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Quails by some distinction are classified as game-hunting birds and as such, quails should not be compared with chicken,

whose requirements are different. On a commercial scale, quail raising has not attracted the interest of the investors because of the lack of data particularly with regards to feeding. Many people who go into quail raising are usually hobbyist who are not income-conscious. Breeds of Quail

Japanese Seattle Silver Negro Japanese Taiwan/ Chinese Quail Tuxedo Brown Crosses nos. 1 and 2

Starting the Project To start a project, care must be exercised in the selection of the first stock. There are many quail breeding farms on and near the Metro Manila area. A. Selection of Stock For a beginner, it is best to start with quail pullets about 30-35 days old. Some of the pointers in selecting quails are: 1. Body conformation o 1. The feathers should be tidy and neat o 2. Avoid buying those with streak of white or black feathers these could be signs of inbreeding 2. Choose birds with uniform size. A mature (60 day old) Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) would have an average weight of 120 grams. However, a 30-35 day-old bird would only average 100 grams. The American quail (Coturnix conurnix) however weight heavier at 220 grams for the mature bird and 200 grams for the 30-35 days old. 3. Record the parents stock o 1. Size of eggs o 2. Laying efficiency a 65% average laying efficiency within 300 days laying period is desirable. o 3. Growth rate/ body weight B. Size of the Flock The size of the initial stock totally depends on the financial capacity of the person. However, it is not advisable to start big. Quails are not easy to raise and a beginner should first get the necessary experience before going into large scale. Quails multiply rapidly and therefore expansion will not be a problem. A beginner can start with 10-15 pullets.

Management A. Housing and Equipment One of the advantages in quail raising is the relatively small space that is required. Commensurately, the cost of putting up a cage is less. The materials commonly used in making quail cages are: 1) plywood 2) 1/4 inch mesh wire 3) 1 x 1 lumber to serve as framework for every stage in the quails life, space requirement varies. This is true as in the case of the other fowls and even livestock animals. The following will help guide the raiser in determining the space required for quails (per bird) 1. Chick stage (1-15 day old), Japanese: 2 x 2 ; American: 2 x 2 2. Growing stage (16- 35 days old), Japanese: 3 x 3; American: 3 x 3 3. Laying stage (36 days old & up), Japanese: 3 x 3 ; American: 4 x 4 Since quails are not efficient feed converter, they should not be raised for broiler production. Layer cages should not be too high preferably a 5 and 6 height can accommodate the Japanese and American breed, respectively. Providing too much space will encourage too much movement thereby increasing the risk of injuries. B. Brooding Management 1. Temperature During the first five days, the temperature requirement of the quail chick is 95F. this may be reduced to 90F on the 6th day down to 85F on the 10th day after which the quail birds will have developed enough feathers to keep their body warm under ordinary room temperature To ensure better circulation of air in the brooding box, air vents should be provided. Used clean cloth or sack can be spread over the screened portion of the brooder especially during the first 10 day. This will help conserve the heat in the brooder. Five or six layers of clean and dry newspaper shall be used to cover the mesh wire flooring during the first 10 days. This practice is necessary because it will not only help conserve the heat inside the brooder box but more importantly, cleaning and removal of quail manure (which is done on every other paper) is facilitated by just rolling the topmost layer of paper. After the 10th day, all the papers are removed and feeding through covered with 1/4 mesh wire (to avoid too much spillage) will be used. Water in the drinking fountain should be changed daily and care must be exercised to avoid spilling of water over the paper to prevent unnecessary dampness. Gas lamp or electric bulb may used to control the temperature inside the brooder. The brooder box must be cat and rat proof. With proper feeds. Enough water and optimum temperature

maintained, the mortality of quails can be kept at 5%-8% during the brooding stage which usually last up to 15 days. C. Rearing Management After the 15th day, the birds are transferred to the growing cages. During the growing stage, it is not advisable to expose the birds to more than 12 hours of light. For smaller operation, a brooder/grower box combination can be constructed but the space requirement of the birds should be observed. Only birds which are healthy and with uniform size should be transferred to the growing cages. The small ones should be disposed. The average mortality from the start of the growing period up to 35 days is 1% 4%. On the 35th day, the male birds are already discernable by the dark brown color of the breast feather. At this stage, the female birds can be segregated and transferred to the laying cages. Approximately 40% of the total population can be chosen as layers on an assumed 50/50 male/female ratio. The remaining birds can be fattened up to 60 days before these are dressed and sold as broilers. During the 25 days fattening period, light should be restricted form 6-8 hours a day. This practice will improve the quality of meat. D. Layer Management On the average, quail start laying after 45 days from hatching. The production cycle lasts for 300-320 days and within this period the laying efficiency should be maintained at 65 %. Some of the major consideration when managing layers are; 1. Feeding this will be discussed separately 2. Water like any other bird, quail needs a lot of fresh and clean water. Whenever possible, flowing water should be maintained except when there is supply problem in which case water should be replaced daily and the watering trough must be cleaned everyday. 3. Culling For large scale operation, it is advisable that massive culling be done regularly, preferably on a quarterly basis or even once every 4 months. Birds that have physical defects should be removed including those which have grown fat, or are sickly and are not laying eggs. This later condition is manifested by the size of the vent and the conformation of the abdominal parts. 4. Removal of Waste Because of the high protein content of the quail feeds, quail manure has high ammonia content which will cause discomfort for the birds if not removed daily. Removal of the manure can be facilitated by placing a manure receptacle or receiver under the cage. 5. Light Laying quails may be given extra light up to midnight. This will allow the birds to consume the feed in the trough. Furthermore, the weaker birds in the group will have enough time to eat after the dominant ones have eaten their share. 6. It is not advisable to mix male birds in the laying cage except when fertile eggs are to be produced. If there is an intention of producing fertile eggs for future replacement, the male should be kept in separate cage and should only be mixed with the layers at the time

fertile eggs are to be produced at a ratio of 1:6 and 1:3 for the Japanese and American breed, respectively. 7. Quail birds are very sensitive to high salt level in the feeds. The optimum level of this mineral should be kept at 7% and in no case be more than 1%. E. Feeding Management The major cause of failure in quail raising is the faulty feeding practice employed by the raiser . most of our quail raisers today feed commercial chicken feeds to quails. This is an erroneous practice and it should be corrected. The protein requirements of chicken and quails are different and as such the use of chicken feeds in quail raising is not advisable. Below is a comparison of the crude protein requirement of chicken and quail. Quail / Chicken:

Chick stage, 28% / 21% Grower stage, 24% / 16% Layer stage, 26% / 15%

From the above information, we can clearly see the mark difference in the Primary requirement of both birds. Quail cannot survive on chicken feeds for a long time. If ever they will survive, the mortality rate will be very high sometimes reaching up to 70% from day old to 45 days. Moreover, the growth of the birds is very uneven and the survivors will not be efficient layers. The productive laying period for quails fed with chicken feed do not go beyond six months. Another disadvantage of feeding chicken mash to quails is the very occurence of molting which affects severely the egg production. The claim that mixing quail feeds with higher protein is expensive and not economical is baseless. The advantages of giving the right ration far outweigh the cost of giving chicken feeds. This advantages can be summarized below: 1. Mortality rate can be kept low with good feed:

5-8% from 1-15 days 1-4% from 16-35 days 8-12% from 36-360 days

2. Production:

a) Laying efficiency can be easily maintained within the average range of 63%-68% for a period of 300-320 days. It is not rare to get laying efficiency of 80%. b) Eggs are bigger and more nutritious c) For breeders fertility and hatchability are high

These things when quantified and taken together would positively refute the claim that feeding quails with higher protein content as recommended here is costly and uneconomical. The feed consumption of quail at different stages are: (Japanese vs American)

Chick stage (per bird) 7 grams/day vs 10 grams/day Growing stage (per bird) 17 grams/day vs 32 grams/day Laying stage (per bird) 23 grams/day vs 45 grams/day

During the first 15 days, the feeds of the birds should be grounded to a fineness enough to pass an ordinary window screen wire. Like chicken, quails are affected by abrupt changes in feeding. Hence, it is not advisable to change feed abruptly. G. Maintaining Health There is no known morbid disease of quails. While they suffer from some respiratory disorders, these do not spread fast and the mortality rate is very low. Hence it is not difficult to maintain the health of birds. Regular cleaning and disinfection program, however, should be followed. Cages and broiler boxes including the incubator and hatchery trays can be cleaned with strong water dried under the sun. spraying with disinfectant follows. Vitamin premix can also be added to the feeds or the drinking water to promote growth and improve the laying performance. IV. MARKETING A. Eggs Eggs are the main product of quails. For small scale/backyard quail raising, this can be placed in a basket and marketed fresh. For bigger operation, it is advisable to pack eggs in carton boxes with individual dividers to protect the quality of the eggs. Storing eggs in a cool dry place where air circulation is good can keep the eggs fresh for a period of seven days. B. Broilers/stewers The average feed conversion ratio of quail is 3:1. this poor feed conversion efficiency makes a broiler production uneconomical and therefore any broiler produced should be treated secondary product in quail raising. The procedure in dressing quail is the same as in chicken. The birds are bled and scaled in hot water (about 132-135 F) after the feathers are removed. Evisceration follows. The dressed birds are then chilled and packed by the dozen or in kilos. C. Prices Broilers are more tender than stewers (culled layers). As such, the former are sold at a higher price. The selling price of these should be based on the cost of production from day old to 60 plus the dressing, storage and related selling cost. D. Quail Production 1. Cost of Production (100 Quails) 2. Income computation o 70 eggs/day x P 0.60/eggs-P42.00 o 100 quails x 2 kgs feeds x P 8.50/kg

3. Housing Equipment o 100 quails x P 5.00/quail 4. Other sources of income o a. male quails which are not needed o b. feathers o c. dungs The quail, locally known as pugo, is a small game bird found in temperate and tropical regions throughout the world. Quails by some distinction are classified as game-hunting birds and as such, quails should not be compared with chicken, whose requirements are different. On a commercial scale, quail raising has not attracted the interest of the investors because of the lack of data particularly with regards to feeding. Many people who go into quail raising are usually hobbyist who are not income-conscious. During the present critical period of population explosion, with rampant malnutrition and unrelenting price rises for both cereal and meat, the quail is an answer to the consumers need for cheap eggs and meat.

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The quail, locally known as pugo, is a small game bird found in temperate and tropical regions throughout the world. Quails by some distinction are classified as game-hunting birds and as such, quails should not be compared with chicken, whose requirements are different. The true or Old World quail is a migratory bird that can be found in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. The American quail (sometimes called patridge) and is non-migratory. In the Bible, quail was served by the Lord to the fleeing Israelites. During the present critical period of population explosion, with rampant malnutrition and unrelenting price rises for both cereal and meat, the quail is an answer to the consumers need for cheap eggs and meat, just as it was during that critical Biblical time. Breeds

Many people are unfamiliar with the breeds of quail being raised in the Philippines Today. Some are surprised to learn that there is a white quail. All the popular breeds used for eggs and meat commercial production are sub-varieties of the Corturnix species, which is able to produce eggs throughout the year. The different breeds found in the Philippines are: 1. Native - Found in the fields and forests; the common pugo. This quail is not suitable for commercial production. 2. Japanese Taiwan - Popularly known as Chinese Quail. It has dark brown feathers mixed with white and gray. The female has a gray underside flecked with darker feathers, while the male has many reddish feathers on the underside. 3. Japanese Seattle - This is as an American breed similar to the Japanese Taiwan; it has jersey (rust-maroon) feathers at the base of the heads. 4. Negro Black or grayish black. 5. Tuxedo Black with a white spot on the breast. 6. Silver White with black eyes; from the Canaan Valley, Egypt. 7. Brown Cross No. 1 8. Brown Cross No. 2 The Japanese Taiwan breed is commonly raised in the Philippines. However, its eggs are small compared to those of improved breeds, and egg production is lower. It has also been found to be susceptible to respiratory diseases. The six other breeds listed are all good. They are heavy egg producers and are resistant to diseases. For beginners, the Japanese Seattle is recommended as it is a heavy egg producer and the male can be easily recognized by the color of its feathers as early as 30 days of age. This means a saving on feeds, as the male can be culled and sold as broilers. To insure success, select a good breed and buy stock from a reliable breeder. Good chicks will cost about P 8.50 day old. Some selected breeders may cost as much as P 35.00 each.

Quail are easy to raise and the housing required is not as complicated as for chickens. A 4 feet x 8 feet x 1foot high cage can house 250-300 layers. The flooring and all sides are made of 1/2-inch mesh welded wire while the top or cover should be of lawanit to prevent the birds from flying. The quail has a tendency to fly upwards if the top of the cage is made of mesh wire, and this may cause head injuries. Cages can also be made smaller (2 feet x 4 feet x 1 foot) and stacked in four decks, with 3 to 4 inches between the decks. A large number of birds can thus be raised in a very small space. The cage can be placed under any roof, under an elevated house, or in a garage. The cages should be rat-proof; rats are the greatest enemy of the birds. Feeds and Feeding Quail can be fed with any available chicken feed at the rate of one kilo for every 50 quail layers per day. Add finely ground shell (limestone) to produce stronger and thicker egg shells. Best results were found when chicken broiler starter mash (22% protein) was fed to both layers and broilers. A 1/2-inch mash welded wire should be cut to fit the feed trough and laid directly on the feed to prevent the birds from scratching out the feeds. Another one inch mesh welded wire should be used to cover the trough to prevent the birds from dusting themselves with the feeds. Keep feed in the troughs all the time, as feeding should be continuous 24 hours every day to get higher egg production. Light should be provided so the birds will continue to eat at night. If this is done, some birds may lay two eggs in 24 hours. Care and Management

Quail, unlike some other fowl, are not delicate birds. They can be raised in any suitable and comfortable place in the house. The birds do not easily contract fowl diseases common to poultry, especially chickens. Vaccination is not needed and the drugs usually given to chickens do not have to be added to quail feed or drinking water. However, should any disease outbreak occur, the drugs used for chicken can be used. Deworming of the breeders is done at least every four months or three times a year. Use the same dewormers as for chickens, but follow the direction on the package for smaller birds. Incubation Normally, pugo will hatch their own eggs, but the imported breeds mentioned will not brood to incubate their eggs; an incubator must therefore be used. For a table-type electric-operated incubator, a temperature of 1010 1030 F should be maintained during the incubation period. For the forced-draft incubators, the temperature should be kept at 98-1000 F. Further instructions on operating an electric incubator will be found at the end of this pamphlet. Candling is done on the 11th day of incubation. From setting, quail eggs will hatch on the 18th day. Brooding The brooder should be a closed compartment, 2 ft. x 4 ft. x 6 inches. The flooring, top and three of the sides should be made of lawanit or boards while the front side should be made of 1/4-inch mesh welded wire for ventilation. This is adequate for 500 chicks. A bigger brooder may be made to fit the raisers requirements. A 50-watt bulb should be placed a little away from the middle of the brooder to allow room for the chicks to stay away from the heat source in case there is over-heating in the brooder. Brooding procedures are similar to those for day-old chicks: 1. Prepare the brooder; lay old newspapers on the floor of the brooder, covering it entirely. 2. Prepare a drinking trough; you can improvise with plastic glasses and plastic covers, or lids large enough to overlap 1/4 of an inch around the glass rims. Bore a hole in the top rim of the plastic glass to allow water to flow out when inverted over the plastic cover. This makes a good drinking trough for the chicks. Commercial waterers for chickens with their deep, wide edges are not advisable for pugo because they might drown in them. 3. Spread feeds for the chicks over the newspapers and place the waterers away from the light bulb. Leave the space under the bulb free for the chicks to lay down or crowd together. Do not place feeds in that area as the chicks will lay down and blind themselves while under the heat of the bulb. 4. See to it that there is always plenty of water. Replace feeds and water as they are consumed.

5. Observe the chicks if they crowed under the bulb, there is insufficient heat; if they move away from the bulb, there is too much heat. Remedy the situation by changing the bulb, as required, using a lower watt bulb for less heat. 6. On the sixth or seventh day, move the chicks to another compartment but with the short sides open (screened with wire mesh). The chicks now need more space; only 250 to 300 will fit in a 2 feet x 4 feet x 6 inches cage. 7. When the birds are 15 days old, transfer them to growing cages. By this time they are fully feathered. Sexing On the 30th day, males of the Japanese seattle breed can already be recognized by their feathers, so they can be segregated and sold as broilers. Males of the other breeds can be recognized by their throaty hoarse cry and the protruding upper vent with a cream-like substance coming out of the vent when it is pressed upwards. Females have a blackish or grayish vent and a sharp, high pitched, long shrilling, melodious chirp. After 41 days from hatching, the birds should start laying eggs. Remove the males not intended for breeding and the undeveloped females and sell them as broilers. Breeding The early laying birds may be segregated for use as breeders, while late layers are raised for table egg production. Experience has shown that if female quail do not answer the throaty cry of the male they are not happy. The right proportion of males in the flock is necessary for a high percentage of hatchability. The usual ratio is 70 females to 30 males. Too many males in the flock is indicated when females have bare backs with the feathers worn off, while an inadequate number of males causes fighting among the females. However, females will not fight if there is no male at all among them, as proved when table egg layers are kept separately with no males. Marketing The demand for quail eggs and meat is so great that marketing is no problem. This is a project where buyers come to you, especially for the eggs. In streets, stores, restaurants, hotels and bars, quail eggs and meat are in great demand. Quail eggs can be sold fresh, boiled, salted, pickled or as balut. Quail meat can be served barbecued, fried, as adobo, guinataan, or in any way chicken is cooked. Some reputable bakeries use quail eggs for baking and for making leche flan.

Hard-boiled eggs are sold by hawking vendors in plastic bags. The popular nido soup in restaurants comes to your table garnished with quail eggs. Conclusion With the advent of the instants like instant coffee and tea, soft drinks, instant soup, etc., quail eggs and meat can also follow. From egg to egg production is barely two months, or 57 days to be exact. For meat production, the time is even shorter. A quail egg is hatched in just 16 days and the hen is ready to lay eggs after 41 days. Isnt that instant? Nutrition-wise, this is an answer to the quest for a source of economical protein for malnourished children. Economically, it is a very promising project. If you raise 100 layers with 70% egg production there will be 70 eggs a day. The birds will consume two kilos of feeds a day, say worth P 3.00. If the eggs are sold at P 0.10 each, there will be P 7.00 from daily sales. Less the P 3.00 feed cost, this means P 4.00 profit daily. Multiply this by twice or thrice the number of layers. Wont it be very nice additional income? Why dont you try it? How to Operate an Electric Table-Top Incubator/Hatcher for Quail In order to get a higher hatching efficiency, the electric incubator/hatcher should be properly operated. The following guidelines should be strictly observed in the incubation of quail eggs.

1. Check and recheck wire and wire connections of the incubator. Check also the electric voltage (220V) before plugging in the incubator. Fill all water pans for humidity control and place egg trays without eggs inside the incubator. 2. Run the incubator for two days or until the desired temperature (1010 to 1030F) is maintained. Slowly adjust the thermostat by turning the control knob clockwise to lower the temperature and counter clockwise to raise the temperature. Usually, the incubator is pre-tested and the thermostat adjusted before shipment, but slight adjustments will still be needed, depending on the place and weather conditions. 3. Arrange the eggs in the egg tray, allowing room for turning. Do not load the tray tightly as the eggs may be broken when turning. 4. Before placing the trays of eggs in the incubator, check the water pans under the trays for humidity control. These should be properly covered with wire screen to prevent drowning if a chick drops from the egg tray. 5. On top of the incubator, place a reminder chart of the activities to carry out during incubation:

o o o

a. Turn the eggs three times a day by passing the hands lightly over the eggs to the right in the morning, to the left at noon, and downward in the afternoon. b. Candle on the 11th day. c. Expect hatching on the 16th to the 18th day.

Other features may be added to the chart, like percentage of infertile eggs and hatched chicks.

1. Three days before hatching, stop turning the eggs. On hatching day, when the chicks are out of the shells, the air vents on top of the incubator should be fully opened to increase ventilation and to hasten drying of the feathers. 2. Transfer the chicks to the brooder after their feathers are dry on the 17th or 18th day. 3. Clean the trays. Remove all egg shells and late-hatch or unhatched eggs in preparation for the next batch of eggs for incubation.