00i7-9310/84$3.o.“J+0.00 :r: 1984 Pqamon Press Ltd.

Flame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers
ARTHUR H. LEFEBVRE
Reilly Professor of Combustion Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A.
(Received

23 February

1984)

brief description of the nature of flame radiation in gas-turbine combustors is followed by a discussion on the methods and models available for estimating nonluminous and luminous emissivity. Since luminous radiation emanates from soot particles in the flame, consideration is given to the processes of soot formation and soot oxidation, and to the influence ofchemical composition on the soot-forming tendencies of fuels. Experimental data on the effects on flame radiation of variations in the combustor operating conditions of pressure, temperature, velocity, and fuel/air ratio are discussed. The important inihrences on flame radiation of fuel properties and fuel spray characteristics are also considered.

Abstract-A

INTRODUCTION

IT IS now well established that in gas turbine combustion chambers a large proportion of the total heat flux to the liner walls is by radiation from thetrame. In the primary combustion zone most of the radiation emanates from soot particles produced in fuel-rich regions of the flame. Soot may be generated in any part of the combustion zone where fuel/air ratios are high and mixing of fuel and air is inadequate, but the main soot-forming region lies inside the fuel spray at the center of the liner. In this region local pockets of fuel and fuel vapor are enveloped in oxygen-deficient burned products at high temperature, thereby creating conditions that are highly conducive to soot formation, At low pressures the presence of soot particles may give rise to a luminous flame, but usually they are too small in size to signifi~ntIy affect the level of radiation [ 11.However, at the high levels ofpressureencountered in modern gas turbines, the soot particles attain sufficient size and concentration to radiate as black bodies in the infrared region. It is under these conditions that radiant heating is most severe and poses serious problems in regard to iiner durability. Despite its considerable practical importance the process of flame radiation in gas turbine combustors has not been subjected to extensive experimental investigation. In fact, the number of reported studies is surprisingly small. This is due partly to the formidable experimental difficulties involved, especially at high combustion pressures, but another reason is that the designer has always been able to offset the heating effects of flame radiation by the injection of sizeable quantities of film-cooling air along the inner surface of the liner wall. On some engines this amounts to over one-third of the total combustor airflow. The resurgence of interest in flame radiation in gas turbine combustors that occurred in the early 1970s originated from the growing body of evidence on the performance penalties associated with film cooling,
KM‘, *7:9-E

such as deterioration oftemperature pattern factor and combustion inefficiency at low power settings. It was also becoming increasingly recognized that filmcooling air is a main contributor to the presence of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases, especiahy at engine idling conditions. Designers are now fully aware of the paramount importance of reducing the amount of air employed in liner-wall cooling to an absolute minimum. The determination of this minimum quantity for any given combustordepends, ofcourse, on a sound knowledge of flame radiation and the manner and extent to which flame radiation is affected by changes in combustor operating conditions, fuel type, and fuel-spray characteristics. At the present time, the main incentives for a better understanding of flame radiation in gas turbine combustors are the uncertainties surrounding the cost and availability of conventional fuel supplies, indicating the need for examination of the effects of possible changes in fuel properties. The most probable changes are expected to be a decrease in hydrogen content together with increases in aromatic compounds and fuel boiling range. Such changes are expected to promote the formation of soot, ieading to an increase in engine exhaust smoke and, more importantly, increased radiative heat transfer from the flame to the liner. The impact of the latter is emphasized by recent studies which show that small increases in liner wall temperaturecan seriously curtail liner life [2]. A better understanding of radiative heat transfer is also needed to help establish realistic models for the prediction of heat-flux distributions within the combustion zone. Such analytical efforts could yield improved liner durability in future designs by prescribing optimum arrangements for the quantity and distribution of film-cooling air. This approach could also lead to significant reductions in the time and cost of liner development. In recent years a number of excellent reviews have

1493

radiates strongly around 2.. In nonluminous flames the banded spectra from H. are depleted by dissociation. CO.due to the larger spacings between emission lines in H. NONLUMINOUS RADIATION The nature of the nonluminous radiation emitted by hot gases has beendescribed by Gaydon [6]. Another important mechanism at low temperatures is collision broadening [lo]. or absorption coefficient infrared-average optical constants of soot particles total pressure [kPa] P 4 R T T. IL. and NO. Methods of estimating nonluminous radiation are discussed together with various analytical models for flame radiation in enclosures.7.. H. total emissivity ET liner wall emissivity %V emissivity due to CO. combustor operating conditions. even at the highest temperatures. notably CO. gases with symmetrical molecules. Although CO can contribute significantly to the emission and attenuation of radiation within flames. but attention is focused mainly on the factors that govern the total radiative heat transfer to the liner wall. but radiation from diatomic molecules. For each molecular specie. The present work is confined to flame radiation in gas turbine combustors. or gas constant temperature [K] initial temperature [K] liner wall temperature [K]. been published on the subject of flame radiation [3-51. and 21 pm. NO.. The number. and N. radiation occurs at a wavelength that corresponds to the vibration frequency of the atoms within the molecule.O and CO.7. The products of combustion consist mainly of H..9. widths. The longer .O.O and CO. and thickness of the gas vslume.O. some consideration is given to the mechanisms of soot formation and soot oxidation.Tourin [7] and Penner [S]. The contributions of SO. and to the effect of changes in fuel specifications on soot formation and flame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers. temperature. and the impact on radiative heat flux of combustor design features. O. A characteristic of gas radiation is that it occurs in the form of band spectra. and N. such as H. The strongest emission bands for H.4.3.1.. As luminous flame radiation is closely linked to soot formation.6.. Water vapor is pressure-broadened more than CO. Another effect of temperature is to fill up the vibration bands with fine emission lines due to rotational transitions which may broaden and overlap due to various ‘broadening’ mechanisms and thus become significant [9]. Emissivity also depends on the size and shape of the gas volume. its contribution is localized and is of secondary importance in evaluating radiative fluxes.1494 ARTHUR H. The fixed location of the emission bands means that the bands gain or lose importance as the temperature changes. In a gas turbine combustion chamber the radiating species are typical of those found in all hydrocarbon flames. As there are several possible modes of vibration. are the most prominent feature at temperatures up to about 3000 K. and other minor species. 4. can be neglected because of their low concentrations. CO. and 15 pm.. At higher temperatures H. along with smaller amounts of CO.. LEFEBVRE NOMENCLATURE c c2 C co2 C HS CF C C:’ C/H r” .. L 1 K P constant in equation (18) Planck’s second constant correction factor for carbon dioxide correction factor for water vapor fuel concentration oxygen concentration soot concentration carbon/hydrogen ratio by mass activation energy volume fraction of soot particles initial beam intensity beam intensity after distance L path length [m] mean beam length [m] extinction coefficient. fuel composition and fuel spray characteristics. Moreover. which are usually combined into a single dimension termed the ‘mean beam length’. the emissions of a gas are essentially discontinuous and consist of a few narrow bands dispersed over the infrared spectrum. and absorptions of the various bands depend on gas composition and on the pressure.. radiation is emitted at a number of different wavelengths. Greek symbols gas absorptivity % nonluminous gas emissivity % soot emissivity s. TV partial pressure [kPa] fuel/air ratio by mass radiative flux. Although solids emit heat at all wavelengths throughout the spectrum.O &Hz0 Stefan-Boltzmann constant equivalence ratio : R specific gravity at 293 K.O arecentered at 1. give no appreciable radiation. is increased. NO.2.3. O. EC01 emissivity due to H.

Calculation of nonluminous radiation The rate of heat transfer by nonluminous from a gas to its enclosure is given by [ 1 l] R = 0. and degree of oxidation of the wall. Comparison of models for water vapor emissivity. Comparison of models for carbon dioxide emissivity. The beam length is determined by the size and shape of the gas volume. composition. ‘T: obtained as is the sum of the chamber entry temperature. 1 and 2.~(T~.5 a(l+~. Most heat-transfer calculations are carried out at high pressures...9. However. The ‘total’ pressure here is the sum of all the partial static pressures and should not be confused with the stagnation pressure. Thus the main factors which govern the nonluminous radiation of gases are pressure.5 ’ as (2) - timel [I31 . Hottel’s well-known and well-utilized gas emissivity charts for CO.0. For a long annular liner.Flame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers 1495 the mean beam length. Investigation over a wide range of values has shown [ 121 that to a sufficiently close approximation T EL-. equation 1. temperature. as shown in Figs. Approximate mean values of F.. Up to the region near stoichiometric. for a ‘total’ pressure of 100 kPa (i.- [IO1 DOCilerty [9] 951 ----------Forog For tubular systems the above expression yields values of beam length ranging from 0. is dependent on the material. For a typical kerosine of the form C. and 0.lq P -=___ P 1+ 1. For most practical purposes it is given to sufficient accuracy [l l] by the expression I = 3.. % 0 Hence. the higher will be the emissivity of the gas._ T. 1 N 0. and the temperature rise due to combustion. . to 0. 1. at typical liner wall temperatures for Nimonic. When these curves are used.9D. where the level of combustion efficiency rarely exceeds 90%. and H.e.-Docherty [9] 1200 1600 2000 (1) may be rewritten 2400 R = 0.60.8.. 2.. T. for a fixed 1200 1600 2cco 2400 FIG. this variation may be expressed to a close approximation WI by 2. and beam length.9D.05q for both carbon dioxide and water vapor. depending on the length/diameter ratio of the liner. and the beam length. where dissociation intervenes.O have long been the traditional means for estimating the total nonluminous radiation from combustion gases [ 131. for which it is reasonable to assume a combustion efficiency of 100%.)E~T~. - -------Hottel ---Leckner [I33 -’ 001 - -.4 volume surface area’ (4) ‘total’ pressure.5 ~(1 +E. temperature. the appropriate value for the fuel/air ratio is the product of the local fuel/air ratio and the local level of combustion efficiency.. stainless steel. respectively. P. In these charts. 1..7.)(~~T~-cx~T~) radiation (1) in which E. 3.. the partial pressures vary with fuel/air ratio as shown in Fig. this does not apply to the primary zone. The bulk or mean gas temperature..+AT. and mild steel are 0. ATcomb T= T. ALIllb may be derived from standard temperature-rise curves. 1 atm).-Lechner [IO] ‘-. even at the highest pressures.H. (3) FIG.‘-T~‘). emissivity is plotted against gas temperature for different values of the product of the partial pressure.

259-0. (12) More general empirical formulae for estimating pcot and pHl. Variation of partial pressure of carbon dioxide water vapor with fuel/air ratio [12]. and H. CHIo.O are obtained separately. equation (11) simplifies to gg = eCozi. (10) However.. and H.054.671 to a highly aromatic fuel [(CH).5 -0. where Cccl 2: 1. Thus.0. AE.03%2-2. using Hottel’s charts to obtain ECo.. Eg= (0.must be deducted.1 (6) = 0. (13) Unfortunately this expression is valid only for gas pressures below 5 atm.15-0. and fuel/air ratios weaker than stoichiometric.-. For the liquid fuels of gas In#uence ofjiiel chemistry The composition of the combustion products and.07514 + 0. More recent work by Farag [15] has yielded correction factors for CO.0.85.O is given by El61 = CJ&c) 1. each gas absorbs radiation from the other.619(1. temperatures between 1200 and 2400 K.00005T)(2Pq1)‘~~~~+~~~~~’*~~. Thus.). have been provided by Kunitomo and Kodama [ 141 as P. respectively. where 4 is the equivalence ratio and R is the specific gravity of the fuel at 293 K. Ccol and CH20r together to obtain the total nonluminous emissivity [133.033R = for 4 < 1.Ccoz. for the various alternative fuels of interest for gas turbine applications. and A&due to Farag [ 151. its value rising with increase in temperature from 1200 to around 1600 K.0783~ = for # > 1.002~]. [ 173. the total radiation emitted is less than the sum of that due to each of the two gases acting alone. in particular the relative proportions of CO.42. or H/(C + H) = 0. For higher pressures more accurate values are given by the empirical formula [ 161.For high combustion pressures (> 1 MPa) and temperatures (> 1200 K).1.724 . 171. inspection of Farag’s graphs reveals that in the regions ofmain interest the values of Ccoz and CNlo tend to remain fairly constant at around 1 and 1.887fi1. The vafues of zcoz and cttzoas read off Hottel’s charts must first be multiplied by the pressure-broadening respectively.. (14) This expression yields values of&. The original work by Hottel included total pressure correction factors for both gases..42.O varies with the carbon/hydrogen ratio of the fuel. after the emissivities of CO./P 0. When both are present.O at the higher levels of pressure of interest for gas turbines.175 0. As does in fact vary slightly with temperature in this range..054.I/#)2 for # 2 1.1. a correction for mutual absorption.which agree closely with the corresponding values from the updated charts for +O2r 8Hz0. but the range ofpressures covered was far too low to meet the needs of modern gas turbines.01-n) x (LOS. For a change from a petroleum-derived distillate fuel [(CH. of which the most widely quoted in gas turbine literature is the following due to Reeves [IS] eg = 1 -exp [-290P(qf)0~5T-1~5].42zHzo. Since the emission bands of COz and H.05 (8) = 0. before being added factors. Emissiuity models Hottel’s emissivity charts are simple to use and are considered accurate in the regions supported by .O overlap. the influence offuel type on nonluminous radiation is expected to be quite small.42(Q-0. It is considered valid for pressures below 4000 kPa (40 atm).092+0. 3.1 (7) P. According to Sarofim [19] emissivities increase with hydrogen content up to a value of H/(C + H) of around 0./P 0. where Aa remains constant at 0. To alleviate this problem various approximate formulae for nonluminous emissivity have been proposed. as described by Sarofim et al. and BE 2: 0. CHlo = 1.077. Although this is true for most practical purposes.05 (9) > Where a large number of emissivity calculations are involved.805)2]2 for f#~ 1.1496 ARTHUR H LEFEBVRE turbine interest Hottel’s charts [ 131 suggest that AE is independent of gas temperature above 1200 K.068/~-0.72[1/&+0. after which it declines slowly with further increase in temperature [lS. and &W2o can be tedious and time consuming. and All the parameters in the above equation can be obtained (sometimes a little extrapolation is called for) directly from Hottel’s charts [ 131.126-0. or H/(C + H) = OS] the emissivity would decrease by just a few percent at high combustion pressures. At these conditions the correction factor for H. and H.44 + P[0. Thus for combustion pressures below 1MPa( 10atm) the nonluminous emissivity is given by 0’ 002 004 006 008 010 Fuel/air ratio FIG.00054/T0.

and Tien and Lee [4]. and correction factors for spectral overlap when dealing with mixtures of various gases do not always exist. Advanced modeling techniques are being developed for predicting the emissions of carbon monoxide. they are not well suited for mixtures of more than two radiating species. can easily be handled. During the past two decades Edwards and coworkers [24-261 have developed the exponential ‘wide-band’ model for radiation from combustion gases. and H. CO. I and 2. This model takes advantage of the fact that infrared radiation from each specie is concentrated into up to six wide-band spectral regions associated with its principal vibrational transitions. and CH. Docherty [9]. This allows the emissivity-~~ relationship for any real gas to be approximated by the weighted sum of a sufficient number ofgray gases. so only their main features are discussed below. and in the following sections consideration is given only to . Moreover. Farag’s results for CO. Detailed information on these models is provided by Viskanta [S]. In theory it might be possible to predict the positions and strengths ofall the absorption lines in the spectrum for a gas. I and 2. but these methods require an accurate description of gas temperature distributions in all regions of the combustor. it is simple to use and appears to have the advantages of accuracy and generality possessed by the more detailed narrow-band made1 for combustion situations [3].O are included in Figs. 1 and 2. NO. fn summary the wide-band model is applicable under widely different physical conditions. Viskanta [SJ.O. SOZ. The numerous individual spectral lines within these vibrational bands are associated with different rotational transitions.O mixtures by Leckner [lo] and Taylor and Foster [23].O are confined to temperatures below 1000 K. [17]. Thus accurate assessments of radiant heat flux are an essential prerequisite for the prediction of liner wail temperatures and liner durability.-H. by Farag [I 51 attempted to the radiation of a number of gray gases. where Hottel’s overlap corrections underpredict the emissivity [3]. Tien and Lee [4]. respectively. Within each interval the spectral lines are assumed to have random or regularly spaced locations. and H. Best-fit parameters have been provided for the wideband model by Edwards and Balakrishnan [25] for the important gases over broad ranges of pressure and temperature. These considerations have led in recent years to the development of several models for flame radiation in furnaces and combustion chambers. 221 have provided the spectral constants needed to calculate for each contributing interval the emission and absorption of most of the important gases over pressures and temperatures of interest in combustion systems. Foster and Taylor’s model also agrees well with Hottel’s empirical correlations but is restricted to low-pressure applications which are of little interest for the gas turbine. but it should be noted that the results presented for H. The results of these extensive theoretical and experimental studies have been reviewed by de Ris [3]. Modak [27] has since revised the wide-band parameters for H. and Docherty [9]. The model has been used successfully by Docherty [9] whose results for CO. Further information on the wide-band model. unburned hydrocarbons. it follows that accurate assessments of pollutant emissions necessitate fairly precise knowledge of radiant heattransfer rates. while their strengths are assumed to follow an exponential or uniform probability distribution [3].O are plotted in Figs. respectively.Flame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers 1497 experimental data. De Ris [3] has shown that Modak’s improved wide-band model agrees closely with Hottel’s correlations despite its completely independent source of data. The method ailows the width of a given band of gas species to be calculated for any mixture at any temperature and pressure. and this is the objective of the ‘just overlapping line’ model of Penner and Varanasi [20]. and mixtures of CO*. Following a model suggested by Sarofim et al. Ludwig and coworkers [21.O appear in Figs. An additional incentive for establishing methods for predicting radiative exchange in gas turbine combustors stems from their potential contribution to the control and reduction of pollutant emissions. The results of Leckner’s calculations for CO. and oxides of nitrogen. Radiativejux models In gas turbine combustors a significant proportion of the total heat transferred from the combustion gases to the liner is by radiation. is contained in the review articles of de Ris [3]. During the last several decades many attempts have been made to alleviate this situation by providing a more general and fundamental spectral basis for gaseous radiation. However. They demonstrate close agreement with Hottel’s charts except at high temperatures and long beam lengths. Unfortunately. As the local temperature of any small segment within the flame zone is influenced strongly by the amount of radiant heat it exchanges with neighboring segments and with the liner wall. A less fundamental but more practical approach is the socalled ‘narrow-band’ model which divides the thermal radiating spectrum into many small intervals for each radiating specie. and other models of relevance to combustion systems. calculations using the narrow-band model require a massive amount ofinput data and large amounts of computer time which makes the model impractical for most engineering applications. and H. Some of the species overlap in their absorption bands and this must be accommodated to avoid overestimating the total mixture emissivity.O which improves the model’s accuracy at temperatures below 1000 K. Simpler approaches based on analytical approximations to the results of the narrow-band model have been developed for CO. H. The agreement of the model with the reference emissivities [ 171 is clearly very satisfactory.

This allows the number of zones into which the combustion volume is subdivided to be greatly increased. Subsequent integration of the equation of radiant energy transfer over each of the smaller solid angles leads to a set of simultaneous partial differential equations for the unknown intensities. The merits and shortcomings of the Monte-Carlo method have been discussed by Viskanta [S]. The method is economical. The total energy emitted by each zone is divided into several beams each of which is emitted with equal energy in a random direction from a random location in the zone. With increase in pressure. Spalding [32] has formulated four. or 6 being small for many applications). Radiation in an absorbing-emitting gray gas within a cylindrical enclosure is normally represented by a four-flux model of the radiative field. The reasons for the inaccuracies in flux methods are {a) the radiant flux is divided into too few directions (2. However. this could also lead to incompatibility between the coarse grid used for radiative transfer calculations and the finer grids required for associated fluid-mechanics calculations ca The Monte-Carlo method is also based on the solution of the simultaneous algebraic equations of three-dimensional (3-D) heat transfer. LUMINOUS FLAMES At atmospheric pressure. A six-flux model is currently in use at the Garrett Turbine Engine Company [35]. but the calculations are greatly simplified by treating the radiative exchange between gases and/or surfaces in a probabilistic manner. The ‘discrete-transfer’ method proposed by Lockwood and Shah [36] is similar to the Monte-Carlo method in that it is based on the solution of representatively-directed beams of radiation within the combustor. As each beam travels through the gas its attenuation is described by Beer’s law. energy. the soot particles can attain sufficient size to radiate as black bodies in the infrared region. If its energy is not totally absorbed by the combustion gases before it reaches a wall surface. LEFEBVRE those which appear most relevant to gas turbine combustors. in this method the ray directions are not random but are specified in advance. 4. and are solved only between two boundary walls. Perhaps the most widely used method for calculating radiative transfer in non-isothermal enclosures is the ‘zone’ method as developed by Hottel and Cohen [ZS] and Hottel and Sarofim [29]_ Application of the zone method requires the whole gas volume to be divided into a number of smaller volumes. thereby producing a luminous flame.and six-flux methods. although radiation fluxes were underestimated [34]. with two fluxes in each of the radial and axial directions. The radiation from each volume to the liner wall can then be calculated. momentum. Two-flux methods have been advocated which involve the use of a one-dimensional (1-D) space grid rather than the twodimensional (2-D) grid required for the four-flux representation [31]. Its principal drawback is that it is time consuming to the extent that it ofl’ers no economic advantage over the zonal method. the remaining energy is reflected back into the combustion volume in a random direction. The method requires only the solution of a set of simultaneous algebraic equations .1498 ARTHUR H. but the accuracy is thereby greatly reduced. the computer time involved may be so lengthy as to seriously restrict the number of zones into which the total combustion volume is divided. Furthermore. At the high levels of pressure encountered in modern gas turbines. and extensions of the two-flux method to multi-~ux and nongray emitting-absorbing media are also discussed by SiddallC333. In addition to limiting the accuracy of the method. and chemical composition [31]. Absorption and scattering by particles in the flame can be accounted for adequately. and the flame is then characterized by a predominance of continuous radiation. however. This simpler approach reduces computational complexity and allows considerable economies in computer time. The calculation continues until the beam energy is completely absorbed c301. and its ability to be applied to complex geometries. It has been found that when a parallel beam of radiation passes through a system of particles the strength of the beam declines exponentially according . easy to apply. emissivity and transmissivity. Another limitation of the flux models is that their extension to general curvilinear coordinates for handling complex geometries is rather cumbersome [35]. and has potential for high accuracy. composition. In the flux methods the solid angular distribution of radiation intensity is subdivided into several smaller solid angles. it is incompatible with the numerical techniques used for fluid flow and temperature field calculations because they require different numerical algorithms. The method appears to be well suited for gas turbine combustors and one such application has been reported [35]. each with uniform properties such as temperature. the soot particles formed in combustion contribute a continuum in the visible spectral range. provided their relative geometrical orientation is known. Its main advantages lie in its flexibility. It can be adapted to a wide range of geometries and is designed to be coupled to fluid flow solutions. the continuous radiation increases in intensity and the molecular bands become less pronounced. and (b) the fluxes in the different directions are unrealistically independent of each other. but usually they are too small in size to radiate appreciable energy in the important infrared region. which may be solved in parallel with the differential equations representing balances in mass. One reported example of the use of the four-flux method demonstrated satisfactory prediction of wall temperatures.

temperature. (171 Yuen and Tien [38] have shown that equation (17) represents an excellent approximation (within 7%) to exact closed-form expressions for soot emissivity based on nongray analysis. /I. + tw (16) 1 -exp(-KL).and the path length [44. the fuel spray characteristics. and Hagglund and Pearson [45] for wood fuels. Gray-soot behavior in luminous flames has been observed by Markstein [46] for gaseous fuels. [19]. is much simpler to use and is quite adequate for most practical purposes. the chemical and physical properties of the fuel.. and the pressure. and I( is the extinction coefficient having the dimensions of reciprocal length. extensive spectral soot calculations are unnecessary. turbulence.7. as well as on the pressure and fuel/air ratio of the burning zone). respectively. the temperature. Substitution from equation (15) leads to the result E.)/f. (which. f. E<. n. whereas the refractive indices.Fiame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers 1499 to the relationship [37] I. This is an important result because it suggests that indices of refraction of all soots should be about the same [40]. in turn.and the mean temperature. Buck& and Tein [44] for polymer fuels. with the exception of K. I. simultaneous measurements of the flame emissivity. It is interesting to note that soot emission does not depend on the separate values of the fundamental soot parameters. Values of k and n for soots produced in propane and acetylene diffusion flames have been measured by Dalzell and Sarofim [393. Further support forthevalidityofequation(lP)has been provided byde Ris [3]. since the gray ~sumption facilitates the reporting of llame property data and also greatly simplifies engineering calculations of radiative heat transfer. [4143]. Thus for regions of the Aame in which reasonable homogeneity prevails. which depended on wavelength. = exp ( . In essence the total emissivity of a homogeneous luminous flame can be expressed in a relatively simple form involving only five parameters. and fuel/air ratio of the flame zone. is the intensity at L = 0. and appear in graphical form in ref.is the soot emissivity and agis the emissivity cf the radiating gases alone. ?: the pathlength. Additional data on optical constants for graphites. but depends only on the value of the effective soot-concentration parameter c. are dependent on T and I. If emissivity can be assumed equal to absorptivity. 7: from extrapolation of simple. then the emissivity of a soot-bearing medium may be defined as E. This is an important issue. and k. and the partial pressures of the two main participating gases. who demonstrated close agreement between predictions of emissivity based on Leckner’s model [lo]. 451.--EgE. Leckner [lo] or Modak [48]. provided that K is given as K = 3. the soot-emission coefficient. and soots are contained in refs. pyrographites..5).6cT c2 081 where c2 is Plan&s c = 3&f” second constant. were found to be practically the same for both extremes. -1. L. with the exact narrow-band calculation of Taylor and Foster [23] for a soot-gas mixture. where E.O and CO. At the present time no quantitative basis exists for linking I< to the size and geometry of the combustor.4]. When attempting to estimate the flame emissivities for a new combustor design all these parameters are either known. &. or can becalculated fairly accurately. To alleviate this situation Lefebvre and Herbert [12] proposed the notion of a ‘luminosity factor’ Lr to . H. Total emissivity of luminousjames On the basis ofgray-soot analysis the total emissivity of a soot-bearing flame is given as e-r = Ep. In recent years a subject of debate has been whether or not luminous flames can be regarded as spectrally gray [3]. the value and importance of equation (18) is that using this simple expression an experimentalist can determine the sootemission coefficient. and c is given by n2k [nZ-(nk)2+2]2+4n2k2 where& is the volume fraction of soot particles and n and k are the infrared-average optical constants of soot particles.6 to 14. The total emissivity of luminous flames predicted by equation (19) is found to give excellent agreement with calculations based on the more precise nongray analysis [38]. Any one of the models for gas mixtures proposed by Docherty [9].KL) (15) where IL is the intensity of the beam after travelling a distance L through the system of particles. The molar carbon to hydrogen ratio of these soots was found to vary from 4. however. The optical constants are expected to be a function of the carbon/hydrogen ratio of the soot and its temperature history [19].. F. Also. According to Sarofim [19] the available data are considered to be sufficiently representative of soots in flames to provide a basis for estimates of the luminous soot contribution to flame radiation. and the pure-gas model of Taylor and Foster [47]. where Lissome characteristic length for a particular geometry. For small particles (no/n < 1) scattering of radiation is small in comparison with absorption and K becomes the absorption coefficient. = (I. = From a practical standpoint. from a theoretical viewpoint the assumption of a homogeneous gray mixture permits the calculation of radiative heat transfer in terms of the characteristic flame shape and the single dimensionless optical depth parameter KL. This assumption makes such calculations very much easier [3. Farag [1. together with equations (17) and (19). coupled with equation (lP).

E. The quasi-global models cannot predict the size of soot particles. exp (-7800/T).g.12 100/T) -3 x 109Co.468p.(q1)“. Tesner [57] proposed a model in which soot formation is assumed to occur in three rate-limited steps : Pyrolysis fi = UC. g.+(x-2m)C. Experiments have shown that the luminosity factor depends largely on the carbon/ hydrogen mass ratio of the fuel. Gaussian). pUHc. 4. equilibrium considerations suggest that solid carbon appears when there is insufficient oxygen to oxidize the fuel to CO and H. and to a lesser extent on the combustion pressure [12. C/H. 561. (25) part. when the C/O atomic ratio exceeds unity. and A..Ci. h.3Co.82)2.H. According to Khan and Greeves [SS] the rate of soot production is determined by the partial pressure of unburned hydrocarbons. (27) The processes governing the rates of formation and subsequent oxidation of soot are highly complex and quantitative models to describe these processes are not yet fully developed.57 (20) The luminosity factor is an empirical correction introduced to obtain reasonable agreement between experimental data on gas radiation and predictions from equation (20). of I. T. LEFEEIVRE accoL*nt for soot radiation into equation (13) gives E = 1 -exp from flames.e./dt dC. However.4 x 1014C. b./dt = 2 x 106P0. soot is observed at C/O ratios much less than unity for temperatures below 2000 K [55]. [-290PL.13 600/T) (29) = 4. the main controlling factors are much better understood. (26) More recently Lefebvre [54] has proposed the following expression for L. and the temperature. me3 s-‘. exp (-E/RT) Nuclei formation rf. However. = ri+(f-g)n-_hNrn part. n is the nucleus concentration. 6. The following equations are essentially those of Edelman and Harsha but the constants have been changed according to the recommendations of Najjar and Goodger [60]. and hence on gas radiation. = 7. Thus. are at least as important as variations in fuel type.5)“. However. quasi-global models have been where CF and Co1 are the concentrations of unburned fuel and oxygen. can be expected to decrease downstream ofthe primary combustion zone because of gradual burnout of the soot particles. (30) .+mO.s4.O691(C/Hwas suggested 1. The value of L. it may be assumed that the soot particles are produced at a known size and a specified size distribution (e. respectively. According to the reaction C.. i. 49-511 and the type of fuel injector employed [52]. (24) (21) Soot formation rf. -t2mCO+. gas oil. where the effects of atomization and fuel distribution on soot formation.5T exp (../dt = 0. Edelman and Harsha [59] have proposed the following modified Arrhenius type of relationship for soot formation rf = AT”Cb. are model constants. For the pressures and temperatures prevailing in gas turbine combustors. = 336/(percentage H. i.)‘. Their equations for kerosine and gas oil are: Kerosine dC. and N is the concentration of soot particles. since soot formation is essentially a non-equilibrium phenomenon.53(C/H -5. is L. Insertion m1.C& exp (-E/RT) g cme3 s-l (28) the formation of soot should start when x becomes equal to or larger than 2m. and C. its practical significance is somewhat dubious for combustors operating at high pressure. The original equation [ 121 for L.H. (21) by developed to characterize the process ofsoot formation via a few overall steps. These workers studied soot formation in a gas turbine combustor when burning kerosine. a.71. ti is the rate of spontaneous formation of nuclei. for the purpose of analysis. SOOT FORMATION THEORY where a. and E are constants for any given fuel. the equivalence ratio of the fresh mixture.1500 ARTHUR H. = m(i-bN)n kgm-3s-‘. Later the following expression Kretschmer and Odgers [53] L. Sootformation models As the exact routes by which soot is formed are poorly understood. The el‘fects of these parameters are combined into the single-step global expression dC. (22) Despite its obvious deficiencies equation (20) is still widely used for rough estimates of flame radiation in gas turbine combustors. = O. This is not a serious drawback since luminous emissivity is determined by the volume of soot present and is independent of particle size. exp (. m is the mass of a soot particle.5]. or residual fuel. (23) Soot oxidation rates are not considered in either of the above models. rnA3 s-l. Such models have demonstrated good potential for predicting soot production rates [35. which is based on the hydrogen content of the fuel L.c43 xexp(-40000/RT)gcm~3s-‘.

[65].51 x 1O-5 exp (-97O~/~T) and K. K. As these two fuels represent fairly wide variations in C/H mass ratio (6. and Kz into equation (36) led to very satisfactory predictions of experimental data on exhaust smoke concentrations obtained over an operating range from idle to full The best-known model for the soot oxidation step is the semi-empirical formula of Nagle and StricklandConstable [64] which is based on a theoretical model of . which is never achieved in gas turbine combustors.46 x lo-’ The following homogeneous reaction also contributes to the depletion of soot co + 0.5 0. (33) +f(.125 52O/RT) g crne2 s-l atm-’ I(. The complete combustion of soot requires the presence of oxygen at temperatures above 1400 K.3 x 109Co.. = 1.4-28.(l-d4 where $ = (I +K&o. Thus in addition to C/O ratio. temperature is also important in determining the soot content of combustion products. However. along with equations (28) and (36). and all the activation energies are in J mol. have been incorporated into a 3-D combustor performance program by Srinivasan et al.8/RT) g cm-’ s-l atm-’ KT = 1.13 800/T) dCJdt = 4.13 exp (17 154. K. However.3Cg5T exp (.78~/~). lo-l3 exp (-I5200/RT). premixed or diffusion) or the nature of the fuel [613. The overall specific surface reaction is given by w = 12C(~~~o~)/(I + Kz~o.=380exp(-12552/RT)gcm-2s-1atm-1 K. (32) (31) 1501 the surface reaction mechanism proposed by Blyholder et al.Flame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers Gas oil dC. As higher temperatures prevail in the fuel-weak secondary zone and. = co2 via the reaction c + CO. $2CO. [3S]. exp ( . to predict soot concentrations in close agreement with experimental data for a stirred reactor.4/RT) atm-‘.K. premixed flames it is generally agreed that in fuel-lean flames the dominant mode of soot depletion occurs via the heterogeneous reaction c +0. a very large proportion of the soot formed in the primary zone is fully consumed in the regions downstream [62. = 5000 exp (20920/RT) atm-’ g cmm2 s-’ At low temperatures ( < 1000 K) the rate ofapproach to equilibrium is slow and little soot is converted into carbon monoxide. Magnussen and coworkers [66.. [56] used equations (28) and (36) for soot formation and soot oxidation. in the dilution zone also. and little affected by the type of flame (i. 631. This formula is nonlinear and non-Arrhenius in regard to poZ and temperature.l./dt = 2 x 106P0. The main features of this model. Insertion of these values of K. assuming a constant soot particle size of 250A. the properties of soots formed in flames appear to be remarkably similar. but they modified the constants to improve the prediction of smoke levels at the conditions of temperature and equivalence ratio found in the primary and secondary zones of gas turbine combustors. Blazowski et al.15 x 10’ exp (-251 ~O/R~ K. (351 (34) x exp (-63 596.~o.)-‘3 K. Preliminary computations indicate its ability to make qualitative predictions.) where P is expressed in atm and species concentration in mol cm. For gas temperatures greater than 1800 K K. Soot oxidation The kinetics of soot oxidation are better understood than those of formation although there remains some doubt as to which species are most important. =4. these expressions assume perfect mixing. Inspection of these equations reveals only marginal differences between kerosine and gas oil. in modern combustors.67] have proposed a model that accounts for the effect of turbulent fluctuations on soot production rates.48-6. laminar. = co. Soot oxidation models where R is the universal gas constant (8. = 2.11900/T) . respectively.2) this might suggest that over the range of fuels of interest to aircraft gas turbines the rate ofsoot formation is about the same for all fuels.314 J mol-’ K. However. Shock-tube measurements of soot oxidation rates confirm the general features of the above formula.3 exp (4100/R?“). K.46x gm-‘s-* (36) KA = 20 exp (-300OO/RT). it is now well established that in gas turbines soot formation is influenced more by the physical processes of atomization. Najjar and Goodger [68] adopted the Nagle and Strickland-Constable equations.5 0. = 2300 exp (.4 x 1014CF exp (. Although attack by OH radicals in excess of their equilibrium concentration has been invoked to account for soot oxidation in fuel-rich.3. For gas temperatures less than 1800 K K. = 21.765) and aromatics (18. and fuel/air/products mixing than by reaction kinetics.e. = 4.‘). evaporation. whereas at temperatures higher than 1400 K the rate ofconversion is fast.

the air/fuel ratio at which the flame just begins to produce soot. Most of the early studies on the influence of hydrocarbon type on sooting tendency concentrated on premixed flames or laminar diffusion flames [57. whereas the latter relate to molecular structure. and in which local pockets offuel vapor are enveloped in oxygen-deficient gases at high temperature. and the intermediate zone high-temperature engines. temperature. on modern dilution zone also). for example. For current combustor designs the efficiency for conversion to soot usually falls between these two extremes. In combustors fitted with pressure-swirl atomizers the main soot-forming region lies inside the fuel spray. at which point the nonluminous component of radiation becomes dominant.1502 ARTHUR H. The former is controlled by physical properties such as viscosity and volatility.61. it would seem most prudent to use the equations developed by Najjar and Goodger [60. also the soot-burning rate peaks at a much lower value of equivalence ratio.05%. which determines the rate of soot consumption. 87-941 and hence cannot be related directly to the conditions prevailing within gas turbine combustors [95. Theextent to which fuel type affects flame radiation depends in any given situation on the efhciency of the processes whereby the carbon contained in the fuel is converted into soot [ 191. combustion pressure and temperature. of the total radiation in the primary zone. increases in the following manner : paraffins < olefins < dicycloparaffins < benzenes < naphthalenes. It is comprised of nonluminous radiation. have demonstrated a strong correlation between exhaust smoke and radiation in the primary zone [71]. the (and. however. Nevertheless it is fully established that flame radiation constitutes a significant proportion of the total heat transferred to the liner walls. from a smoke viewpoint. 63. from 50 to 70% in the intermediate zone. and second by exerting variable resistance to carbon formation. velocity. the fuel spray characteristics and the combustor operating conditions. Most of the apparent anomalies. which governs the rate of soot formation. mainly from carbon dioxide and water vapor. 961. Most of the soot produced in the primary zone is consumed in the high-temperature regions downstream [62. and also various fuel factors such as chemical composition. if the conversion to soot exceeds 3% the emissivity will be so close to unity that variations in fuel composition will have a negligible effect. 79. plus a luminous component which is dependent upon the fuel employed. so that fuel composition usually has a significant effect on flame radiation and liner wall temperatures. In view of the marked differences exhibited by the various models currently available for the prediction of soot concentrations in combustion zones. These include the size and geometry of the combustion system. It is also well established that luminous radiation emanates from soot particles in the flame. and fuel/air ratio. and from 35 to 50% in the dilution zone. fuel/air ratio. its operating conditions of pressure. For gas turbine combustors the main factors controlling soot formation and smoke have been determined experimentally to be fuel properties. LEFEBVRE power [68]. a combustor may be considered to comprise two separate zones-the primary zone. none of which constitutes an independent variable. Also. largely because much of the experimental evzidence is confusing and sometimes contradictory. 74-861. In these high-temperature. 733. at the center of the combustor. atomization quality. Claus [72] has also identified soot as the main contributor to flame radiation.68]. the number of positive conclusions that can be drawn is relatively few. Theeffect offuel composition can be neglected when the quality offuel-air mixing is so good that the efficiency of carbon conversion to soot falls below 0. i. and rate of evaporation of the fuel spray. 77. Najjar and Goodger. 75. Thus. mean drop size.63. The soot concentration actually observed in the exhaust gases is an indication of the dominance of one zone over the other. and mode offuel injection [62. It is of interest to note that the maximum values of the soot-burning rate calculated by Najjar and Goodger are appreciably lower than estimates based on the methods of Lee et al. it is reasonable to assume that the trends observed will provide an indication of actual fuel performance. which affect the mean drop size. Although a considerable amount of work has been done in measuring flame radiation and in assessing its susceptibility to various influences. the sooting Little work has been reported concerning . but it does have the considerable merit which derives from the use ofequations in which all the constants are based on the results of experiments carried out at representative gas turbine combustor conditions. Fuel properties Fuel properties can influence smoke production in two ways: first by inducing the formation of local overrich fuel regions. penetration.e. soot may be produced in considerable quantities by vapor-phase cracking. These studies showed that the incipient sooting limit. Nevertheless. COMBUSTION CHAMBERS fuel-rich regions. drop-size distribution and radial fuel distribution (effective spray cone angle). This is the region in which the recirculating burned products move upstream toward the fuel spray. Their approach has no fundamental advantage over other methods. 70. [69] and Fennimore and Jones [70] . are due to the circumstance that flame radiation is dependent on a large number of parameters. His experiments on a JT8D can combustor showed that soot contributes typically from 70 to 807.

Millikan showed that soot formation in premixed flames decreases as the flame temperature is . -O. has shown that changing the fuel from natural gas to heating oil and then to heavy distillate fuel produces a progressive increase in radiant heat flux to the liner wall. Moses and Naegeli also used the Phillips 5 cm combustor. There appears to be a number of competing soot formation and oxidation steps whose relative importance varies with inlet air temperature. for example. as well as aT-63 enginecombustor. 1051 were able to produce fuels of constant hydrogen content and varying aromatics content. by suitable blending Naegeli and coworkers [104. Figures 5 and 6 are typical of the results obtained. experimental fuel blends containing high concentrations (>20”4 mass) of naphthalenes or tettalins exhibit sooting properties that are more dependent on the presence ofsuch components than on the hydrogen content. Their results showed that the sooting tendencies of fuels containing only single-ring aromatics are related to the overall hydrogen content (or C/H ratio) of the fuel. and fuel/air ratio. These blended fuels allowed them to study the separate effects on game radiation of C/H ratio and percentage aromatics. The most important factor governing emissivity at high pressures is the soot concentration. They concluded that hydrocarbon molecular structure has at most a minor effect on flame radiation and that hydrogen content or C/H ratio is the main factor. As in previous studies Wright found that soot forms at O/C ratios greater than unity. More recent work by Kuznar et al. [105] and by Clark [106]. The results oftheir tests on the Phillips 5 cm combustor showed a systematic increase in radiative flux with increase in combustion pressure and decrease in fuel hydrogen content. also found that under some operating conditions the sooting tendency is affected significantly by polycyclic aromatics. but Wright’s studies on soot formation in a jet-stirred reactor f97. reference velocity. However.PA)]. However. [lOI] and Humenik et al.100] who investigated a wide range offuels at combustion pressures up to 1. Bowden and Pearson [95] used a model gas turbine combustor to study the influence of air/fuel ratio on the sooting tendencies of various hydrocarbons. The work of Hunyadi and Anderson [107]. although the relative magnitude of the contributions made by emissivity and Aame temperature to this increase is not yet clear. Air-inlet te~p~r~t~re All the available evidence suggests that flame radiation increases markedly with rise in air-inlet temperature. which implies that the soot-forming reactions are gas-phase rather than liquid-phase pyrolysis.O%(o/. [102] on much larger gas turbine combustors generally confirmed Schirmer’s results. It is apparent in this figure that flame radiation has a linear dependence on polycyclic aromatics content. but the strong recirculation of burned products did afford some broadening of the soot-free O/C ratio. Naegeh et al.Flame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers 1503 tendencies of turbulent diffusion flames. According to Clark Cl063 an appropriate correlation parameter for these data would be C%H.5 MPa (15 atm).1 <n < 0. They also noted that fuel viscosity and boiling point distribution have no significant effect on radiation even with end points as high as 675 K. Available evidence on the influence of fuel type on flame radiation in industrial gas turbine combustors generally confirms the results obtained with aircraft combustion chambers. In subsequent studies. but the C/H ratio is the principal correlating parameter.4. 981 have relevance to gas turbine combustors because both systems employ backmixing of combustion products to stabilize the game. to study the effect of fuel composition on flame radiation [103]. Effects of hydrogen content and polycyclic aromatic ring carbon on flame radiation intensity [105]. FIG. Their results showed that the dominant soot formation mechanisms in gas turbine engines are dependent on combustor operating conditions. Clark has proposed an alternative fitting parameter having a nonlinear dependence on polycyclic aromaticity of the form CO/oH2 WA)“1 where 0. more radiation flux data from fuels whose polycyclic aromatics content is either very low or very high are needed to determine which fitting parameter is best. The important intluence of hydrogen content on flame radiation was first demonstrated by Schirmer and coworkers [99. As both expressions appear to be equally valid over the range ofexisting data. The advantage claimed for this parameter is that it provides an excellent fit to the radiative flux data obtained both by Naegeli et al. Figure 4 shows what was typically observed for the effect of polycyclic aromatic ring carbon on flame radiation. 4.

some of which derive from chemical effects. The net effect is to increase the surface-to-volume ratio of the spray so that both the rate of evaporation and the drag of the spray are increased. as shown in Fig. 7. or at equivalence ratios below about 1. regardless of its influence on emissivity. where equivalence ratios are usually well below unity. In the primary zone of a gas turbine combustor the effect of an increase in inlet air temperature could be either to increase or decrease soot formation. One adverse effect of an increase in pressure is to extend the limits of flammability. is due to the Stefan-Boltzmann 4th power relationship between radiation and temperature. This. These pyrolytic reactions would be expected to be temperature sensitive. nonluminous and luminous components of emissivity. Measurements of flame opacity and flame temperature in the Phillips 5 cm combustor led Naegeli et al. so that combustion is initiated earlier and a larger proportion of the fuel is burned in the fuel-rich regions adjacent to the atomizer. a reduction in mean drop diameter. the effect of an increase in air-inlet temperature is always to increase flame radiation. while others stem from physical factors which affect spray characteristics and hence the distribution of mixture strength in the soot-generating regions of the flame [76-811. There are several reasons for this. the main factor contributing to high flame radiation at high pressures is the influence of pressure on the characteristics of the fuel spray.400E e 200- P=1200 kP0 00’ 05 IO DL’ In 15 20 FIG.1504 ARTHUR H. the soot oxidation reactions will be enhanced. the latter by promoting the rate of soot oxidation. being controlled by chemical kinetics. LEFEBVRE p=1200 kP0 Ill K K Combustion and tnh?+ pressure (MPo. Increases in pressure also accelerate chemical reaction rates. leading to lower soot concentrations. . would be too rich to burn. This was attributed to increased oxidation of soot particles by OH radicals in the flame. at the same time. K) 1200 q=os To= 573 temperature 1000 YE Tw=973 z 600g B . However.6 MPa. Pressure Problems due to flame radiation are most severe at high pressures. Heat 16 ’ I I I 16 20 Air/fuel 22 rc1110 24 26 I fluxto liner walls as a function of fuel type and air/fuel ratio [107]. 5. increased [lOS]. at lower pressures. For premixed kerosine-air flames it is found that no soot is formed at pressures below around 0. if ample air is available and mixing rates are adequate. Thus. These two effects are cumulative in reducing the penetration of the spray.600E _D LL 400- 200- 01 FIG. to conclude that fuel pyrolysis is a dominant process in the formation of soot in turbulent diffusion flames [llO]. so that soot is produced in regions which. In contrast Glassman and Yaccarino [109] showed that the sooting tendency of diffusion flames increased with an increase in flame temperature. Downstream of the main combustion zone. If the burning zone is fuel-rich an increase in temperature will accelerate the pyrolitic reactions and thereby produce more soot. With pressure atomizers of the duplex or dual-orifice type.6. Effect of combustor operating conditions and fuel hydrogen content on flame radiation [103]. depending on the local fuel/air ratio. instead of the fuel distributing itself evenly across the primary 600 - YE 3 'i 600E P B .3 [79]. 7. of course. However. An increase in gas pressure produces an increased resistance to the movement of individual fuel drops and. Influence of liner diameter and fuel type on heat flux to liner wall [107]. an increase in air-inlet temperature tends to lower both the FIG.

to reductions in emissivity and radiation. Measurements to support this view have been reported by Marsland et al. This is shown in Fig. Airblast atomizers are spared these problems because the fuel drops they produce are always airborne and their distribution throughout the combustion zone is dictated solely by the liner airflow pattern which is not susceptible to changes in pressure. Although the increase in temperature is not large. if the change in velocity is accomplished by a modification to the combustor flow area. most combustors are designed within a fairly small range of reference velocities. by improving the atomization quality. tends to reduce it.8. the rise in fuel pressure. 5 for a large industrial-type chamber. on maximum and a rise in fuel pressure. surrounded by oxygen-deficient gases. an increase in velocity leads to a reduction in radiation intensity [52. However. In general. 1031. can be significant. All reported studies on the effect of pressure show that flame radiation increases markedly with an increase in combustion pressure [49-52. The increase in fuel flow tends to raise the soot concentration but. operating at constant pressure and overall air/fuel ratio. for reasons of size and pressure loss. 96. FIG. For each air/fuel ratio the level of radiation increases to a zone. which is proportional to T4. However. The superior performance of the airblast atomizer is due partly to better atomization but also to the thorough fuel-air mixing incurred in the atomization process prior to combustion. if the pressure is raised continually the soot concentration will eventually reach a level such that blackbody radiation is approached so that additional soot will have little or no effect. In general. Velocity Since. The net result is that the influence of velocity is usually quite small. any decrease in fuel flow rate automatically lowers the fuel concentration in the reaction zone. hence. The results shown in Figs.3. thereby reducing the rate of soot formation and hence the flame emissivity. The effect ofan increase in velocity is to raise the turbulence level in the combustion zone and probably also the proportion of the total airflow that is entrained into the recirculation zone. and also in Fig. This local fuel-rich zone. Both effects lead to improved mixing and aeration of the soot-forming regions in the flame and. even when the overall equivalence ratio in the primary zone is well below 1. However. with the fuel and airflows kept constant. 100. 9. the influence of velocity on radiation has no great practical significance. For any given combustor. 99. 7 and 8 are typical of those obtained in all investigations. Influence of fuel injection radiation method [52]. 9 in which the three curves correspond to three different values of the air/fuel ratio. cm [52]. which effectively eliminates fuel-rich pockets from the combustion zone. so that the net effect is a significant reduction in flame radiation. its effect on radiation. FIG. [49] and Najar and Goodger [71]. leading to high rates of soot formation. At the same time the combustion temperature falls. Thus all that is needed to eliminate soot is to ensure that nowhere in the flame region is this equivalence ratio exceeded. Fuel/air ratio Holderness and Macfarlane [79] have shown for premixed kerosine/air mixtures that no carbon is formed at equivalence ratios less than 1. imperfections in fuel-air mixing can create local regions in which pockets offuelrich mixture are enveloped in oxygen-deficient gases at high temperature.3. Another mechanism by which flame radiation is enhanced at high pressures stems from the effect of pressure in suppressing chemical dissociation which results in higher combustion temperatures. A further increase in pressure beyond this critical value will tend to reduce liner wall temperatures by increasing the convective heat transfer between the liner and its cooling air. 103. then the influence of velocity is more pronounced. 1111. Influence of overall fuel/air ratio and downstream distance on flame radiation . at high pressures it tends to concentrate at the center of the liner in the vicinity of the spray nozzle.Flame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers 1505 4 6 8 IO I 20 100 kPa 30 I flame Combustion pressure. The effect of a change in velocity on radiation depends upon how the change is brought about. for pressure atomizers. an increase in velocity is accompanied by a corresponding increase in fuel flow Distance from atomizer. constitutes ideal conditions for the production of soot.

The practical significance of these results lies in the fact that problems of liner overheating tend to occur at the two extreme operating values of air/fuel ratio. Ideally. Extinction occurs when the relative velocity between the droplet and the surrounding air exceeds a certain critical velocity. In the design of the liner. This critical velocity depends on the droplet size and the composition of the combustion gases. Thus. while at full power the radiant heat flux to the wall is most severe in the intermediate zone. Figure 6 shows experimental data on this effect. an important factor affecting soot formation is the relative velocity between the droplets in the fuel spray and the combustion air. overheating of the dome is the most serious problem. the actual extent of this increase being greater for lower initial values of emissivity. As the fuel spray approaches the flame zone. as mentioned earlier. soot formation does not occur until the amount of available air is reduced to around 75% of the stoichiometric value. With a premixed flame. For a heavy distillate fuel it was found that a fourfold increase in liner diameter produced a ZOO/. for the diffusion flame surrounding a droplet. maximum value with downstream distance. as in the NASA lean premix-prevaporize combustor [ 113. An increase in fuel flow reduces the radiation in the dome region and produces higher levels further downstream. any modification to either the fuel injector or liner that reduces the concentration of fuel in this region will effectively reduce soot formation and hence. Increased fuel flow causes the peak to occur further downstream. The smaller dropletsin the spray have enough time to evaporate completely ahead of the flame front. In general. each of which is surrounded by a diffusion flame.for example. heat transmitted from the flame starts to evaporate the droplets. in their subsequent mixing with fuel and combustion products. Combustor size An increasein liner size should increase gas radiation owing to the longer beam length. such as occurs in the airblast atomizer. Thus.114] will reduce luminous flame radiation and will also make flame radiation much less susceptible to variations in fuel composition. the beneficial effect of exhaust-gas recirculation in curbing soot formation may be due in part to a lower extinction velocity caused by a reduction in the oxygen concentration of the combustion gases. or which attempt to achieve complete evaporation of the fuel and complete mixing of fuel and air prior to combustion. However. At high air/fuel ratios (corresponding to engine idle conditions). either by increasing the relative velocity between the droplet and the surrounding air. important that the primary-zone air should have sufficient penetration to reach the soot-forming zone at the center of the liner. So. and they burn as individual droplets. the larger droplets in the spray do not have sufficient time to evaporate completely. by raising the turbulence level. with pressureswirl atomizers any improvement in atomization quality reduces the penetration of the fuel spray and leads to the formation of fuel-rich. characteristics According to Sjorgren [ 1121. soot-forming zones adjacent to the fuel nozzle. radiation levels attain their highest values near the dome or flare. SUMMARY OF MAIN POINTS All experimental observations on the influence of design factors and operating variables on flame radiation in gas-turbine combustors are consistent . and then starts to decline.1506 ARTHUR LEFEBVRE H. any modifications that lead to better premixing of air and fuel prior to combustion. or by changing the composition of the air so that the flame around the droplet either goes out or becomes a premixed nonsooting flame in the wake of the droplet. However. It is. Maximum radiation is obtained at the highest fuel how and occurs just downstream of the primary combustion zone. also flame emissivity [76]. the primary zone should be no richer than stoichiometric and preferably much weaker. Thus an increase in air/fuel ratio can have little or no effect on soot formation. care should be taken to ensure that the maximum possible amount of air participates in primary-zone recirculation. Combustor design In combustion chambers fitted with spray atomizers. soot formation is dependent only on the fuel and the size of the drop. Fuel spray Unfortunately. A high-pressure drop is particularly useful because it assists both in the penetration of the air jets and also. increase in radiant heat transfer. at low power settings. the main soot-forming region lies at the center of the primary zone inside the fuel spray. of course. Fig. obtained by Hunyadi and Anderson [ 1071. consistent with adequate relighting capability at altitude. This penetration is determined mainly by the size of the primary air holes and the pressure drop across them. and the fuel vapors then mix with the combustion air and burn essentially as a premixed Aame. The extinction velocity increases in proportion to the square root of the drop diameter and falls off considerably with a decrease in oxygen concentration. 8) are due in no small measure to the thorough fuel/air mixing incurred during atomization which effectively eliminates fuelrich pockets from the combustion zone. It follows therefore that a main objective offuel nozzle design should be to ensure minimum drop sizes at the combustor operating conditions where excessive flame radiation could lead to serious overheating of the liner. Thus the lower levels of soot and Aame radiation that are generally associated with airblast atomizers {see. The above discussion highlights fuel drop size as a key factor affecting soot formation and flame radiation. In these circumstances it is advantageous to try to extinguish the flame.

Viskanta. between about 0. However. C. D. J. Further fuel flexibility is obtained with fuel injectors that provide some measure of fuel-air mixing prior to atomization. Most of the soot produced in the primary zone is consumed in the hightemperature. remains a serious impediment to the prediction of flame radiation and liner wall temperatures. but to what extent this is due to the elimination of fuel-rich pockets by better mixing. Radiative heat transfer. Prog. (in press). Provided sufficient oxygen is available an increase in inlet-air temperature will generally lower soot concentrations due to the enhancement of soot oxidation rates. C. by reducing the contribution made by radiation to the liner walls. the situation in regard to flame radiation in gas turbines is satisfactory only to the extent that the influences of fuel composition and the operating variables of pressure. With airblast atomizers flame radiation attains its maximum value fairly close to the fuel injector and then slowly diminishes with increase in downstream distance. Energy 4. Weeks and 0. A. Fuel property effects on life characteristics of aircraft turbine engine combustors. the fuel spray characteristics. Energy Combust. Fire radiation-a review. Not the least advantage of a fuel weak primary zone is that. overheating of the dome is the most serious problem. A. temperature. Bahr. beyond which it declines due to soot oxidation. where a small increase in radiant energy can drastically reduce liner life.Flame radiation in gas turbine combustion chambers 1507 with the view that luminous radiation emanates from soot particles produced in the high-temperature. L. within the pressure range of interest for gas turbinesi. Increase in fuel flow rate causes the peak to occur further downstream. Gleason and D. the lack of a satisfactory quantitative basis for linking the emissivity of a luminous flame to the size and geometry of the combustion chamber. With the advances now being made in analytical methods and modeling techniques. R. and the pressure. or to improved atomization is not clear. G. London (1957). The results of recent studies show that hydrogen content. Gaydon. The manner in which flame radiation varies along the liner length is very dependent on the mode of fuel injection. Thus the soot concentration actually observed in the exhaust gases is an indication of the relative importance of the competing soot formation and soot oxidation processes. the chemical and physical properties of the fuel. velocity. The Combustion Institute (1978). since it is at high pressures. 2. 247-258 (1958). W. Inst. C. Sci. is the principal correlating parameter for sooting tendency and flame emissivity. Some studies of radiating flames in a small gas turbine type combustor. The Spectroscopy ofFlames Chapman & Hall.e. VerfTech. For light and middle distillate fuels this soot formation is due primarily to gas phase reactions.) on Combustion.21&222 (1980). de Ris. Fuel composition is unimportant at low pressures where nonluminous radiation predominates. Flame radiation increases with increase in combustion pressure. fuelrich regions of the combustion zone. In combustors fitted with pressure-swirl atomizers flame radiation increases with increasing distance downstream of the fuel injector until a peak is reached. 17th Symp. oxygen-rich regions downstream. This is a serious weakness. the flame radiation will almost certainly increase due to the fourth power relationship between total radiation and temperature. wall temperatures become less sensitive to variations in fuel composition. Tien and S. although both the nonluminous and luminous components of emissivity are usually diminished by elevation of inlet-air temperature.5 MPa (5-25 atm)-flame radiation is very dependent on fuel type and composition. J. All the available evidence indicates that flame radiation decreases with increase in combustor reference velocity. depending on the fuel/air ratio. such as the airblast atomizer. J. Fortschr. However. 1003-1016. temperature. turbulence. C. Acknowledgement-The author wishes to thank his colleague for his useful comments and Professor Ray Viskanta suggestions on this paper. fhat accurate estimates of radiation intensity are most needed. J. with the air supplied in the form of highly turbulent jets of sufficient penetration to reach potential soot-forming zones. while at full-power operation the radiant heat flux to the liner wall is most severe in the intermediate zone. REFERENCES 1. and air/fuel ratio are known qualitatively. 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.1510 100.“HR”HH) CKOPOCTli npOLleCCb1 Ha MX 06~d3OBaHWi nnaMeHH MeXCfiy H OKMCJleHHR. Lean premixed/prevaporized combustion. Naegeli. Fuel property effects on combustion performance. Cohn. in Gas Turbine Comhustor Design Problems (edited by A. R. G. 66. C. Yaccarino. pp. W.b. 46. J. F.2551(1954). paCCMOTpeH0 EdHHblX TeM”epaTy. Claus and G. L. 168-175 (1983). NASA CP-2016 (1977).ly’IeHHe Ha Hposeneuo 06cynneuue pa6oqero PenHMd TOnnHBa H BO3RyXa. DC (1980). Lefebvre (editor). 14th Symp. J. NASATM-79148( 1979). temperature. Hemisphere Press. CseTruieGca cpen. A. Chem. ASME Paner No. Phys. M3nYYEHME AHHOT~ZUI~-~~HO 3aTeM paCCMOTPeHb1 cnoco6~ocTrr HaXOnllUWXCI HnAMEHM B TOHOqHblX KAMEPAX FA30BbIX TYPEiMH rcpa-rkoe omfcamie xaparrepa MeTO. M. wa reunenumo x ca~eo6pasoaaumo.WSRHWe iS3P03ORbHblX w+nyvemie c~oiicre XapdKTepHcTHK. RADIATION DE FLAMME DANS LES CHAMBRES DE COMBUSTION DES TURBINES A GAZ R~sum~-Unerapidedescriptiondelanaturedurayonnementdeflammedansleschambresdecombustionde turbine a gaz est suivie dune discussion des mtthodes et des modeles disponibles pour estimer l’emissivite des gaz lumineux ou non. Effect of flame temperature and fuel composition on soot formation in gas turbine engines. prevaporized combustion for aircraft gas turbineengines. Dodge and C. E. I. H3. C. Kuznar. Topper. Classman and P. Moses and D. R. T. FLAMMENSTRAHLUNG IN BRENNKAMMERN VON GASTURBINEN in Gas~~mmenfassung-Ausgehend von einer kurzen Beschreibung der Flammenstrahlung turbinenbrennkammern werden die vorhandenen Methoden und Modelle zur Bestimmung des Strahlungsvermiigens im nicht sichtbaren und im sichtbaren Bereich eriirtert. Energy 7. Da sichtbare Strahlung durch RuDpartikel in der Flamme verursacht wird. Parametric study of flame radiation characteristics of a tubular-can combustor. Arizona. (Int. Ind. pp. Schirmer ARTHURH. Naegeli. 104. Phillips Petroleitm Company. . TaKxe fidBn‘?HllR. W. D. 112.) on Combustion. Clark. 111. W. High pressure combustor studies of Rame radiation as related to hydrocarbon structure. Washington. tianyYenwa iinaMemi a TontoBx raloabtx ryp6nH. Western States Section/The Combustion Institute. 82-GT208(1982).. Temperatur. 1175-l 183. Fuel property effects on Same radiation in aircraft turbine combustors. Lefebvre). 83-JPGC-11 (1983). radiation 106. Spring Meeting. A. Naegeh and C.794 (1962). 114. Ebenso werden die wichtigsten Einfliisse der ~rennstoffeigenschaften und Brennstoffzerst~ubungscharakteristik auf die Flammenstrahlung in Betracht gezogen. Fall Meeting in Tempe. A. pdCCMOTpeHb1 fl0 B. Moses. Radiat heat transfer from flames in a turbojet combustor. workshop held at Lewis Research Center. Neely. J. A. 103. 108. Naegeli. G. L. J. E. ASME Paper No. Stockholm (1971). Sooting tendency of fuels containing polycyclic aromatics in a research combustor. R. et l’influence de la composition chimique sur la tendance des combustibles a former de la suie. The temperature effect in sooting diffusion flames. pp. 18th Symp. 1 a 102. L. L. Geschwindigkeit und Brennstoff/Luft-Verhaltnis) auf die Flammenstrahlung diskutiert. A. J. W. L. Non-equilibrium soot formation in premixed flames. Des experiences pour l’effet sur le rayonnement de flamme des variations de pression.) on Combustion. Paper presented at the Western States Section of The Combustion institute. Humenik. 105. Anhand von MeOdaten wird der EinfluB veranderlicher Betriebsbedingungen in der Brennkammer YDruck. Mularz. M. Hunyadi and L. 109. werden Uberlegungen fiber die Vorgange der RuBbildung und RuDbxidation sowie fiber den EinfluB der chemischen Zusammensetzung von Brennstoffen auf die Neigung zur Bildune von Rug anrestellt. Anderson. 19-20 October (1981). Dodge. A. G. 3669. M. premixed. and H. Soot formation by combustion of an atomized liquid fuel. Sjorgren. Puisque le rayonnement lumineux &mane des particules de suie dans la flamme. Lean.5). Moses. Technical note-AIAA (in press). Combustor flame radiation and wall temperatures for # 2 distillate and a coal derived liauid fuel. 110. Tobery and A. 919-927. Moses. A. Engng Chem. The Combustion Institute (1973). On considire aussi importance sur le rayonnement des proprietes du combustible et des caracttristiques de la pulverisation. April (1980). II ero Tonnwr3a H OTHOlUeHHfl KOnUWCTBOM maMew! CyiUeCTBeHHOe B. The Combustion Institute (1981). vitesse et rapport combustible/air permettant une discussion. R. Research Division Report 3952-65R (196. Cleveland. Y13MeHeHHti xuMuqeckor0 CocTaaa ronnnaa 3KCnepHMeHTiLNbHblX TO”KH. W. Millikan. The fuel property-came relationship for gas turbine combustors. H. D. on considere les micanismes de formation de la suie et de I’oxydation de la suie. CIMAC Conf. J.. Quigg. W. Dodge and C. BJIHIlHlle a TaKNe Jl0C~onbKy ~0CT0il~ KOTOpble HecBeTsuieiica B nnaMeHH. 113. a HCnO~b3y~TCff eTopan WIR OWZHKH H3 ~3flyq~Te~bHO~ vacmu CaxH. Heat transfer in industrial combustion chambers.!Y!bl N N MOLtenit. H. D. 101. (Int. LEFEBVRE 107.

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