EMPLOYMENT GENERATION IN BRAZILIAN COFFEE REGIONS Flavia M. M. Bliska1, Joaquim J. M. Guilhoto2, Denise Imori2, Fernando M. Sakon2, Fernanda S.

Camargo2, Celso L. R. Vegro3 Due to the specific characteristics of coffee production on each of the main Brazilian states producers of arabica (Coffea arabica) and robusta coffee (Coffea canephora), a better understanding of the structural links between production and industrialization of coffee on those states and the national economy can provide subsides for implementation of public policies, essential to plan the coffee production and increase the sector competitiveness. Therefore, this study analyzed the employment generation in production and coffee industrialization in the major Brazilian production regions, based on an inter-regional input-output model, with seven regions, which represent the main coffee-producing states - Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, São Paulo, Paraná, Bahia and Other States - with 44 sectors each, in a system of 308 sectors. The results indicated that the production of robusta coffee is the sector that generates more employments (total) per currency unit, and that arabica production sector is the fourth largest generator of employments, among the 44 sectors considered for the country. The results for each state emphasized the importance of farming and coffee industry for national and state economies.

Coffee Center, Agronomic Institute, IAC, Av. Barão de Itapura, 1481, Campinas, SP, 13098-344, Brazil, 55 19 3241-5188, Fax 55 19 3212-0458, bliska@iac.sp.gov.br 2 University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 908, FEA I – Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, 05508-900, Brazil, 55 11 3091-5802 / 03, Fax 55 11 3091-6013, guilhoto@usp.br, denise.imori@gmail.com, fsakon@gmail.com, sartori.f@gmail.com 3 Institute of Agricultural Economy, Av. Miguel Stéfano, 3900, Água Funda, Sao Paulo, 04301-903, Brazil, 55 11 5087-0468, Fax 55 11 5073-4062, celvegro@iea.sp.gov.br

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1. INTRODUCTION The coffee crop was introduced in Brazil at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Nowadays its production is dispersed on a large part of the national territory. The migratory character/ aspect of the coffee production remains from the colonial era, and resulted in relevant geographical shifts and structural changes in the Brazilian coffee production. While the coffee production is widespread in the country, it is currently concentrated in six states: Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, São Paulo, Paraná, Bahia and Rondônia. The diversity of social, cultural and, especially, environmental conditions – such as soil, topography, altitude, latitude and rainfall indices - in each of those states, resulted not only in different producing regions and types of coffee, but also in different structures of production, technology and competitiveness. Thus, in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Bahia the culture of Coffea arabica, known as arabica coffee, is predominant, while in the states of Espirito Santo and Rondonia dominates the culture of Coffea canephora, generally known as robusta coffee (Conillon variety), that is used mainly in the coffee industry or in blends with arabica coffee. For many decades, coffee was the main product of Brazilian exports, and despite the reduction of its share in those exports, is still very important for the country, especially on the social aspect. It is present in at least 370 thousand rural properties, 70% of them with familiar character, distributed in 2000 municipalities, in 17 States of the Federation. Furthermore, the manual harvesting accounts for great part of agricultural employment, and for up to 50% of the costs of their production. Each one of those producing states presents segments of their respective coffee production chains with distinct structural and technological levels. However, in most producing regions the prevail production systems is based on coffee intensive labor,

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Another goal is to provide subsidies for implementation of public policies. respectively. for the year 2002.especially during the harvesting. planning of the coffee park and to increase the competitiveness of the national coffee in general. this study aims to provide subsidies to improve the understanding of structural relationships between coffee production and industrialization sectors and the national economy.Minas Gerais. Bahia and Rondônia . due the region and climate. 3 . which include other Brazilian states where coffee production is not significant or there is no coffee production at all. The survey of structures and technical coefficients of/ for production of arabica and robusta coffee. a total of 308 sectors. occurred in 2007.was conducted between September 2005 and August 2006. in each region of arabica and robusta coffee. that can extend from May to September. which is reflected in the reformulation of the System of National Accounts. São Paulo. and it is consistent with the productive structure of the Brazilian economy. 2. it was built an inter-regional input-output model. This system has seven regions and 44 sectors per region. for their respective state economies and other sectors of national economy. Espírito Santo. Due to technological and structural characteristics of the coffee sector. regarding to generation and expansion of employments. Paraná. representing. those six major producer states and the region RBR. METODOLOGY To analyze the behavior and current importance of the sectors of agricultural production and industrialization of coffee for each of the main Brazilian producers. where seasonal and intensive use of labor occurs. in the main producer states . with seven regions. This survey was used as a parameter to build the inter-regional input-output model.

particularly for long-term analysis. The input-output model. i a structured questionnaire was administered. As price-effects may have different consequences. which escapes the scope of this work. pesticides and other chemical inputs / tractors.For the survey. universities. the effects simulated in the system are obtained in terms of quantity. consultants in the industry and the National Supply Company .some information on the changes in levels of inputs and machinery used in the period 2002/2005 (fertilizer.in the case of coffee.a construction of sophisticated models of computable general equilibrium would be required to analyze those effects. mowing machines and other) were also raised in the applied questionaire.CONAB (in Portuguese abbreviation) were adjusted. based on published information on costs of coffee production in Brazil. Indications of change in any of these variables resulted in correction of the value used in the opening of the input- 4 . Different models used by cooperatives. loss of harvest. To reduce the impact of lag time between the data collected . the input-output model is more reasonable. As this study focuses on structural analysis of the coffee sector. developed in partnership with experts from the Institute of Agricultural Economics .called "Agriculture". assumes that the relative price of the system remain constant. Due/ based on that assumption. among others . variations in costs of inputs. The structures of production cost were used to extract the sector of coffee production (beans) from the other sectors of agricultural production in the matrix inter-regional original .such as prices. quantities of raw and wages . The sector of coffee industrialization was already dissociated from the other sectors of the agricultural products industrialization. changes in the international prices. in its original formulation. concerned with the structure of production processes. depending on their cause .IEA and Embrapa Café.

that is. an estimate of the values and prices in 2002 was performed.IBGE. 2002) to open up sectors related to coffee. The values of production of coffee in each producing region were estimated based on 2002 prices. beside other specific sources about the culture of coffee/ or coffee cultivation?. detailed below. The data obtained via questionnaires were compared with secondary data provided by government agencies. which was based on the National Survey by Household Sample (PNAD . construction of an inter-regional input-output system. for the sectors and countries that compose the system. between 2002 and the date of questionnaire application. Type I and Type II. The vector "busy people" of the national input-output matrix was taken out directly from the new system of national accounts. which was based on the National Survey by Household Sample (PNAD . This paper specifically examined the direct.output matrices. The vector "employed persons" of the national input-output matrix was taken out directly from the new system of national accounts.IBGE. based on the estimative(s) of the interviewee(s). 5 . To estimate the profits were also used estimates of prices paid and received by producers in 2002. and the effects of employment multiplier. indirect and induced effects of employment generating/ or generation?. For regionalization. data from PNAD (IBGE. 2002) were used as the basis for opening of the sector "occupied people". research institutes and cooperatives related to the coffee sector. 2002) to open up sectors related to coffee. That is. regarding to the rate of change in the respective region.

6 . From equation (3) it is possible to evaluate the impact of the final demand over total production. over employment. that determines how many employments are generated by a given sector when its production is increased.e. and c) induced employment effect. i. and Y is a (n x 1) vector with values for the final demand. that determines how many employments are generated in all the other sectors when the production of a given sector is increased. indirect and induced employments.Theoretical background The intersectorial flows in a specific economy are determined by technological and economic factors. A is a (n x n) matrix with the technical coefficients of production (Leontief. X = BY B = ( I − A) −1 (2) (3) where B is a (n x n) matrix of the Leontief inverse. b) indirect employment effect. Induced effect model The employment effects can be classified into three types: a) direct employment effect. such that the level of total production can be determined by the final demand. in consequence of rise in their income. with the value of the total production in each sector. 1951). wages. and these flows can be described by the following system: AX + Y = X (1) where X is a (n x 1) vector. and others. and from there. imports. that determines how many employments are generated as a result of households’ consumption. given the increase of direct. the final demand vector can be treated as exogenous to the system. In this model.

respectively. (n+1)x1). that would be represented as  X  X =   X n +1   Y*  Y = *  Y n +1  (5) (6) where B is a ((n+1)x(n+1)) matrix of the Leontief inverse. employment and others (Miller and Blair.To estimate the induced effect. given the consumption of the newly employed people. and by (Y .e. the new vectors of production and final demand would be given. i. we have that the 7 . income. From the Leontief inverse matrix (B). tanking into consideration the induced effect. and (Hr) is a (1 x n) vector with the income coefficient in each sector and (Hc) is a (n x 1) vector with the families’ consumption coefficients. by ( X . for instance. defined above.. As so. one can make the family consumption and family income endogenous in the model. (n+1)x1). and we instead A we will have:  A A= H r Hc  0   (4) where A is the new matrix of technical coefficients with size ((n+1)x(n+1)). how much the increase in employment would generate. over total production in the economy. 1985). and the Leontief system would be represented as X = BY B = ( I − A ) −1 (7) (8) Production multipliers From the multipliers results it is possible to measure the direct and indirect effects of a change in the final demand over productions.

is given by MPj = ∑ bij i =1 n j = 1... that takes into consideration the induced effect. Coefficients and employment generation To estimate the employment multipliers. ej is the total employment in sector j. for each economic sector.production multipliers of Type I. one first go by estimating the coefficients of employment.. The total employment of type I ( E j ) and type II ( E j ). The production multiplier of type II.. generated in sector j are given by E j = ∑ wibij i =1 n n (12) E j = ∑ wibij i =1 (13) where bij and bij are elements of the matrices B and B described above.... n (9) where MPj is the production multiplier for each j sector and bij is an element of matrix B. given by wj = ej xj (11) where wj is the coefficient of employment in sector j. 8 . is given by P j = ∑ bij i =1 n (10) j = 1. n where P j is the production multiplier for sector j and bij is an element of matrix B . and xj is the level of production in sector j..

indirect and induced effects of employment generating/ or generation?.1 Results for Brazil In this section are evaluated the results obtained by multipliers and employment generation coefficients calculated for Brazil. is given by equations (14) and (15) below. and type I and type II multipliers. for the cases of the type I ( W j ) and type II (W j ) multipliers Wj = Ej wj Ej wj (14) Wj = (15) 3. how much employment is generated in the economy for each person employed in a given sector. for sectors of the input-output matrix.The employment multipliers..e. i. Subsequently. allowing the comparison of generation and demand for labor in different sectors present in each state. Multipliers. RESULTS To facilitate the understanding of the relationship occurring among employment coefficient. coefficient of employment multiplication (or multiplier) and coefficient of employment generation (or generator). the results for each state are incorporated. The coefficients are interpreted in accordance with descriptive analysis performed from/ on data extracted directly from the input-output matrices. the results obtained by applying the proposed methodology are presented in tables 1 to 8. are presented at table 1 (the values of employment 9 . 3. built to analyze the sectors directly related to coffee. generators and descriptive analysis of the input-output matrix The direct.

14 indirect and 71 induced. once it focuses on the best size and production activities and its relations with the labor market. "Coffee Arabica" and "Articles of clothing". with new techniques of production. processing and marketing . 20 indirect and 74 induced in the case of robusta. . post-harvesting. a total of 207 employments.such as the launch of new genetically superior materials. The five sectors that generate more employments (total). although the Brazilian coffee agribusiness has been internalized. The total effect of an increase of one million reais on the production of arabica coffee creates/ is an increase of 121 direct employments. are: "Robusta Coffee". The employment generator The direct. Also generates 192 direct employments. the density of cultivation. The analysis with the employment generating coefficients will be evaluated more specifically. "Non-market private services". the irrigation use. due to the generation of employments in farming and industry. In the nineteenth century coffee crop was considered an activity of great social importance. per 1 million reais. "Other Agricultural Products". However. a total of 286 employments.generate effects are expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais. millions of real employments by 2002). the introduction of mechanical harvesting and the spread of good harvest and post harvest 10 . Two parameters will be explored below: the employment generating coefficients and employment multipliers. in constant prices of 2002). indirect and induced coefficients of employment generation are related to the amount of employments and the monetary values (also expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais in constant prices.

in the Cerrado of Minas Gerais. The fruits of robusta coffee are more strongly stuck in the branches than fruits of arabica. "Vegetable oils" and "Dairy" and also higher than sectors such as shoes. The greater importance of robusta coffee for employment generation. Chemistry.vibrators. and an efficient system of mechanical harvesting for robusta coffee is not yet available. rental of machinery or joint purchasing. according to the limitations imposed by the soil slope of some producing regions. 11 . Also depending on the existence of economies of scale. via cooperatives or farmers associations. such as "Manufacturing of sugar". which reduce the use of labor. some areas of southern Minas Gerais and in some regions of São Paulo State. among the 44 sectors of the economy. can be explained by the inability to perform the mechanical harvesting. higher than the position obtained by traditional sectors in the Brazilian agribusiness.practices . Pharmacy. such as southern state of Minas Gerais. but not in the same proportion as the major machines. The mechanical harvesting is limited to small portion of arabica crop. it was found that this sector had the 8thhighest rate of employment generation. with system of "finger" to help overthrow the grains. the results of the input-output analysis indicate that arabica and robusta coffees still use intensive labor-work. compared to arabica coffee. There is equipment to help harvest in small farms . Since up to 70% of Brazilian producers have less than 50ha of coffee. the use of mechanical harvesting is limited to medium and large farms. With respect/ Regarding to the coffee industry.with positive impacts on productivity and quality of the final product. especially in the western region of Bahia. the use of mechanical harvesting is often possible only via outsourcing. Even in medium size farms. the use of labor in these farms is still strong.

or are not able to generate employment from the increase of income of the population resulting from the creation of new employments. the coffee industry presents the 5th-largest multiplier effect. However. the importance of 12 . and induced. which determines how many employments are create directly and indirectly from the creation of a new post in a particular productive sector. compared to other sectors of the Brazilian economy or state economies. by unit currency produced in the final demand. and multiplier Type II. expressed in reais. direct. which again indicates the importance of coffee agribusiness for the Brazilian economy. that add to the Type I employment multiplier the employment resulting from the increase in the population income due to the greater quantity of direct and indirect employment. indirect.2 Results for Brazilian states In this section. the results presented in Table 1 indicate that the sectors of “Robusta” and “Arabica” coffee have the two smaller effects among the 44 sectors of the economy.The employment multiplier As seen above. these sectors are not able to multiply the number of employments when you create a new working post in the industry. Therefore. That is. As for the multiplier effects. the direct. the results indicated that the sectors of production of arabica and robusta coffee are important in generating a large volume of employments. and the values of employment multipliers for the sectors and states of the system in 2002 are presented. one can divide the employment multiplier into the following types: Type I multiplier. In contrast. 3. indirect and induced employment generating. results of the coefficient of direct employment.

because Espírito Santo is the largest Brazilian producer of robusta coffee. the results indicate that the sectors “Robusta”. and the harvest mechanization is not significant. In the State of Minas Gerais. In São Paulo State only the sectors of “Coffee industry” and “Arabica” stand out. since there is no production of robusta coffee in that State. the employment generator (total) of the “Arabica” and “Coffee Industry”. in states where the sectors related to coffee have significant participation. In the states where the coffee sector has great participation. the employment generating effect provides a singular focus forward/ or towards? to the other sectors. the largest Brazilian producer of arabica coffee. most of them are small or family business. were analyzed. and has large number of coffee roasting and soluble coffee industries . In the State of Espírito Santo. coffee sectors are among the five largest generators of total employments: first place for “Robusta”. respectively. Therefore. Basically. third for “Arabica” and fourth place for “Coffee industry”. a large exporter. “Arabica” and “Coffee Industry” are generally among these with the largest employment generators in Brazil. accounting for about 50% of the total volume produced. The "Arabica" sector is the third 13 . This result is consistent with socioeconomic indicators for that State. public policies that stimulate those production sectors should contribute to the employment increase. by the currency unit in final demand. between the largest generators of employment in the period. are. the second and seventh. In addition.employment generating and employment multipliers. and we emphasize that the values of those generators stems mainly from its induced effects. coffee is frequently present in its farms. or at least for its maintenance.

except in periods of harvest. highlighting the importance of Coffea arabica for this state. because in all the other Brazilian states. the analysis of the matrix for Brazil show us that the production of robusta coffee is the sector that generates more employments (total) per 1 million of reais.where dominate properties between 4 and 8 ha. while the sector "Coffee Industry" (roasting and solubilizing) is the eighth largest employment generator in the state. intermediate technological level. among 44 sectors considered. CONCLUSIONS In summary. for roasting and grinding of coffee in this state.the "Norte Velho". represented by the region of Cornélio Procópio . with the 3rd largest employment generator. family labor. and also in Rest of Brazil. the cultivation of robusta coffee presents the biggest/ largest employment generator. the third largest Brazilian producer of robusta coffee.largest employment generator among 44 sectors of the state. when the demand for hired labor increases. In the State of Paraná. This result reflects the land structure of the two main regions of coffee production in the Paraná State . 14 . and above all. there is a concentration of industry. The "Robusta" sector also stands out in the following States: Bahia. Despite the diversity of Sao Paulo industries. which represent many sectors of the state economy. Rondônia. while production of arabica coffee is the fourth largest employment generator. represented by the region of Jacarezinho and "Norte Novo". as well as solubilizing industries. high density production system. the 2nd largest employment generator in the state. "Arabica" was the sector that generated most part of total employment in 2002. the second largest Brazilian producer of robusta.

due to the high degree of industrialization. but there are no indications that the production of arabica and robusta coffee is significant as employment multiplier. "Arabica" third and "Coffee industry" in the fourth. In Paraná State. dairy products and vegetable oils.Regarding the employment multipliers. the generators of total employment of "Arabica" and "Industry coffee" are. from the creation of a new employment. in the state responsible for 50% of national coffee production. Rondônia (second) and Rest of Brazil (the first). on the state economy. because they may cause significant effect on the employment generation and. livestock. in the third and eighth position on the employment generation. the coffee sector and industry are. the coffee sector is the most important sector regarding employment generation. This is a surprising result. Type I and Type II. an arabica producer. characterized by small family farms. the second and seventh largest coefficients in the period. In the Espírito Santo State. respectively. That is. involving very important sectors such as production and industrialization of sugar and alcohol. policies related to the coffee production and industrialization may cause significant social and economic impacts in this state. 15 . In São Paulo. respectively. that produces only arabica coffee. Therefore. the public policies directed to the coffee sector should be carefully examined before being implemented effectively. citrus. or from increasing the income of the population due to the creation of a new employment. the coffee industry had the fifth largest multiplier among the 44 sectors. consequently. the sectors related to coffee are among the five largest generators of total employments: "Robusta" first. The results also indicated that for Minas Gerais State. The "Robusta" sector stands out in Bahia (third largest).

However. Livro em Elaboração. BLISKA. Acesso em 2007b. and BLAIR. v. arabica and robusta.. 1985.br/home/estatistica/população/trabalhoerendimento/pnad200 7/default. http://www. LEONTIEF.J. Fundamentos e Aplicações.http://www. 2005. Estimação da Matriz InsumoProduto a Partir de Dados Preliminares das Contas Nacionais.ibge.M.D. more importantly.E. Departamento de Economia. REFERENCES GUILHOTO. São Paulo. F.. Input-Output Economics. FEA-USP. R. J. SP. C. IBGE Atualiza cálculo do produto Interno Bruto e retrata com detalhes a economia do País. state and national as a whole. the results indicate that the impact of the implementation of public policies that act on sectors of agricultural production of coffee. M. J. 9.gov. J. n. acesso em 2007a.shtm). state and national as a whole. M.shtm. P. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.These results highlight the importance of farming and the coffee industry for both economies. SESSO FILHO. New York: Oxford University Press. IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. VEGRO. GUILHOTO. M.gov. IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 2. Input-Output Analysis: Foundations and Extensions.ibge. (1966). L.. MILLER. Pesquisa Nacional por Amostras de Domicílios. 2007. R. Análise de Insumo-Produto: Teoria. roasting and grinding) should be significant on the employment generation in both economies.br/home/presidencia/noticias/nota_nova_metodologia. W. Umberto Antonio. Evolução e participação da cadeia produtiva do 16 . Revista de Economia Aplicada. and the sector of industrialization (or solubilization.

M. GUERREIRO FILHO. 75 p. 2009. (Orgs) BLISKA. M. F.1. v. Capítulo 2. Dinâmica fitotécnica e socioeconômica da cafeicultura brasileira. n.15-20. M. M.. 2007. et al. jan. 17 . In: Prospecção de demandas na cadeia produtiva do café no Estado de São Paulo.39. 15-18. F. Campinas: Instituto Agronômico. São Paulo: Instituto de Economia Agrícola. Informações Econômicas. p. O. p. BLISKA.café no Estado de São Paulo no agronegócio brasileiro.

69 1. constant prices of 2002.31 3. indirect and induced effects of employment generation.84 21.18 4.96 24.46 1.11 13.25 87.72 13.33 13.59 4.38 23.86 4. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retrial trade Transports Communications Financial intermediation Personal services Business services Real estate Public administration Private households with employed persons 121 192 125 12 1 23 3 5 20 10 8 5 2 7 35 11 10 4 1 6 6 12 32 75 30 6 7 7 11 10 1 16 30 4 42 74 29 6 6 55 36 4 28 149 14 20 26 17 21 20 18 17 14 17 17 20 27 17 28 24 21 32 18 21 20 17 33 33 40 91 76 99 81 72 100 59 19 10 19 11 18 18 12 21 16 2 13 19 71 74 73 51 50 55 48 48 56 53 51 46 51 51 59 57 51 50 39 48 53 48 58 68 60 67 61 65 64 63 63 59 56 50 61 74 64 54 62 70 70 44 80 77 207 286 224 79 72 98 68 69 90 81 77 70 80 76 123 92 81 85 57 74 79 77 123 177 130 164 144 171 156 145 165 134 105 64 123 158 111 77 80 147 123 51 120 245 4 1 3 31 38 23 41 40 25 28 35 39 29 36 17 24 27 26 43 37 32 34 16 5 15 8 13 6 10 12 7 14 22 42 18 9 21 33 30 11 19 44 20 2 1.28 3.00 1.91 12.73 2.45 1.39 1.45 4.74 2.21 2.58 8.70 1.47 3.17 8.73 14.62 1.34 3.15 3.75 4.71 1.01 3.38 12.Table 1.34 15.57 8.41 2.07 4.64 Source: Research results.45 21.76 13. Brazil.68 8.13 1.37 1.79 6.13 14.48 8.11 1.88 7.45 12.48 22. 18 .01 1. expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais.02 4.65 3.12 1.65 3.55 2.49 1.82 1.75 1. trucks and buses industries Motors and parts of vehicles industries Wood and furniture industries Pulp and paper industries Rubber industry Chemical elements Refined petroleum Chemical industries Pharmaceutical and medicine industries Plastic industries Textile industries Clothing industries Footwear industries Coffee industries Other vegetables processing Meat industries Dairy products industries Sugar industries Vegetable oil mills Other food industries Miscellaneous manufacturing Electricity.92 2.13 15.76 3.18 9.28 14.44 2.12 8.45 1.17 2.79 3.83 4.61 6.89 76. Direct.29 25. and type I and type II multipliers.64 142.44 3.14 1. Sectors Direct Employment generating Indirect Induced Multiplier effect Rank Total Type I Type II Arabica coffee Robusta coffee Other agriculture and related services Non-metallic mineral industries Oil and gas Non-metallic mineral industries Steel industries Non-ferrous metal metallurgy Other metallurgic industries Machinery and tractors industries Electric equipment industries Electronic equipment industries Automobiles.67 10.80 2.59 4.53 16.63 13.29 1.10 36.35 8.33 26.48 75.35 4.

72 1.11 4.61 1.81 129.05 1.88 3. expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais.48 1.85 1.03 3.75 3.05 12.71 4.15 79.75 2. Direct.07 3.84 4.89 2.73 3.91 15.04 23.66 7.66 4.37 11. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retrial trade Transports Communications Financial intermediation Personal services Business services Real estate Public administration Private households with employed persons 117 0 72 10 1 26 3 7 21 14 10 7 2 8 53 13 11 3 1 6 7 15 36 91 60 7 10 8 14 10 1 19 40 4 41 87 24 6 7 51 36 3 28 155 14 0 35 16 25 21 20 19 16 20 20 26 30 21 31 25 24 30 22 25 22 22 36 38 49 86 60 73 80 54 93 58 22 10 20 7 18 18 13 23 18 3 12 19 83 0 80 66 68 69 60 64 70 69 66 63 57 67 76 73 66 65 50 64 70 63 72 82 73 78 73 75 68 74 73 70 73 69 76 90 75 71 78 80 83 72 88 83 214 0 188 92 94 116 83 90 108 103 96 97 90 95 160 111 102 98 72 95 99 100 144 211 182 171 143 156 162 138 167 147 135 83 136 184 118 95 98 153 137 78 128 257 2 44 4 37 36 22 41 38 24 25 32 31 39 33 10 23 26 29 43 34 28 27 14 3 6 7 15 11 9 16 8 13 19 40 18 5 21 35 30 12 17 42 20 1 1.85 15.01 8.84 0. trucks and buses industries Motors and parts of vehicles industries Wood and furniture industries Pulp and paper industries Rubber industry Chemical elements Refined petroleum Chemical industries Pharmaceutical and medicine industries Plastic industries Textile industries Clothing industries Footwear industries Coffee industries Other vegetables processing Meat industries Dairy products industries Sugar industries Vegetable oil mills Other food industries Miscellaneous manufacturing Electricity.32 3.76 3.75 13. and type I and type II multipliers.34 7.66 Source: Research results.54 35.47 2.71 13.47 49.12 4.83 7.49 1.16 14.00 1.89 1.37 19.90 37.00 2.08 1.48 3.00 1.17 6.52 6. Sectors Direct Employment generating Indirect Induced Multiplier effect Rank Total Type I Type II Arabica coffee Robusta coffee Other agriculture and related services Non-metallic mineral industries Oil and gas Non-metallic mineral industries Steel industries Non-ferrous metal metallurgy Other metallurgic industries Machinery and tractors industries Electric equipment industries Electronic equipment industries Automobiles. indirect and induced effects of employment generation.34 1.18 141.51 28.66 17.43 1.98 4. Minas Gerais.Table 2.30 9.26 14.81 12.50 8.02 7.89 1.28 14.65 3.95 3.28 2.41 1.81 5.81 6.00 4.49 2.87 35.38 18.12 1.68 11.58 2.33 2.48 1. constant prices of 2002.44 3. 19 .56 3.80 23.02 10.12 0.60 8.45 1.38 118.00 2.08 11.82 4.

30 22.32 14.77 7.87 9.13 25.26 14.70 124.52 3.00 1.05 5.27 2.65 7.16 4.57 12. and type I and type II multipliers.07 6.50 9.91 9.64 1.97 3.83 10.92 4.47 1.73 10.11 1.90 1.82 17.58 29.13 3.81 8.60 3.85 1.44 4.93 18.70 3.99 2.53 2.96 5.52 71.73 2.79 4.59 12.73 2.02 1.36 23.61 2. expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais. Sectors Direct Employment generating Indirect Induced Multiplier effect Rank Total Type I Type II Arabica coffee Robusta coffee Other agriculture and related services Non-metallic mineral industries Oil and gas Non-metallic mineral industries Steel industries Non-ferrous metal metallurgy Other metallurgic industries Machinery and tractors industries Electric equipment industries Electronic equipment industries Automobiles.70 1.94 6.80 199.98 2.44 5. indirect and induced effects of employment generation.37 2.61 3. 20 .13 1.13 1.23 3.78 18. trucks and buses industries Motors and parts of vehicles industries Wood and furniture industries Pulp and paper industries Rubber industry Chemical elements Refined petroleum Chemical industries Pharmaceutical and medicine industries Plastic industries Textile industries Clothing industries Footwear industries Coffee industries Other vegetables processing Meat industries Dairy products industries Sugar industries Vegetable oil mills Other food industries Miscellaneous manufacturing Electricity.15 7.09 1.24 1.42 4. Espírito Santo.08 6.09 2.81 4.57 1.57 2.58 10.40 23.39 1.01 1.35 15.Table 3.78 1.71 3.53 2.66 3.19 9.98 63.66 28.37 19.59 2.48 15.41 10. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retrial trade Transports Communications Financial intermediation Personal services Business services Real estate Public administration Private households with employed persons 142 177 41 10 1 18 2 5 18 11 9 5 3 7 46 9 11 3 1 6 5 10 33 64 61 7 10 6 11 7 1 15 28 4 48 73 23 5 7 44 36 3 30 147 13 17 41 9 19 20 15 15 14 16 15 15 21 15 31 27 16 27 13 18 20 14 33 37 48 116 49 97 51 49 101 55 20 12 17 10 14 15 13 21 16 3 12 20 77 76 43 52 47 52 42 43 50 47 44 34 37 43 56 54 43 47 30 41 50 40 53 61 53 69 49 67 48 52 62 54 50 51 60 75 64 60 68 66 69 61 80 70 233 270 125 71 67 90 59 63 82 74 68 55 60 64 133 91 70 77 43 65 75 64 119 162 162 192 108 170 111 109 164 124 97 67 125 158 102 80 88 132 121 67 123 237 3 1 12 31 36 24 42 40 26 30 33 43 41 38 10 23 32 28 44 37 29 39 17 7 8 4 20 5 18 19 6 14 22 34 13 9 21 27 25 11 16 35 15 2 1. constant prices of 2002.44 1.35 1.78 2.61 Source: Research results. Direct.31 3.45 2.53 6.

24 8.33 185.00 1.96 6. Sectors Direct Employment generating Indirect Induced Multiplier effect Rank Total Type I Type II Arábica coffee Robusta coffee Other agriculture and related services Non-metallic mineral industries Oil and gas Non-metallic mineral industries Steel industries Non-ferrous metal metallurgy Other metallurgic industries Machinery and tractors industries Electric equipment industries Electronic equipment industries Automobiles. trucks and buses industries Motors and parts of vehicles industries Wood and furniture industries Pulp and paper industries Rubber industry Chemical elements Refined petroleum Chemical industries Pharmaceutical and medicine industries Plastic industries Textile industries Clothing industries Footwear industries Coffee industries Other vegetables processing Meat industries Dairy products industries Sugar industries Vegetable oil mills Other food industries Miscellaneous manufacturing Electricity.91 4.47 11.36 3.17 3.62 4.79 2.77 0.69 17.30 76.15 3.Table 4.80 8.81 2.62 3.36 1.60 6.47 3.48 1.16 1.39 11.90 4. and type I and type II multipliers.19 2.28 4.33 1.42 1. expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais.47 1. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retrial trade Transports Communications Financial intermediation Personal services Business services Real estate Public administration Private households with employed persons 93 0 64 13 1 20 3 5 18 11 8 6 2 7 39 10 10 3 1 5 6 11 27 68 45 6 8 6 11 8 1 15 31 3 42 62 28 6 5 49 29 4 25 122 9 0 17 15 19 19 16 16 14 16 16 18 25 17 24 24 22 22 16 21 20 16 33 32 38 69 65 54 49 49 109 56 19 10 15 10 13 13 10 20 14 2 10 17 62 0 64 39 40 48 42 42 50 48 46 40 46 46 50 50 49 43 34 45 45 43 51 58 52 59 57 57 55 55 62 52 48 40 53 61 55 44 52 58 61 33 71 68 164 0 145 66 60 87 60 64 82 76 70 64 72 69 113 84 80 68 51 71 72 71 111 158 134 133 130 117 115 112 171 123 98 53 110 134 95 63 67 127 103 38 107 207 3 44 5 35 40 22 39 37 24 26 31 36 27 32 14 23 25 33 42 29 28 30 16 4 6 8 9 12 13 15 2 11 20 41 17 7 21 38 34 10 19 43 18 1 1.43 2.08 4.69 Source: Research results.22 4.14 1.63 9.42 3.92 25.93 8. 21 . constant prices of 2002.28 5.74 4.14 29.96 11.76 118.61 2.32 13.15 1.84 13.53 5.77 4.18 17.39 21.57 11.59 3.23 9.41 1.00 1. São Paulo.10 0.21 1.92 6.02 33.15 19.11 10.12 87. indirect and induced effects of employment generation.64 1.09 2.85 5.41 6. Direct.59 10.18 8.40 13.48 2.96 1.27 2.07 2.22 1.17 12.70 1.38 2.94 3.26 1.30 22.48 9.31 2.34 13.31 3.31 7.00 2.99 23.

49 1.86 8.81 1.00 1.11 11.06 20.45 1.13 3.88 24.72 13.78 2.66 126. 22 .45 1.13 9.28 10.41 2.71 1.86 2. and type I and type II multipliers.12 3.24 7.43 10.81 11. Sectors Direct Employment generating Indirect Induced Multiplier effect Rank Total Type I Type II Arabica coffee Robusta coffee Other agriculture and related services Non-metallic mineral industries Oil and gas Non-metallic mineral industries Steel industries Non-ferrous metal metallurgy Other metallurgic industries Machinery and tractors industries Electric equipment industries Electronic equipment industries Automobiles.97 5.14 3.01 4.76 4.29 2.29 3.01 55. indirect and induced effects of employment generation. Paraná.74 2.28 1.13 0.49 7.31 3.55 0.95 20.55 9.76 3. expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais.75 4.28 35.14 1.79 7.22 7.06 22.16 2.87 74.25 37.99 3.46 3.26 1. Direct.84 22.17 5.54 9.41 17.38 2.99 2.07 7.85 12. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retrial trade Transports Communications Financial intermediation Personal services Business services Real estate Public administration Private households with employed persons 154 0 95 23 1 18 3 8 24 6 7 7 2 10 24 8 11 4 1 10 11 14 37 80 23 4 6 10 19 16 1 13 25 3 35 53 22 7 7 52 59 4 33 138 19 0 23 22 25 19 18 17 16 18 16 20 27 17 27 25 21 29 18 22 23 15 30 33 42 90 66 100 73 61 83 56 20 6 16 15 20 23 13 23 19 2 16 19 66 0 68 47 46 50 44 46 53 50 47 41 47 48 55 51 47 48 37 43 52 42 49 61 55 68 57 65 60 60 59 55 51 55 60 67 58 51 59 66 66 44 74 72 238 0 186 92 72 88 64 71 93 74 71 68 76 75 106 84 79 82 56 75 86 71 116 175 119 162 129 175 152 137 143 124 96 64 111 136 99 80 79 141 145 50 123 230 1 44 3 23 35 24 41 36 22 34 37 39 31 32 19 26 30 27 42 33 25 38 17 5 16 6 13 4 7 11 9 14 21 40 18 12 20 28 29 10 8 43 15 2 1.Table 5.45 13.21 7.14 2. constant prices of 2002.48 1.33 2.89 11.10 1.46 3.24 1.87 9.53 5.67 3.58 1.82 3.13 3.85 25.95 4.88 3.28 1.34 61.33 1.93 21.66 Source: Research results.54 4.91 4.15 2.60 11.62 4.99 1.00 1. trucks and buses industries Motors and parts of vehicles industries Wood and furniture industries Pulp and paper industries Rubber industry Chemical elements Refined petroleum Chemical industries Pharmaceutical and medicine industries Plastic industries Textile industries Clothing industries Footwear industries Coffee industries Other vegetables processing Meat industries Dairy products industries Sugar industries Vegetable oil mills Other food industries Miscellaneous manufacturing Electricity.

and type I and type II multipliers.15 3.68 1.69 Source: Research results.48 31.53 36.46 4.48 21.39 25.98 3.50 2.25 38.07 1. expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais.Table 6.19 4.40 41.75 10.47 1.01 2.14 2.74 1.39 10.25 66. 23 .75 5.52 1.05 1.64 14.46 1.14 1.47 53.36 30.85 6.42 180.99 2. Bahia.68 4.23 16.75 2.24 16.56 4.96 3.49 7.50 4.75 14.18 22.18 10.63 4.18 1.22 3.54 29. trucks and buses industries Motors and parts of vehicles industries Wood and furniture industries Pulp and paper industries Rubber industry Chemical elements Refined petroleum Chemical industries Pharmaceutical and medicine industries Plastic industries Textile industries Clothing industries Footwear industries Coffee industries Other vegetables processing Meat industries Dairy products industries Sugar industries Vegetable oil mills Other food industries Miscellaneous manufacturing Electricity.50 13.58 1.06 111.79 1.22 4.78 2.08 47.34 1.14 11. indirect and induced effects of employment generation.40 17.85 2. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retrial trade Transports Communications Financial intermediation Personal services Business services Real estate Public administration Private households with employed persons 180 232 352 22 2 49 3 3 16 15 12 9 2 12 54 16 16 7 1 8 5 10 40 104 13 7 11 6 6 14 2 19 45 5 50 132 48 6 7 70 65 4 40 239 33 40 23 20 35 19 22 19 12 17 20 28 36 21 27 31 29 37 24 29 17 21 19 23 27 90 146 189 129 111 202 71 16 14 26 7 24 22 12 24 14 2 17 17 109 131 150 120 102 133 110 117 135 128 124 106 90 122 141 131 116 114 67 102 133 104 141 148 138 99 130 136 111 129 126 110 136 120 112 154 127 130 142 138 150 144 147 148 321 404 525 162 138 202 135 139 163 160 156 143 129 155 222 177 161 159 91 138 155 135 199 275 178 197 287 331 246 253 330 200 196 139 188 294 198 158 162 232 229 150 204 404 6 3 1 27 39 16 41 38 25 29 32 36 43 33 14 24 28 30 44 40 34 42 18 9 23 20 8 4 11 10 5 17 21 37 22 7 19 31 26 12 13 35 15 2 1.41 21.86 6. Sectors Direct Employment generating Indirect Induced Multiplier effect Rank Total Type I Type II Arábica coffee Robusta coffee Other agriculture and related services Non-metallic mineral industries Oil and gas Non-metallic mineral industries Steel industries Non-ferrous metal metallurgy Other metallurgic industries Machinery and tractors industries Electric equipment industries Electronic equipment industries Automobiles. constant prices of 2002.61 13.66 55.76 26.13 10.12 27.70 1.35 3.07 1.16 4.88 17.31 3.15 13.20 9.74 1.43 1.77 2.69 18.16 1.15 27.83 5. Direct.81 1.28 4.21 1.80 113.59 1.38 8.17 1.47 13.

83 4. indirect and induced effects of employment generation.51 7.91 8.27 1.64 3.73 1.07 2.00 1.58 8.38 3. trucks and buses industries Motors and parts of vehicles industries Wood and furniture industries Pulp and paper industries Rubber industry Chemical elements Refined petroleum Chemical industries Pharmaceutical and medicine industries Plastic industries Textile industries Clothing industries Footwear industries Coffee industries Other vegetables processing Meat industries Dairy products industries Sugar industries Vegetable oil mills Other food industries Miscellaneous manufacturing Electricity.39 3. constant prices of 2002.12 44.31 13.01 6. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retrial trade Transports Communications Financial intermediation Personal services Business services Real estate Public administration Private households with employed persons 0 193 105 8 1 45 2 4 17 20 9 5 3 5 57 11 19 5 1 5 4 11 65 150 19 9 12 6 8 14 2 13 27 5 33 147 42 7 8 56 51 5 35 228 0 35 20 26 34 34 25 26 24 28 28 36 43 29 42 36 29 39 25 33 32 28 54 46 49 147 78 105 87 68 102 68 32 19 24 4 22 23 13 24 11 1 14 17 0 119 117 82 95 92 76 84 94 89 85 83 82 85 97 99 79 87 55 83 93 75 93 90 85 107 104 83 80 98 100 90 93 89 101 132 106 105 117 114 124 120 125 121 0 346 242 115 130 171 103 114 135 137 122 124 128 118 196 146 127 131 80 121 129 115 212 287 153 263 194 194 175 181 204 172 151 113 158 282 170 135 138 194 187 126 174 366 44 2 6 38 29 18 42 40 27 25 35 34 31 37 9 23 32 28 43 36 30 39 7 3 21 5 10 12 15 14 8 17 22 41 20 4 19 26 24 11 13 33 16 1 0.40 1.43 1.74 14.14 8.92 46.45 17.89 1.61 17.03 1.29 61. 24 . expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais.97 12.97 30.30 14.03 3.61 Source: Research results.31 3.58 15.71 1. Rondônia.46 3.20 1.Table 7.18 1.80 30.18 5.16 1.07 0.06 5.84 26.02 18.39 2. Sectors Direct Employment generating Indirect Induced Multiplier effect Rank Total Type I Type II Arábica coffee Robusta coffee Other agriculture and related services Non-metallic mineral industries Oil and gas Non-metallic mineral industries Steel industries Non-ferrous metal metallurgy Other metallurgic industries Machinery and tractors industries Electric equipment industries Electronic equipment industries Automobiles.80 5.58 2.71 7.77 8.12 111. and type I and type II multipliers.67 24.25 28.43 1.26 12.45 1.18 29.22 1.66 25.68 26.65 24.19 4.35 7.63 16.12 22.00 1.43 13.66 228. Direct.93 4.00 1.46 147.84 1.92 10.96 13.95 5.52 4.19 2.80 2.77 55.07 2.59 1.60 3.43 4.97 57.01 6.68 24.17 6.53 7.25 16.73 4.87 6.

21 9.05 3.66 25.08 1.89 4.69 1.37 4.59 10.38 6.99 20.25 12.52 16.88 2.44 1.51 1.35 1. gas and water supply Construction Wholesale and retrial trade Transports Communications Financial intermediation Personal services Business services Real estate Public administration Private households with employed persons 201 293 148 12 1 26 3 3 22 8 8 5 3 7 35 12 9 5 1 5 7 13 37 78 25 8 6 7 10 12 1 16 27 4 42 78 32 6 6 60 42 5 28 162 22 39 27 20 22 20 18 17 14 17 18 20 28 17 27 24 21 33 19 21 19 19 35 33 40 89 77 107 86 73 113 62 19 11 21 11 20 21 13 22 19 3 14 20 71 63 75 50 50 57 50 47 60 55 54 46 57 53 61 58 53 51 40 50 57 52 59 71 61 70 62 66 65 65 65 61 58 48 62 76 65 53 61 73 70 40 81 79 294 395 250 82 72 102 70 67 95 81 79 71 88 76 123 94 84 89 60 76 83 84 131 182 126 167 144 180 161 150 179 140 104 64 126 165 117 80 80 155 131 48 123 261 2 1 4 31 38 23 40 41 24 32 35 39 27 36 20 25 29 26 43 37 30 28 15 5 17 8 13 6 10 12 7 14 22 42 18 9 21 34 33 11 16 44 19 3 1.58 3.67 16.23 5.27 7.98 2.41 3.06 80.26 11.69 7.55 3.50 1.43 2.01 27. trucks and buses industries Motors and parts of vehicles industries Wood and furniture industries Pulp and paper industries Rubber industry Chemical elements Refined petroleum Chemical industries Pharmaceutical and medicine industries Plastic industries Textile industries Clothing industries Footwear industries Coffee industries Other vegetables processing Meat industries Dairy products industries Sugar industries Vegetable oil mills Other food industries Miscellaneous manufacturing Electricity.83 14.52 3.04 1.04 1.94 1.11 1.46 1. constant prices of 2002.92 14.11 10.50 12.85 5.72 4.38 9.48 8.43 1.50 1.69 3. and type I and type II multipliers.06 17.55 2.65 3. Direct.36 1.76 3.02 9.04 15.96 2.55 25.43 1.56 12.38 8.25 3.63 4.09 133.82 1.61 Source: Research results.36 4.85 6.83 6.87 84.34 4.58 11.14 1. 25 .66 13.13 33. Other States.Table 8. expressed in the Brazilian currency – Reais. Sectors Direct Employment generating Indirect Induced Multiplier effect Rank Total Type I Type II Arábica coffee Robusta coffee Other agriculture and related services Non-metallic mineral industries Oil and gas Non-metallic mineral industries Steel industries Non-ferrous metal metallurgy Other metallurgic industries Machinery and tractors industries Electric equipment industries Electronic equipment industries Automobiles. indirect and induced effects of employment generation.56 1.60 69.97 14.75 3.72 25.26 19.12 1.06 3.19 2.61 2.47 22.11 3.13 1.51 11.78 7.01 3.