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Plant Histology

Anatomy of the Leaf

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Anatomy of the Leaf

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Leaf represents an important part of the plant body. It is involved in vital physiological activities such as transpiration, respiration and photosynthesis. Unlike the stem and the root, the leaf is flat and hence, the anatomy of the leaf differs very much from that of stem or root. There are two types of leaves in angiosperms based on the manner of orientation, they are: Dorsi-ventral leaves which usually orient at an angle to the main axis and held perpendicular (normal) to the direction of sunlight. Example: Leaves of dicots Iso-bilateral leaves which usually orient parallely to the main axis and held parallel to the direction of the sunlight . Example: Leaves of monocots. A characateristic feature of leaves is the presence of two epidermal layers, one on each surface. The ground tissue that occurs between the two epidermal layers, is known as mesophyll. Embedded in the mesophyll are the vascular bundles, commonly known as veins.

Sub Topics 1. Anatomy of a typical Dorsi-Ventral Leaf 2. Diagnostic Features of a dorsiventral leaf 3. Anatomy of a typical iso-bilateral leaf 4. Diagnostic Feature of an isobilateral leaf 5. Difference between dicot leaf and monocot leaf

Anatomy of a typical Dorsi-Ventral Leaf
Example: Sunflower

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A transverse section through the midrib region of a typical dorsi-ventral leaf (Sunflower) reveals the following structure. Epidermis is in two layers, one on each surface of the leaf. Both the layers are composed of compactly arranged, barrel-shaped cells. Intercellular spaces are absent. A cuticle surrounds both the layers. Multicellular hairs called trichomes are

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the vascular bundle are described as conjoint and collateral with endarch xylem. Diagnostic Features of a dorsiventral leaf Presence of two epidermal layers. Hence. Veins irregularly scattered in the mesophyll. collateral with endarch xylem. Presence of bundle sheath extensions made up of collenchyma. Protoxylem orients towards upper epidermis. Hypostomatic condition. representing bundle sheath extensions or hypodermal collenchyma. Xylem is found towards upper epidermis and phloem towards lower epidermis. It is known as midrib vein.com/content/biology/biology-iii/plant-histology/leaf-anatomy. Stomata occur only in the lower epidermis. Presence of cuticle and trichomes in both the epidermal layers. Back to Top Mesophyll differentiated into upper palisade parenchyma and lower spongy parenchyma. This condition is described as hypostomatic. Vascular bundles are conjoint. Mesophyll is the ground tissue that occurs between the two epidermal layers. Cuticle and www. In the xylem many protoxylem and metaxylem vessels are found. compactly arranged chlorenchyma cells. b) Spongy parenchyma is composed of a few layers of loosely arranged spherical or oval chlorenchyma cells with prominent intercellular spaces. Veins represent the vascular bundles. The largest and the oldest vein is found in the centre.4/10/12 Anatomy of the Leaf | Tutorvista. These cells contain very few chloroplasts. The bundle sheath encloses both xylem and phloem.php# 2/4 .tutorvista. Presence of a bundle sheath made up of parenchyma. T. Intercellular spaces are absent.com present on both the layers. Epidermis is in two layers.S. The mesophyll is characteristically differentiated into two regions namely. The cells contain a very large number of chloroplasts. through the midrib region of a dorsi-ventral leaf Each vein has a bundle sheath composed of single layer of compactly arranged barrel shaped parenchyma cells. an upper palisade parenchyma and a lower spongy parenchyma. Anatomy of a typical iso-bilateral leaf Example: Maize Back to Top A transverse section passing through the midrib region of an iso-bilateral leaf (Maize) reveals the following structure. They are found irregularly scattered in the mesophyll due to reticulate venation. The bundle sheath of the midrib vein is connected to the upper and the lower epidermal layers by many layers of collenchyma cells. barrel shaped cells. It is exclusively composed of chlorenchyma cells. a) Palisade parenchyma is composed of two or three layers of elongated. one on each surface of the leaf. Both the epidermal layers are composed of compactly arranged.

Each vascular bundle is surrounded by a bundle sheath composed of a single layer of compactly arranged barrel-shaped cells. Intercellular spaces are prominent. Stomata are found in both the epidermal layers.php# 3/4 . This condition is described as amphistomatic. Presence of hypodermal sclerenchyma. It is composed of many layers of loosely arranged. It is known as midrib vein. Phloem is found towards lower epidermis and xylem towards upper epidermis. only two protoxylem and two metaxylem vessels are present. The bundle sheath encloses both phloem and xylem.tutorvista. Presence of motor cells in the upper epidermis. In the xylem. The oldest and the largest vascular bundle is found in the centre. A few cells in the upper epidermis are enlarged to form motor cells called bulliform cells. Presence of cuticle and trichomes in both the layers. The vascular bundle is described as conjoint and collateral with endarch xylem.S. Back to Top Presence of only two protoxylem and two metaxylem vessels in each bundle. Difference between dicot leaf and monocot leaf Back to Top www. Vascular bundles parallely arranged. through an isobilateral leaf Veins are found parallely arranged in the mesophyll (parallel venation).com trichomes are present in both the layers. collateral with endarch xylem. Amphistomatic condition.com/content/biology/biology-iii/plant-histology/leaf-anatomy. T. Mesophyll is ground tissue that occurs between the two epidermal layers. Diagnostic Feature of an isobilateral leaf Presence of two epidermal layers. Presence of a bundle sheath around each bundle.4/10/12 Anatomy of the Leaf | Tutorvista. Presence of undifferentiated mesophyll. The bundle sheath of the midrib vein is connected to the upper and lower epidermal layers by sclerenchyma cells representing bundle sheath extensions or hypodermal sclerenchyma. spherical or oval chlorenchyma cells. Vascular bundles conjoint.

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