PMK Draft Transport Policy for Chennai City

Ag√g∞ç z, ggmıπma –mg zoas

14–m ‰aı, ç∑ç∂ zoo8
¿æ∑∫ :
ÃVâ¦V¹ \Âï^ ïâE
g—g‰ag
ØÄ[窩 ØÃòåïòÂïVª
\Vu®© ¼ÃVÂzk«ÝmÝ ]â¦D
2
G∑agıLsˆsm
!.!. ¿j¿sm a
!.2. ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geœ ‚q∞o 5
!.8 Oeeœ∞e∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geœ Q∞∂ u
2.!. ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geˆ g_q√q ogeˆeaae ae∑∑aeœ∞a 8
2.2. ‚∑aeˆgoçq√ga e‡e ¿gça !2
mapg∑ ‚∑asˆgmçg√gsˆ Gsaı∞s 16
8.!. _@g_∞_ !u
8.2. Oqa∞∂‚‰aeˆg (Vision) !u
8.8. §∂eˆg (Goal) !u
8.4. g_eˆ‚eaı 2u
‰Lm≥sˆ∞ssı z1
8.5.!. ‰∞L∑a∞q ‚aa∑a_ 2!
8.5.2. —goe≥ 25
8.5.8. ‚∑g‰g 2u
8.5.4. OqaLaoe≥ 8u
8.5.5. qae (–L’‚La) 8u
8.5.u. O‰me∂ eL’Lea 8!
8.5.7. oaee Qgq√g—La™e∞ı _∞_∑∑_q√gq∂ 8!
8.5.8. oaeea §∂∂a∑ ∑gg 88
8.5.u. ea_g aao∑a_ 88
8.5.!u. ‚aa∑a∂a™eı 88
8.5.!!. OaL’‚ça ça∂ 84
8.5.!2. _ge∞a∑ ∑ım _∞_ 88
8.5.!8. Oeeœ∞e ¿ao∏∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g 8u
8.5.!4. eçeˆg∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g 4u
8.5.!5. ≈∑q√gq√ q_∑∫ 4!
4. ¿≥µ∞ç 4z
3
1. 1. ¿j¿sm
§ §§ §§‰ga aaQ∂a™em∂ ‰ea∑∫_ aeˆeı Oqa∞e ≈éqa _geaae
eıı aaQ∂a q—g‰a_. 2uuu–a –e≥∂ aaQ∂ aeˆeı Oqa∞ea∂
4u% ‚∑a ‰ea∑∫_a™em∂ oé∑∑qaeeˆ eeeˆéL∑∑L’_ııg.
1
§‰q
_ıç OqaLa‰g _geaaé ogé_g. aeˆeı Oqa∞eeˆ eeeˆOe_∑∫
2uu!§eœ ∑≥ Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰emeœ Oaaq√ q aeˆ eı Oqa∞e 7u
∂L’ eq√ g 4! –aça ‚∑a . §g 2uuu§∂ 7u ∂L’ ea ‚∑çae _gemq√
gııg.
2
ØÄ[窩 ØÃòåïòÂïVª
\Vu®© ¼ÃVÂzk«ÝmÝ ]â¦D
maQ∂ msˆsı Gga∞sm∂ ‰sa∑∫p msˆsı Gga∞s ≈ægm (zoo6)
(∫g_∂n, —‚oo;w w_gw ‰_oe –:’ó∑∑__oc∂ (µeoeœ c;‚_ow)
w:’_‚w _—yo_√∞_≈: ‰oo∑∫_ woˆoı ≈J_w __owoo vııg)
(CMDA - Ooeœ∞e∑ O∑_‰o __∞w_√_:’:w - o∞;ç __oˆ∞o - ‰__√_; ,
w_∑d_ _ıç)
(Indian States at a Glance 2006-07, Tamil Nadu - Performance,
Facts and Figures, PHDCCI)
Gomœ∞m∑ G∑g‰smmœ msˆsı Gga∞s mıaoA∑ ‚∑asˆg
zoo1 - zoz6
aeˆeı Oqa∞e
70 78 87 97 108 120
(∂L’ eq√ g∂ )
2001 2006 2011 2016 2021 2026 –e_
q—g‰a_ 4u.7u%
–‰gça 27.5u%
eg‰aLea 85.uu%
‚eçıa 25.8u%
§‰ gæa zs.oo%
4
Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰emeœ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g eoa∂ ceœ∑g §∑‚∑ag
eL’_eˆeLa™eaa∂ ‚∑aa›≈L’L ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g O‰me∞∂e eaam∑∑g
aL’_a∂∂. æL‚o, OqaLa‰g Oeeœ∞eeˆg §LaO∑aga aeˆeıa∂
_gemeˆ e∑ ‚∑aga æ_q∂ ‚q∞oe∞ıe eaam∑ ∑ga –ga .
Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰eç aeˆeı Oqa∞e 2u!u–a –e≥∂ gg ‚ea≥∞a
cL’ ≥≈_a . _∑ ‚∑ag aeˆ eı Oqa∞e ce fieˆ ∞e _≥∑ ∑∞La∂
e∂e ‰a_eπLeœ Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰e∞ç g∑ c_‚oaaaea∂ -
e∂éeœ uu ‰a_e∞ı≈L Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑maqae §geˆga.
g.‰a aaeL ‚aa∑aL’_∑ ∑L’≥ae∂ §La O∑_gıı !77 ‰a_
em∂ 8! ‰a_eı aL’_aqaeœ Oeeœ∞e∞a≈L∑ O∑mqae §geˆga,
˜q_ı ı uu ‰a_emga 2u!u–a –e ≥∂ Oeeœ ∞e∞a ≈Leˆ
g∞_oae ce fieˆ ∞ea‚∂‚a aeˆ eı oé∑ ∑aa eı . ce‚o,
Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰eç∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ eae gL’ Lq√ ∞q og∑ ∑g
e∂éeœ em∑ag ‰a_emeœ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√gq√ gL’La™e∞ı ≈Lça _ge
_eˆéaq√goa oaa›‰qg ceœ∑∞q egq√g∂ Oeaıı ‚oe_a.
3
msˆsı Gga∞s ¿≥∑∑∞Lm∂ Gomœ∞mçm
A∂ ‰agsπm - zo16 (nmfisˆ∞s ∂L’og√g∂)
Oeeœ∞e - u7 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
o˚Leœ - u8 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
éa™e∑≠a - 48 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
‰aa‚o - 48 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
OLeœaaaeˆ - 5u ∂L’ea ‚∑a
§mƒ‚ç∂ - 78 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
g∞oq√ - 84 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
Q_é∂a‰g - 48 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
o≈L’ea∂a‰g - 78 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
geˆéa _ç∫ c—‚çL’ - 48 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
aa∂q√gçeı - 4 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
Oaa◊éamƒ - !8 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
≠L’Laeœ - 27 ∂L’ea ‚∑a
(UNDP Human Development Report, 2006 United Nations)
5
1.z. ‚∑asˆgmçg√gmœ ‚g∞m
aeqa emeœ c∂ ∂aq√ ‚q∞oeπeˆ ga ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ
eL’ L∞a∑ ∫ gg _eœ ‚q∞oaae §geˆ é_g. O∑agıaqaça , e∂ ≈,
eL∂ ‰∂a ce c∂ ∂ao_ geˆ ga ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _≥∑ ∑∞Laae
§geˆ é_g. gg ‰aL’ ≥∂ ‚o∞∂ oaa› ∑ ∫eı , e∂ ≈ Q∞∂aa™ eı ,
agq√go‚e∞o, O∑a_g‚∑aeˆg eımL’L oegeı ‚∑agaae _ıç
§g‰qa∂ aL’_a ‚∑aqag. æL‚o, _o_∞_ _∞Loq_g çgoae
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ eL’ L∞a∑ ∫eπa §g‰ qa∂ qaeœ ema ∑aeœ
é∞Leˆ ga .
‰aL’ ≥eœ oıa e éeˆ g ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g —e _≥∑ ∑∞Laae
‚q∞oaaga . é_‰ q ‰ea ∑ ∫_∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_aaeg
ç∞geπeˆg cma, Oe∂ç g∞_oae ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∞e _m∑∑qeœ
‡∂a ‚‰ç≥aaeça , ‰ea ∑ ∫_∑ O∑agıaqaçq√ ∞q oıa ∑ ∑qeœ ‡∂a
Gomœ∞m∑ G∑g‰sm∂ ¿Læ™æçıı zııaL’A ¿çası
ma‰sçaL’A 1 : Oeeœ∞e aa‰eça
‰sç o∞∑sı 16 : !. eq√ goaeˆ ea , 2. ggOoa_ __a ,
8.aaqaoça, 4. _a∑q√„a, 5. –o≥, u. ≠‰qa∂e, 7. gg‚o_ea_,
8. agçoaa∂ , u. oıeçoaeˆ ea , !u. –∂‰ „a , !!. eı ıeça
-∫_goaeˆ ea , !2. _eea∫q√ „a , !8. ∑a a∂ , !4. ∑∂ ∂aoça ,
!5. qaa∑ça, !u. aee.
‚∑‹çaL’ Ası - zo : !. ˜˘ ¿a , 2. éeœ e ‚eeˆ ea_, 8. ∫g∂ ,
4.‰açoamg∑ ∑a , 5. ggQeœ _“a , u. ‚∑a‹a , 7. gga∏∞e,
8.aaa™ ea_, u. ‰‰ qa ∑aeˆ ea , !u. ˜ea ∑aeˆ ea , !!. geœ _q√ „a ,
!2. gg¿a a∞∂, !8. O∑ga™ eıq√ „a , !4. da eˆ eeœ eç∞e,
!5.éL’∂∑aeˆea, !u. Oea∑aeˆea, !7. aaLa∑aeˆea, !8. O∑ga™g≥,
!u. ∑ımeˆeç∞e, 2u. ‚ea∏a™e‰∂•a.
˙çaL’ A gmœ jææ™ sı - 1o : (O∑_‰o; ∑;∑ ∑ı≈∂ _:m™ J
µı ı J;owm™ oceœ ce fioˆ ∞o _∞:∑ ∫oˆ _ı ) Gmag√ g
æçamæ™sı z14.
!. ˜˘ ¿a (4), 2. ‚eagaoça (4!), 8. ∫g∂ (28), 4. ≈∂ e
oaeˆea (25), 5. ggoıga (!), u. ≠‰qa∂e (42), geœ_q√„a
(8u), 8. gg∑ O∑ga ∫„a (4), u, ∑ça™ éa∞∂ (88),
!u. eaL’Laa™gıq√„a (u)
6
a∞__eaaeça og∞a g∏∑ c_ g o∏ogeˆ ga ceœ é_g e∂e
oa™é.
4
e∂éeœ _∞eq√g ‰a_eπa cL’L ‚oe≥a 8 §∂eˆge∞ı∑
∫q√qaaçaae_ ‚aa∑aL’_ §∂L’éaa™eı (Millennium Development
Goals - MDGs) ce∑ ∑L’ ≥aeL’ _ı ıg geˆ éa ‰a_eı _∞o.
og∞a∞aça ∑L’ ≥e∞aça g∏∑ ∑g, _∞eogeˆ ga OqaLeˆ eeˆ
e∂ ≈, –e O∑e eaq√ goa , gg‰ ∞qeı açeq√ ∞qeˆ g∞_q√ q∂ ,
‚∑gea∂ §_∑∞∑eˆ g∞_q√q∂, ce.g.≈ ] ca›L’mƒ,, a‚∂maa, eae‚‰aa›
eı mL’ L ‚‰aa› e∞ıq√ q_q√ q∂ , o_ ge ¿ge∂ ¿≥q√ ggeˆ ga
qeœ ∞a∞a egg Oea› q∂ , ∑eœ eaL’ _eˆ æL’ __ç ce∑ ∑_a §‰ q
e∂e §∂L’éaa™eı Oo__O∑_ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g gg eL’Laaq√ ‚q∞o
ceœé_g geˆéa ‰a_eı _∞oaeœ __eˆ∞e.
5
1.a. Gomœ∞m∑ ‚∑asˆgmçg√gmœ Q∞∂
Oeeœ ∞eaeœ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_ é_‰ qqae §∂ ∞∂.
O∑g‰eça e_a O‰geˆ e≥a∂ éeˆ éq√ ge_eˆ Oeae ≥geˆ é_g.
Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰emeœ aeˆ eı Oqa∞e !u84–a –e ≥∂ oaaa 5u
∂L’ ea ‚∑çae §g‰ q‚∑ag g≥a oaeea™ emeœ ce fieˆ ∞e !
∂L’eq√g 5u –açaae §g‰qg. §g‚o, 2uu7–a –e≥∂ aeˆeı
Oqa∞e 7u ∂L’eaae _gemq√q Q∞∂a∂ oaeea™emeœ cefieˆ∞e
8u ∂L’eaae _gemq√gııg.
6
Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰em∂ !u84-2uuu–a –e _eπeˆ g
§∞L‚a aeˆeı Oqa∞e _gem∑∑aeg §çe_ ‰∑a §g‰q §Lq√g∂
‡eœ g ‚∑çae _gemq√ gı ıg. §‚q ea∂eL’ Lq√ g∂ oaee∑
O∑geˆ e‚aa _eœ ∫ 2 oaeea™ eı g≥a §Lq√ g∂ §∑ ‚∑ag 4u
oaeea™eı g_éeœ_e.
aeˆeı Oqa∞e 5u ∂L’ea ‚∑a 7u ∂L’ea ‚∑a
oaee cefieˆ∞e ! ∂L’eq√g 8u ∂L’ea
5u –aça
2007 1984
(The Hindu, 28-02-2008)
Gomœ∞mm∂ msˆsı Gga∞s mpgm masm∑ G∑gsˆsm
(1ssz-zoo6)
7
oaeea™eı cefieˆ∞e _geaaoq_g ç_∑ ea∞∂ oegeı
_geaae≈∂∞∂. Oeeœ∞e aa‰emeœ Oaaq√qe ea∞∂eı ¿ıa 8u8
é‚∂a ˜L’La. Oqgeˆeı a_ga e‰gemeœ ¿ıa 2, 475 é‚∂a ˜L’La.
7
‰emeœ oaeea™ eı , ‰egeˆ gı oga oaeea™ eı _∞eq√ ga §‰ qe
ea∞∂em∂ qaeœ gL‚oe _a . oaee ce fieˆ ∞e _geaaé_g
ceœ ∑q_ eae §‰ qe ea∞∂emeœ ¿ıq√ ∞q‚aa, _e∂q√ ∞q‚aa
Oaeœ‚aga _geaaeˆgog eaq√gaa∂∂.
fl_ae _eπeˆ g _eœ ∫ –a™ é‚∂a –L’ éeˆ ea∂q√ g∂
Oeeœ∞eaeœ ea∞∂em∂ gg∞ç oe≥eı afieˆg 2u é‚∂a ˜L’La
‚oeq√ g∂ g≥ageˆ eeˆ æ_a . –ea∂ , §eœ g Oeeœ ∞ea∂ g_a
oaeea™ emeœ eçaem ∑ae ‚oea afieˆ g !8 é‚∂a ˜L’ La qaeœ .
8
_qaog, gmLq√ geg‰ g a_ O_ag §Lq√ g_ g _eœ ∫ —goe ≥
a‚∂a, gg∞ç oe≥a‚∂a Oeeœ_∞L‰q ‚oeq√g∂æL, §eœ∞_a
_g‰˚e oaeea™ eı ‡∂a Oeeœ _∞La §a∂≈∂ ∞∂i eL’ _eˆ
eLa™eag ‚∑aa›≈L’L O‰me‚∂ §q_geˆ eaçea.
e‡ea cga Oeaı πa §qç éeˆ e∂ emeg‰ g ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
‚og∑L’Lg. O∑agıaqaça oıaeéa∞Lça‚∑ag, e∂≈, agq√goa,
g∑∫çç ‚∑aeœ_ g∞_eπa oıaeé _∞Lça. –ea∂, O∑agıaqaça
oıga ‚∑ag ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g éa ‚eL∞Lça i §qeœ O∑agı
O∑agıaqaç oıaeé ‚q∞oa__g ceœ∑q∂∂. aa_ae, éeˆe∞∂q√ gaeˆe
ema _eœOeeemeˆ∞e ‰Lo≥eˆ∞eeı ‚q∞o ceœ∑gqaeœ.
Oeeœ∞ea∂ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g éa‚eL∞Loqeœ ≈∞ıoae aeˆeı
∑∂≈qaae §g∑ ∫e∞ıe e‰ geˆ éeœ _ea . §o_ _a∂ O∑agıaqaç
‚aa∑a_a q∞L∑_é_g :
l _gemeˆ ga O‰me∂ , ea∂qaaqa , ae e∞ıe e∂ ,
‚o∞∂a∂ ∑ag∑∫
l _gemeˆga ceOea› (O∑L’‚çaeaa) ‚q∞o
w qe‰∑aeπeˆg ˚e Oe∂ç
w ‰aL’≥_g _‰Qae Oe∂aofi §g∑∫
w ema—∂ oaç Oomaaga _ıç _geaaoqa∂
Oo∑∑a∞Lça ≠—.
l ‚q∞oaeœ _ qo∞e_∞_a∂ oaeea™ eı oaa™ e
‚‰goqa∂ ‰_q√qç, ç∞geˆ g_a∑q√gegeˆg O∑agıa
qaç §g∑∫
8
l _gemeˆga ≈∑q√geı
l _gemeˆga ea_g aao∑aL’La∂ ‡eoeˆgg∂, g∞çΩç∂
∑ag∑ ∫eı eı mL’ L eL∂ ‰∂eˆ ‚e_eı . ge
aao∑aL’≥ea∂ eL∂‰∂∑ ∑ag∑∫eı.
l ‰emeœ aça™eı, ∑o∞a∑∑ggeı _∏ç.
l aeˆ eı Ooma∂ Oe∂ ∂‚oa a_ _oa eπLeœ ∑ge‚oa
q∞Laae §g∑∑qa∂ e‡e oageˆ∞e ∑ag∑∫.
l _çéeœ Oe∂çem∂ efieaae Qg ‚aa∑a∂a™eπeˆga,
ea∞∂ ‚aa ∑aL’ ≥_ ga ‚∑aoqa∂ - e∂ ≈, ‰∂oag ç
‚∑aeœ_ _≥∑∑∞Lq√ ‚q∞oeπeˆg Qg∑ ∑__aeˆg∞_.
§∞o ‚∑aeœ g Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰eç aeˆ eπeˆ g ç_ ∑_a
∑∂≈qaae §g∑∫e∞ıça ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_e∞ı aa__a∞a∑
∑qeœ ‡∂a O∑gaıç q≈aq√gL _≥ça.
z.1. ‚∑asˆgmçg√g gjg√g mgsˆsmam mm∑∑amœ∞m
‘O∑agıaqaça oıa é_g, aeˆ emeœ ogaaea _gemeˆ é_g.
§go∞ç oaeea oaa™ eaqoa eı ∫gqae oaa™ goaa eı . §g eeˆ eç
oaeea ∞oq√ gg∑ ∑oa eı aé_‰ ge∞ı oaa™ goaa eı . é_a
aé_‰ g ∞oq√ gg∑ ∑oa eı O∑maqae oaa™ goaa eı . §∞o
Oa∂ ∂aa §a_ ∞e. aeˆ emeœ ≈g∑ ∑a , _oa emeœ em∞a’ ceœ g
egq∑∑_é_g.
§‰q §a_∞eaae∑ ‚∑aeˆé∞e eaameˆga o∞ea∂ ea∞∂
oegeı _geaaeˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a . ea∞∂e∞ı _geaaeˆ gog,
_e∂aaeˆ gog, ‚aa ∑a∂a™ eı eL’ _og, q∞∂eˆ g‚a∂ ∑_eˆ ga
ea∞∂e∞ı _∞a∑∑g - §∞oOa∂∂aa ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g O‰me∞∂e
eaameˆga ‰Lo≥eˆ∞eeı ce ‰a∑∑∑_éeœ_e. æL‚o, –a™eaa™‚e
__eˆ gaa≥ oaee Qgq√ qa™ eı eL’ L∑ ∑L ‚oe _a ceœ g
‚eameˆ∞eeı ∞oeˆe∑∑_éeœ_e.
–ea∂ , §∞oOa∂ ∂aa ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ ge éeˆ egeˆ gq√ ga oae
gg‚∑aga _∞aaag. ea∞∂, ‚aa ∑a∂a , oaee Qgq√ qa –éa
o_∞_ _gem∑∑qeœ ‡∂a e∂éeœ c‰q ‡∞∂aga ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g
O‰megeˆ gq√ ga ç eae∑ ∑L’ Lg §∂ ∞∂. __≈a∂ ◊gaae _g
eaq√gaaaeg §∂∞∂i
aaO∑ga ea∞∂e∞ı _∞a∑∑g, aaO∑ga ‚aa∑a∂a™e∞ıeˆ
eL’ _og, aaO∑ga oaee Qgq√ qa™ e∞ıeˆ eL’ _og - §o_ geˆ
9
Oe∂ ∂aa e∂geˆ ‚e o∏eaL’ ≥aae §geˆ ga ‰a_ _Oameˆ eaqaeœ .
_a™g –e_‚qaga ∑∂ ∂L’ea ‚ea≥e∞ı §o_geˆeae Oe∂≈L’L
‚∑agga , ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g O‰me∂ g∞_oq_ g ∑g∂ae _gemq√ g
ogé_g. eL‰q 2u –e_em∂ eçaem ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g ∑ae ‚‰ça 25
≈_eˆ ea_ _gemq√ gı ıg.
9
ee ∞aa∂ ea∞∂ça , ∑a∂_a
_geaaogqaeœ O‰me∂ _geaaoq_ ga eaçea ce –a› çeı
Oqm≈eˆéeœ_e. ea∞∂ oeg !% _gemeˆe∑∑L’La∂ _qea∂ oaee∑
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g u.u% _geaaé≈_oqae –a› oaıa eı g_∑ c_
éeœ_ea.
10
_ge ogaae_a g∞_oae aeˆ eı Oqa∞eça e∞La
_Oameˆe ‰aL’≥‚∂‚a ∑aeœqçaq ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_, _ge aeˆeı
Oqa∞eça g∞_oae ogaae_a eıı §‰gaa≈∂ ∑aemeˆga
ce cga∑aaeˆeeˆ æLag. ea∞∂ - ‚aa∑a∂a - oaee Qgq√qa ceœ_
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_ gg ‘‰e o og∂ ’ –ga (Vicious circle). geœ g
a_ _qeœ ‚q∞o∞a _geaaeˆ é e∞Léa∂ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_‚a
éç∏‰g ‚∑aé_g.
‚∑asˆgmçg√g - mgsˆsmam mm∑∑amœ∞m
a∞__eaae _gemeˆga
oaeeq√ ‚q∞o
_gemeˆga eL’_aaea
_gemeˆga oaee
∑aeœ∑a_
‚q∞o - _ge ea∞∂,
‚aa∑a∂a, oaee Qgq√qa

o
a

a
g

(Pune Traffic & Transportation Forum - Vision, Policy and Recommendation for Pune)
10
_gemeˆga
O‰me∂
aao∑a_,
§∞çee∂,
≈∑q√geı
ea∞∂ oeg∞a
_geaaeˆ gq∂
˙a geıa∂
O‰me∂
_geaaga
˙ageıa∂ ‚aga
_ge O‰me∂
‰∞L, —goe≥ ‚∑g‰g
∑afieı aé_‰geπeˆg
aa_ ≈ga∫q∂
‰∞L,
—goe≥
‚∑g‰g ˜g
Oog∑∫
∑ae„ça
_gem∑∑qa∂
oaeeq√‚q∞o
_gem∑∫
‚a_ ee L ‰e oe oge∂ §g‰ g Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰eça
≈_q∞∂ _∞La ‚oe_a. qeaaa oaeea™eπeˆeae oege∞ı
_geaaeˆ go∞q ∞e≈L’ _ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g∞e g_a ∑Leˆ ∞eaaπa
‘∑aeq√ ‚q∞oeı ‚a∂ae∞a’ (Transportation Demand Manage-
ment - TDM / Mobility Management) c_a ea∂q√ geˆ ‚e_ _ ∫ga
_∞_eˆg Oeeœ∞e aa_‚oe_a. §a_∞_a∂, oaeea™emeœ §L∑
O∑aa e éeˆ g _eˆ éaq√ goa _meˆ e∑ ∑Lag. aa_ae,aeˆ eı a_ ga
O∑agL’emeœ §L∑O∑aaeéeˆg _eœ_m∞a _meˆe∑∑_a.
‚∑asˆgmçg√gm §L∑ ∑æmœ∑agm
(Car-Free Development - Sustainable Transport : A Sourcebook for Policty-makers in
Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2005)
11
∑aeq√ ‚q∞oeı ‚a∂ae ∞a _≥∑ ∑∞La∂ _ge
ag∑ ∫∞La a_ ga g∞_oae Oe∂çc≥eˆ ga ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
_∞_eπeˆg _eœ_m∞a _meˆe ‚oe_a. g∞_oae ag∑∫∞La
a_ga _ge Oe∂ç c≥eˆga ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_e∞ı∑ ceœ_eˆgq√
qı ı‚oe _a . c_q√ geˆ eaL’ Lae, _oeç ˙a gça , ‚∑g‰ geπa
_ge ag∑ ∫∞La∞o. ‰∞L∑a∞qça —goe ≥eπa g∞_oae
Oe∂ç∞La∞o. §o_ geˆ g qeaaa oaeea™ e∞ı≈L _ge
_eœ_m∞a _meˆe ‚oe_a.
‚∑Ïeˆÿ÷rµ√U ±kœP¶∞g
é_‰q ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _eœ_m∞a ceœ∑g ‘_ge Oe∂≈∂
g∞_‰ q ag∑ ∫∞La ∑∂∞eq√ qga oaeea™ e∞ı∑
ceœ _eˆ gq√ qı m, g∞_‰ q Oe∂≈∂ _ge ag∑ ∫∞La
‚e∞o∞aq√ qga oaeea™ eπeˆ g _eœ _m∞a qçeˆ æ≥a’
o∞ea∂ _∞aa ‚oe_a.
c_q√geˆeaL’Lae, _oeç ˙ageπa, ‚∑g‰geπa _ge
ag∑ ∫∞La ‚e∞o∞a g∞_oae Oe∂≈∂ Oea› éeœ _e.
§o__eœ goOoag é‚∂a ˜L’La ∑aeq√g_ga _ge ag∑∫
ee _. –ea∂ gg ‰∑a aL’ _‚a ∑afieˆ ga eamea∂
_q√q∞ea ∑aeœ é∞Laag.
ce‚o, Oeeœ ∞eaeœ ea∞∂a∂ , ceœ oga o∞ea∂
_eœ_m∞a _meˆe ‚oe_a.
!. _oeç ˙ageı
2. ‰∞L∑a∞q
8. —goe ≥eı
4. ‚∑g‰g
5. qae (–L’‚La)
u. ‚e∞o oaeea™eı
7. qeaaa aé_‰geı (eaaeı) ] §g eeˆeç oaeea™eı
8. oaee Qgq√qa™eı.
(Mobility Management - Sustainable Transport :
A Sourcebook for Policty-makers in
Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002)
12
z.z. ‚∑asˆgmçg√gm o‡s §gçm
Gomœ∞m msˆsæmœ ∑æmm
Oeeœ ∞e ‰emeœ oaee∑ O∑geˆ e ∫ı m ≈oça™ e∞ı∑
∑≥∑‚∑aga, Oeeœ∞eaeœ ea∞∂e∞ı∑ ∑aa∑‚∑aga - Oeeœ∞ea∂
O∑ga ∑a∂ae aeˆ eı §g eeˆ eç oaeea™ emga , eaa emga
∑afi∑∑qae ceeeˆæ_a. –ea∂, ee∞a _go∂∂.
Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰emeœ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_e∞ı §g≈qaae∑
cmeˆ e∂aa . ‚∑g‰ geı , OqaLa oe ≥, —goe ≥, ‰∞L –éa∞o
_q∂ o∞eaaga . Oeeœ ∞e aeˆ emeœ gL’ _Oaaq√ q ∑aeq√ g∂
§o__eœ ∑a™em∑∫ !uu2–a –e≥∂ 8u% –e §g‰qg 2uu4–a
–e≥∂ 75%–eeˆ g∞_‰g≈L’Lg.
qeaa™ é §geeˆ eç oaeea™ eı a_ ga aé_‰ gem∂
∑afi∑ ∑g §çe Laog o∞eaaga . §o_ _eœ ∑a™ em∑ ∫ §‚q
ea∂eL’Lq√g∂ 8%–e §g‰qg q_‚∑ag 22%–e _gemq√gııg.
11
–e Oaaq√ qq√ g∂ , §eœ ∞_eˆ ga Oeeœ ∞e aeˆ emeœ _eˆ ea∂
∑a™ g ∑aea™ eı ‚∑g‰ g, OqaLa oe ≥, —goe ≥, ‰∞L
–éao_∞_ eaa‰‚q §geˆé_g. ce_a Oeeœ∞ea∂ 8u% §Lq√∞q
§geeˆ eç oaeea™ eπa , aé_‰ geπ‚a _∞Lq√ geˆ Oeae _
Oe∂oqa∂ _∞o‚a _qeœ∞aaae ∑ae o∞eeı ceœ∑g ‚∑aeœ_
aaaq√‚qa__a eııg.
‚∑g‰g 39% 29%
OqaLaoe≥ 4% 5%
—goe ≥ 14% 13%
‰∞L 29% 28%
§geeˆeç oaeea 7% 18%
aé_‰g 1% 4%
§qç 6% 3%
2004 1992
Gomœ∞m∑ G∑g‰smmœ gmom gm‰∑a ∑æm m∞s
(1ssz - zoo4)
CMDA, Draft Master Plann - II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026
13
Gomœ∞m∑ G∑g‰sm∂ ‰∑asæmœ
m∏¿∞p∑∑≥ ∑æmæ™sæmœ ∑æ™4g - zoo4
‚∑g‰g 2u%
‰∞L
28%
—goe ≥
!8%
§geeˆeç
oaeea™eı
!8%
aé_‰g
4%
§qç 8%
OqaLaoe≥
5%
‚∑g‰g 2u%
75%
§geeˆeç
oaeea™eı
!u% !u% !u% !u% !u%
aé_‰ g aé_‰ g aé_‰ g aé_‰ g aé_‰ g
qae 8%
o∞aç‰g (Truck) 2%
§qç !%
‚∑g‰g u%
CMDA, Draft Master Plann - II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026
Gomœ∞m∑ G∑g‰sm∂ masmæ™sæmœ
m∏¿∞p∑∑≥ ∑æmæ™sæmœ ∑æ™4g - zoo4
mmgasæmœ ∑æmm
masmæ™sæmœ ∑æmm
14
aeˆ eı Oqa∞eeˆ eeeˆ Oe_∑ ∫ 2uu!-§eœ ∑≥ Oeeœ ∞ea∂
7!% g_a∑a™eı ‡eœg _∞_eπeˆgeˆ g∞_oae eıı ˚_em∂ (!
_∂∂g 2 _∞_eı aL’_a eıı ˚_em∂) oéeˆéeœ_ea. q—g‰a_
_ço gL’ L ‚a_ ∑aa ∞o g_≈_ eae ‰Lq√ q∑ ∑L’ L –a› ≈∂ 72%
g_a ∑a™ eı ‰eo∞L‰ q a_ ga g∞_‰ q ogoaa› ∑ cm≈∞ee
eaa ‰ qoa eı ceq√ Oqma o‰ qg.
12
aeˆ eı Oqa∞eeˆ eeeˆ Oe_∑
ceœ ∑≥ 2u% aeˆ eı g≥∞e∑ ∑ggeı ce∑ ∑_a oagq√ qgga_ _
§La™em∂ oéeˆéeœ_ea.
13
–e, Oeeœ ∞e aeˆ em∂ O∑ga ∑aeœ ∞aaa‚eaa g∞_oae
ogaaea e∞Laoa eı . §q√ q∞ea O∑ga ∑aeœ ∞a aeˆ emeœ
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ gq√ ‚q∞oe∞ı ∫_eˆ efiq√ g≈L’ _, aé_‰ g ∞oq√
ggeˆ ga ég∑aeœ ∞a‚aameœ ‚q∞oeπeˆ g _eœ _m∞a _meˆ e∑
∑_é_g.
Oeeœ∞eaeœ gL’_Oaaq√q ∑aeq√g∂ 22 ≈_eˆea_ aeˆemeœ
∑aea aL’ _‚a aé_‰ geı ‡∂_a , §g eeˆ eç oaeea™ eı ‡∂
aaeça ‰∞LO∑gé_g. –ea∂, ea∞∂aeœ 8u ≈_eˆea_ §Lq√∞q
§∞o‚a _∞Lq√ge Oe∂oqae ∫ım≈oça™eı Oqm≈eˆ éeœ_e.
14
ea∞∂eπa, ‚aa∑a∂a™eπa ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_eπa §o_geˆg
oegaae‚o _∞aeˆe∑∑_éeœ_e.
_∞eo∞çça eaaae ‰Lq√q ‚oe≥a _çeaa™ea, Oeeœ∞e
‰emeœ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ ∞q∑ O∑agq√ qo∞ç, O∑ga ∑aeœ ∞a aeˆ emeœ
‚q∞oe∞ı∑ ∫_eˆ efiq√ g≈L’ _ oeg∑∞Lq√ q ‚a∂ qL’ _ og∑ c
egeˆg eg∞e _m∑∑qae‚o §g‰g ogé_g. §∑‚∑aeˆg ‰_oe
_çéeœ ‰ea ∑ ∫_∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g Oeaı ∞ea∂ æ_∑ ∑L’ _ı ı
‘_∞eq√ g aeˆ eπeˆ ga eaq√ goaae o∞ea∂ ea∞∂a∂ §La
_mq√q∂’ c_a g_eˆ‚eaπeˆg _çeaeg –ga.
15
‰_oe _çéeœ _geaç∑ ≠a o Oeaı ∞eaae - ‘ea∞∂em∂
oaeea™ eı _≥∑ ∑∞La∂ §Lam∑ ∑∞q q≈a q√ g, aeˆ emeœ
cefieˆ∞e _ı≈∂ §La _meˆe ‚oe_a’ ceœ∑∞q egg Oea›a
‚oe_Oae∂, O∑ga∑aeœ∞a aeˆemeœ ‚q∞oeıae ‚∑g‰geı,
—goe ≥eı Oe∂ ∂ o∏, ‰L∑ ∑q_ g ‰∞L∑a∞q –éao_ geˆ g
_eœ _m∞a _meˆ e‚oe _a . –ea∂ , Oeeœ ∞ea∂ §∞oOa∂
∂aa OqaLa‰g ∫_eˆefieˆe∑∑_éeœ_e.
‘‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ Oeaı ∞e’ c_a –a› ≈q∏∂ Oomaae
‘§‰ gaa≈eœ ‰ea ∑ ∫_∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ ge éeˆ e∂ ’ c_a eL’ _∞ç
15
ceœ ogaag g_∑ c_é_g: ‘_çéeœ Qg ggeˆ éL’ ≥∂ O∑gaıç
aé_‰ g ∞oq√ gg∑ ‚∑ameœ ‚q∞oe∞ı Q∞_ç Oea› a‚o
∑aeœ ∑_q√ q∑ ∑_é_g. §qea∂ —goe ≥a∂ Oe∂ ‚oaa a_ ga
‰L‰g Oe∂‚oameœ ‚q∞oeı ∫_eˆefieˆe∑∑_éeœ_e. _ooa‚_,
‚∑g‰ g ‚∑aeœ _ O∑ag∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_eπeˆ ga Qg
é∞L∑ ∑g∂ ∞∂. çOee∂ , O∑ag∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_eı
‚a∂qL’_ og∑cegeˆg ‚q∞o∑∑_og∂∞∂.
§‰ga ‰ea∑∫_∑ ‚∑aeˆeoçq√ge éeˆe∂e∞ıq√ ga∑∑g∂ eıı
_qeœ∞aaae q∞Leˆe∂, §q_g∑ ceœefia∂ eıı _çéa∂qaeœ.
‰∂∂ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_e∞ıeˆ Oeae_ogoq_g aé_‰g a_ga
§g eeˆeç oaee e_∑q√gaaıaeı q∞Laae eııea. §oaeπeˆg
–qçoae eeˆ geı _çéeœ Oeaı ∞e og∑ c∂ q∞∂aL’ _ _oa
eπeˆ gq√ ‚q∞oaae ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ Oeaı ∞ee∞ı egoaeˆ g
é_aa eı . oeg∑∞Lq√ q ‚aL’ _eˆ g≥ §‰ gaa emeœ aé_‰ g eaa ‰ q
oageˆ∞e _∞_ça §q_g –qçoae eııg.
§oa emeœ ‘Oeaı ∞eeˆ g’ ç_ ∑‚o aa‰eça™ em∂ ∫ga ∫ga
‚aa∑a∂a™eı O∑ga Oe∂≈∂ eL’L∑∑_éeœ_e. __eˆgaa≥ oaee
Qgq√qa™eı eL’_a gL’La™eı gL’L∑∑_éeœ_e. O∑ag∑ ∑eq√∞qeˆ
Oeae_ _∞aeˆe∑∑_a §q√q∞eaq√ gL’La™eı c∂∂aa Oaeœ‚aga
aé_‰gemeœ cefieˆ∞e∞a _gemeˆe‚o Oea›ça. ee∞aa∂
§qea∂ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g ‚aga ‚aga ‚aaeaae‚o aaga.
ce‚o, aé_‰ geπeˆ eae ‚aa ∑a∂a eL’ _q∂ , __eˆ gaa≥
oaee Qgq√ qa™ eı _∞aq√ q∂ ‚∑aeœ _ _∞_e∞ı∑ ceœ _eˆ gq√
qı m≈L’ _, ‚∑g‰ geı ‚∑aeœ _ O∑ag∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_e∞ı
˙eˆ g≈∑ ∑ga , —goe ≥eˆ ga , ‰L‰ g Oe∂ ∂ça o∏e∞ı
_∞a∑ ∑ga qaeœ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ ge éeˆ e∞∂q√ ga eˆ ga o∏’ ceœ é_g
_‰q –a›çeˆ eL’_∞ç.
16
16
mapg∑ ‚∑asˆgmçg√gg√ gL’Lm
a.1 ¿g¿∞p
‚∑aeˆgoçq√g oege∞ı _m∑∑g∂ §‰gaaçeˆg _eœ‚ea≥
aae §geˆ ga ‰a_emeœ __∑oa™ emeg‰ g ∑aLa e_ ∑qae
‰a _∞La ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_ _∞aa ‚oe _a . _eœ ea∂
Oe∂ ∑oa ∑_g∏a∂ qo_ ≈_‰ qa∂ _ogeˆ g∑ ceœ ea∂ Oe∂ ∑
oga _‚q g∏a∂ ≈geˆ æLag. _‰ ‰a_eı ç_ Oee‚o Oea› q
qoge∞ı ‰aa ‘ag∑≥ça gg_∞_‘ Oea›aeˆæLag.
ceœ oga ∑≥Q∞∂em∂ qaeœ ‰a ∞a≈L _eœ ‚e_a ‚a∞∂
‰a_emeœ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g ∑meaa oıaeé _∞L‰qg.
1. GgaLsˆs Q∞∂
z. ¿∞çg∞p
‚∑asˆgmçg√g
a. GgaLsˆsQ∞∂
masmmæm
4. ¿_∞mæam
masmmæm
ö.
gçmam
magsˆ∞s
Q∞∂
‚aa∑L’L O∑ag∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g,
qçaae ‚∑g‰g - OqaLa oe≥ oeg,
‰Leˆeça, —goe≥eˆga oegeı,
aé_‰geπeˆga §g eeˆeç
oaeea™eπeˆga eL’_∑∑a_
_∞eomL_a aé_‰geı,
g∞_‰q _ıç ‚∑g‰geı
§geeˆeç oaeea™eı,
∑∞ga aé_‰geı
‚oeœeı ‡∂a O∑ag∑
‚∑aeˆgoçq√g, oeg∑∞Lq√q
ggé∂mLa aé_‰geı
gg∞ç oe≥,
—goe ≥
‚a_ ee L ∑≥Q∞∂em∂ 4–og Q∞∂aae _∞eoga
aé_‰ g ∞oq√ ggeˆ ga Q∞∂a∞e cL’ ≥∑ c≥q√ g, §q_ eae
O∑gaıç Qga∞ee Oe∂≈L’ _ e∞Léa∂ ‚a∞∂‰a_eı
‚∑mg∑∞∑e e‰gq√qe.
(Car-Free Development - Sustainable Transport : A Sourcebook for Policty-makers in
Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2005)
17
O∑ga ∑a∂ae aeˆ eı Oea‰ qaae aé_‰ g ∞oq√ ggeˆ ga
Q∞∂a∂ ea_ g aao∑a_, O‰me∂ , §∞çe e∂ , ≈∑q√ geı ,
ceOea›eˆeae §_eˆgag∞ae eaa‰ggq√q∂, O∑agıaqaç §g∑∫,
∫≈ Oo∑∑a∞Lq∂, aeˆeı ∑geq√ q∞L, §a_∞e oı _∏ç, ‰em∂
∑aa ∞o Oqm≈∂ ∂aq Q∞∂, oa∏L∑ ∑_ _aeˆ g∞_, g∑ ∞∑
_geaaq∂ - ce cee__ §La∑∑a_e∞ı e‰gq√qe. §∑‚∑aga
e‰geˆéeœ_ei
qogemeg‰ g ∑aLa e_ _ ‚a∞∂ ‰a_emeœ ‰eça™ eı
§∑ ‚∑ag ˜e _a ‚∑g‰ g a_ ga OqaLa oe ≥ ‚e∞oe∞ı
‰˚eaaeˆ é _gemq√ q∂ , ‰Leˆ eça , —goe ≥eˆ ga ˙eˆ eamq√ q∂ ,
qeaaa oaeea™ e∞ıeˆ eL’ _∑ ∑_q√ gq∂ ceœ _ 5–og Q∞∂aae
‘qçaae oageˆ∞e’ §∂eˆé∞e ‚‰aeˆé∑ ∑afieˆéeœ_e.
17
§eœ∞_a
e∂éeœ _eœ efi ‰eça™ eıae ∑ammƒ , §∂e Leœ , ‚ea∑eœ ‚_eeœ ,
mƒ Laeˆ ‚eaa , éa™ e∑ ≠a , é‚aa∂ c∂ ∂a_a qag qogem∂ §g‰ g
∑aLa e_g ∫ga∑ ∑a∞q∞a Oqmç Oea›gııe.
aé_‰ geπa , ‚aa ∑a∂a™ eπa aeˆ emeœ oag ≈∂
aég e é∞aq√ qçag ceœ ∑∞q eea ‰ g §‰ q ‰eça™ eı §∑ ‚∑ag
‘qçaae oag eˆ ∞e’ ceœ ∑∞q §∂eˆ eaeeˆ Oeae _ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
_∞_e∞ı aa__ _∞aeˆéeœ_e.
q_ ‚∑ag Oeeœ ∞ea∂ ga oae _eœ ∞oeˆ e∑ ∑_a ‚aa ∑a∂a™
eπa, __eˆgaa≥ oaee Qgq√qa™eπa _o__a∂ eL’_eˆeLa™eaq
oaee _gem∑ ∫a ç_ Oee‚o ‚a∞∂‰a_emeœ ‰eça™ eı Oea› g
_≥q√g, ∑aLa e__ qogeıqaeœi
‚a_Oeaeœe, ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g ∑meaa oıaeé∑ ∑≥ Q∞∂em∂
8–og Q∞∂aae OqaLeˆ e Q∞∂ oaee aaq√ geg‰ g, 4–og
Q∞∂aae __∞aaae oaee aaaaqgeˆg Oeeœ∞e ‰eça Oe∂∂q√
OqaLa™ éageˆ é_g. (Early Motorisation stage to Full Motorisation
Stage) _qaog - gg é∂mLa oaeea™ eı ceœ _ Q∞∂aeg‰ g
c∂ ‚∂aga oaeea ∞oq√ ggeˆ ga Q∞∂∞a ‚‰aeˆ ée Oe∂ ∂
Oeeœ ∞e _a_ éeˆ é_g. (c∂ ‚∂aga oaeea oaa™ e∂aaa, æLaqa
ceœ∑g §a™g ‚eı≈ _∂∂. aa_ae, c∂‚∂aga oaeea oaa™éaae
‚oe _a ceœ _ ¿g∂ gL’ L—L’ _ egoaeˆ e∑ ∑_é_g ceœ ∑gqaeœ
eo∞∂ameˆeeˆ æ≥ag.)
§g ‚q∞a__g. –∑q√qaeg. §q_g aa_ae, Oeeœ∞e 8–og
Q∞∂aae OqaLeˆ e Q∞∂ qaeaa™ é Q∞∂aeg‰ g, ‚‰ç≥aae
5–og Q∞∂aae ‘qçaae oag eˆ ∞e’ Q∞∂eˆ g (Early Motorisation
18
stage to Quality of life Stage) qo∞ı∑ ∑aa››eee∂ aa_ _≥ça. aa_
‚oe_a. §g‚o __ç∞L∞aaae _∞aça.
Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰eç _ı≈∂ geem qe‰∑a ∑ae o∞ea∂
‰∞L, —goe ≥, ‚∑g‰ g, OqaLa oe ≥ –éao_ _eœ ∑a™ g
!uu2§∂ 8u% –e §g‰ qg 2uu4§∂ 75%–eeˆ g∞_‰ g≈L’ Lg.
§‚q ea∂eL’Lq√g∂ aé_‰g a_ga §geeˆeç oaeea™emeœ ∑a™g
8% –e §g‰qg 22% –e _gemq√g≈L’Lg.
18
§g Oeeœ ∞e∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_ Q∞∂q√ ggeˆ ga
‚∑aeˆgoçq√g (Sustainable Transport) _∞_aeg‰g, Q∞∂q√ggeˆe
§a∂aq _∞_eˆ g aago∞qeˆ eaL’ _é_g. ee ∞aa∂ ‚a∞∂
‰a_emeœ ‰eça™ eı _∞eq√ ga Q∞∂q√ ggeˆ ga ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
_∞_eıae ‰∞L, —goe≥, ‚∑g‰g, OqaLaoe≥ _∞_eπeˆg
aa_ e≥eaae _a_ ée∞ı ‚a_ Oeae _ı ıe. –ea∂ , Oeeœ ∞e
‰em∂ ç_ Oee‚o §geˆ ga §‰ q ‰∂ ∂ _∞_e∞ıeˆ ea∑ ∑a_ _aa∂
Q∞∂∞a ∞e‰_≈∑ ‚∑ao∞q ‚o≥eˆ∞e ∑aaeˆé‚_aa. ‚og oaaq√
∞qem∂ ægoqaea∂ , ‚a∞∂‰a_emeœ ‰eça™ eı gg‰ ∞q∞aq√
g
m

ı


a
æ
›o
o

1. GgaLsˆs Q∞∂
z. ¿∞çg∞p
‚∑asˆgmçg√g
a. GgaLsˆsQ∞∂
masmmæm
4. ¿_∞mæam
masmmæm
ö.
gçmam
magsˆ∞s
Q∞∂
‚aa∑L’L O∑ag∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g,
qçaae ‚∑g‰g - OqaLa oe≥ oeg,
‰Leˆeça, —goe≥eˆga oegeı,
aé_‰geπeˆga §g eeˆeç
oaeea™eπeˆga eL’_∑∑a_
_∞eomL_a aé_‰geı,
g∞_‰q _ıç ‚∑g‰geı
§geeˆeç oaeea™eı,
∑∞ga aé_‰geı
‚oeœeı ‡∂a O∑ag∑
‚∑aeˆgoçq√g, oeg∑∞Lq√q
ggé∂mLa aé_‰geı
gg∞ç oe≥,
—goe ≥
(Car-Free Development - Sustainable Transport : A Sourcebook for Policty-makers in
Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2005)
19
Oqa∞∂q√g≈L’_q√ ‚q_éeœ_e. Oeeœ∞e ‰eç‚aa qeg §_∑c∂
§geˆga gg‰∞q∞a ∑ageaeˆeq√ qoga ‰eçaae §geˆé_gi
ce‚o, Oeeœ∞e∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∞e ‚aa∑_q√gog ceœ∑g
_qeœ ∞aaae ç_ Oee‚o §geˆ ga Q∞∂q√ ggeˆ ga ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
(Sustainable Transport) _∞_e∞ı ∑agea∑∑gqaeœ. ‰∞L, —goe≥,
‚∑g‰g, OqaLaoe≥ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g oegemeœ ∑a™em∑∫ aeˆemeœ
Oaaq√ q ∑aea™ em∂ 75%–e §g∑ ∑∞q ∑ageaq√ g, ‰˚eaaeˆ é,
‚aa∑_q√gogqaeœ eLe≥q√ ‚q∞o.
a.z. Gga∞∂‚‰asˆg (Vision)
l Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰eça oagq√ qg‰ q ‰eçaae (Liveable
City) _∞aoq_ g o∏ogeˆ eeˆ æ≥a ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
_∞_∞a egoaeˆ gq∂ . aeˆ emeœ oag eˆ ∞eq√ qçq√ ∞q
(Quality of life) ‚aa∑_q√gq∂.
l ‘aeˆe∞ı §aa™ee Oea›‚oaa, ˙age∞ı _∂∂’ (Move
people, not vehicle) ceœ _ _≥∑ ∑∞La∂ _∞eomeœ
‚q∞oe∞ıça n_Oea›aeˆæ≥a, _∞eomeœ __∞a
aae ‰∂ oag çeˆ g o∏ogeˆ eeˆ æ≥a ‘aeˆ e∞ı ∞aa∑
∑_q√ ga eaq√ goaae ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_∞a’
_∞aq√q∂.
l Oeeœ∞ea∂ oéeˆga, Oomaeg‰g Oeeœ∞eeˆg oç
§geˆga §eœ∞_a q∞∂_∞_aea _∞eogeˆgaae
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g oege∞ı __∞aaae _meˆ ga _‚q
‚‰çq√ g∂ - cga oga ea∂a™ em∂ Oeeœ ∞ea∂
oag∑ ‚∑aga cga ea∂q√ q∞∂_∞_aea _oa eıg
‚q∞oe∞ı n_Oea› oq_ g ∑ag∑ c∂ ∂aq o∞ea∂ ,
Q∞∂q√ ggeˆ ga ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g (Sustainable Transport)
_∞_aae Oeeœ∞e∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_∞a aa_gq∂.
a.a §∂sˆg (Goal)
l aeˆ eı _∞eoga - O∑agıaqaç Q∞∂, e∂ ≈, aqa ,
eag, oag, ∑aeea , eL∂ g_eœ eL’ ∑L c‰ q∑ ∑ag
∑a_a §eœ _ _oçoa ‚q∞oe∞ıça , ‚e∞oe∞ıça
ea∂qaaq‚aa, _ge∑ O∑agL’ Oe∂‚oa §eœ _ cmg∂
20
_∞Lae Oea› aeˆ æ≥aqae ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_∞a
aa_ gq∂ .
l ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g ceœ ∑g ˙a gemeœ §aeˆ ea _∂ ∂.
aeˆemeœ §aeˆea ceœ∑∞q eggOea›q∂.
l ‚og∑L’ L o∞eaae ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_e∞ı∑
∑aeœ∑_q√g‚oameœ aeˆeı Oqa∞e ≈éqq√geˆg ç_∑ça,
_∑‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_aeœ Q∞∂q√ggeˆga (Sustaina-
bility) qeœ ∞a∞a egq√ g∂ Oeae _a , _∞eogeˆ ga
ema em∞aaae ∑a™ g é∞Leˆ ga o∞ea∂ ‘‚∑aeˆ g
oçq√g∂ e‡e ¿g∞a’ Q∞∂‰aL’_q∂. g_∑∑ae, _çéeœ
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ eae Qg ggeˆ éL’ ≥ga , O∑ag §Laae
ea∞∂emga e‡e ¿g∞a Q∞∂ ‰aL’_q∂.
l ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_eı eL∂‰∂∞eça, o_ge¿g∞∂
ça ∑agea∑∑qae §g∑∑∞q eggOea›q∂.
l ea∂Q∞∂ aa__a (Climate Change) eımL’L cgaea∂q√
q∞∂_∞_aemeœ oag ≈∞e ∑ageˆ eaq o∞eaga ,
¿≥q√ ggeˆ ga ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g (Sustainable Transport)
_∞_aaeça §g∑∑∞q egg Oea›q∂.
l ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g ceœ ∑g _∞eq√ gq√ qç∑ cegeˆ ga ema
O∑agıaqaç oıaeéeˆg o∏ og∑∑qae §geˆee Oea›q∂.
l Oeeœ∞e oagq√qg‰q ‰eçaae §g∑∑∞q egg Oea›q∂.
ea∞∂eı, Oqgeˆeı ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geˆeae∞o aL’_a∂∂,
_∞o aeˆ emeœ e‡e oag ≈_ eae∞o ceœ ∑∞q
Q∞∂‰aL’_q∂.
a.4 gjsˆ‚saı (Objective)
l Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰em∂ O∑ga ∑aeœ ∞a aeˆ emeœ
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g ç_ Oee‚o Q∞∂q√ ggeˆ ga oıa e éeˆ g
ee‰qqae §geˆé_g. _q∞e∑ ∑ageaq√q∂.
l ‰∞L∑a∞q∞a∑ ∑aeœ ∑_q√ go∞q ˙eˆ g≈q√ q∂ ,
_gemq√ q∂ .
l —goe ≥∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_∞a ˙eˆ g≈q√ q∂ ,
_gemq√ q∂ .
21
l ‚∑g‰ g∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g∞e _geaaeˆ gq∂ , ‰˚e
aaeˆ gq∂ .
l qae (–L’‚La) ‚∑aeˆgoçq√∞q ˙eˆg≈q√q∂
l _∞eq√ g∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_eπeˆ ga §∞L‚a
gga™é∞e∑∞∑ ç_∑_q√gq∂.
l oaee Qgq√qa™e∞ı _∞_∑∑_q√gq∂.
l qeaaa qaeaa™ é oaee∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g∞e _∞_∑
∑_q√gq∂, eL’_∑∑_q√gq∂.
l ea_ g aao∑aL’ ≥∞eça , ge aao∑aL’ ≥∞eça eL’ _∑
∑_q√gq∂.
l ceOea›∑ ∑aeœ∑aL’∞Le éeˆeeaaeˆgq∂.
l ea∞∂‚aaçeˆ e∞Le∞ıça , Oqa∏∂ e∞ıça , O∑ag
ıaqaçe Oea∂∑a_e∞ıça ∑ageaq√q∂, ‚aa∑_q√gq∂.
l g_‰ qOomeı , ≠a™ eaeˆ eı , ≈∞ıaa_—La™ e∞ı∑
∑ageaq√q∂, ∑çaamq√q∂, _geaaeˆgq∂.
l Oqgeˆ e∞ı oaeea™ emL—g‰ g ˜L’ _ aeˆ eπeˆ g
_mq√q∂. g≥ag∑∫∑ ∑ggem∂ oaee∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√
g∞eeˆ eL’_∑∑_q√gq∂.
l ∑o∞a∑ ∑gge∞ıça , aça™ e∞ıça ∑ageaq√ q∂ ,
_geaaeˆ gq∂ .
l ≈∑q√ge∞ıq√ q≈aq√q∂
l ¿ao∏ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g_g o∏ Oea›q∂
‰Lm≥sˆ∞ssı
a.ö.1. ‰∞L∑a∞g ‚mm∑ag
Oeeœ∞eaeœ Oaaq√q∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∂ 28% ‰∞L∑∑aea™eı
‡∂‚a ‰∞LO∑gé_g.
19
–ea∂, c‰q gg ea∞∂aga ‰∞L∑a∞q
_∞_aae _∞aeˆ e∑ ∑L≈∂ ∞∂. Oeeœ ∞eaeœ ea∞∂e∞ı
–eˆéç—q√g ∑afi∑‚∑aa ‰L∑∑oaeı _∂∂, –ea∂, Oeeœ∞eaeœ
ea∞∂ ≈∑q√gem∂ §_∑‚∑am∂ 8!% ‚∑ga, eaaa∞L‚oam∂ 25%
‚∑ga ∑aqeameı qaeœ . §g Oea› aaq g_ _q√ geˆ geˆ é∞Leˆ ga
qeL∞ei
20
22
‰∞L∑∑aea gg —eeé_‰q ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_. §qea∂,
o_ ge ¿g∂ aao∑_og∂ ∞∂. ˚e Oe∂çeı §∂ ∞∂. eL∂
‰∂q√ g_ g ee‰ q eL_ ∑a_ éaae _∞aé_g. eL_ ∑ga∞eeˆ
g∞_eˆ é_g. ç∞gemeœ _qeœ ∞aaae ∑ae o∞e ‰∞Lqaeœ .
Oeeœ∞ea∂ _∞eq√g∑ cm≈ega _geaae ∑afi∑∑g g∞_‰q
Oqa∞∂ç ‚q∞oeπeˆ eaeq√ qaeœ . §q√ q∞ea g∞_‰ q „ç∑
∑aea™eπeˆg —eeé_‰qg ‰∞L∑∑aeaqaeœ.
‰∞L∑∑aea O∑ag∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√gLeœ §∞e‰qg. ‚∑g‰g,
OqaLa oe ≥∑ ∑aea go Ooaeœ gL_a §çe _ ‰∞L∑
∑aea™ eı §∞e‰ gı ıe. ce‚o, Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰eça
__∞aeˆ ga ‰∞L∑ ∑ae oege∞ı ‚aa ∑_q√ ga o∞ea∂ -
Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰eç ‰∞L∑ ∑aeq√ gL’ La geœ _∞e aeˆ eı
∑a™ ‚e_ ∫Leœ egoaeˆ é Oea∂ ∑_q√ q ‚oe _a . _q√ q∞ea
Oea∂ gL’ La ceœ oga _a ea™ e∞ı eı ıLeˆ éaqae §geˆ e
‚oe_a.
!. _∞eq√g ea∞∂emga §g∫__a ‰∞L∑a∞qeı _∞aeˆe∑
∑L ‚oe _a . _o_ _eœ g∞_‰ q∑L’ e _e∂a Qgeaeˆ e∑
∑L’ _, _q∞e _∞eq√ g ea∞∂emga eL’ Laaaaeˆ e
‚oe _a . (ea∞∂aeœ _e∂a g∞_oae §geˆ g—La™ em∂
oaee∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geˆeae §Laqaeœ g∞_eˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
‰∞L∑a∞qaeœ _e∂q√ ∞qeˆ g∞_eˆ eeˆ æLag. §o oag
Oea› oqa∂ oaee∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g g∞_‰ g, aeˆ eı ‚∑aeˆ g
oçq√g ‚aa∑aL∞Lça).
2. ‰∞L∑a∞qemeœ eaça o∞çageˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a . §‰ q
eaçaaeg oaeea™ eı ‰∞L∑a∞q∞a –eˆ éç—eˆ eaa∂
q_∑ ∑qae §geˆ ga _‚q ‚o∞ıa∂ , _gaoa , gg‰ ∞qeı
ç_eˆæ≥aqaeça §geˆe ‚oe_a.
8. ‰∞L∑a∞qemeœ ggeˆ ‚e —eœ eaç∑ O∑L’ ≥eı , Oqa∞∂q√
OqaLa ∫ O∑L’ ≥eı , Oqg≈ıeˆ geı , ≈ıa ∑ç∑ ∑∂∞eeı ,
oa q√ qe Qgoea™ emeœ __≈∑ ∫eı , e∞Lemeœ ∑≥eı ,
eqçeı ‚∑aeœ_ cgça q∞Laae §geˆeeˆ æLag.
4. ‰∞L∑a∞qeˆ e∞Leı ‰∞L∑a∞qemeœ ga _a™ eaae §geˆ e
‚oe_a. _∞o, ‰L∑∑q_g §∞L˘e∂ §∂∂aqoag _∞_∑
∑_q√ q∑ ∑L ‚oe _a. ‚q∞oaae §La™ em∂ ‰∞L∑a∞qeˆ
e∞Leı , ‰∞L∑a∞qeı §çe _eˆ ga ‚q∞oaae _ıçeˆ g
23
‰∞L∑a∞qemeœ _e∂a _geaaeˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a .
(‰∞L∑a∞qeˆ e∞Leı ∑aqeameπeˆg §∞L˘e∂ae §∂∞∂.
aa_ae, _oa eπeˆ g ‚e∞oam∑ ∑eoaeq√ qaeœ §geˆ é_g.
æL‚o, ‰L∑ ∑oa eπeˆ g ∑agea∑ ∑aeça ‰∞L∑a∞qeˆ
e∞Leı §geˆéeœ_e - ∫gg∂ea∂ ‰∞L∑a∞qa∂ ‰Leˆe
aeˆeı _ee∑∑_og ‚∑aeœ_ Q∞∂ Oeeœ∞ea∂ §∂∂aqq_g,
§a™ ‚e –a™ eaa™ ‚e e∞Leı §g∑ ∑ga , _qea∂ ‰LaaL’ La
§g∑ ∑ga gg eaçea - ce‚o, ‰∞L∑a∞qeˆ e∞Le∞ı
_∑ ∫_∑ ∑_q√ qeˆ æLag. ‚q∞oaae §La™ em∂ _oa emeœ
∑a™‚e_∫Leœ _∞_∑∑_q√q∂aa).
5. ‰∞L∑a∞qeπeˆ ga ‚∑g‰ g Qgq√ qa™ eπeˆ ga ‚‰ç≥aae
OqaLa ∫ §geˆ ga o∞ea∂ ‰∞L∑a∞qe∞ı o≥o∞aeˆ e
‚oe_a.
u. eL∂ ˙e__ ‚_aa , gg‰ ∞qeı , _gaoa eı ∑aeœ ∑_q√ ga
o∞ea∂ ‰∞L∑a∞qe∞ı _∞aeˆe ‚oe_a.
7. ‰L∑ ∑oa eı ea∞∂e∞ıeˆ eLeˆ e çgoae _∞eq√ g
ea∞∂emga ‚q∞oaae §La™em∂ q∞çaL’L _ı≈‚∂‚a
‘∑aqeameı eLeˆga ’ ∑ggeı _∞aeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a. —eça
q≈aeˆe §a∂aq §La ce ema –a›çeı ‡∂a Q‹ceˆe∑∑L’L
ggé∂ §La™em∂ aL’_‚a ‰L∑∑q_eae ‚aa∑a∂‚aa, oça™e
‰∞L∑a∞q‚aa _∞aeˆ e∂aa . _o_ _∂ ‰ega ∑≥eˆ eL’ _eı
_∞aeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a. O∑eeı, gg‰∞qeı ∑aeœ∑_q√ga
o∞ea∂ ‚aa ∑a∂ - oça™ e ‰∞L∑a∞qeı Oome eq√ gL_a
„a›∞aaaeça ∑çaameˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
8. ‰∞L∑a∞qeı _∞eq√ ga „a› ∞aaae∑ ∑ageaeˆ e∑ ∑L
‚oe _a . ‰∞L∑a∞qem∂ Qg∂ qga aça™ e∞ı oıa eˆ e
‚oe_a.
u. ea∞∂em∂ Oe∂ ga oaeea™ emeœ eL’ L◊gaae ‚oe
_ı≈∞e _∞o ˜_aa∂ §g∑∑∞q egg∑∑_q√q ‚oe_a.
˜g‚oa∞ç qe≥eˆe ‚oe_a.
!u. ‰∞L∑a∞qeı o∞çageˆe∑∑L’L ceœea, ∫ga –eˆéç—∑∫eı,
‚eq∑ ∑_q√ gq∂ , oaee Qgq√ qa , g∑ ∞∑eˆ OeaL’ _q∂ ,
≈ıa∑ça ‚∑aeœ_ cq∞eça _o__∂ __ageˆeeˆ æLag.
24
!.5u ˜L’La !,2uu 8uu
2.uu ˜L’La 2,4uu !,uuu
2.5u ˜L’La 8,uuu 2,4uu
8.uu ˜L’La 4,8uu 8,2uu
4.uu ˜L’La u,uuu 4,uuu
gg afi‚‰çq√g∂ eLeˆga aeˆeı cefieˆ∞e
gg g∞ea∂ §g g∞eemga
‰∞L∑a∞q
_e∂a
‰∞ª∑Ï∞µ ¢e∂gØ
§‰ga ea∞∂eı _∞a∑∫ (Indian Road Congress) ogq√gıı
≈gemeœ ∑≥ ‰ea ∑ ∫_ ‰∞L∑a∞qeı ceœ ogaag
_∞aeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
l ea∞∂aeœ §g∫_a™ emga ‰∞L∑a∞q _∞aeˆ e∑ ∑L
‚oe_a.
l ‰∞L∑a∞qemeœ _e∂a _‰ q ea∞∂em∂ Oe∂ ga
aeˆ eı ce fieˆ ∞eeˆ g ç_ ∑ _∞aeˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a .
–ea∂ , c‰ q gg ‰∞L∑a∞qça geœ _∞ç ˜L’ La
_e∂q√geˆg g∞_aaa∂ _∞aeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
e∞Lq√ Oqgeˆ em∂ §‰ q ‰∞L∑a∞q _e∂q√ g∂ ‚aga
æ_q∂ae gg ˜L’La §∞eeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
‚∑g‰g Q∞∂aa, OqaLaoe≥ Q∞∂aa, O∑a_g‚∑aeˆg
∑gg, ≠a™ ea –éa §La™ em∂ §‰ q ‰∞L∑a∞q _e∂a
‚q∞oeˆ‚e_∑ _gemeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
‰∞L ∑a∞qem∂ ‚∑aga Oome ea qga ≈ıeˆ geı
_∞aeˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a . ∑aqeameı _aga §geˆ ∞eeı ,
‚q∞oaae §La™em∂ ég¿a e∏∑cLa™eı, ea∞∂ o∏eaL’≥∑
∑La™ eı , Qg∂ qga aça™ eı ‚∑aeœ _∞oça _∞aeˆ e∑ ∑L
‚oe_a.
‰∞L∑a∞g ¿s∂ ≈g¿∞p
Rakesh K.S., Evaluation of the pedestrian environment - A Qualitative approach -
Case study of Theagaraya Nagar - the commercial hub of Chennai city.
(Indian Road Congress)
25
- ‚a_eeL _∞eq√∞qça eııLeˆéaqae ‘‰∞L∑a∞qeı
Oea∂ gL’ La ’ egoaeˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a . §‚q‚∑aeœ g ∑ı m∑
∑ggeπeˆ eae é_∑ ∫q√ gL’ Lq√ ∞q eLe≥aae egoaeˆ é Oea∂
∑_q√q ‚oe_a.
a.ö.z. —gmm≥
Oeeœ ∞ea∂ Oaaq√ q∑ ∑aea™ em∂ !8% —goe ≥eı
‡∂aae ‰∞LO∑géeœ_e.
21
–ea∂, ea∞∂em∂ §q_Oee é_∑∫
o∏‚aa, oege‚ıa §∂ ∞∂. —goe ≥eı aao∑_q√ qaa∂ , _ge
Oe∂ç §∂ ∂aa∂ ggéa a_ ga ‰_q√ qçq√ Oqa∞∂ç∑ ∑aea™
eπeˆg ee‰qqae _∞aéeœ_e. Oeeœ∞ea∂ eL∂∑gaeœ –∑q√g
_geaaé ogo∞q q≈aeˆga cma, §a∂∑ae eL_∑a_éaaeça
—goe≥ _∞aé_g.
Oeeœ ∞eaeœ ∑agaıçeˆ ga _geaae ∑aea™ eπeˆ g
—goe≥‚a —eeé_‰q oaeea. efieaae aeˆeı —goe≥∞a∑
∑aeœ∑_q√q ≈gaceaga _g ∑agea∑∑aeqae §∂∞∂. g_∑∑ae
∑ı m Oe∂ ‚oageˆ g ee‰ qqae —goe ≥ §g‰ q‚∑agga ,
∑agea∑∫ egg _oaeı oaeea™e∞ı ‰aL‚oe≥çııg.
ce‚o, Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰em∂ —goe ≥∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ
eae qeq√ gL’Lq√∞q ogq√g Oea∂∑_q√q ‚oe_a.
‚∑g‰gm §gç ˙agsπm
gg ‚∑g‰g _∞_‚a uu §g eeˆeç oaeea™eı,
8u qaeeı, 2u aé_‰geπeˆg §∞eaae ∑afi
e∞ı ç_ _e Oe∂ ga . ce‚oqaeœ ‰ea ∑ ∫_a™ emeœ
—eeé_‰q ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g oegaae ‚∑g‰g egq∑∑_
é_g.
gg ‰∑meœ gg é‚∂a˜L’La Oqa∞∂ç ‚∑g‰g
∑aeq√ g∞e _‚qOqa∞∂ç aé_‰ g a_ ga
§geeˆ eç oaee∑ ∑aeq√ gLeœ g∑ cL’ La∂ _g
ceœogaag _∞aça.
26
a.ö.a. ‚∑g‰g
Oeeœ∞e aeˆemeœ gL’_Oaaq√q∑ ∑aea™em∂ §eœ∞_eˆga
_qeLq√ g∂ §g∑ ∑∞o ‚∑g‰ geı qaeœ . O∑ga ∑aeœ ∞a aeˆ emeœ
geem∑ ∑aea ‚∑g‰∞q ‰ac‚a ‰L‰g Oeae≥geˆé_g. –ea∂
§q√ q∞eeˆ ea∂aae –L’ é ‰Lq√ ga _çeaa™ ea™ eı ‚∑g‰ ge∞ıça
∫_eˆefiq√‚q o‰qe.
ma‰sç∑ ‚∑g‰gsæmœ nmfisˆ∞sçm ∑æfisı ¿ıµm
(1ssz - zoo4)
aé_‰g §geeˆeç oaeea
cmeeˆg ‚q∞o ‚∑g‰∞q≈L ‚∑g‰∞q≈L
5 aLa™g _gea 2.u aLa™g _gea
ceOea› Oe∂ç ‚∑g‰∞q≈L ‚∑g‰∞q≈L
!!.8 aLa™g _gea u.8 aLa™g _gea
ea∞∂a∂ §La ‚∑g‰∞q≈L ‚∑g‰∞q≈L
88 aLa™g _gea 54 aLa™g _gea
(Towards Cleaner Air in our city, CEE, Pune, The Hindu 06-03-2006)
(Bus System Operation in Chennai, Seminar on Transportation in Chennai,
Anna University)
–e_ ‚∑g‰geı ∑afieı
!uu2 2858 85 ∂L’ea
!uu8 28u4 4u ∂L’ea
!uuu 28uu 48 ∂L’ea
2uuu 2778 88 ∂L’ea
‚a_ ee L ∫ı m≈oça™ emeœ ∑≥ !uu8–a –e ≥∂ 28u4
ceœ _ ce fieˆ ∞eaae §g‰ q ‚∑g‰ geı 2uuu–a –e ≥∂
2778–eeˆ g∞_‰qe. –ea∂, !uu2-2uuu §∞L‚a aé_‰gemeœ
cefieˆ∞e §g aLa™eaeça, §g eeˆeç oaeea™emeœ cefieˆ∞e
‰aeœg aLa™eaeça _gemq√qe.
27
!uu!-2uuu §∞L‚a ‚∑g‰ g∑ ∑afieı ce fieˆ ∞e 48
∂L’eq√geg‰g 88 ∂L’eaaeeˆ g∞_‰qg.
22
§ooag ∑q√g ∂L’ea ‚∑a
‚∑g‰ g∑ ∑aeq√ ∞q ∞e≈L _oa eı ‚∑g‰ g∑ ∑aeq√ ∞q
≈ga ∑aqg eaçea∂ ∂. ‚∑g‰ g oegeı g∞_eˆ e∑ ∑L’ Lgqaeœ
eaçea .
Gomœ∞mm∂ ‚∑g‰g mpgm §g osˆsç masm∑ ∑æmæ™sæmœ ≈ægm
(1ssz-zoo4)
Oaaq√q∑ ∑aea™em∂ ∑a™g !uu2 2uu4 aa__a
‚∑g‰g 8u% 2u% -!u%
§g eeˆeç oaeea 7% !8% + !!%
CMDA, Draft Master Plann - II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026
aa‰eç∑ ‚∑g‰ gemeœ ce fieˆ ∞e∞a _geaaeˆ eq√ qo_a
qeœ ≈∞ıoae ‰_q√ qç a_ ga ç∞geı qag _∞çg∞_ ‚e—∑ ∫
e∞ıeˆ Oeae _ qaeaa™ é §g eeˆ eç oaeea™ e∞ı qo∞e
_∞_a∂ oaa™ ga eL’ Laaq√ g∂ qı ı∑ ∑L’ L∞q §g eaL’ _é_g.
§qea∂qaeœ Oeeœ∞ea∂ §geeˆeç oaee cefieˆ∞e qagaa_ae
_gemq√qg. (Oeeœ∞eaeœ Oaaq√q oaee cefieˆ∞ea∂ §geeˆeç
oaeea™eı aL’_‚a 7u% –ga. –ea∂, _∞_‚a g∂ea∂ u7%,
_a∞∑a∂ 4!%, Oea∂eq√qa≈∂ 48% ceœ_ _ı≈∂qaeœ §geeˆeç
oaeea™eı eııe).
23
_e ∞aeˆ ea∂a™ em∂ aa‰eç∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ egeq√ geœ
‚∑g‰geı cefieˆ∞e∞a q—ge _ço _gemq√gııg oç‚o_eeˆ
æ≥aqaga. –ea∂, §g‚∑agaaeg _∂∂. Oeeœ∞ea∂ ‚∑g‰g
oege∞ı _gem∑ ∑g∂ __ ‚∑aeˆ eae aa_ _a™ e∞ıeˆ Oeae _oç
‚oe _a . _∞o ceœ oga _a ea™ e∞ı eı ıLeˆ éaqae §geˆ e
‚oe_a:
!. aa‰eç∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geˆ egeq√geœ ‡∂a Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰eç
_ı≈∂ §aeˆ e∑ ∑_a ‚∑g‰ gemeœ ce fieˆ ∞e∞a
g∞_‰q∑L’ea uuuu ‚∑g‰geıae _gemeˆe ‚oe_a.
2. aa‰eç∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ egeq√ geœ ‚∑g‰ gem∂ 8 –e _
eπeˆg ‚a∂ae g_a ∑∞ga ‚∑g‰ge∞ı aa_gog _çéeœ
Oeaı∞eaae §geˆe ‚oe_a.
24
ce‚o, cL’_ –e_eπeˆg
28
‚a∂ –ga ‚∑g‰geπeˆg ∑g∂ae ∫ga ‚∑g‰geı oaa™e∑
∑L ‚oe_a.
8. ‚∑g‰gemeœ é_‰q §aeˆeq√g_g gg ‚∑g‰geˆg 7.5 _q∂
8.2 ceœ _ _ı≈∂ ˙∏aa eı ‚q∞o. ce‚o, ‚∑g‰ geı
ce fieˆ ∞eeˆ g ç_ ∑ ˙∏aa emeœ ce fieˆ ∞e∞aça
_geaaeˆe ‚oe_a.
4. _∞eq√g∑ ‚∑g‰g Q∞∂aa™eπa ‰˚eaaeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
‚∑g‰ geπeˆ eae aeˆ eı _ge Oqa∞∂ç ‰Leˆ eq√ ‚q∞oa∂
∂aq o∞ea∂ ‚∑g‰g Q∞∂aa™eı _∞aeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
_o_ ∞_ cmg∂ _@eeˆ æ≥a o∞ea∂ ‰∞L∑a∞qeı
_∞aeˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a . ‚a∞∂ ‰a_em∂ eı ıg ‚∑aeœ g,
—goe ≥e∞ı ‚∑g‰ g Q∞∂aq√ g‚∂‚a ∑agea∑ ∑ae
≈L’_eOe∂∂ —goe≥ Qgq√qa™eı ‚oe_a.
5. ∑ı m aaeoa eπeˆ g _meˆ e∑ ∑_a §∂oe∑ ∑ae
_L’ ∞L∞a∑ ∑aeœ ∑_q√ g, c∂ ∂a ‚∑g‰ gemga ∑afieˆ e
__ageˆ e ‚oe _a . (aa_ae, eaqaçe∑ ‚∑g‰ geπeˆ g
aL’_aqaeœ eg∞e ceeˆ æ_eˆæLag.)
u. ‚∑g‰ g ≈∞çç∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g (Bus Rapid Transit - BRT)
_∞_∞a Oeeœ∞ea∂ ___e∑∑_q√q ‚oe_a. §q_eae,
eaq√gaeˆæge∞ı eLe≥aae –a›ç Oea›a ‚oe_a.
BRT ¸kœ[Ï∂Ú ¸kœk?
“‚∑g‰ ge∞ıeˆ Oeae _ ≈∞çoaeça , Oeageaeça ,
g∞_‰q Oe∂≈∂ ‰ea∑∫_a™em∂ ∑aea Oea›aeˆæ≥a gmq∑
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_qaeœ ” BRT - ‚∑g‰ g ≈∞çç∑ ‚∑aeˆ g
oçq√g (Bus Rapid Transit) _∞_ ce∑∑_é_g. ee∞aa∂,
‰˚e OaL’ ‚ça ça∂ qga _∞eq√ g≈qaae oege∞ıça
‚∑g‰ge∞ıeˆ Oeae‚L O∑gogqaeœ BRT –ga.
‰˚eaae∑ ‚∑g‰ geı , ‰˚eaae∑ ‚∑g‰ g Q∞∂
aa™eı, qe∑∑a∞q, ∑aeeéL’_ _∞_ ‚∑aeœ_ _∞eq√gga
∫g∞ae∞ıeˆ Oeae Lgqaeœ BRT. ceœ oga qeœ ∞aem∂
é∂o_ ∞_‚aa, ∑∂o_ ∞_‚aa _g Oeae Lqae §geˆ ga
(c∂∂ao_∞_ça Oeae≥geˆeq√ ‚q∞oa∂∞∂).
29
BRTlkœ ¢G™eG™eı¤
H ‚∑g‰ geπeˆ gq√ qeo∏ (–ea∂ , c∂ ∂a §Lq√ gga
eL’ Laaa∂ ∂)
H ‰˚e∑ ‚∑g‰ g Q∞∂aa™ eı . ‚∑g‰ gemeœ g∞g
oaaga , ‚∑g‰ g Q∞∂a_a ea eaçq√ g∂ §geˆ ga .
(§ça∂ Q∞∂aq√ g∂ Q∞∂aq√ geœ qı_a , oe ≥aeœ
qı_a eaaae §g∑∑g ‚∑a∂) §qea∂, ‚∑g‰geπeˆg
∑≥ ‚q∞oa∂∞∂.
H ∑aee éL’ _eı ‚∑g‰ gem∂ é∞Leˆ eag. ‚∑g‰ g
Q∞∂aa™ em‚∂‚a ∑aee éL’ ≥∞e oaa™ e ‚oe _a .
(§ça∂ Q∞∂aa™ em∂ eı ıg ‚∑a∂.) §qea∂ ,
∑afieı ≈∞çoae ç_, §_a™e §aga.
H ‚∑g‰ geı _g ‰˚eaae∞oaae, _e∂aaeeˆ eqç
eπLeœ §geˆga.
H ‚∑g‰geı og∞e __≈∑∫ —eœe@ aaaaeˆe∑∑_a.
go Ooag Q∞∂aq√ gga c‰ q §Lq√ g_ g __q√ q∑
‚∑g‰g cq√q∞e ≈ea≥em∂ oga ceœ∑g —eœe@q√
g∞ç ‡∂_a , __≈∑ ∫eı ‡∂_a g∂ eaaae
_meˆ e∑ ∑_a .
H ‚∑g‰geı ¿g∞∂ aao∑_q√qaq cmO∑agm∂ §aa™ga.
‚a_ ee L qeœ ∞aeı é∂o_ ∞_‚aa, _∞eq√ ∞qç‚aa
Oeae Lqae §Lq√ g_ ‚e_ ∑ BRT gL’ La™ eı _∞aeˆ e∑ ∑_
éeœ_e. §‰gaa≈∂ _eaqa∑aq√, ∫gg∂e, ≈eae∑∑L’≥ea,
∫‚e, §‰„a, Oga›∑≠a, ‚∑a∑a∂ –éa ‰eça™em∂ BRT gL’La
_∞aeˆ e∑ ∑_é_g.
(Bus Rapid Transit - Sustainable Transport : A Sourcebook for Policy -makers in
Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002.)
7. e∂éeœ c∂∂a∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_eπa ç‚qa ggo∞ea∂
aaeaa _meˆ e∑ ∑_∑∞o qaeœ . §‰ gaa≈∂ ea∞∂ oeg,
‚aa ∑a∂a , oaeea Qgq√ q §∂oe §La , O∑L’ ‚çaea∑
O∑agL’ eπeˆ g aaeaa , om≈∂eˆ g ce∑ ∑∂ o∏emga
aé_‰ geπeˆ g O∑ag Qgaeg‰ g a∞__eaae aaeaa
_meˆ e∑ ∑_é_g.
25
ce‚o, q—ge _ço aa‰eç∑ ‚∑aeˆ g
30
oçq√geˆ egeq√g_g aaeaa _mq√g ‚∑g‰geˆ eL’Leq√∞qeˆ
g∞_eˆe ‚oe_a.
8. §‰ gaa≈eœ c‰ q ‡∞∂aga _ço∑ ‚∑g‰ geˆ egea™ e∞ı
≈L, qeaaa ‚∑g‰ geı é_‰ q _∞_a∂ §aa™ e≈∂ ∞∂.
c∂∂a §La™emga _ço∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geˆ egea™e‚ı é_∑∑ae
Oea∂ ∑_éeœ _e. §q∞e∑ ∑∂ –a› çeπa Oaa› ∑ cq√
gı ıe.
26
ce‚o, Oeeœ ∞eaeœ ‚∑g‰ g∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
_∞_a∂ gg‚∑aga qeaa∞ç __ageˆ eeˆ æLag. _g
‚q∞oa__g.
u. _∞eq√ g ‚∑g‰ g _∞_e∞ıça gga™ é∞eq√ g ‘‚∑g‰ g
‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_ ‰˚eaaaaeˆe∂, g_a∑L ∑aeœ∑_q√gq∂
gL’La ’ geœ_∞e (Bus System Modernisation & Optimisation Initia-
tive) ç_ ∑_q√ q ‚oe _a . ‚∑g‰ g eL’ L∞a∑ ∫e∞ı ‚aga
g_a ∑L ∑aeœ ∑_q√ gq∂ , ∑∂o∞e ‚∑g‰ ge∞ı g_a ∑L
e∂‰ g §aeˆ goqeœ ‡∂a ∑afieı ce fieˆ ∞e∞a _ge
aaeˆ gq∂ , ‚∑g‰ g ∑aeq√ ∞q Oeageaeˆ gq∂ , ce Oea›
éeˆ eea , g∞_‰ q Oe∂ç, _ge ogaaea , ∑agea∑ ∫, aao
∑aL’ ∞L g∞_q√ q∂ ceœ _∞eq√ ∞qça §g eı ıLeˆ e
‚oe_a.
a.ö.4. GgaLa mm≥
Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰em∂ §aa™ga ‰ea∑∫_q√ OqaLaoe≥emeœ
ce fieˆ ∞e∞a _geaaeˆ e ‚oe _a . OqaLa oe ≥ _∞_eˆ ga
‚∑g‰ geπeˆ ga §∞L‚a gga™ é∞e∑ ∞∑ ç_ ∑_q√ q ‚oe _a .
(c_q√geˆeaL’Lae - _∞eq√gq√ OqaLaoe≥ Q∞∂aa™em∂ ‚∑g‰g
Qgq√qa™e∞ı _∞aq√q∂, g‚ç ∑aeeéL’≥∂ §çe≥ga ∑afiq√q∂
‚∑aeœ _∞o)
Oea™ e∂ ∑L’ _, ga —≥∑ ≠e ≥, ggoı ga , ‚oıe ‚em ce
‰aeœ g o∏q√ qLa™ emga §aa™ ga OqaLa oe ≥ ‚e∞o∞a
Oaeœ ‚aga ‰˚eaaeˆ éça , oe ≥emeœ ce fieˆ ∞e∞a
_geaaeˆ éça OqaLa oe ≥ _∞_∞a ‰˚e OaL’ ‚çaçeˆ g
§∞eaae aa__ ‚oe_a. §ooag Oea›og Oeeœ∞eeˆg OaL’‚ça
gL’Lq√∞qeˆ Oeae_ogo∞q≈L _ge ∑aeœqga.
a.ö.ö. gam (–L’‚La)
‰ea∑∫_∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∂ qaeeı —e _eˆéaaae §Lq√∞q∑
c≥eˆ éeœ _e. _∞o aé_‰ ge∞ı∑ ‚∑aeœ g _ge §Lq√ ∞q
31
_∞L∑ ∑g∂ ∞∂. g‚ç –ı ∑afieˆ ga Q∞∂ça §∂ ∞∂. oaee
Qgq√ qq√ ‚q∞oça g∞_çqaeœ . aé_‰ geπLeœ g∑ cL’ La∂
aeˆeπeˆg _ge Oe∂ç §∂∞∂. ce‚o, qaeeı ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∞e
_ço ˙eˆe∑∑_q√q ‚oe_a.
qae gL’ _‰a eπeˆ g eL’ _∑ ∑≥aaeeˆ æ≥a o∞ea∂ qae
eL’ Leq√ ∞q ggq√ g _∞aq√ g _∞eq√ g qaeemga ˜L’ La
eL’ Laaaaeˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a . oaL∞e qae gL’ _ea e∞ıça
∑L’ ≥aeL’ _ _oa eı Oea‰ qaae qae oaa™ e aaeaq√ gLeœ æ≥a
oL’≥a∂∂a o∂∑q√qo∞e eLeœ oga™e ‚oe_a.
a.ö.6. G‰mo∂ sL’Lmm
O‰me∂ae ‚‰ça™ em∂ ‰egeˆ gı _∂ ∂g _qeœ ∞aaae
∑ggeπeˆgı qeaaa oaeea™eı g∞goq_g eL’Lea ≈geˆga
_∞_ §∑ ‚∑ag ∑∂ ‰eça™ emga cç∑∂aaé ogé_g. g_∑ ∑ae,
éa™e∑≠a, §∂eLeœ –éa ‰eça™em∂ §a_∞_ —e Oo__eçaae
Oea∂∑aL’≥∂ eııg. ‚çaa, ‚ea∑eœ‚_eeœ, c≥eœ∑‚ça, mƒLaeˆ‚eaa
‚∑aeœ_ ∑∂ ‰eça™eπa §a_∞_eˆg aa_çııe.
27
O‰me∂ ‚‰çq√g∂ ea∞∂a∂ g∞gça æ_q∂ oaeea™eıa∂
ç_ Oee‚o ∑aea Oea› ‚oaga , ‚∑g‰ gem∂ ∑afi∑ ‚∑aga
O‰mee∂ éeˆ é c∂ ‚∂aga ea∂qaaqq√ qa∂ ∑ageˆ e∑ ∑_éeœ _ea .
ce‚o, O‰me∂ae ea∞∂a∂, O‰me∂ae ‚‰çq√g∂ ∑aea Oea›ça
qeaaa aé_‰ geı ˜g qeeˆ eL’ Lea ≈g∑ ∑qa∂ O‰me∂
g∞_é_g. ∑aea cmqaé_g. æL‚o, ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_∞a
‚aa ∑_q√ q Qgça é∞Leˆ é_g. O‰me∂ eL’ Lea ≈geˆ ga ‚∑ag
_q∞e o¿e∑ ∑q_ eae oaeea™ e∞ı Qgq√ q‚oa, çégeı
oga™ e‚oa ‚q∞oa∂ ∞∂. §q_ Oe∂ ∂aa cma ‰˚eq√ Oqa∏∂
gL’∑a™eı ‰∞L_∞_a∂ §geˆéeœ_e.
ce‚o, _ge O‰me∂ eı ı ggé∂ ea∞∂em∂ , O‰me∂ae
‚‰ça™em∂ qeaaa oaeea™eı g∞ga O‰me∂ eL’Lea ≈geˆga
_∞_∞a Oeeœ ∞ea∂ ___e∑ ∑_q√ q ‚oe _a . §q∞e
‰∞L_∞_∑ ∑_q√ q, éa™ e∑ ≠m∞e _eœ aagmaaeeˆ Oeae _
—eœe@ ea∞∂eˆ eL’Lea (Electronic Road Pricing - ERP) ≈geˆga
_∞_∞a _∞aeˆe ‚oe_a.
28
a.ö.1. masmm Qgg√g—Læ™s∞ı ¿∞p∑∑gg√gg∂
Oeeœ ∞ea∂ ggé∂ §La™ e∞ıq√ q≈ç, O∑ga ∑a∂ae
§La™ em∂ Qgq√ q∑ ∑_a oaeea™ eπeˆ g eL’ Lea cgça
32
o¿eeˆe∑∑_og §∂∞∂. qeaaa eL’LLa™em∂ oaeea Qgq√qça
emaeˆ eL’ Lea ≈geˆ e∑ ∑_og §∂ ∞∂. oaeea™ eı Qgq√ g
∞oeˆ e∑ ∑_a §Lq√ g_ g gg a∞e ag∑ ∫ §geˆ é_g. _gga
Oeeœ∞ea∂ Q∂q√geœ ag∑∫ —e—e _gea. _‰q §Lq√g_g ema
eL’Lea o¿eeˆe∑∑Laa∂ §g∑∑g _çoeˆg §g∑‚∑ –ga. g_∑
∑ae Oeeœ ∞eaeœ ea∞∂e∞ıça , Oqgeˆ e∞ıça eL’ Le—eœ _
qeaaa aé_‰geı –eˆéç—q√g Q_∑g _çoeˆg O∑ga §g∑∑aga.
‚a∞∂ ‰a_em∂ O∑ag §La™em∂ aé_‰ge∞ı Qgq√q gg
afi ‚‰çq√ geˆ g 8u ‹∑aa› o∞ç eL’ Lea O∑_∑ ∑_é_g. oıga
‰a_em∂ qeaaa eı _∞aq√ gı ı oaee Qgq√ qa™ em∂ ggafi
‚‰çq√geˆg 8u ‹∑aa›, gg ‰a∞ıeˆg 4uu ‹∑aa› ceœ_ _ı≈∂ oaL∞e
o¿eeˆ e∑ ∑_é_g.
29
§∞oOa∂ ∂aa aé_‰ g em∞aaaıa eı
eL’Lea Oegq√qq√ qaaçae §g∑∑∞q‚a eaL’_éeœ_e.
oaeea Qgq√ go∞q _∞_∑ ∑_q√ g, _q_ g eL’ Lea
≈g∑∑qeœ ‡∂a ‚q∞oa∂∂aa∂ aé_‰geı Oom‚a ogo∞qeˆ
g∞_eˆe _≥ça.
ce‚o, Oeeœ∞eaeœ ea∞∂em∂ oaeea Qgq√q eaq√gaaae
∑gge∞ıq√ Oqm‰ Oq_q√ g, _a™ g aL’ _‚a eL’ Leq√ gLeœ
oaeea™ e∞ı Qgq√ q __ageˆ e ‚oe _a . §∂oeaae oaeea
Qgq√q Oeeœ∞ea∂ ga §LaæL §∂∞∂ ceœ_ Q∞∂ egoaeˆe∑∑L
‚oe_a. §qea∂, aé_‰geı ‚q∞oaeœ_ ea∞∂eˆg ogog -
g_∑∑ae gg aé_‰g∂ g‚ç ggoa ∑afi∑∑g q_eˆe∑∑_a.
_‚q eaaa , __eˆ gaa≥ oaee Qgq√ qa cq∞eça _ço
_∞aeˆeeˆ æLag. qeaaga _∞aeˆe __ageˆeeˆ æLag. __eˆg
aa≥ oaee Qgq√ qa _∞aeˆ e∑ ∑_a ∑ggem∂ oaee O‰me∂
Oaeœ‚aga _gemeˆg‚a q≈ç, g∞_aag.
qeaaa aé_‰g O‰me∞∂q√ q≈aeˆga o∞ea∂ - §e ∫gqae
aé_‰ g oaa™ g‚oaa , _‰ q aé_‰ g∞e ca™ ‚e Qgq√ goaa eı
ceœ ∑q∞eça ema –qaçq√ gLeœ eaL’ ≥a ceœ e‚ç, ∫ga aé_‰
g∞e oaa™ e __ageˆ ga _∞_a∞e Oeeœ ∞ea∂ eL’ Laaaaeˆ e
‚oe _a . æL‚o, aé_‰ ge∞ı ˚L’ _eˆ gı Qgq√ q §L—eœ _
Oqgeˆ em∂ Qgq√ g ∞o∑ ‚∑amLa - O∑ag §Lq√ g∞e –eˆ éç
—∑∑q_eae qeeˆ eL’Lea o¿eeˆe ‚oe_a.
- ‚a_ ee L _∞eq√ ∞qça eı ıLeˆ éa - oaee Qgq√ qeˆ
Oeaı∞e (Parking Policy) egoaeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
33
a.ö.8. masmm §∂∂a∑ ∑gg
—e _ge _ı≈∂ aeˆeı og∞e qga e∞Lq√Oqgeˆeı ‚∑aeœ_
§La™ eı , qeaaa oaeea™ eı __ageˆ e∑ ∑Laq ∑ggeıae
aa__∑∑L ‚oe_a. c_q√geˆeaL’Lae, Oeeœ∞ea∂ _ge _ı≈∂
aeˆ eı og∞eqga Oq_ g emƒ aaeœ ea∞∂, ∑ae ≥∑gaa ‚∑aeœ _
§La™eπeˆgı qeaaa oaeea™e∞ı __ageˆeeˆ æLag. §qea∂
O‰me∂ g∞_‰g ≈_∑∞e _geaaga.
a.ö.s. sapg maa∑ag
oaeea™emeg‰g Oomaaga ‰eo∑ ∫∞e∞aeˆ eL’_∑∑_q√q
g≈çaae, eggaae ‰Lo≥eˆ ∞eeı ‚a_ Oeaı ı∑ ∑L ‚oe _a .
§q_eae ‚eaq∞ee∞ı g≈ç∑∑_q√g, qog Oea›‚oa∞çq√ qe≥eˆe
‚oe _a . O∑ag∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g oegeıae ‚∑g‰ g, oaL∞e
aé_‰g, qae –éao__∂ §a_∞e cmoaç - CNG - cmO∑ag∞ı
∑≥∑ ∑≥aae eL’ Laaaaeˆ e ‚oe _a . §q_ eaga Oe∂≈∞e _ç‚e
_meˆe ‚oe_a.
a.ö.1o. ‚mm∑a∂æ™sı
‚aa∑a∂a™eı ee∞aaae‚o ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∞e ‚aa∑_q√g
éeœ_eoa ceœ∑g e∂ea __og‚a ‚eı≈eˆg eııaéageˆé_g.
Oqeœ Oeamaa≈eœ q∞∂ ‰eçae é‚aa∂ eL’∑L e∂éeœ é∂ ‰eça™eı
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g oeg∞a ‚aa ∑_q√ q ‚oe _a ceœ ∑q_ eae
‚aa∑a∂a™e∞ı §≥q√gq√ qımçııe.
30
_a ∞∑a∂ eL’ L∑ ∑L’ L ‚aa ∑a∂a™ emeœ ∑aeœ g_q√ g LaLa
–a›ç Qgoea ‰Lq√ga –a›≈∂ _a™g _∞aeˆe∑∑L’L ‚aa∑a∂a™
eπeˆg –e Oe∂≈∞eça, _qea∂ é∞Lq√q ∑∂∞eça g∑cL’_∑
∑aa q√ qa∂ gL’ _Oaaq√ qq√ g∂ O∑agıaqaç §g∑ ∫qaeœ _gea ce
ag∑cL’_ııg.
31
‚aa∑a∂a™eıa∂ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g oegeı ‚aa∑_og §∂∞∂.
‰∞L, —goe≥, ‚∑g‰g –éa ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_eı ‚aa∑a∂a™
eıa∂ ∑ageˆe∑∑_éeœ_e. aé_‰g a_ga §g eeˆeç em∞aaaıa
eı aL’_‚a §qea∂ q_eaeeaae∑ ∑ae∞Léeœ_ea.
ce‚o, gg g_∑cL’L §Lq√g∂ eL’Laaaae ‚aa∑a∂a ‚q∞o
ceœ ∑g —eq√ Oqmoae, __≈a∂ ≠a oaae –a› çeı ‡∂a
Q‹ceˆe∑∑L’L ceœe‚ç _a™g ‚aa∑a∂a _∞aeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
34
‚aa ∑a∂q√ geœ ‚q∞o, _∞aça §La , o≥oa §∞oOa∂ ∂aa
g∑ ∑‰ qeˆ eaça _∂ ∂aq qeœ ee ∞eaae qe _∞a∑ cea∂
ag∑ cL∑ ∑L ‚oe _a . ‚aa ∑a∂a _∞aça _eœ ∫ _g g_q√ q
≈oça™ e∞ıça _o_ _eœ ‚q∞oeˆ eae eaçea™ e∞ıça
aeˆ emLq√ g∂ ≈ıa ∑ç∑ ∑_q√ g, aeˆ emeœ egq√ g∞eeˆ ‚eL’ L
ceœ ea qaeœ §gg _≥ç c_eˆ e ‚oe _a . ‚aa ∑a∂a™ eı eL’ ≥
_≥eˆe∑∑L’L ceœ∫ ema ∑∂eœ é∞Lq√gııqa ceœ∑∞qça _∞_aae
ag∑d_ Oea›a ‚oe_a.
a.ö.11. GmL’‚ça çm∂
‚∑g‰g, OqaLaoe≥ ‚∑aeœ_ a_O_ag O∑ag∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g
_∞_qaeœ ‘ OaL’ ‚ça çaga ’ . a_ _∞o q∞çaL’ L _ı≈∂
§aa™ ga ‚∑ag, OaL’ ‚ça ça∂ - ∑_eˆ ga ça∂ , q∞çaL’ L ça∂ ,
Q∂q√ q≥ ça∂ ceœ _ ‡eœ g Q∞∂eπa ‚q∞oeˆ ‚e_ ∑ e∂‰ qqae
_∞aeˆ e∑ ∑_é_g. e∂éeœ ∑∂ _eœ efi ‰eça™ em∂ OaL’ ‚ça
gL’La Oea∂∑L’_ ogé_g. éa™e∑≠a, _aa™eaa™, ∞q∑‚∑, ‚∑a™eaeˆ
–éa ‰eça™em∂ g_∑cLq√qeˆe ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_aae OaL’‚ça
≈ıa™gé_g.
O∑ag aeˆ eπeˆ g∑ ∑aeœ ∑Leˆ æ≥a é_‰ q ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
_∞_qaeœ ceœ _‚∑agga OaL’ ‚ça∞o _∞aeˆ e —e _ge
Oe∂oaga. —e _ge ea∂qaaq_a –ga. goOoag é‚∂a ˜L’La
Oqa∞∂çeˆ g OaL’ ‚ça _∞aeˆ e ‹. 2uu ‚ea≥ _q∂ ‹. 88u ‚ea≥
o∞ç Oe∂oaeeˆ æ_a ce∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g o∂ g‰a eı Oqm≈eˆ
éeœ_ea.
32
§q√gL’Lq√∞q q∞çaL’L _ı≈∂ _∞aeˆga Oe∂∞o≈L,
∑_eˆ ga OaL’ ‚çaçeˆ g _geaaeça , _∞q≈L _geaae Q∂q√ q≥
gL’Lq√g_ga Oe∂oaga ceq√ Oqmé_g.
§ooag —e _ge Oe∂oaga OaL’‚ça gL’Lq√g∞e _∞aeˆe
Qg ca™ ég‰ g oga ? eLeœ , qeaaa Qg, Oom‰aL’ _ eq≈ ce
cgoaeaga _q∞eq√ gg∑ c _∞L∑ ∑g c∑ ∑≥? OaL’ ‚ça
gL’Lq√g_eae _çéeœ Qg _qcLae‚oa, eL_eˆg oL’≥aae‚oa,
aaeaaae‚oa gg∑ c ≈L∑ ∑L’ La∂ - §qç ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_
eıae ‚∑g‰g, ‰∞L∑a∞q ‚∑aeœ_ ‚q∞oeı ∫_eˆefieˆe∑∑Laqa?
ç_ Oee‚o e_a Qg∑ ∑_ _aeˆ g∞_çLeœ §geˆ ga e∂ ≈, g≥¿a ,
g∑∫çç, ‰∂oagç ‚∑aeœ_ ‚q∞oeπeˆeae Qg ggeˆéL’∞L OaL’‚ça
gL’ La ∑ageˆ eaqa? - ce∑ ∑∂ ‚eı ≈e∞ı OaL’ ‚ça gL’ La
c_∑∫é_g.
35
GmL’‚ça∞m≈L, ‚∑g‰g ≈∞çµ ‚∑asˆgmçg√g (BRT)
gL’Lm ∑mœmLæ™g Ap‰gg
gg gL’Lq√g∂ Oe∂≈L∑∑_a Qg, _q√gL’Lq√qa∂ é∞Leˆga
∑a∞eeˆ Oeae _ n_Oea› a∑ ∑L ‚oe _a ceeˆ eggea∂ -
_q_ g OaL’ ‚ça ee‰ q gL’ La _∂ ∂. Oe∂≈L∑ ∑_a Qg∞a
‚‰ç≥aae eL’Lea™eı ‡∂a gga∑∑ O∑goq_g OaL’‚ça≈∂ o∏
§∂∞∂i g∞_‰q∑L’ea OaL’‚ça∞o §aeˆgoq_eae Oe∂çe∞ıeˆ
æL (Operational Cost) gg∑c c_∑∑qae OaL’‚ça gL’La §∂∞∂.
e∂é‚∂‚a _aa™ eaa™ , éa™ e∑ ≠a , eaoa‚∑a∂a ‚∑aeœ _ gmçe _
OaL’ ‚çaeˆ eı qaeœ §aeˆ goq_ eae Qg∞a gg∑ c c_eˆ éeœ _e.
e∂éeœ a_ _ c∂ ∂a OaL’ ‚ça gL’ La™ eπa _çéeœ aaeaq√ ∞qeˆ
Oeae_qaeœ §aa™géeœ_e.
OaL’ ‚ça gL’ La™ e∞ı _∞aeˆ e —e∑ O∑ga _ıç ‡∂qea
‚q∞o∑ ∑_é_g. OqaLa ‰ g _q∞e §aeˆ eça aaeaa ceœ _
o∞a∞a oaeˆe _eœoga _çoeı, §‚q Qg∞ae Oe∂≈L’_ ‚∑g‰g
oeg∞a∑ O∑geˆ gog, ‰∞L∑a∞qe∞ı _∞a∑ ∑g, —goe ≥
eπeˆg oeg Oea›og ‚∑aeœ_ Oea∂e∞ı çeœ Oea›aeˆæLag ce∑
‚∑aeˆgoçq√gq√ g∞_ __˘aeı ≈eçéeœ_ea.
33
Oogaeˆ eı ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_emeœ ‚‰aeˆ ea g∞_oae
Oe∂≈∂ _geaae ‰∑a e∞ı, ≈∞çoae ∑afieˆ ee Oea› ogqaeœ .
_‰q o∞ea∂ c∂∂ao_∞_ça≈L é_‰qg ‚∑g‰g. BRT ce∑∑_a
‚∑g‰ g ≈∞çç ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_ ‡∂aae∑ ∑afieˆ ga _‚q
_ıç aeˆe∞ı, OaL’‚ça ‡∂aae∑ ∑afieˆe ∞oeˆe ‚oe_aaea∂,
_q_g BRT∞a≈L !uu aLa™g _ge Oe∂oaga ce –a›oaıaeı
g_∑c_éeœ_ea. –ea∂, §çe≥ga é∞Leˆga ∑∂eœ geœgqaeœ.
34
_aa™eaa™ (West Rail) ‹. 88u ‚ea≥
‚ea∂a∂a≠a (Star) ‹. 2uu ‚ea≥
∑aa™eaeˆ (Sky Train) ‹. 2u4 ‚ea≥
Oaeˆé‚ea éL’≥ ‹. !u4 ‚ea≥
eçeamƒ (Ooeo‚o∂a) ‹. 8uu ‚ea≥
GmL’‚ça gL’Lg√gpsam ‡∂gmo Go∂µ
(gmGmag æ‚∂a ˜L’La Gga∞∂µsˆgm)
(Mass Transit Options - Sustainable Transport : A Sourcebook for Policy -makers in
Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002.)
3
6
‚∑asˆgmçg√g m∞s ∑psˆgm GmL’‚ça Q∂g√g≥ GmL’‚ça s∂∑∫ BRT
GmL’‚ça (‚∑g‰g)
§La ∑aa™eaeˆ eçeamƒ Oaeˆé‚ea éL’≥ O∑a‚eaL’La
(qaa›∂a‰g) (Ooeo‚o∂a) (Oaeˆé‚ea) (Oea∂acaa)
Oqa∞∂ç 28 é.˜. !2 é.˜. 24 é.˜. 4!. é.˜.
Oaaq√q _qc_ ‹.u8uu ‚ea≥ ‹. 444u ‚ea≥ ‹. 888u ‚ea≥ ‹. 852 ‚ea≥
(‹. ‚ea≥a∂)
gg é‚∂a ˜L’Lgeˆg ‹. 2u5 ‚ea≥ ‹. 8u! ‚ea≥ ‹. !u4 ‚ea≥ ‹. 2u ‚ea≥
_qc_ (‹. ‚ea≥a∂)
∑afieı cefieˆ∞e 5u,uuu ‚∑a 82,4uu ‚∑a 8u,8uu ‚∑a 85,uuu ‚∑a
(gg afi ‚‰çq√g∂
gg g∞ea∂)
GmL’‚ça mpgm BRT : Go∂µm ∑æ@m - ga g∑dg
(Mass Transit Options - Sustainable Transport : A Sourcebook for Policy -makers in Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002.)
37
‚a_eeL _L’Lo∞eaeœ∑≥, gg ∑afieˆg gg é‚∂a ˜L’La
Oqa∞∂ç ∑ae oeg∞a _meˆ e Oe∂≈L∑ ∑L’ L eçaem Oe∂ç
ceœogaag _∞aé_g.
GmL’‚ça≈mœ §gço Asˆs∂sı
OaL’‚ça qeq√g §aa™eag. çOee∂, aeˆemeœ ∑aea ceœ∑g
gg OaL’ ‚ça Q∞∂aq√ g_ ga __q√ q OaL’ ‚ça Q∞∂aq√ g_ ga
§∞L∑∑L’Lg _∂∂. aa_ae, ˚L’_eˆ eq≈eg‰g, §eœOeag eqç
o∞ç ¿≥eˆ e æ≥agi OaL’ ‚ça ça∂ ggé∂ ∑a∞qem∂ aL’ _‚a
_∞aeˆ e∑ ∑_oqa∂ , _o_ ∞_ §∞eeˆ e ‚∑g‰ g, —goe ≥,
‰∞L∑a∞q oege∞ı _geaaeˆe ‚oe_a.
GmL’‚ça∞m mapp §æ∂ag
‰eça™ emeœ oıa e é∑ ‚∑aeˆ é∞e _eœ æL’ ≥‚a g∂ eaaaeq√
gaaaeeˆe §a∂ag. §eœg _geaa‚eaa Oe∂∂eˆæ≥a §La ga∑g
–e_eπeˆg∑ ceœ∫a _∑∑≥‚a ∑ç∑ç∑∑ae §Laae ¿≥eˆga ce
cga ∑aa eˆ e _≥aagi ce‚o, §eœ g OaL’ ‚ça _∞aça ∑ggeˆ g
∑g∂ae ‚oO_ag ∑gg _qeœ ∞aaaeqaé≈L’ La∂ , OaL’ ‚çaoa∂
ema ∑∂eœ é∞Leˆ eag. OaL’ ‚ça∞o gg_∞_ _∞aq√ q c_g
_q∞e aa__ §a∂ag. (‚∑g‰g∂ §‰qe éeˆe∂ §∂∞∂).
Goæ›æ ‚mm≥æg nmœm)
Oeeœ ∞e OaL’ ‚ça gL’ La g_q√ q ‘≈moae gL’ L __eˆ ∞e’
aeˆ em∞L‚a ∑ço∂ae ≈oageˆ e∑ ∑L’ _, _qeœ ∑∂∞e egg∑
∑_eˆga OaL’‚ça ‹. 58,uuu
Q∂q√q≥ OaL’‚ça ‹. !,!!,42u
e∂∑∫ OaL’‚ça ‹. 4!, 78u
BRT ‹. 5,7!4
gg ∑æfisˆg - gg æ‚∂a ˜L’La ∑æmg√gpsam
¿gæL’go Go∂µ
(Mass Transit Options - Sustainable Transport : A Sourcebook for Policy -makers in
Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002.)
38
∑_q√ga ceœe‚ç OaL’‚ça _∞aeˆe ‚oe_a. §q_eae aeˆemLa
egq√geˆ‚eL’∫eˆ æL’La™eı ‰Lq√q∑∑L ‚oe_a.
Oeeœ ∞e OaL’ ‚ça gL’ Lq√ geœ Oaaq√ q _qc_ co oıç, _g
ca™ég‰g oga ceœ∑∞qq√ Oqm≈eˆe ‚oe_a. OaL’‚ça gL’Lq√∞q
§aeˆgoq_eae Qg (Operational Cost) ca™ég‰g oga ceœ∑∞qça
Oqmç∑_q√q ‚oe_a.
OaL’‚ça≈eœ Qgq√‚q∞oeπeˆeae - ‚∑g‰g, ‰∞L∑a∞q oeg
‚∑aeœ _ §qç∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ gq√ ‚q∞oeπeˆ eae cga ea∂ Qg
ggeˆ é‚La, e∂ ≈, ‰∂oag ç, g≥¿a , g∑ ∫çç eı mL’ L §qç
‚q∞oeπeˆ eae cga ea∂ Qg ggeˆ é‚La OaL’ ‚çaoa∂
∑ageˆe∑∑Lag ceœ∑∞q egg∑∑_q√q ‚oe_a.
§∑‚∑ag Oeeœ∞ea∂ ‚∑g‰g a_ga OqaLaoe≥eˆ eL’Lea
g∑dL’Lı≈∂ g∞_oae‚o o¿eeˆe∑∑_é_g. OaL’‚ça _∞aeˆe∑
∑_aaea∂ , _gga §‚q‚∑aeœ g g∞_‰ q eL’ Lea o¿eeˆ e∑
∑L’La∂ aL’_‚a _o_∞_ ç∞geπa, ‰_q√qç aeˆeπa ∑aeœ∑_q√q
§aga . ce‚o, ‚∑g‰ g, OqaLa oe ≥eˆ g nLae g∞_‰ q
eL’Le‚a OaL’‚ça≈ga o¿eeˆe∑∑_aa ce _ço Oqmç∑_q√q
‚oe _a . §q_ g aa_ae, OaL’ ‚çaçeˆ eae ‚∑g‰ geˆ eL’ Leq√ ∞q
_gemq√g≈Leˆ æLag.
a.ö.1z. ¿gs∞m∑ ∑ıæ ¿∞p
‰ea ∑ ∫_a™ emeœ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g O‰megeˆ eae eaçea™ eπı
∑ı meˆ e∂ ≈ _∞_ça geœ _aga . §eœ ∞_a e∂ ≈ _∞_a∂ gg
∑gga∂ oéeˆ ga gg‰ ∞qeı OogOqa∞∂≈∂ eı ı
∑ı meπeˆ ge Oe∂ ∂ ‚‰goqa∂ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g O‰me∂ —eça
_gemq√ g ogé_g. —eça O‰me∂ae ‚‰ça ceœ ∑g ∑ı meı
OqaLa™ga ‚‰ç_a, ≈_a ‚‰ç_aqaeœ ceœ_aé ≈L’Lgi _ge∞a∑
∑ım _∞_∞aeˆ eL’Laaaaeˆgoqeœ ‡∂a §q∞e cmg∂ q≈aeˆe
_≥ça .
_ge∞a∑ ∑ım _∞_a∂ (Neighbourhood School System) gg
∑gga∂ eı ı gg‰ ∞qeı _‰ q∑ ∑gga∂ eı ı ∑ı mem∂
aL’ _‚a ‚ea q√ geˆ Oeaı ı∑ ∑_oaa eı . ‚og §La™ em∂ eı ı
∑ımem∂ ‚eaeˆe §a∂ag. §g _ço∑ ∑ımeı, qeaaa∑ ∑ımeı
_∞eq√g_ga O∑ag‰ga.
39
e∂éeœ —e _eœ ‚e_a ‰a_eıae g 8 ‰a_emga , e∂éeœ
O∑ga∑a∂ae oıa‰q ‰a_emga §q√q∞ea _ge∞a∑ ∑ım _∞_
ea∂ ¿e L„ç∑ ∑aea™ eı ‚q∞oa_ _qaé≈_a . ˚L’ _eˆ g
_gé‚∂‚a ∑ım §g∑∑qa∂ O∑ga∑a∂ae gg‰∞qeı ‰L‰‚qa,
—goe ≥a‚∂a Oe∂ ∂ _≥ça . oaeea™ emeœ ‚q∞o g∞_ça .
≈∑q√geπa, ea∞∂ O‰mega g∞_ça.
gg Oqg≈∂ eı ı gg‰ ∞qeı _∞eoga g‚ç ∑ı meˆ g,
_gça _gé∂ eıı ∑ımeˆg Oe∂oqa∂, _oaeı qaaae‚o æL’L
aae ∑ımeˆge Oeeœgoç _≥ça. §qea∂, gg‰∞qe∞ı ∑ımeˆg
§L’_e Oe∂ga ‚o∞∂ça, ‚‰ç_a O∑_‚_ageˆg ˜qaaga.
a.ö.1a. Gomœ∞m §am∏∑ ‚∑asˆgmçg√g
ea∞∂∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g, OqaLaoe≥ –éao_∞_≈L ¿ao∏∑
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g Oe∂ç g∞_oaeg. gg é‚∂a ˜L’ La Oqa∞∂çeˆ g
ea∞∂a∞aeˆ ga Oe∂≈∂ Ooga 5 _q∂ !u% Oe∂≈∂ _‚q
Oqa∞∂≈_ g ¿a o∏∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g∞e ç_ ∑_q√ q _≥ça . gg
eL’ La ce Oea∂ O∑agL’ e∞ı ea∞∂o∏a∂ 24 é‚∂a ˜L’ La
Oqa∞∂çeˆ ga , OqaLa oe ≥ ‡∂aae 85 é‚∂a ˜L’ Lgeˆ ga
Oeae _ Oe∂ ∂ _≥ça . –ea∂ , §g‚o ¿a o∏a∂ !u5 é‚∂a
˜L’Lgeˆgeˆ Oeae_ Oe∂∂ _≥ça ceœé_g –éa oıaeé oa™é.
36
Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰em∂ ¿a o∏∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g∞eeˆ Oeae _
ogog eaq√gaaaegqaeœ. Oeeœ∞e aa‰eç _ı≈∂ aL’_a 88 é‚∂a
˜L’ La Oqa∞∂çeˆ g ¿a o∏eı §geˆ éeœ _e.
37
_∞Laag, æoa ,
∑eˆéa™eaa ea∂oaa› _∞eq√gga ga∑g –e_eπeˆg _eœ∫o∞ç
∑Lgeı g≥e. _q∞e∑ ∫g∑ c∑ ∑g Oeeœ ∞e aeˆ eπeˆ g
O∑ga∑aeae §geˆga.
Oeeœ ∞e ¿a o∏eı ea∂ea∂q√ g_ ga aao∑L’ Lqae‚o §geˆ eq√
‚q∞oa∂ ∞∂. –ge∞ı oq√ qaaeˆ gog eaq√ gaaae‚q. _q_ eae
Oqa∏∂ gL’ ∑a™ eı §geˆ éeœ _e. Qgça gg q∞L §∂ ∞∂.
Oeeœ∞eaeœ –geı „a›∞aaae gL ‚oe_a ceœ_ ≈g∑∑_a,
_q_eae _çéa∂ eggçaqaeœ §∑‚∑a∞qa ‚q∞oi
ce‚o, Oeeœ∞eaeœ ¿ao∏e∞ı∑ ∑ageaeˆeça, ∑çaameˆeça
‘Oeeœ∞e ¿ao∏eı –∞eaa’ (Chennai Waterways Authority) ceœ_
qe _∞a∑ ∫ ema Qg a_ ga _geaçq√ gLeœ _∞aeˆ e∑ ∑L ‚oe _a .
40
l Oeeœ ∞e ¿a o∏eı §e‚aga aao∑_q√ q∑ ∑L __ageˆ eeˆ
æLag. aao∑aL’ ≥∞eq√ q_eˆ eça , ˜g‚oa∞ç eggaaeq√
qe≥eˆeça ‚oe_a.
l Oeeœ ∞e ¿a o∏e∞ı eéq√ geˆ Oeaı ıeˆ æ≥a _ı≈_ eaog
„a› ∞aaaeˆ é, _q_ eL’ Laae _o_ ∞_ O∑a_g‚∑aeˆ é_ ga ,
eL_∑a_éeˆga ∑aeœ∑_q√q ‚oe_a.
l OqaLa ‰ g eçeˆ g∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ ga , ∑afieı ‚∑aeˆ goçq√
g_ga ∑aeœ∑_q√q _a_éeˆe ‚oe_a.
l _∞Laag eımL’L –gemeœ e∞çe∞ı ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geˆeae
∑aeœ ∑_q√ q _ço gL’ L—L’ _ ogé_g. –gemeœ §a_ ∞e
_∞a∑ ∞∑ é∞qeˆ eaaga , o_ ge ¿g∞∂ ∑ageˆ eaaga
§q√ q∞ea gL’ La Q∞_‚o_ _∑ ∑_o∞q oç‚o_ e∂aa .
–ea∂ , –gemeœ e∞ç∞a ˜e _a aé_‰ geπeˆ eaeça ,
§g eeˆ eç oaeea™ eπeˆ eaeça ggeˆ eeˆ æLag. aa_ae
§o_ ∞_ ‰∞L∑a∞qeπeˆ ga , —goe ≥eπeˆ ga aL’ _‚a
∑aeœ∑_q√q ‚oe_a.
l ce Ÿ;a g∞_ _ea - aaa∂ ∂∫ça §∞L‚a ∑Lg∑
‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∞e (Coastal Ferry Services) Oeae_ oç‚oe_a.
a.ö.14. oçsˆg∑ ‚∑asˆgmçg√g
aeˆemeœ _eœ_aLq√ ‚q∞oeˆeae ∑∂‚og O∑agL’eπa eçeˆg∑
‚∑aeˆgoçq√geœ ‡∂aqaeœ oç‚oe_a. ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _eœ_m∞a
_≥∑∑∞La∂ ∑aaq√qa∂, gg ‰∑a aL’_‚a ∑afieˆg aé_‰g, oaee
Qgq√ qa ‚∑aeœ _o_ ∞_≈L eçeˆ g∑ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _eˆ éaaaeg.
ce‚o, eçeˆg∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∞e cm∞aaaeˆeça, ‚aa∑_q√qça,
_∞_∑∑_q√qça ema gL’La ogeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
eçeˆ ge∞ıeˆ Oeae _Oe∂ ∂ o_ ge ¿g∂ ∑ag∑ ∫e∞ıeˆ
g∞_eˆga _∞_e∞ı∑ ceœ∑_gq∂, eçeˆge∞ı §_eˆeça, ç__ça
–ga ‚‰çq√ ∞q g∞_eˆ ga gL’ ∑a™ e∞ıeˆ ∞eaaπq∂ , ‰egeˆ gı
__ageˆ e∑ ∑_a eçeˆ g oaeea™ emeœ ea_ g aao∑aL’ ∞L eL’ _∑
∑_q√gq∂, O‰me∂ g∞_oae ∑a∞qe∞ı ∑aeœ∑_q√q o∏Oea›q∂,
g_∑ cL’ L §Lq√ geg‰ g a_ _ ∑ggeπeˆ ge Oe∂ ga eçeˆ geı
qeq√ qe oaeea™ em∂ Oe∂ ∂aa∂ æL’ Lae c_q√ ge Oe∂ ∂ o∏
Oea› q∂ , é_a oaeea™ e∞ıça aeq eeˆ gaaga ea∂ ‰∞Leı
41
‡∂_a §aa™ga eçeˆg∑‚∑aeˆgoçq√g∞e ˙eˆe∑∑_q√gq∂, eçeˆg
oaeea™ e∞ı g_∑ cL’ L §La™ eπeˆ gı g∞gça ‚‰çq√ ∞q
__≈a∂ _∞_a∂ aa_ _a∞aq√ q∂ , _ge c∞L _ge _ıç
e∞La oaeea™ e∞ı g_∑ cL’ L ‚‰çq√ g∂ aL’ _‚a __agq√ q∂
‚∑aeœ_ ‰Lo≥eˆ∞ee∞ı eııLeˆéaqae ∫ga Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰eç
eçeˆg∑ ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g gL’La egoaeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
a.ö.1ö. ≈∑g√gg√ g≈a∑∫
Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰em∂ ea∞∂ ≈∑q√ geı OqaLa ‰ g _gemq√ q
oe ea eı ıe. §o_ ∞_q√ q_eˆ e Oeeœ ∞ea∂ gga™ é∞e‰ q
ea∞∂∑ ∑agea∑∫eˆ Oeaı∞e ogeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
go Ooag ∑ggaga qe∑ ∑L’ Lq√ ‚q∞oe∞ı eoeq√ g∂
Oeae_ gaçeˆeae o∏_∞_eı ogeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a. _g‚aaa,
gg‰ ∞qeπeˆ g ∑agea∑ ∫, ∑aqeameπeˆ ga , —goe ≥eπeˆ ga
ema §La , Oqmoae ea∞∂ ≈geˆ g_Ω_eı , ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g
oL’ _eˆ g_e∞ı (éeˆ e∂ ) Oqmoae _∞aq√ q∂ , ‚aa ∑_q√ gq∂ ,
≈g_∞_e∞ıeˆ e_∞aaae ceœ∑_gq∂ eımL’L ‰Lo≥eˆ∞eeı
‚a_Oeaıı∑∑L ‚oe_a.
Oeeœ∞ee ea∞∂em∂ _ge∑L’e ‚oeq√∞q 8u é‚∂a ˜L’Lçaeeˆ
g∞_q√ q∂ , ema ea∞∂ o≥o∞a∑ ∫ aa_ _a™ eı ‡∂a ‚∑aeˆ goçq√
g∞e _∞ag∑ ∑_q√ gq∂ _a_ ée∞ı (Traffic Calming Measures)
_eœOe_eˆe ‚oe_a.
‰∞L∑a∞qe∞ı __∞aaae _∞aq√q∂, ea∞∂e∞ıeˆ eLeˆga
§La™eı Oqmoaeça, ea∞∂∞a≈L e_g eaçaaeça _∞aeˆe∑
∑_q∂ , ∑ı meπeˆ g _g‚e ema ∑agea∑ ∫ ç_ ∑a_eı Oea› q∂ ,
‰L∑ ∑q_ ga , —goe ≥ Oe∂ ∂ça ∑ı m∑ ∑ggem∂ o∏Oea› q∂
‚∑aeœ_ ‰Lo≥eˆ∞eeı ‚q∞o.
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g ≈g_∞_e∞ıeˆ e_∞aaae∑ ceœ ∑_ gq∂ ,
g≥q√g≈L’_ oaeea gL’_‚oameœ gL’_‰a emaa ∑_∑∫, gL’_‰a
emaa oga™gog∂ ema qçeˆ eL’_∑∑a_, _∞_‚e_e∞ıq√ q_q√q∂
–éa ‰Lo≥eˆ∞eeı ‚oe_a.
Ooo ‚og ‚oea™ em∂ Oe∂ ga oaeea™ eπeˆ g qeq√ qe
o∏eı, _∞eq√g §geeˆeç oaee∑ ∑afieπeˆg eL’Laaq√ q∞∂eˆ
eoea , §geeˆ eç oaeea™ em∂ ∑e∂ ‚‰ç ≈ıeˆ g eL’ ∑L q_∑ ∫
‰Lo≥eˆ∞eeı ‚q∞o.
42
oaee o≥o∞a∑ ∫a , ∑çaam∑ ∫a æL ea∞∂ ≈∑q√ ge∞ıeˆ
g∞_eˆ ga . oaeea™ emeœ ee ∞e∑ ∑_eˆ ga gm ≈ıeˆ ∞eq√
q_q√q∂, ceemeˆ∞e ≈ıeˆge∞ıeˆ eL’Laaaae ∞oq√q∂, o∞aç‰g
em∂ ceœ ∫_a ea c‚aa §qç O∑agL’ e‚ıa Ooma∂ ¿L’ ≥eˆ
Oeae≥g∑∑∞qq√ q_q√q∂, _ge ∑aça ç_go∞qq√ q_q√q∂ ‚∑aeœ_
Oea∂∑a_eı ∑aeœ∑_a.
aé_‰ gem∂ Oe∂ ‚oageˆ g §∞Loam∞e (O∑∂ L’ ) eL’ Laa
aaeˆgq∂, gg‰∞qeı _eœ §geˆ∞ea∂ _açaa∂ q_q√q∂, égoa
e∞ı a≥a∂ _aç ∞oq√ g _∞gq√ g Oe∂ ∂aa∂ q_q√ q∂
eımL’L∞o ≈∑q√gemeœ ∑ag∑∫e∞ıq√ q_eˆga.
≈∑q√ gem∂ ∑ageˆ e∑ ∑_‚oageˆ g eLe≥ eq≈ça , ema
§g∑d_a eL_eˆgLeœ _meˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
‚a_ ee L _∞eq√ ∞qça eı ıLeˆ éa ≈moae, ea∂q√ geˆ g
ç_ _, gga™ é∞e‰ q ea∞∂∑ ∑agea∑ ∫ Oeaı ∞e (Comprehensive
road safty policy) egoaeˆ e∑ ∑L’ _, ema Qg ggeˆ é_ a_ ga
_geaçq√gLeœ Oea∂∑_q√q∑∑L ‚oe_a.
4. ¿≥µ∞ç
Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g‰eçeˆ eae aa_ g ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g gL’ Lg∂
æ_∑ ∑L’ _ı ıo_ ∞_ eı ıLeˆ éaqae - ∫ga ‘ __∞aaae
‚∑aeˆ goçq√ gq√ gL’ La ’ (Comprehensive Mobility Plan - CMP)
eLe≥aae aeˆ eı ∑a™ ‚e_ ∫L_a _∞eq√ g g∞_ o∂ g‰a eı ,
aeˆeı cçgQgeı egq√geˆ ‚eL’∫L_a egoaeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
§q√ q∞ea ‘ __∞aaae ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ gq√ gL’ Lq√ g∞e’
Qgoéeˆ ga _∞a∑ ∑ae ‘geœ _∞e‰ q O∑g‰eç ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ geˆ
g_aa ’ (Unified Metropolitan Transport Authority - UMTA) §geˆ e
‚oe _a . _q_ ‚e_ ∑ UMTA-∞o ggq√ g ≈moaeqae ema
_geaçq√gL_a, QgçL_a aa__a∞aeˆe ‚oe_a.
_çéa∂ _∞a∑∫q√ ggq√qa 74§eœ ég _∞aeˆe∑∑L ‚oe≥a
eııaL’é cçgQgeı _La™éa _∞a∑∑ae Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰eçq√
gL’ Leˆ g_ (Metropolitan Planning Committee - MPC) eLe≥aae
_∞aeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
§‰q Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰eçq√ gL’Leˆg_≈eœ (MPC) ég Oea∂∑_a
_∞a∑∑ae ‘geœ_∞e‰q O∑g‰eç ‚∑aeˆgoçq√geˆ g_aa ’ (UMTA)
§geˆe ‚oe_a.
43
Oeeœ∞e∑ O∑g‰eç Q∂∑ ∑aeœ∑aL’_q√ gL’Laaeg (Comprehen-
sive Zoning and Land Use Plan) ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ gq√ gL’ Lq√ gLeœ
§∞e‰qqae §geˆe ‚oe_a.
aeˆemeœ aégeéaae oageˆ∞e∞a≈L oaeea™emeœ §aeˆeq√
g_g _ge _eœ_m∞a qga gg ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_ Oeeœ∞ea∂
egoaeˆe∑∑L’_ ogé_g. –ea∂, e∂éeœ c‰q §Lq√gga oaee∑
O∑geˆ e_a , ∫_‰ea oıa e éça aeˆ eπeˆ g aég e éam∑ ∑qae
§∂∞∂. ˚e Oe∂ç, ççaıaae oı §g∑∫, ae __q√qa, eL∂‰∂∑
∑ag∑∫ ce ‚q∞oa__∑ ‚∑mg∑∑ae‚o ‘oaeea™eπeˆg _eœ_m∞a
qga ’ ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g e∂eOea™ ga eae∑ ∑_é_g. §geg‰ g
≈_∑L ‚oe≥a ea∂a o‰g≈L’Lg.
§∑‚∑ag Oeeœ∞e ‰eça ‚qaç Oea›ça ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_qaeœ
cga ea∂q√ g∂ Oeeœ ∞e c∑ ∑≥∑ ∑L’ L ‰eçaae _∞aça ceœ ∑∞qq√
ga aaeeˆ ga . Oeeœ ∞e oagq√ qg‰ q ‰eçaae‚oa, oagq√ qgga_ _
qae‚oa _∞aog ‰eça Oqmç Oea› ça ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_∞a∑
O∑agq√qg.
§eœ ∞_a Oeeœ ∞e ‰eça qo_ae ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _eœ _m∞a
eıa∂ ∑ag∑∑∞L‰ggeˆé_g. §g eLe≥aae aa__∑∑L ‚oe_a.
gg ‰eça ‰aemea∞L‰ q ‰eçaa ceœ ∑g _‰ ‰em∂ oa_aa ‰ q
‚aa ∑a∂a™ eı §geˆ éeœ _eoa ceœ ∑∞qeˆ Oeae _ ga aaeeˆ e∑
∑_og §∂ ∞∂. aa_ae, ‰em∂ oa_a gg ég— qeœ _∞La
éeœ e˘ é_a —goe ≥a∂ aag∞La g∞eç—eœ _ qeg
∑ı meˆ æLq√ g_ g ∑agea∑ ∑ae Oeeœ goç _≥é_qa ceœ ∑∞qeˆ
Oeae_qaeœ gaaaeeˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a.
qeaaa oaeea™ emeœ eL’ _eˆ eLa™ ea _gem∑ ∫ ‰emeœ
oıaeéeˆg _∞Laaıa _∂∂. ee∞aa∂ _∞o ‰emeœ ˚geéeˆ‚e
_∞Laaıa . oaee∑ O∑geˆ ea ∫_‰em∞e ≈mo∞Lae Oea› ça ,
g∞e ‰eça™emeœ ‚q∞o∞a egoaeˆga. ∫_‰eça oaeeq√ ‚q∞o
_gemeˆ ga . §çe _a geœ ∞_Oaaeœ g _geaaeˆ é - ∑ae„ç
_gem∑∫, O‰me∂ _gem∑∫, ea∂ ≈çaa, ‚oıae Q∂ _∏∑∫ ceq√
OqaLa g∞aaae aagai §‰q oıaeé ¿≥eˆeeˆ æ≥ag _∂∂.
ggéa §Lq√ g∂ _geaae aeˆ eı geœ _ae oag _≥ogqaeœ
‰ea ∑ ∫_ oag ≈eœ é_∑ ∫ . §qea∂ , _ge Oqa∞∂ç∑ ∑afieˆ eq√
‚q∞oaeœ _ aeˆ emeœ O∑ga ∑a∂ae ‚q∞oeı Q∞_ç
Oea›a∑∑_éeœ_ei ce‚o, ‰eça ∫_‰eçae‚oa, g∞e ‰eçae‚oa
44
≈mo∞Log q_eˆe∑∑L ‚oe_a. §q_g ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g _∞_a∂
∫çL’é o‰qae ‚oe_a.
_∞eogeˆ gaae ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g _∞_∞a _m∑ ∑g, ea∞∂
eπa , Oqgeˆ eπa oaeea™ eπeˆ eae∞o ceœ _ Q∞∂∞a aa_ _
_∞o aeˆeπeˆeae∞o ceœ_ _≥∑∑∞La∂ Oeeœ∞ea∂ aeˆemeœ
oageˆ∞eq√qçq√∞q (Quality of Life) eaaq√qeˆæ≥aqae ‚∑aeˆgoçq√g
_∞_∞a egoaeˆe ‚oe_a.
cgaea∂ q∞∂_∞_aegeˆga §eœ∞_a q∞∂_∞_aegeˆga
gg‚eç∑ ∑aemeˆ ga Q∞∂q√ ggeˆ ga ‚∑aeˆ goçq√ g (Sustainable
Transport) _∞_aae aa_ _a∞a∑ ∑qeœ ‡∂a Oeeœ ∞e∑ O∑g
‰em∞e oagq√qg‰q ‰eçae (Liveable City) aa__ ‚oe_a.
Notes
1. Indian States at a Glance 2006 -07, Tamil Nadu – Performance, Facts and
Figures, PHDCCI, New Delhi 2007
2. CMDA, Draft Master Plan – II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026.
3. UNDP Human Development Report 2006, United Nations
4. Cities on the move: A World Bank Urban Transportation Strategy Review,
The World Bank, Washington, D.C. 2002
5. Emerging Issues in Transport – Transport and the Millenium Development
Goals, UN-ESCAP, Ministerial Conference on Transport 2006
6. Steps to improve traffic flow discussed, The Hindu, Feb. 28, 2008
7. Planning and Development – City Road, A. Sampath Kumar, Seminar on
Transportation in Chennai, Anna University, 2005.
8. Elitist recipe for more chaos? - Praful Bidwai, Frontline, Jul 16 – 29, 2005
9. Pune Traffic & Transportation Forum – Vision, Policy and Recommendation
for Pune
10. Pune Traffic & Transportation Forum – Vision, Policy and Recommendation
for Pune
11. CMDA, Draft Master Plan – II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026.
12. CMDA, Draft Master Plan – II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026.
13. Handbook of Urbanization in India, Oxford, 2005
14. Optimisation of Urban Speed Limits in Arterial Roads – a case study,
Seminar on Transportation in Chennai, Anna University, 2005.
15. National Urban Transport Policy, Ministry of Urban Development,
Government of India.
16. J. Pucher et at. / Transport Policy 12 (2005)
17. Car-Free Development – Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-
45
makers in Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2005.
18. CMDA, Draft Master Plan – II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026.
19. CMDA, Draft Master Plan – II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026.
20. Pedestrian and Two-wheeler Safety, K.C.Mahali, Seminar on Transportation
in Chennai, Anna University, 2005.
21. CMDA, Draft Master Plan – II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026.
22. Bus System Operation in Chennai, Ct. Meyyappan, Seminar on
Transportation in Chennai, Anna University, 2005.
23. CMDA, Draft Master Plan – II for Chennai Metropolitan Area, 2026.
24. Bus Rapid Transit – Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers
in Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002
25. Pune Traffic & Transportation Forum – Vision, Policy and Recommendation
for Pune
26. Down to Earth, March 31, 2008
27. Economic Instruments – Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-
makers in Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002
28. Economic Instruments – Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-
makers in Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002
29. Economic Instruments – Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-
makers in Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002
30. Sustainable Transport, Institute for Transportation & Development Policy,
New York.
31. Pune Traffic & Transportation Forum – Vision, Policy and Recommendation
for Pune
32. Mass Transit Options – Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-
makers in Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002
33. The Politics of Mobility, Dinesh Mohan Seminar Magazine
34. Mass Transit Options – Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-
makers in Developing Cities, GTZ, Germany, 2002
35. Common School System and the Future ofIndia, Parisar wordpress
36. Lost lifelines of a Metropolis, The Hindu, 20-5-2007
37. Lost lifelines of a Metropolis, The Hindu, 20-5-2007
46
Actionable Excerpts from
National Urban Transport Policy
(Ministry of Urban Devolvement, Government of India)
Introduction
India’s urban population is currently around 30% of its total population. Experience
across the world has been that as economies grow, rapid urbanization takes this
proportion over 60 % before they stabilize. As such it is projected that India’s urban
population will grow to about 473 million in 2021 & 820 million in 2051 as compared
to 285 million in 2001. Hence cities must not only meet the mobility needs of the
current population but also provide for the needs of those yet to join the urban
population. In this context, the government of India has launched the National Urban
Renewal Mission (NURM) that inter-alia seeks to bring about comprehensive
improvements in urban infrastructure, committing substantial funds for this purpose
and requiring a series of reforms that would make the investment sustainable. (Para
2, page2)
Billons of men hours are lost with people “stuck in traffic”. The primary reason for this
has been the explosive growth in the number of motors vehicles, coupled with
limitations on the amount of road space that can be provided. For example, on an
average, while the population of India’s six major metropolises increased by about
1.9 times during 1981 to 2001, the number of motor vehicles went up by over 7.75
times during the same period.
Increased use of personal vehicles has led to increased air pollution. (Para 3, page 2)
Unless the above problems are remedied, poor mobility can become a major dampener
to economic growth and the cause the quality of life to deteriorate. A policy is, therefore,
needed on the approach to dealing with this rapidly growing problem as also offer a
clear direction and a clear framework for the future action. (Para 4, page 3)
Objectives
The Objective of this policy is to ensure safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable
and sustainable access for the growing of city residents to jobs.
• Incorporating urban transportation as an important parameter at the urban
planning stage rather than being a consequent
• Bringing about a more equitable allocation of road space with people, rather
than vehicles, as its main focus.
• Establishing effective regularly and enforcement mechanisms that allow a level
playing field for all operators of transport services and enhanced safety for the
transport system users.
• Establishing institutional mechanisms for enhanced coordination in the planning
and management of transport system.
• Building capacity (institutional and manpower) to plan for sustainable urban
transport and establishing knowledge management system that would service
the needs of all urban professionals, such as planners, researchers, teachers,
students,
• Raising finance, through innovative mechanisms that tap land as a resource,
for investments in urban transport infrastructure.
ceœ §∞e∑∫ :
47
• Taking up pilot projects that demonstrate the potential of possible best practices
in sustainable urban transport. (Para 5, page4)
Equitable allocation of Road Space
Transport planning is intrinsically linked to land use planning and both need to
be developed together in a manner that servers the entire population and yet minimizes
travel needs. (Para 8, page5)
At present, road space gets allotted to whichever vehicle occupies it first. The
focus is therefore, the vehicle and not people. The result is that a bus carrying 40
people is allotted only two and a half times the road space that is allotted to a car
carrying only one or two person. In this process, the lower income groups have,
effectively, ended up paying, in terms of higher travel time and higher travel cost, for
the disproportionate space allotted to personal vehicles. Users of non-motorized
modes have tended to be squeezed out of the roads on account of serious threats to
their safety. If the focus of the principle of the road space allocation were to be the
people, then much space would need to be allotted to public transport systems than
is allotted at present. (Para11, page6)
The Central Government would, therefore, encourage measures that
allocate road space on a more equitable basis, with people as its focus. This
can be achieved by reserving lanes and corridors exclusively for public transport
and non-motorized three persons popularly know as High Occupancy Vehicle
Lanes). Past experience has been that such reserved lanes are not respected
by motorist and therefore lose meaning. In order to facilitate better enforcement
of such lane discipline, suitable provision would be introduced in the Motor
Vehicle Act and other instrumentalities to enable stringent penalties for violation.
(Para 12, page 6)
Need to Shift from Personal to Public Transportation and
Segmented Approach.
Public transport serves another social purpose. It helps reduce congestion and
the air pollution, if users of personal vehicles can be persuaded to shift to public
transport. Their needs are, however, for improved quality and not much for low fares.
It is, therefore necessary to think of different types of public transport services for
different segments of commuters. (Para16, page7)
A good public transport system is the one that is perceived by the user as a
single and allows seamless travel between one made and the other as also between
systems managed by different operators. Such seamless interchange is possible if
proper inter-change infrastructure is available and users are able to use single ticket
over all such system. This also requires that a single agency takes responsibility for
coordination so that there is a common approach to public transport planning and
management. (Para 21, page9)
Para transit is normally expected to fulfill a need that neither public transport or
personal vehicles are able to fulfill. (Para26, page10)
The segregation of vehicles moving at different speeds would help improve
traffic flow, increase the average speed of traffic and reduce emission resulting
from sub-optimal speeds. (Para27, page10)
48
Parking, Land Use and its Pricing.
Land is valuable in all urban areas. Parking places occupy large portion of such
lands. This fact should be recognized in the determining the principles for allocation
of parking space.
Levy of a high parking fee, that truly represents the value of the land occupied,
should be used as a means to make the use of public transport more attractive.
Preference in the allocation of parking space for public transport vehicles and non-
motorized modes as well as easier access of work places to and from such spaces
would go a long way in encouraging the use of sustainable transport system. Park
and ride facilities for bicycles users, with convenient inter-change, would be another
useful measure. Simultaneously, a graded scale of parking fee, that recovers the
economies cost of the land used in such parking, should be adopted. The objective
would be to persuade people to use transport to reach centers.
State government would be required to amend building bye laws in all
million plus cities so that adequate parking space is available for all residents/
users of such buildings. (Para34, page 11)
Freight Traffic within the cities.
The timely and smooth movement of freight is crucial to well being of the people
and the viability of the economics activities they undertake. However, with limited
capacity of the transport system, it is essential that freight traffic and passenger
traffic are so staggered as to make optimum use of the transport infrastructure. It is
a time honored and tested practice to use off-peak passenger travel times to move
freight. Many cities have earmarked late night hours for movement of freight and
restricted the entry of heavy vehicles into cities during daytime.(Para 36, page 12)
Innovative Financing Mechanisms Using Land as a Resource
The central government would encourage the levy of dedicated taxes to
be credited to an urban transport fund and used exclusively to meet urban
transport needs within the state. Such dedicated taxes could be in the form of a
supplement to the petrol and diesel taxes, betterment levy on landowners or even an
employment tax on employers. In fact, revenues from betterment levy along new high
capacity public transport corridors would be included as a component of the financing
plan for such transport systems. (Para52, page 15)
Need for Public Awareness and Cooperation
Urban transport policies cannot succeed without the fullest corporation of all
the city residents. Such co-operation can be best secured if the objectives are made
clearly known to them. It is, therefore, necessary to launch intensive awareness
campaigns that educate people on the ill effects of the growing transport problem in
urban areas-especially on their health and well being. The campaigns would seek
their support for initiative like greater use of public transport and non-motorized
vehicles, the proper maintenance of their vehicles, safer driving practices, and etc.
such campaigns would also encourage individual, families an communities to adopt
“Green Travel Habits” that would make travel less polluting and damaging. (Para55,
page 16)
http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/moud/programme/ut/TransportPolicy.pdf

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful