNEX Nº X. SURGE CALCULATION
ANEJO Nº X. Pág. nº 1
TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO
INDEX AX.1.- INTRODUCTION AX.2.- CCALCULATION CRITERIA AX.2.1.- SHUT DOWN TIME (T) AX.2.2.- CELERITY (a) AX.2.3.- SURGE (DH) AX.2.3.1.- Short surge AX.2.3.2.- Long surge AX.3.- INITIAL DATA AX.4.- OVERPRESSURE FROM SURGE DETERMINATION AX.5.- SURGE WITH DEPRESSION A X.6.- GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF SURGE A X.7.- SECURITY DEVICES A X.8.- TRANSIENT EVENT STUDY A X.8.1.- INSTALLATION COMPONENTS A X.8.2.- SIMULATION MODEL A X.8.2.1.- Initial conditions A X.8.2.2.- Matemathical modelization A X.8.2.3.- Numerical model: Characteristic's method A X.8.3.- REPORTS AND CHARTS A X.8.3.1.- Evolvent Pressures A X.8.3.2.- Installation reports A X.8.3.3.- Maximum and minimum pressures in profile points A X.8.3.4.- Stationary regime chart A X.8.3.5.- Transitory regime chart
ANEJO Nº X. Pág. nº 2
nº 3 . the conclusions of which have been relied upon by numerous experts to continue studying this phenomenon..TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X. we have listed the criterias used for calculating surge in a pipe and determined the maximum overpressure that can be reached according to the installation charactersitics. the adequate safety measures will be adopted. Pág. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X. This data is accompanied by graphic representations. A great number of scientists have realised studies in order to develop mathematical calculations to describe surge.1. It consists of a pressure variation provoked by changes in the normal conditions of the flow parameters. According to the results obatined. In this annex.INTRODUCTION Surge is a phenomenon of great interest due to the important repercussions that it can have in pressure pipes.
The adopted values can be: C=1 C=0 C = 0. nº 4 ..SHUTDOWN TIME (T) Following the sudden cut off of a pumping group where the velocity reaches zero. 40 L H m @ 0 .w. The shutdown time T is determined according to Mendiluces` expression: T = C + KLV gH m where: T: C. the so-called shutdown time (T) occurs.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X.2. K: L: V: Stop time (s) Variable dimensionless coefficients Pumping length (m) Regime velocity (m/s). The formula is valid only for velocities bigger than 0.. 20 L H m ³ 0 .5 m/s 2 g: Acceleration of gravity (m/s ) Hm: Manometric head (m.1. 30 L Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.c. Pág. producing the hydraulic transient event.) The coefficient C has been required experimentally and is function of the pipe pitch (Hm/L).CALCULATION CRITERIA A X.2.6 H m < 0 .
TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS The coefficient K mainly represents the inertial effect of the pumping group.50 K = 1. nº 5 .4 1 0.3 + K D m e where: a: D: e: Km: Celerity (m/s) Interior diameter of the pipe (mm) Pipe thickness (mm) Coefficient depending on the material The Km values depending on the pipe material are shown in the table below: Material Km PVC Polyester Asbesto-cement Cast iron Steel 33. defined as the propogation velocity of the pressure waves for the water contained in the pipe. Pág. can be determined.500 L ~ 1.3 6..500 L > 1.75 K = 1.25 K=1 L < 500 L ~ 500 500 < L < 1.5 Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X. the value of celerity (a). For this calculation Allievi has deduced the following expression: a= 9.2.900 48.2.6 5.CELERITY (a) Once the shutdown time (T) is known. Its experimental values may vary with the pumping length: K=2 K = 1.500 A X.
Two cases are distinguished: A X. Pág.3..3.1.) Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.2.c. the Michaud expression is used for the calculation of the overpressure: DH = 2Lv gT where: ΔH = overpressure produced (m.Short surge It is called short surge when: T > 2L a In this case. it is possible to determine the maximum value of the overpressure produced in the pipe. nº 6 ..TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X.2.w.SURGE (ΔH) Once the shutdown time (T) values and the celerity (a) values are known.
at the end of pumping distance: Lc = aT 2 the Michaud and Allievi values concur.3. the increasing overpressures line representing the former formula changes into a horizontal line. This length Lc is named "Critical length" and the concurrence point is named "Critical point".TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X.. and at this point. it can be seen that the Michaud formula may be equal to the Allievi formula where: T= 2L a Therefore.2. nº 7 .2. Pág. Where: Si L< Lc Si L> Lc Michaud formula Allievi formula Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.Long surge In the case of a long surge: T < 2L a The overpressure is determined by the Allievi formula: DH = av g Analysing the expressions.
5 m/s 4 sec.): (LONG SURGE) (Alievi formula) 39.): 204. Pág..3.7 HDPE 10000 87.64 A X.. nº 8 .00 33.4.w.3 530.c.74 218 247.2 0.00 1.88 Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.INITIAL DATA Interior diameter of the pipe (mm) Pipe thickness (mm): Pipe material: Pipe length (m): Maximum flow (m³/h): Fluid velocity (m/s): Maximum geometric head (m): Manometric head (m.4 m Overpressure produced (m.5 22. 1070.OVERPRESSURE FROM SURGE DETERMINATION Variable coefficient (K): Variable coefficient (C): Coefficient depending on the material (Km): Propagation velocity (a): Stop time (T): Crítical length (Lc): 1.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X.w.c.
): Maximum depression in pump discharge (m.c. we obtained maximum values of overpressure and depression that are perfectly realistic for the type of network designed and for the safety devices detailed below. In the following part.c. nº 9 .): 258 178 We can observe that a negative depression in the pump discharge has been obtained.w.w. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X. In this case. thereby supposing a future danger for the pipe.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS With the surge value obtained we may calculate the pressures in the most unfavourable cases: Maximum overpressure in pump discharge (m. we will show the reasoning which justifies the "normality" of this data. Pág.
these two flows may meet each other at inverse speeds. Nevertheless. as to actually produce a change in its condition from liquid to gaseous. researchers have carried out experimental studies demonstrating that the excess pressure is linked directly to geometric head. which disappear by condensation when they are translated to areas of higher pressure. while later. the pressure in the pipe continues to be positive. These vacuum bags separate the flow in two parts: one of them will continue in the same direction while the possibility exists that the other will flow back downwards. In spite of these observations. Studies on cavitation are also important in understanding this phenomenon. This implies that the pressure required for water to vaporize at the temperatures usually encountered in the pumping system is so close to absolute vacuum that it is not possible for cavitation to be produced with released air because the simple action of the unforeseen engine shutdown prevents it.5. Cavitation can be defined as the vaporization of a fluid that flows through a zone in which the pressure is sufficiently low. In a significant proportion of elevations (around 40%) which work perfectly in spite of the production of depressions. which is why the the depressions provoked by the engine shutdown cannot be very elevated. as in our case.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X. it is normal that contradictory results may be obtained from the calculations carried out. at the maximum depression moment right after the engine has shut down. it has been proved that water can withstand great descents below athmospheric pressure without changing its state. As a consequence of the reflexion at the extremity. nº 10 .. forming vacuum bags or vapours. producing very high overpressures. where the overpressure value is higher that the geometrical head.SURGE WITH DEPRESSION In most studies on the surge in pipes. given its temperature. it can be observed that the pressure value reached during a surge is less than the static pressure. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X. Pág.
c.8 percent of absolute vacuum.1 As we can see. nº 11 .c. we calculate a vacuum of 631. Said pressures correspond to depressions of 98. The vacuum increase caused by a linear decrease in pressure must be exponential and not linear as usually considered. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X. Boiling Point Temp´s.8 753 99. stand at 9 to 12 mm Hg.w.4 to 98. it is appropriate to make reference to some significant values demonstrating the boiling points of water at different depressions and absolute vacuum. the absolute pressures necessary for cavitation to occur in water at 10 to 15 degrees.8 mm Hg.7 747 98.8 (m. which corresponds to 8. Pág. (º C) Absolute Pressure mm Hg 100 50 20 15 10 5 760 92 17 12 9 6.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS To illustrate the aforementioned. The expression relating negative pressures to vacuums is the following: V (cm Hg)= P 0. These values indicate a boiling point of water at this pressure taht is far superior to the temperature actually present in the conduction.2 Depression mm Hg % 0 0 665 87 743 97.w. temperatures that are usually encountered in pumping systems. almost no industrial machine can reach such extreme values.) Taking this into account in the conduction that concern us. In light of this information and the security mechanisms that are described later on.6 m. we can conclude that the installation is free of danger in the event that an instant shutdown is produced in the pumping group.4 751 98.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF THE OVERPRESSURE SHUTDOWN SURGE 300 250 Field line 200 Static head line Maximum head in shutdown m150 Minimum head in shutdown Manometric head line 100 50 0 0 2000 4000 m 6000 8000 10000 12000 Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X.. Pág. nº 12 .6.
Due to the crucial influence of the shutdown time in the value of the surge.Installation of a balance chimney. the following devices are determined based on the elevation characteristics.Fitting of an air container to the elevation pipe. In many cases.SECURITY MECHANISMS Once the overpressure that the unforeseen shutdown of the pumping group could produce in the installation is calculated and represented. the inertia of which will delay engine revolution loss and. sudden pressure alterations with wide oscillations causing quick material tension variations are not advisable for the good conservation of the pipes . in this case. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X. absorbing most of the gravity energy.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X. nº 13 .7. eliminating the overpressure of shutdown. the pipes have sufficient safety margins to withstand foreseen overpressure. in the backward phase it acts as a brake. increase the shutdown time of the water. we can study the use of devices that are able to reduce and control it. Pág. it is advisable to use some type of protection to lessen these maximum pressure oscillations. . . as a consequence. This device achieves two objectives: the potential energy of the compressed air favours water moving in an upwards direction inmediately after shutdown when it combines with the cinetic energy of the water. The result is that it favours mass oscillation. widely obtained in chimneys. It is possible to utilize numerous systems to achieve this objective.. nevertheless. . consisting of a hermetical camera filled partially with air which is compressed to the manometric pressure at the fitting point.for this reason. meanwhile. minimizing importance to the wave movement which can be very dangerous. a flywheel is incorporated in the rotary part of the elevation group. whose mission is to facilitate the oscillation in mass of the water.
it cannot be be dissolved or escaped. they serve to unload the static pressure of the upper section. accepting air inside the pipe to avoid the formation of vacuums.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS .Incorporation of optimizer pumping valves.Incorporation of release valves or discharge valves which automatically and suddenly allow the release of the necessary quantity of water so that the pipeline pressure does not exceed the limit. is similar to those of ordinary retention. . nº 14 . which are automatic retention valves that work in combination with the start-up or shutdown of the pumps as well as in the case of an eventual abrupt shutdown such as during an energy supply failure. . Pág. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.As an additional safety measure. In addition. check valves will be installed that prevent flow from moving in a reverse direction to that established. thereby preventing the passage of overpressure waves originating at the end of the installation. . .One type of air container is the air bladder bumper of compressed air. provided that a good valve is used. in essence.Placement of air valves at the high points of the profile that open once the pressure reached is equal to the atmospheric one. It has the advantage that since the air is enclosed inside a bladder.Check valves with diferential by-pass that are made up of a main body that. . in the lower segment.
whose objective is precisely the aforementioned. we have used the computer package DYAGATS (Diseño Y Análisis del Golpe de Ariete en Tubería Simple . Pág. For this reason.. As its name indicates. the package allows for the analysis of the transient event (surge) which occurs in a simple pipe (pumped and/or gravity) when one or more disturbance(s) divert the system away from its stationary regime. For this simulation.Design and Analysis of Surge in a Simple Pipe) developed in the Mechanic Docent Teaching of Fluids of the Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Department of the Politechnic of Valencia (Spain). nº 15 .8. The option of using the data bases incorporated in the package. Adequate protection elements and their location and behaviour must be carefully studied in order to keep the installation safe at all times. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.TRANSIENT EVENT STUDY The evolution of the pressure transitories created in a conduction by disturbances that survive in a programmed or unexpected manner in one or several of its points can produce undesired effects that could ultimately have catastrophic proportions. it is important to foresee these events in order to prevent their effects. location and / or characteristics of various protection devices and the opportunity to reanalize the problem. allows us to develop a design work that yields one or more strategies from which a choice based on non-technical criteria can be made.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X. the ability to easily vary the type. Computer simulation of the behaviour of such devices is an irreplaceable tool to elaborate the most adecuate surge protection diagram.
allows us to develop a design work that yields one or more strategies from which a choice based on non-technical criteria can be made. Pág. the package allows for the analysis of the transient event (surge) which occurs in TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) a simple pipe (pumped and/or gravity) when one or more disturbance(s) divert the system away from its TIPO DE PROYECTO stationary regime. the pipelines that transport it and the devices mounted in certain points of the installation that speed up or slow down the rate of transportation by introducing or capturing energy from the system.. Specifically. Speed V or Flow Q.2. in the points of interest of the system (which is probably all of them) at the time in which the transitory turns out to be relevant.8. The aim is to obtain a quantitative description of the transitory by understanding the unkown functions. DYAGATS's aim is to simulate the combined behavior of the fluid.1. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.INSTALLATION COMPONENTS A pressurised pipe is composed of the following elements: the transported fluid. pipelines (conductors) and devices in a simple pipeline.. the ability to easily vary the type. it is a question of solving the system described by the continuity and movement equations within the limit conditions of the system. generally Piezometric Head H. location and / or characteristics ofHIDRÁULICOS CÁLCULOS various protection devices and the opportunity to reanalize the problem. The option of using the data bases incorporated in the package. This simulation is obtained from the superimposition of the behaviour of each one of the elements present.8. A X. nº 16 .SIMULATION MODEL A hydraulic transitory is analyzed by the combined solution of the equations that describe the management of the pressure waves inside the pipelines and the equations that express the limit conditions or behavior of the devices that start and / or modify the disturbances. A X. The behaviour of each element comes described in physical-mathematics models that allow for the numeric cuantification of the variables that characterise the behaviours..As its name indicates.
From the mathematical point of view. these values constitute the initial condition for the integration process that is used to solve the system of differential equations in partial derivatives that constitute the continuity and movement equations. it can be described given the heights of the system nodes and the flow or speed in the lines.The Initial Condition The transitory modifies a previous state of equilibrium (generally the permanent regime) and drives the system to another state of final "equilibrium". piezometric heads. Speed V or Flow Q. generally Piezometric Head H.1. A program that perfoms simulations of transitories must include a calculation method for the initial condition.2. Since this condition is. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X. nº 17 . in general. since it is the starting point of the transitory.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS The aim is to obtain a quantitative description of the transitory by understanding the unkown functions. and speeds and flows which are necessary to know and which constitue the commencement point of the surge. Pág.. The initial equilibrium condition can be described in terms of various pressure values. A X. The calculation of the permanent regime or the initial stationary state is direct and can be precisely obtained provided that the friction and pipeline losses are suitably represented.8. in the points of interest of the system (which is probably all of them) at the time in which the transitory turns out to be relevant. a stationary condition.
0). Using Flow instead of Speed." If the equipment to be analized is made up of different sections of lengths Li.H 0.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X.. nº 18 . the problem for one section is: "Determine H (x .2.The Mathematic Model The general approach to the problem of a simple pipeline involves solving the following problem for each section of the pipeline. t > 0 from a) the initial condition is given by: H(x. Pág. No expression exists which provides the solution for this hyperbolic and nearly linear system in a closed form. and Q (x .t ). b(t .t ) for 0 <= x <= L .Q L ) = 0 where a and b represent the relation that states the extreme limit conditions 0 and L .2.8. Q(x.Q 0) = 0. which we will suppose extends from x = 0 to x = L. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.H L .0) para 0 <= x <= L b) ecuation for the elastic model c) the limit conditions a (t . the beginning and end of each section will be considered limit conditions to be managed simultaneously with the rest of the equations.
. This program has proved to be superior to others in various aspects. This is the technique used by DYAGATS.3. Pág. allowing us to better capture abrupt wave fronts and perfectly illustrate wave propagation. Such curves. .. the partial derivative ecuation system turns into a total derivative ecuation system.The numeric model: Characteristic Method The method is based on the observation that along some lines of the integration area. transforming into a means of propagation for the information (disturbancies) from one moment to the next.2. A X. These differential equations are easily integrated according to the curve characteristics. Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.for the particular case of surge where V << a (the velocity of the fluid is greatly inferior to the propagation celerity of the wave). Important numeric analysis techniques have only been efficient since the development of computers.some of which have been developed very recently -.8. are straight lines with the slope ±a that are denoted by C+ y C-.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS Therefore.that exist if the system is a hyperboloidal type . Amongst the numeric techniques employed to solve the problem that concerns us. It is simple to programme and computationally efficient. nº 19 . the most popular and widespread form is the classic method of the characteristics (CM). called characteristic curves . the only alternative for the rigourous solution of the complete system is numeric analysis.
REPORTS & GRAPHICS In order to illustrate everything referred to above and to show the results obtained.3..Envolvent Pressures A X.2.Transitory Regime Graphic Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.8..3..3. a series of graphics and reports provided by the I.T packet DYAGATS are included below: A X.3..5. nº 20 .8.Minimum and Maximum Pressures in Profile Points A X.220.127.116.11.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X..8.3. Pág.8.Installation Reports A X.Stationary Regime Graphic A X.4..1.
nº 21 .Envolvent Pressures Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.8.3.1. Pág.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X..
nº 22 .Installation Reports Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.3. Pág.2.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X..8.
8.Minimum and Maximum Pressures in Profile Points Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X. nº 23 . Pág.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X..3.3.
3.Stationary Regime Chart Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X. Pág..4.8. nº 24 .
Pág.5.TITULO DEL PROYECTO (PROVINCIA) TIPO DE PROYECTO CÁLCULOS HIDRÁULICOS A X.8.3.Transitory Regime Chart Referencia Obra ANEJO Nº X.. nº 25 .
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