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Significance of the study
Katz and Kahn (1978) pointed out that organizational citizenship is important in organizations. Organizational citizenship can be extremely valuable to organizations and can contribute to performance and competitive advantage (Nemeth and Staw 1989).This research is important for any businesses which want to create competence and organizational effectiveness. To improve OCB is lowest cost and best way for businesses to reach organizational effectiveness.
Defining organization citizenship behavior
and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization". extra-role. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) describe actions in which employees are willing to go above and beyond their prescribed role requirements. OCB can: • enhance productivity (helping new co-workers. groups and / or an organization. Importance of OCB Successful organizations need employees who will do more than their usual job duties and provide performance that is beyond expectations. The concept was first introduced in the mid 1980s by Dennis Organ and theory on in this area has expanded rapidly in the following years According to Organ (1988). Organizational citizenship is functional. not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system. the definition of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) is "individual behavior that is discretionary. OCB is a relatively new concept in performance analysis but it represents a very old human conduct of voluntary action and mutual aid with no request for pay or formal rewards in return. We exclude those pro-social behaviors that are prescribed by the organization as performance requirements and dysfunctional or non-compliant behaviors.Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). These are helping behaviors not formally prescribed by the organization and for which there are no direct rewards or punishments. pro-social organizational behaviors directed at individual. helping colleagues meet deadlines) • Free up resources (autonomous. cooperative employees give managers more .
but also to such intangible factors as company good will.the helping of an individual coworker on a task.refraining from complaining about trivial matters.alerting others in the organization about changes that may affect their work. Altruism or helping coworkers makes the work system more productive because one worker can utilize his or her slack time to assist another on a more urgent task. (3) conscientiousness -. helpful behavior facilitates cohesiveness (as part of group maintenance behavior) • attract and retain good employees (through creating and maintaining a friendly.participating in the governance of the organization Each dimension of OCB offers a different rationale for this relationship. Thus. (4) sportsmanship -. In Organ’s explanation. (2) courtesy -.time to clear their work.carrying out one’s duties beyond the minimum requirements. OCB influence operational efficiency Organ (1988) identified five categories of OCB: (1) altruism -. securing needed resources refers not only to the attraction of new members or raw materials. Acts of civic virtue may include offering suggestions for cost improvement or other . or the external image and reputation of the organization. supportive working environment and a sense of belonging) • create social capital (better communication and stronger networks facilitate accurate information transfer and improve efficiency) Review of selected literature Organ (1988) suggested that high levels of OCB should lead to a more efficient organization and help bring new resources into the organization. and (5) civic virtue -. customer perceptions of the organization’s products or services could be an external assessment of effectiveness that is influenced by OCB.
but the darker side is more clearly understood from the power motive. This is problematic because. consistent work schedules. Viewing OCB from these three motive paradigms. as well as those who avoid personal gain or other negative behaviors. demonstrate compliance with company policies and maintain predictable. A wide variety of personality traits have been examined in research but results have been disappointing. which may directly influencing efficiency. the costs of rework are reduced. Motivation Motivation is another observation for understating OCB. 1995). To a lesser extent. The resulting implications are restricted to suffice that OCB is likely when workers are satisfied. one can see that different personality traits could predict OCB depending on the citizen's motive. . job satisfaction is in and of itself a challenging outcome sought by organizational managers. as the only consistent correlation emerging is between the "big five" trait of conscientiousness and the OCB dimension of the same name.resource saving ideas. This motive-based view also helps make sense of the disparate findings of research seeking personality correlates of OCB (Organ. conscientiousness employees. As reliability increases. Job satisfaction Job satisfaction is the leading predictor of OCB (Organ & Ryan. making the unit more efficient. The altruistic path is covered quite well with the affiliation motive and part of the achievement motive. Three motive paradigms are often researched. By viewing OCB as caused by multiple motives. increasing the reliability of the service. descriptively. one can more easily account for the various approaches taken in prior OCB research. 1994). It is easy to see why OCB may correlate with ratings of performance and why.
not wanting to "play politics" to get ahead. That is. Conclusions Organizations want and need employees who will do those things that aren’t in any job description. The resulting outcome may be a culture of distrust. Similar to the concept of co-dependence in personal relationships. Such a research strategy may also begin to reveal the indirect effects of motive-based OCB. seek the opinions and perceptions of coworkers as to the motives of the target person. Coworkers. supervisors may reinforce such behaviors with extrinsic rewards. For example. As a result. As the power-oriented citizen gains support for such behaviors from above. some human subject studies are concerned with organizational citizenship behavior as a dependent variable. that there are indirect outcomes of OCB that are related to the employees' motives. Supervisors may be oblivious to such motives. their importance cannot be denied. if OCB are exhibited for power motives. other employees can become discouraged and disengaged. may see the behaviors from a different. the affiliationoriented citizen may perform OCB to such a degree that the employee-employer relationship becomes dysfunctional. or subtle conflict. Finally. the dysfunctional relationship may cause more harm than good for the work environment. eroding cohesion and team building in the unit. Organizational citizenship behaviors have often been conceptualized as inherently . promotions. more political viewpoint.It is possible. Since OCB have been found to be associated with effectiveness measures in organizations. seeing only the observable behaviors. however. complaints. Motive-based theories of behavior suffer from lack of research methodologies that can validly measure the constructs. instead of asking subjects about their own motives. or more visible assignments. gossip. And the evidence indicates that those organizations that have such employees outperform those that don’t. on the other hand. It may be necessary to approach research from an attribution point of view.
The following are some other tips to encourage OCB in your workplace:1. in order to reach that goal. fill full employees’ job satisfaction. It means doing a better job. understand they motivation and create suitable work environments are most important thing in management reality. and filling the gap between procedures and regulations on the one hand. In short. Certain types of group norms (e. making an effort above and beyond formal requirements. or promoting better relationships between supervisors and staff. Office social environment – a working environment that promotes or is conducive to employees demonstrating OCB. and among staff in general.” The antecedents mentioned in the previous section can be used as guidelines to improve the rate of OCB – through motivating employees for example. everyone should only do the minimum amount of work required. OCB reflects a “good soldier syndrome” which is so necessary for the prosperity and good functioning of every organization. (Robbins.g. motivation and opportunity. As defined by Organ (1988). but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization. OCB is usually perceived as exerting exceptionally good behaviors for the sake of the organization and informally supporting its members. Successful organizations need employees who will do more than their usual job duties and provide performance that is beyond expectations. OCB in Practice: Encouraging OCB in the workplace “The extent to which employees exhibit OCB is a function of ability. 1996).a socially desirable class of behaviors. Organizational citizenship is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements. . and dynamic reality on the other.
attention to detail (prevent/ minimize error) Civic Virtue: showing interest and involvement (e. attentive. or devise their own casual/informal reward system to encourage OCB. 1988): Altruism: being helpful Courtesy: being polite and courteous. no one should talk to the supervisor) can stifle worker initiative and spontaneity. prevent conflict Conscientiousness: doing more than just the minimum. accepting of changes and performs requests without complaints . the most popular dimensions used to measure OCB are found in the 5 factor model (Organ. They may choose to include OCB in their performance appraisals. 2. Conceptualizing and Evaluating OCB Currently. and have these staff motivate others to perform OCB.g. Hiring practices – though the impact of personality on OCB is small. 3.everyone should mind his/her own business. consider looking out for traits related to OCB. an outgoing. or office-wide birthday lunches. defend organizational policies and practices Sportsmanship: tolerating less-than-ideal conditions. and this will decrease incidents of OCB. enthusiastic employee with a positive outlook and ‘can do’ attitude will be more inclined to engage in OCB. Supervisor awareness – training or educating management about OCB will make them more aware of employee displays of OCB. Group norms may be difficult to break but other things can be done to make workers more social – such as encouraging staff to attend office functions or having more office functions. If psychometric testing is a part of your interview/hiring process. keeping up to date) with the organization.