Term paper on Micro Strip Patch Antenna and Its Application

By 4th year student

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Electronics and Communication Stream
Prepared By Brhane Dadiso (ID NO. CET/UR 0146/01)

Submitted To: Tawetu A.

1 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE)

year student BRHANE DADISO

Submission date: 03/06/12

Table of content
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 ABSTRUCT -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4

1. Micro strip patch antenna --------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.1 History ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.2 Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.3 Advantage and disadvantage ----------------------------------------------------------------7 1.4 Antenna quality factor (Q) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 1.5 Feed techniques --------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 1.5.1 Micro strip line feed -------------------------------------------- --------------------------8 1.5.2 Coaxial feed -------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 1.5.3 Aperture coupled feed ------------------------------------------------------------------10 1.5.4 Proximity coupled feed ------------------------------------------------------------------11 1.6 Methods of analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 1.6.1 Transmission line model ---------------------------------------------------------------------13 1.6.2 Cavity model ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 1.6.3 Full wave solutions method of moment -------------------------------------------------18 2. Application of micro strip antenna ---------------------------------------------------------------------18 2.1 Mobile and satellite communication application ---------------------------------------18 2.2 Global Positioning System applications -----------------------------------------------18 2.3 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) -------------------------------------------------19 2.4 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) --------------------19 2.5 Radar Application --------------------------------------------------------------------------19
2 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO

Tawetu A. 3 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .6 Rectenna Application ------------------------------------------------------------------------19 2. (M. Miss.8Medicinal applications of patch --------------------------------------------------------19 CONCLUSION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 ACKNOWLEDGMENT First and foremost I would like to thank to our Instructor.Sc) for her giving us this term paper.7 Telemedicine Application -----------------------------------------------------------------19 2. to collect data and to prepare my document and presentation power point. Am also want to thank my friend Gebrekurstos Mebrahtom who helped me by giving laptop to search information about my topic.2. Because this will improve our presentation performance and we will get some knowledge about our topic.

the feeding techniques and application of micro strip patch antenna with their advantage and disadvantages over conventional microwave antennas. 4 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .ABSTRUCT In this term paper I try to explain the micro strip patch antenna. methods of analysis.

1. MICRO STRIP PATCH ANTENNA 1. This is a relatively new area of antenna engineering.1 History Micro strip antennas are attractive due to their light weight. 1. conformability and low cost. micro strip antennas based on photolithographic technology are seen as an engineering breakthrough. As conventional antennas are often bulky and costly part of an electronic system. The radiation properties of micro strip structures have been known since the mid 1950’s.2 Introduction In its most basic form. a Micro strip patch antenna consists of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate which has a ground plane on the other side as shown in Figure 1. These antennas can be integrated with printed strip-line feed networks and active devices. A major contributing factor for recent advances of micro strip antennas is the current revolution in electronic circuit miniaturization brought about by developments in large scale integration. Rectangular and circular micro strip resonant patches have been used extensively in a variety of array configurations. The patch is generally made of conducting material such as copper or gold and can take any 5 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . The application of this type of antennas started in early 1970’s when conformal antennas were required for missiles.1.

the length L of the patch is usually 0. The dielectric constant of the substrate ( ) is typically in the range 2.3333 <L<0. circular.5 where is the free-space wavelength. The height h of the dielectric substrate is usually 0. triangular. the patch is generally square.possible shape. For a rectangular patch. The patch is selected to be very thin such that t<< (where t is the patch thickness).1 Structure of a Micro strip Patch Antenna In order to simplify analysis and performance prediction. Figure 1. and elliptical or some other common shape as shown in Figure 1. rectangular. The radiating patch and the feed lines are usually photo etched on the dielectric substrate.2 ≤ ≤ 12 6 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .5 .2.3333 <h<0.

larger bandwidth and better radiation [5]. Some of their major disadvantages are given below: • Narrow bandwidth • Low efficiency • Low Gain • Extraneous radiation from feeds and junctions 7 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . 1.Figure 1.. hence can be manufactured in large quantities. such a configuration leads to a larger antenna size.3 Advantages and Disadvantages Micro strip patch antennas are increasing in popularity for use in wireless applications due to their low-profile structure.2 Common shapes of micro strip patch elements Micro strip patch antennas radiate primarily because of the fringing fields between the patch edge and the ground plane. In order to design a compact Micro strip patch antenna. However. Therefore they are extremely compatible for embedded antennas in handheld wireless devices such as cellular phones. linear as well as circular polarization. Some of their principal advantages discussed by [5] and Kumar and Ray [9] are given below: • Light weight and low volume. a thick dielectric substrate having a low dielectric constant is desirable since this provides better efficiency. Hence a compromise must be reached between antenna dimensions and antenna performance. • Low profile planar configuration which can be easily made conformal to host surface. • Supports both. Another area where they have been used successfully is in Satellite communication.. • Mechanically robust when mounted on rigid surfaces. • Can be easily integrated with microwave integrated circuits (MICs). • Capable of dual and triple frequency operations. The telemetry and communication antennas on missiles need to be thin and conformal and are often Micro strip patch antennas. For good antenna performance. • Low fabrication cost. higher dielectric constants must be used which are less efficient and result in narrower bandwidth. pagers etc. Micro strip patch antennas suffer from a number of disadvantages as compared to conventional antennas. .

Q can be reduced by increasing the thickness of the dielectric substrate. These methods can be classified into two categories contacting and non-contacting. the RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a micro strip line. In the contacting method. • Surface wave excitation 1. 1. This surface wave contribution can be counted as an unwanted power loss since it is ultimately scattered at the dielectric bends and causes degradation of the antenna characteristics. aperture coupling and proximity coupling (both non-contacting schemes).• Poor end fire radiator except tapered slot antennas • Low power handling capacity. Other problems such as lower gain and lower power handling capacity can be overcome by using an array configuration for the elements. However.4 Antenna quality factor Micro strip patch antennas have a very high antenna quality factor (Q). a conducting strip is connected directly to the edge of the micro strip patch as shown in Figure 1. Q represents the losses associated with the antenna and a large Q leads to narrow bandwidth and low efficiency. 1. 8 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .3. The four most popular feed techniques used are the micro strip line.1 Micro strip Line Feed In this type of feed technique. The conducting strip is smaller in width as compared to the patch and this kind of feed arrangement has the advantage that the feed can be etched on the same substrate to provide a planar structure.5 Feed Techniques Micro strip patch antennas can be fed by a variety of methods. surface waves can be minimized by use of photonic band gap structures. In the non-contacting scheme. But as the thickness increases. an increasing fraction of the total power delivered by the source goes into a surface wave.5. electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between the micro strip line and the radiating patch. coaxial probe (both contacting schemes).

Hence this is an easy feeding scheme. This is achieved by properly controlling the inset position.3 Micro strip Line Feed The purpose of the inset cut in the patch is to match the impedance of the feed line to the patch without the need for any additional matching element.5. increases.Figure 1. the inner conductor of the coaxial connector extends through the dielectric and is soldered to the radiating patch. The feed radiation also leads to undesired cross polarized radiation.2 Coaxial Feed The Coaxial feed or probe feed is a very common technique used for feeding Micro strip patch antennas. However as the thickness of the dielectric substrate being used. As seen from Figure 1. while the outer conductor is connected to the ground plane. since it provides ease of fabrication and simplicity in modeling as well as impedance matching.4. surface waves and spurious feed radiation also increases. 9 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . 1. which hampers the bandwidth of the antenna.

This feed method is easy to fabricate and has low spurious radiation. Also.5. for thicker substrates. 10 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . the increased probe length makes the input impedance more inductive. It is seen above that for a thick dielectric substrate.02 ). its major disadvantage is that it provides narrow bandwidth and is difficult to model since a hole has to be drilled in the substrate and the connector protrudes outside the ground plane.Figure 1. the micro strip line feed and the coaxial feed suffer from numerous disadvantages. which provides broad bandwidth. 1. Coupling between the patch and the feed line is made through a slot or an aperture in the ground plane. the radiating patch and the micro strip feed line are separated by the ground plane as shown in Figure 1. leading to matching problems. thus not making it completely planar for thick substrates (h ˂ 0.4 Probe fed Rectangular Micro strip Patch Antenna The main advantage of this type of feeding scheme is that the feed can be placed at any desired location inside the patch in order to match with its input impedance.3 Aperture Coupled Feed In this type of feed technique. However.5.

The amount of coupling from the feed line to the patch is determined by the shape.5. This scheme also provides choices between two different dielectric media. low dielectric constant material is used for the top substrate to optimize radiation from the patch. due to overall increase in the thickness of the micro strip patch antenna. one for the patch and one for the feed line to optimize the individual performances.6. The major disadvantage of this feed technique is that it is difficult to fabricate due to multiple layers. This feeding scheme also provides narrow bandwidth. As shown in Figure 3. The main advantage of this feed technique is that it eliminates spurious feed radiation and provides very high bandwidth (as high as 13%). 1. Generally. leading to lower cross-polarization due to symmetry of the configuration. spurious radiation is minimized. Since the ground plane separates the patch and the feed line.Figure 1.5 Aperture-coupled feed The coupling aperture is usually centered under the patch. 11 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .4 Proximity Coupled Feed This type of feed technique is also called as the electromagnetic coupling scheme. two dielectric substrates are used such that the feed line is between the two substrates and the radiating patch is on top of the upper substrate. size and location of the aperture. which also increases the antenna thickness. a high dielectric material is used for the bottom substrate and a thick.

1 below summarizes the characteristics of the different feed techniques. Also. there is an increase in the overall thickness of the antenna. Table 1.6 Proximity-coupled Feed Matching can be achieved by controlling the length of the feed line and the width-to-line ratio of the patch. The major disadvantage of this feed scheme is that it is difficult to fabricate because of the two dielectric layers which need proper alignment.1Comparing the different feed techniques [4] 12 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .Figure 1. Table 1.

The cavity model is more accurate and gives good physical insight but is complex in nature. The full wave models are extremely accurate. 1. separated by a transmission line of length L.6 Methods of Analysis The most popular models for the analysis of Micro strip patch antennas are the transmission line model. These give less insight as compared to the two models mentioned above and are far more complex in nature. typically the substrate and air. The micro strip is essentially a non-homogeneous line of two dielectrics.1 Transmission Line Model This model represents the micro strip antenna by two slots of width W and height h. The transmission line model is the simplest of all and it gives good physical insight but it is less accurate. stacked elements. 13 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . and full wave model [5] (which include primarily integral equations/Moment Method). finite and infinite arrays. arbitrary shaped elements and coupling. versatile and can treat single elements.6.1. cavity model.

since the phase velocities would be different in the air and the substrate. this transmission line cannot support pure transverse. Hence.9 below. most of the electric field lines reside in the substrate and parts of some lines in air.Figure 1. an effective dielectric constant (εreff) must be obtained in order to account for the fringing and the wave propagation in the line. width W resting on a substrate of height h .electricmagnetic (TEM) mode of transmission. Instead. which shows a rectangular micro strip patch antenna of length L .7 Micro strip Line Figure 1. as seen from Figure 1.8 Electric Field Lines Hence. As a result.8.8 above. The co-ordinate axis is selected such that the length is along the x-direction. width is along the y-direction and the height is along the zdirection. 14 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . The expression for ε reff is given by • Where εreff = Effective dielectric constant εr = Dielectric constant of substrate h = Height of dielectric substrate W = Width of the patch Consider Figure 1. the dominant mode of propagation would be the quasi-TEM mode. The value of ε reff is slightly less then εr because the fringing fields around the periphery of the patch are not confined in the dielectric substrate but are also spread in the air as shown in Figure 3.

the voltage is maximum and current is minimum due to the open ends.11). The dimensions of the patch along its length have now been extended on each end by a distance ∆L.9 Micro strip Patch Antenna In order to operate in the fundamental TM 10 mode. which are in phase.11 Side View of It is seen from Figure 1.10 shown below. Figure 1. The fringing fields along the width can be modeled as radiating slots and electrically the patch of the micro strip antenna looks greater than its physical dimensions.Figure 1. Along the width of the patch. The tangential components (seen in Figure 1. which are λ/ 2 apart and excited in phase and radiating in the half space above the ground plane. Hence the edges along the width can be represented as two radiating slots. separated by a transmission line of length L and open circuited at both the ends.11 that the normal components of the electric field at the two edges along the width are in opposite directions and thus out of phase since the patch is λ/ 2 long and hence they cancel each other in the broadside direction. which is given empirically by as: 15 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . means that the resulting fields combine to give maximum radiated field normal to the surface of the structure. and there is no variation along the width of the patch. The TM 10 mode implies that the field varies one λ/ 2 cycle along the length. the micro strip patch antenna is represented by two slots. In the Figure 1.10 Top View of Antenna Antenna Figure 1. the length of the patch must be slightly less than λ/ 2 where λ is the wavelength in the dielectric medium and is equal to λ0 / εreff where λ is the free space wavelength. The fields at the edges can be resolved into normal and tangential components with respect to the ground plane.

it has some inherent disadvantages. 16 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .The effective length of the patch Leff now becomes: Leff = L +2∆L For a given resonance frequency . the width W is given as: 1. the interior region of the dielectric substrate is modeled as a cavity bounded by electric walls on the top and bottom.2 Cavity Model Although the transmission line model discussed in the previous section is easy to use. it is useful for patches of rectangular design and it ignores field variations along the radiating edges.6. For efficient radiation. Specifically. In this model. The basis for this assumption is the following observations for thin substrates (h <<λ). A brief overview of this model is given below. the resonance frequency for any TMmn mode is given as: Where m and n are modes along L and W respectively. These disadvantages can be overcome by using the cavity model. the effective length is given by [9] as: For a rectangular Micro strip patch antenna.

The attractive mechanism is between the opposite charges on the bottom side of the patch and the ground plane. The electric field is z-directed only. the current on the top surface of the patch would be almost equal to zero. in practice. which would not allow the creation of any tangential magnetic field components to the patch edges. This observation provides for the electric walls at the top and the bottom. As a result of this charge movement. When the micro strip patch is provided power.e. and the magnetic field has only the transverse components Hx and H y in the region bounded by the patch metallization and the ground plane. a charge distribution is seen on the upper and lower surfaces of the patch and at the bottom of the ground plane. The cavity model assumes that the height to width ratio (i.12 Charge distribution and current density creation on the micro strip patch. Hence.12 shown above. height of substrate and width of the patch) is very small and as a result of this the attractive mechanism dominates and causes most of the charge concentration and the current to be below the patch surface. which causes pushing of some charges from the bottom.e. the four sidewalls could be modeled as perfectly magnetic conducting surfaces. This implies that the magnetic fields and the electric field distribution beneath the patch would not be disturbed. Much less current would flow on the top surface of the patch and as the height to width ratio further decreases. The repulsive mechanism is between the like charges on the bottom surface of the patch. i.• • Since the substrate is thin. Consider Figure 1. Figure 1. currents flow at the top and bottom surface of the patch. the fields in the interior region do not vary much in the z-direction. a finite width to height ratio would be there and this would not make the tangential 17 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . This charge distribution is controlled by two mechanisms-an attractive mechanism and a repulsive mechanism. normal to the patch. However. to the top of the patch. which helps in keeping the charge concentration intact at the bottom of the patch.

as well as the material within it are lossless. Application of micro strip Antenna The Micro strip patch antennas are well known for their performance and their robust design. In case of satellite communication circularly polarized radiation patterns are required and can be realized using either square or circular patch with one or two feed points. 18 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .6.. It is expected that millions of GPS receivers will be used by the general population for land vehicles. Hence.2 Global Positioning System applications: Nowadays micro strip patch antennas with substrate having high permittivity sintered material are used for global positioning system. satellites and of course even in the military systems just like in the rockets. Micro strip patch antenna has several applications. lowcost.1 Mobile and satellite communication application: Mobile communication requires small. but they being very small. the applications are in the various fields such as in the medical applications. the surface currents are used to model the micro strip patch and the volume polarization currents are used to model the fields in the dielectric slab. The advantages of this Micro strip patch antenna are to overcome their de-merits such as easy to design. Some of these applications are discussed as below: 2. the cavity would not radiate and its input impedance would be purely reactive. Since the walls of the cavity. light weight etc. 2. Micro strip patch antenna meets all requirements and various types of micro strip antennas have been designed for use in mobile communication systems. In this method.magnetic fields to be completely zero. the usage of the Micro strip antennas are spreading widely in all the fields and areas and now they are booming in the commercial aspects due to their low cost of the substrate material and the fabrication. very compact and quite expensive due to its positioning. It is also expected that due to the increasing usage of the patch antennas in the wide range this could take over the usage of the conventional antennas for the maximum applications. one must introduce a radiation resistance Rr and a loss resistance RL. 2. aircrafts missiles etc. A lossy cavity would now represent an antenna and the loss is taken into account by the effective loss tangent δeff which is given as: δeff 1/ QT QT is the total antenna quality factor 1.3 Full Wave Solutions-Method of Moments One of the methods. the side walls could be approximated to be perfectly magnetic conducting. in order to account for radiation and a loss mechanism. fabrication and their extent usage. that provide the full wave analysis for the micro strip patch antenna. is the Method of Moments. These antennas are circularly polarized. low profile antennas. aircraft and maritime vessels to find their position accurately.

Wearable micro strip antenna is suitable for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN).7 dB and a F/B ratio of 11. two coupled Micro strip lines are separated with a flexible separation which is used to measure the temperature inside the human body. ore rectification filter. post rectification filter. Rectenna is a combination of four subsystems i. It can reach up to 30 mile radius theoretically and data rate 70 Mbps.4 Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax): The IEEE 802. A flexible patch applicator can be seen in the figure below which operates at 430 MHz.3 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): RFID uses in different areas like mobile communication. 2. The initial designs for the Micro strip radiator for inducing hyperthermia was based on the printed dipoles and annular rings which were designed on S-band. it is necessary to design antennas with very high directive characteristics to meet the demands of long-distance links. this can only be accomplished by increasing the electrical size of the antenna. Antenna. 2. Only the patch radiator fulfils these requirements. 3. easy in handling and to be rugged. And later on the design was based on he circular micro strip disk at L-band. 2.8Medicinal applications of patch: It is found that in the treatment of malignant tumors the microwave energy is said to be the most effective way of inducing hyperthermia. The fabrication technology based on photolithography enables the bulk production of micro strip antenna with repeatable performance at a lower cost in a lesser time frame as compared to the conventional antennas. There is a simple operation that goes on with the instrument. therefore.45GHz is suitable for telemedicine applications. transportation and health care. logistics. 2.7 dB and resonates at 2. a special type of antenna that is used to directly convert microwave energy into DC power.16 standard is known as WiMax. RFID system generally uses frequencies between 30 Hz and 5. The proposed antenna achieved a higher gain and front to back ratio compared to the other antennas.7 Telemedicine Application: In telemedicine application antenna is operating at 2. Since the aim is to use the rectenna to transfer DC power through wireless links for a long distance. The design of the particular radiator which is to be used for this purpose should posses light weight. manufacturing.6 Rectenna Application: Rectenna is a rectifying antenna.5 Radar Application: Radar can be used for detecting moving targets such as people and vehicles. light weight antenna subsystem.e. Basically RFID system is a tag or transponder and a transceiver or reader. 2. In rectenna application.3 and 5. MPA generates three resonant modes at 2.2.8 GHz depending on its applications. rectifier. be used in WiMax compliant communication equipment. 19 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO . It demands a low profile.45 GHz.3 GHz and can. A antenna having gain of 6.7. in addition to the semi directional radiation pattern which is preferred over the Omni-directional pattern to overcome unnecessary radiation to the user's body and satisfies the requirement for on-body and off-body applications. the micro strip antennas are an ideal choice.

Moreover. worldwide interoperability for microwave access. telemedicine and medicinal. rectenna. broad band-width.CONCLUSION Micro strip patch antennas have more advantages and better prospects. radar. the micro strip patch antennas can provide dual and circular polarizations. They are lighter in weight. Due to having these properties it has a lot of application. and beam scanning omnidirectional patterning. global positioning. low cost. radio frequency identification. low profile. feed line flexibility. dual frequency operation. smaller in dimension and ease of fabrication and conformity. low volume. frequency agility. for example mobile and satellite communication . 20 Term paper on Micro strip Patch antenna prepared by (ECE) year student BRHANE DADISO .

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