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Perry P. Shum

Network Technology Research Centre NTU, Singapore

Outline

Introduction

Analysis

Results and Discussion

Solitons

In 1895, Korteweg and deVries developed a mathematical theory to The solitary waves study theconcept of solitary waves was first observed by Scott Russell. introduced by Scott The word 'soliton' was1834introduced Russell in first after he by Zabusky and Kruskal in 1964 when had observed that a they discussed the particle-like behaviour water wave solutions of the of numerical preserved its original shape Korteweg deVries equation.over a very long distance in a Scottish canal.

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Schrodinger equations. Sine-Gordon. different types of nonlinear About a hundred •longitudinal dispersive waves in have been partial differential equations elastic rods. and nonlinear temperature nonlinear crystals. various types of •magneto hydrodynamic waves in plasma. been discovered in almost all area of physics. found to have soliton solutions. •pressure waves in liquid-gas bubble mixtures. •electrical signals in nonlinear transmission lines •light waves in optical fibres 4 .Solitons : •ion-acoustic waves in plasma. •anharmonic lattice. solitons have Nowadays. such as the •thermally excited photon packets in lowToda lattice. •propagation of magnetic flux on a Josephson line.

5 . the shorter wavelength components travel faster and the longer wavelength ones tend to fall behind. This is the so-called "optical dispersion" which causes conventional optical pulses to broaden along the fibre thus limiting the maximum bit rate. This produces a difference in frequencies between the leading and trailing edges of the pulse.Dispersion Effect As an optical pulse travels along a fibre.

λ d n Dm = c dλ2 2 The material dispersion parameter for silica as a function of wavelength (Payne & Gambling 1975) 6 .

Vd 2 (bV ) DW = dV 2 V = akn 2Δ 2 ( β / k ) 2 − nclad b= 2n 2 Δ The waveguide dispersion coefficient versus normalized frequency (Gambling et al. 1981) 7 .

Propagation of a fundamental soliton pulse in a purely dispersive optical fibre 8 .

Propagation of a fundamental soliton pulse in a purely dispersive optical fibre 9 .

the fibre refractive index increases as the intensity of the light increases. this nonlinear effect has come to be known as the Kerr optical effect (or the Kerr nonlinearity). 10 . John Kerr.Nonlinear Effect For a very intense optical pulse. Named after a 19th century Scotsman.

11 . Self-phase modulation is the modulation of a pulse's own phase as the result of exciting the Kerr nonlinearity.Δω ∂φ Δω = ∂T The time dependence of Δω can be treated as a frequency chirp which is due to the Self-Phase Modulation.

35μm core diameter silica fibre (Stolen & Lin 1978) 12 .The frequency output spectra of a 3.

Time domain solution for the propagation of soliton in an optical fibre with only nonlinear effect 13 .

Frequency domain solution for the propagation of soliton in an optical fibre with only nonlinear effect 14 .

15 .Solitons can propagate without distortion for a very long distance if the propagating medium's nonlinear effect and its dispersion effect cancel each other.

theory of solitary wave propagation is developed developed 1973. P. Emplit made the first experimental observation of the propagation of a dark soliton observation of the propagation of a dark soliton 16 Network Technology Research Centre . Mollenauer (first experimental demonstration) 1980. Hasegawa and Tappert (optical soliton theory) 1973. John Scott Russell observe the solitary wave on water 1834. Mollenauer (first experimental demonstration) 1987.A Brief History of Fibre Soliton 1834. theory of solitary wave propagation is 1955-1975. Emplit made the first experimental 1987. John Scott Russell observe the solitary wave on water 1955-1975. P. Hasegawa and Tappert (optical soliton theory) 1980.

A Brief History of Fibre Soliton 1991. Bell Lab transmitted solitons error-free at 2. Ellis proposed the idea of dispersion manage 1991.000 kilometers 1991.5 gigabits over more than 14. Nakazawa (stable soliton transmission at 10Gbit/s over 180 million km) 10Gbit/s over 180 million km) 17 Network Technology Research Centre .5 gigabits 1991. Bell Lab transmitted solitons error-free at 2. Nakazawa (stable soliton transmission at 1993. Ellis proposed the idea of dispersion manage (DM) soliton (( help to reduce sideband instability (DM) soliton help to reduce sideband instability and dispersive wave) and dispersive wave) 1993.000 kilometers over more than 14.

A Brief History of Fibre Soliton 1995. LeGuen (1. Mollenauer (8x10Gbit/s transoceanic error 1996. LeGuen (1. Nakazawa successfully used part of the Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network to demonstrate metropolitan optical loop network to demonstrate the error free transmission of soliton at 20Gbit/s the error free transmission of soliton at 20Gbit/s over 2000km over 2000km 1996.02Tbit/s soliton DWDM 1999.02Tbit/s soliton DWDM transmission over 1000km of standard fibre with transmission over 1000km of standard fibre with 100km amplifier span) 100km amplifier span) 18 Network Technology Research Centre . Mollenauer (8x10Gbit/s transoceanic error free soliton WDM transmission) free soliton WDM transmission) 1999. Nakazawa successfully used part of the Tokyo 1995.

Algety Telecom.6 fs) fs) 19 Network Technology Research Centre . and spent $100 2000. Koji Igarashi (shortest fiber soliton pulse. Corvis Corp. and spent $100 million to acquire France-based Algety Telecom. Practical soliton transmission system carrying real traffic data was deployed system carrying real traffic data was deployed 2004. Practical soliton transmission 2001.based DWDM transmission which develops soliton. filed for an IPO. which develops soliton. Koji Igarashi (shortest fiber soliton pulse. 15.6 2004. Algety Telecom. Corvis Corp. million to acquire France-based Algety Telecom.based DWDM transmission systems systems 2001. filed for an IPO.A Brief History of Fibre Soliton 2000. 15.

Soliton Propagation Equation The general soliton propagation equation in an optical fibre can be expressed as ∂u 1 ∂ u ∂ u 2 =j + B 3 + j u u − Γu 2 ∂x 2 ∂T ∂T 2 3 20 .

Methods for Solving Nonlinear Soliton Propagation Equation • • • • • Fourier Series Analysis Technique Inverse Scattering Method Split-Step Fourier Method Perturbation Method Finite Element Method 21 .

Time Domain Frequency Domain 22 .

The transformation back yields the solution of the nonlinear equation for arbitrary initial conditions.Inverse Scattering Method ∂u 1 ∂ u 2 =j + ju u 2 ∂ x 2 ∂T 2 The inverse scattering method (ISM) was introduced by Gardner et al. which can be used to solve the above nonlinear Schrodinger equation. and used by Zakharov and Shabat. 23 . The linear equations can be solved by standard methods. The ISM maps the solution of the nonlinear partial differential equation on solutions of linear differential equations.

Fundamental soliton solution u ( x. T )=2η1sech (2η1T )e 2 − j 2η1 x 24 .

Second order soliton solution u ( x. T )= 2 2 η2 4η1 (η1 + η2 ) − j 2η12 x − 2 j (η 2 −η1 ) x e [cosh(2η2T ) + cosh(2η1T )e ] η2 − η1 η1 ⎛ η1 + η2 ⎞ 4η1η2 2 ⎜ ⎟ cosh[2(η2 − η1 )T + cosh[2(η1 + η2 )T ] + ⎜ cos[2(η2 − η12 ) x] η2 − η1 ⎟ (η2 − η1 )2 ⎝ ⎠ 2 25 .

Perturbation Method In some cases.015) otherwise inaccurate results will be obtained. the value of the loss factor Γ cannot be greater than a certain value (typically 〈0. This value of Γ is obviously much larger than 0.04.2dB/km and an input soliton pulse width of 6ps. For a conventional fibre with fibre loss 0. hence the PM cannot be applied in this practical case. hence the PM should be used to take the effect of higher order terms and fibre loss into account. 26 . the value of Γ is calculated to be 0.015. Due to the limitation of the PM. an exact analytic solution cannot be obtained by ISM.

which means Δx should be smaller then 10-3 in order to maintain an accuracy of 10-6). For a propagation distance of one soliton period.Nonlinear partial differential equation to be solved Split-Step Fourier Method A large number of sampling points is required by the SSFM (〉200) and this method is highly numerical. we may well need to use the FFT as many as 3000 times and cumulative errors due to the heavy use of FFT may occur Split into linear and nonlinear parts Nonlinear part which is solvable in the time domain Linear part which is solvable in the frequency domain Analytic solution obtained in the time domain Analytic solution obtained in the frequency domain Apply the Initial Condition Apply the initial condition Solution obtained after propagated a distance of Δx along the fibre Apply FFT Solution obtained in frequency domain after a distance of Δx along the fibre No The required propagation distance achieved Apply inverse FFT Yes Final solution obtained after propagated a distance of x 27 . The FFT is heavily used to transform solutions between time and frequency domains after every small propagation distance of Δx (since error is proportional to Δx2.

N 纯音 Nonlinear Part Solution Split-Step Finite Element Analysis Technique 28 .tial n Ini tio ndi Co A 纯音 Bou Bou n Con d ry Con dndaary diitio tion n Linear Part Solution Moving Node Control Nonlinear Eq.

Total distance Move Node Nonlinear Linear EEE Initial Condition 29 .

Propagation of Soliton in a Dispersion-Shifted Fibre (Γ=0.37) 30 .

ΔT ⎞ ΔT ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ u (0. T )= A1sech⎜ T − ⎟ exp( jφ ) ⎟ + A1sech⎜ T + 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 31 .Soliton Interaction Optical solitons have been considered as potential information carriers in high bandwidth optical fibre communication systems. In a soliton digital communication system. it is necessary to determine the optimum separation between adjacent solitons.

ΔT=7.Soliton Interaction (φ=π/4. B=Γ=0) 32 .

ΔT=7.Soliton Interaction (φ=0. B=Γ=0) 33 .

Propagation of two fundamental solitons in a lossless fibre (φ=0. B=Γ=0) 34 . ΔT=0.

ΔT=7.Propagation of two fundamental solitons in a lossless fibre (φ=-π. B=Γ=0) 35 .

B=Γ=0) 36 . ΔT=7.Propagation of two fundamental solitons in a lossless fibre (φ=-π/2.

B=Γ=0) 37 . ΔT=7.Propagation of two fundamental solitons in a lossless fibre (φ=-π/4.

Initial frequency chirp u c ( 0. T )=u ( 0.25 38 . T ) exp( jφ )= A sech (T ) exp( jφ ) φ = −CT2 Propagation of a fundamental solitons in a lossless fibre with an initial requency chirp of C=0.

α=0.2dB/km β2=-2ps2/km β3=0.1ps3/km t0=0.08ps

**Propagation of a fundamental solitons in a dispersionshifted fibre with an initial requency chirp of C=0.25
**

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α=0.2dB/km β2=-2ps2/km β3=0.1ps3/km t0=0.01ps

**Propagation of a fundamental solitons in a dispersionshifted fibre with an initial requency chirp of C=0.25
**

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**Two-core fiber couplers
**

Two-core fiber couplers have been the subjects of theoretical and experimental research for their potential in optical signal processing and switching. Many useful devices can be constructed from the two-core fiber couplers, such as optical switches, wavelength-selectors and two-core fiber amplifiers.

Nonlinear Directional Couplers Nonlinear Directional Couplers U V 42 .

dE 1 ( z ) + i β 1 E 1 = iC 12 E 2 dz dE 2 ( z ) + i β 2 E 2 = iC 21 E1 dz E1(2): Single-mode field amplitudes Single-mode propagation constants in cores 1 and 2 Coupling coefficients between the two cores 43 β1(2) : C12(21): .A widely used theory for the study of devices based on evanescent-field coupling.

The general coupled-mode equations are given by ∂a1 ∂a2 ⎞ 1 ∂ 2 a1 R" ∂ 2 a2 2 ⎛ + R' + Ra2 − + a1 a1 =0 j⎜ ⎟+ 2 2 ∂T ⎠ 2 ∂T 2 ∂T ⎝ ∂Z R" ∂ 2 a1 ∂a1 ⎞ 1 ∂ 2 a2 2 ⎛ ∂a 2 + R' + + Ra1 − + a2 a2 =0 j⎜ ⎟ 2 ∂T 2 ∂Z ∂T ⎠ 2 ∂T 2 ⎝ R is the normalized coupling coefficient. The light intensities in the two waveguides are given by U=|a1|2 and V =|a2|2. R’ and R” are the normalized first-order and second-order coupling-coefficient dispersions. 44 .Nonlinear Directional Couplers Nonlinear Directional Couplers Directional couplers are commonly used passive devices in optical communication systems. respectively.

For twin-core couplers. C12 = C21 ∂a1 ∂a2 ⎞ 1 ∂ 2 a1 R ' ' ∂ 2 a2 2 ⎛ + Ra2 − + a1 a1 = 0 + R' i⎜ ⎟+ 2 2 2 ∂T ∂T ⎠ 2 ∂T ⎝ ∂Z ∂a1 ⎞ 1 ∂ 2 a 2 R ' ' ∂ 2 a1 2 ⎛ ∂a 2 i⎜ + R' + + Ra1 − + a2 a2 = 0 ⎟ ∂Z ∂T ⎠ 2 ∂T 2 2 ∂T 2 ⎝ Intermodal First order coupling coefficient dispersion dispersion Second order coupling coefficient dispersion 45 .

Coupled-Mode Equations ∂a2 ⎞ 1 ∂ a1 ⎛ ∂a1 2 + Ra2 + | a1 | a1 = 0 j⎜ + R' ⎟+ 2 ∂T ⎠ 2 ∂T ⎝ ∂Z 2 ∂a1 ⎞ 1 ∂ a2 ⎛ ∂a2 2 + Ra1 + | a2 | a2 = 0 + R' ⎟ + j⎜ 2 ∂T ⎠ 2 ∂T ⎝ ∂Z 2 46 .

Parameters a1(Z.T) .T) : Normalized Amplitude Z : Normalized Distance R : Normalized Coupling Coefficient R’: Normalized Coupling Coefficient Dispersion R”: Group Velocity Dispersion 47 . a2(Z.

Normalized Coupling Coefficient From the coupled equation. − Ct 0 R = k" 2 to : width of the pulse C : coupling coefficient k”: dispersion property of group velocity 48 .

center to center separation between 2 cores.refractive index of the fiber . 49 .core radius .Normalized Coupling Coefficient = − ⎛ ( n 1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ k 1 2 kn ⎜ ⎝ 1 c 2 − 1 n 2 4 1 ) k 2 1 0 ( p ( n − s ) p 2 n 2 ) ∂ n ∂ ω 2 2 R ( 2 ∂ n ∂ ω ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ t ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ) 2 0 + t 0 ω 2 R is affected by .wavelength of the waveguide .

Coupling Coefficient s (n1 − n1 )k0 ( ) p C= 2 2 2 2 k1 kn1 p (n1 − n2 ) 2 4 ko & k1 : Normalized modified Bessel function n1 : refractive index of the core n2 : refractive index of the cladding p : core radius s : center to center separation between 2 cores 50 .

Normalized Distance From the coupled equation. 51 . k" Z = 2 z t0 ∂n ∂n2 +ω 2 ) (2 1 ∂ω ∂ω z Z =− 2 c t0 k”: group velocity dispersion to: width of the pulse z : length of the fiber.

wavelength of the waveguide .frequency of the waveguide .Normalized Distance ⎛ n(λ +h) −n(λ −h) ⎛ −2πc ⎞⎞ ⎛ n(λ +h) +n(λ −h) ⎛ 4πc ⎞⎞ ×⎜ 3 ⎟⎟ x⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ +ω⎜ 2⎜ 2 h 2h 1 ⎝ ⎝ ω ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ω ⎠⎠ Z =− 2 c t0 From the equation.width of the input pulse 52 . Z is affected by .

Normalized Coupling Coefficient Dispersion − C 't0 R '= k" 2 to : width of the pulse C : 1st order coupling coefficient k”: dispersion property of group velocity 53 .

Normalized Second Order Dispersion − C " R"= k" C : 2nd order coupling coefficient k”: dispersion property of group velocity 54 .

Using the Fourier series analysis technique. .Most previous research on pulse propagation in a twocore fiber coupler was based on twin-core fiber couplers. we have studied the pulse propagation in the nonidentical core fiber coupler.

Δ2<< 1 . Δ1 ≠ Δ2 Core-to-core separation: d Δ1 . nco2) Cladding (ncl) 2 2 2 2 2 2 Δ1 = (nco1 − ncl ) / 2nco1 Δ 2 = (nco 2 − ncl ) / 2nco 2 d Twin-core coupler: ρ1= ρ2.Structure of a Two-core Fiber Coupler A two-core fiber coupler contains two parallel cores Cladding (ncl) Core 1 (ρ1. nco1) Core 2 (ρ2. Δ1 = Δ2 Two-nonidentical-core coupler: ρ1≠ ρ2.

. the commonly used symmetric equations can no longer be adopted.In twin-core couplers. In two-nonidentical-core couplers. the linearly coupled NLSE describing pulse propagation in the coupler are symmetric.

“Effects of intermodal dispersion on two-nonidentical-core coupler with different radii. Shum and M. 14. 1106. vol.” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. pp.1108. 2002 . Liu.Modeling of two-nonidentical-core coupler ' '' C12 ∂a2 1 k1'' ∂2a1 2 C12 C12 ∂2a2 ∂a1 t0 1 1 ∂a1 i( − '' ( − ) − t0 '' ) + '' 2 − t0 '' a2 + '' 2 + | a1 |2 a1 = 0 k2 ∂T 2 k2 ∂T k2 ∂Z k2 vg1 vg 2 ∂T 2k2 ∂T ' '' C 21 ∂a1 C 21 ∂ 2 a1 ∂a 2 1 ∂ 2 a2 2 C 21 i( − t 0 '' )+ − t 0 '' a1 + + | a 2 |2 a 2 = 0 ' k 2 ∂T k2 ∂Z 2 ∂T 2 2 k 2' ∂ T 2 C12 (21) ' C12(21) '' C12(21) coupling coefficient between the two cores first order coupling coefficient dispersion second order coupling coefficient dispersion group velocity of the two cores group velocity dispersion of the two cores Z = − ' k 2' T 02 z T= vg1(2) k1''( 2 ) 1 z (t − ) vg 2 T0 Ref: P.

Time Domain Nonlinear Equation to be Solved Frequency Domain Problem in the Frequency Domain Fourier Series Expansion First Order Partial Differential Equations Solution of the Original Problem Inverse Fourier Series Solution in the Frequency Domain Fourier series analysis technique (FSAT) .

and easy to understand Less sampling points . efficient.Fourier Series Analysis Technique (FSAT) Simple.

T ) = Asech (T ) a 2 ( 0.Numerical Results Analysis The initial conditions are given by: a1 ( 0 . T ) = 0 A -.normalized amplitude of the input optical pulse Switching threshold amplitude A_th is defined as the value of A at which the output of each core is equal .

Fourier Series Analysis Technique ∂u 1 ∂ u ∂ u 2 =j + j u u + B 3 − Γu 2 ∂x 2 ∂ T ∂T 2 3 ˆ u ( x. T )= ∑ un ( x) exp( jnεT ) n=− N N n=− N N ∑ N N 2 N ˆ ∂u n ( x ) ∂ N u ( x. T )= ∑ exp( jnεT ) ˆ ˆ Ψn ( x) exp( jnx T )= nu−nN( x)∂exp( jnεT ) u n ( x) exp( jnεT ) x ∂ε = n=− N ∑ n=− N ∑ N ˆ ∂u n ( x ) 1 N 2 2 ˆ ∑N ∂x exp( jnεT )=− 2 j n∑Nn ε un ( x) exp( jnεT ) + j n∑NΨn ( x) exp( jnεT ) =− =− n=− ˆ ˆ − jB ∑ n ε un ( x) exp( jnεT ) − Γ ∑ un ( x) exp( jnεT ) 3 3 n=− N n=− N N N 62 .

we have ˆ ∂u n ( x ) ˆ ˆ =− jσ (n)u n ( x) + jΨn ( x) − Γun ( x) ∂x 63 .Multiply the equation by the conjugate of exp(jkεT) and integrate the whole equation with respect to T from -π/ε to π/ε. an ordinary differential equation can be obtained: ˆ ∂u k ( x ) 1 2 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ =− jk ε u k ( x) + jΨk ( x) − jBk 3ε 3u k ( x) − Γu k ( x) 2 ∂x If σ(n) is a function of n and defined as n 2ε 2 σ (n)= + Bn 3ε 3 2 Then for (-N≤n≤N).

The values of μ.For the nonlinear term we have. ⎛ N ⎞⎛ N * ⎞ ⎞⎛ N ˆ ˆ ˆ ∑NΨn ( x) exp( jnεT )=⎜ μ∑Nuμ ( x) exp( jμεT ) ⎟⎜ν∑Nuν ( x) exp(− jνεT ) ⎟⎜ λ∑Nuλ ( x) exp( jλεT ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ n=− ⎠⎝ = − ⎠ ⎝ =− ⎠⎝ = − N where the function u(x)* is the complex conjugate of u(x) and parameters μ. ν and λ are all integers between -N and N. ν and λ should satisfy the following condition μ − ν + λ =n where n is an arbitrary value. Under this circumstance the expression can be simplified as Ψn ( x)= ∀μ −ν + λ = n u μ ( x)uν* ( x)uλ ( x) ∑ˆ ˆ ˆ 64 Network Technology Research Centre .

we have ˆ ∂u n ( x ) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ =[− jσ (n) − Γ]u n ( x) + j ∑ u μ ( x)uν* ( x)uλ ( x) 4 3 ∀μ −ν + λ = n ∂x 144 2444 linear term 1444 24444 4 3 nonlinear term Initial condition ε ˆ u m (0 )= 2π ∫ π ε u (0. T ) exp(− jmεT )dT − / 65 π /ε .Therefore.

3 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.9 1 ) Radii ratio ( ρ2 / ρ1 F as a function of ρ2/ρ1 (with Δ2/Δ1=1) for different core separations .6 0.8 0.0 0. 0 For a given radii ratio.7 Power transfer is maximum (F=1) when the two cores are identical 0.Effects of radii ratio on the power transfer Power transfer F should be 1 0.9 0.8 0. the power transfer decreases when ρ2/ρ1 reduces d/ρ1=3.1 < F ≤ 1 .1 0 0.2 0.7 Power transfer F 0 .5 d/ρ1=3. the power transfer decreases with the increase of the core separation For a certain core separation.5 d/ρ1=2 d/ρ1=2.

5 d/ρ1=2 Radii ratio ( ρ2 / ρ1 ) 0.95 Normalized coupling length as a function of radii ratio ρ2/ρ1 for different core separations .3 0.1 0 0.2 0.85 d/ρ1=3.5 0.Coupling length Lc 0.4 0.5 For a certain core separation.9 0. the normalized coupling length increases with the core separation 1 d/ρ1=3 d/ρ1=2.6 0.8 0.7 Normalized coupling length 0. the normalized coupling length decreases as the difference of two cores increases For a given radii ratio.

95 1 For a certain core separation.5 d/ρ1=2 Radii ratio ( ρ2 / ρ1 ) 0.5 0.2 0.8 0.6 0.1 0 0.7 Normalized coupling length 0.5 d/ρ1=3 d/ρ1=2.Coupling length Lc Lc = π 2 ×[(βco1 − βco2 )2 / 4 + C12C21]1/ 2 0.4 0.3 0.9 0.85 d/ρ1=3. the normalized coupling length increases with the core separation Normalized coupling length as a function of radii ratio ρ2/ρ1 for different core separations . the normalized coupling length decreases as the difference of two cores increases For a given radii ratio.

the bit-rate of a communication system that uses directional couplers.The intermodal dispersion (or couplingcoefficient dispersion) in a directional coupler can cause pulse distortion or even pulse breakup. This effect sets a limit on the bandwidth of a directional coupler. 69 . and hence.

(a) (b) Nonlinear pulse propagation with R=1. R’ = R” =0 and an initial peak pulse amplitude of (a) 1 and (b) 2 70 .

R’ = -0.5. R”=0 and an initial peak pulse amplitude of (a) 1 and (b) 2 71 .(a) (b) Nonlinear pulse propagation with R=1.

(a) (b) Linear pulse propagation with R=100. (a) R’ =0 and (b) R’ =-10 72 . R” =0.

90 73 .89 and (b) 1.(a) (b) Nonlinear pulse propagation with R=1. R’ = R” =0 and an initial peak pulse amplitude of (a) 1.

R’ = -0.(a) (b) Nonlinear pulse propagation with R=1.84 74 .80 and (b) 1. R” =0 and an initial peak pulse amplitude of (a) 1.5.

15 0.95 F_max F′_max Lc L'c 0.92 0.15 0.14 F_max : analytical maximum power transfer from core 1 to core 2 F′_max : numerical maximum power transfer from core 1 to core 2 Lc : analytical coupling length Lc′ : numerical coupling length .14 1 0.88 0.99 0.Comparison of power transfer and coupling length ρ2/ρ1 1 0.

the maximum power transfer F_max from core 1 to core 2 is: β1 − β 2 2 −1 F_ max = [1 + ( 2C12 ) ] where β1( 2 ) is the propagation constants of the two cores respectively The coupling length is the distance at which F_max occurs: Lc = π 2 × [( β co1 − β co 2 ) 2 / 4 + C12 C 21 ]1 / 2 .Analytical Expressions Analytically.

F′_max . ρ2/ρ1 = 1 L 'c L 'c coupling length . L 'c are obtained by solving the coupled-mode equations For example.

.What’s the intermodal dispersion ? The two-core fiber coupler. Intermodal dispersion: the difference between the group delays of these two modes. though formed with two single-mode waveguides. is actually a two-mode structure.

What’s the intermodal dispersion ? The two-core fiber coupler.9 . is actually a two-mode structure.25μm. t0 =10 fs.0055. d/ρ1 = 2.55 μm. Intermodal dispersion: the difference between the group delays of these two modes. λ = 1. Δ = 0.5 . ρ2/ρ1 = 0. Reference Parameters: ρ1 = 3. though formed with two single-mode waveguides.

T)|2 V=|a2(Z.T)|2 80 .Identical core ρ2/ρ1 = 1 U=|a1(Z.

95 .Nonidentical core ρ2/ρ1 = 0.

' ' C 12 = C 21 = 0 .

' ' C12 . C 21 ≠ 0 .

The coupling phenomenon behaves very well with little pulse distortion without the presence of the intermodal dispersion The presence of intermodal dispersion leads to the breakup of the input pulse and causes severe pulse distortion Intermodal dispersion should be an important factor of consideration in the design of two-nonidentical-core fiber couplers .

5 The switching threshold amplitude A_th is between 4.4 .0 A=4.Investigation of 2nd Order Coupling Coefficient Dispersion '' ' C 12 = C'21= 0 A=4.3 and 4.

9 The switching threshold amplitude A_th is between 4.C 12 .5 A=4.9 C '' has the effect of raising the switching threshold amplitude A_th .8 and 4. C 21 ≠ 0 '' '' A=4.

Coupled-mode equations Effects of coupling coefficient dispersion Effects of gain bandwidth Effects of gain saturation 87 .

The normalized coupled-mode equations that include the effects of gain T ∂a2 1 ∂ 2a1 ∂ 2a1 ∂a1 2 2 i( + R' + Ra2 + | a1 | a1 = i exp[−s ∫ | a1(T ) | dT](Γa1 + μ 2 ) )+ 2 ∂Z ∂T 2 ∂T ∂T −∞ T ∂a2 ∂a1 1 ∂ 2a2 ∂ 2a2 2 2 i( + R' ) + + Ra1 + | a2 | a2 = i exp[−s ∫ | a2 (T ) | dT](Γa2 + μ 2 ) 2 ∂T 2 ∂T ∂Z ∂T −∞ The terms on the right sides of the equations represent the gain characteristics of the fiber. s Γ gain saturation parameter linear gain coefficient gain bandwidth 88 μ .

Effects of Coupling Coefficient Dispersion Influences on switching characteristics 7 Average transmission T1 T1 = +∞ 2 ∫−∞ | a1 (Lb . T ) | dT +∞ 2 ∫−∞ | a1 (0. the contrast between the high and low transmission levels becomes smaller 1 0 0 0.5 1 1.25 The switching curve with R′ = 0 agree closely with reported results.5 2 Normalized Input Power 89 . T ) | dT 6 Average Transmission T1 5 4 3 2 R'=0 R'=-0. which confirms the accuracy of our numerical analysis In the presence of R’.

μ = 0 Reveals how the input pulse becomes distorted and eventually breaks up In addition to pulse amplification. pulse compression in the core V can also be observed 90 . μ = 0 R’ = -0.Influences on pulse shape R’ = 0.25.

The result of these two effects is that the pulse preserves its R’ = -0. 91 .Effects of gain bandwidth Balance of pulse breakup effect A qualitatively new feature is the suppression of pulse breakup and distortion effects Why? The physical reason is that the coupling coefficient dispersion tends to split the input pulse and hence broaden its spectral width.25. the finite gain bandwidth limits the spectral width of the pulse. μ = 0.1 spectrum and thus pulse shape. Whereas.

Effects of gain saturation Influences on pulse shape s=0 s=0.1 A significant difference is that the output power is greatly reduced 92 .

.Conclusions Passive nonlinear two-core fiber couplers New coupled-mode equations including the dispersion properties of coupling coefficient have been derived The effects of dissimilarity of two cores on the characteristics of the two-nonidentical-core fiber coupler have been studied The effects of intermodal dispersion and 2nd order coupling coefficient dispersion have been investigated A two-nonidentical-core fiber coupler can perform as a twin-core fiber coupler Active nonlinear two-core fiber couplers New coupled-mode equations with the consideration of coupling coefficient dispersion.e. pulse breakup effect The gain saturation can limit the growth of the pulse power. it has no adverse effect on the pulse shape 93 . gain bandwidth and gain saturation have been derived The coupling-coefficient dispersion can cause significant pulse distortion or even pulse breakup as in a passive nonlinear two-core fiber The gain bandwidth can suppress the adverse effect caused by the coupling coefficient dispersion. i. however.

Conclusions

New coupled-mode equations have been derived This equation describes pulse propagation in a two-nonidentical-core fiber coupler with the inclusion of the dispersion properties of the coupling coefficient The effects of dissimilarity of two cores on the characteristics of the two-nonidentical-core fiber coupler have been studied

The effects of dispersive coupling coefficients have been investigated The intermodal dispersion can cause pulse breakup and the 2nd order coupling coefficient has the effect of increasing the switching threshold amplitude

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