311 views

Uploaded by eljose1234

We make a brief but concise description on how we can use several method to obtain finite values for divergent series such
1+2^{m}+3^{mç+............
1-2+3-4+5-6+7-.......
1-2!+3!-.......
and divergent integrals of x^{s-1} on the interval (0,oo) . We also study how can we use divergent series and Borel resummation to solve integrals with symmetric Kernel K(st)

- balal Engg
- Series
- Starting in on understanding Riemann's paper
- Proof of Riemanns Zeta Hypothesis
- Sequences and series
- ap06_calcbc_syllabus3[1]
- Unit-7 General Series
- C2 notes
- Area of Torricelli's Trumpet or Gabriel's Horn, Sum of the Reciprocals of the Primes, Factorials of Negative Integers
- theopaper.pdf
- Chap 16 Applications of the Laplace Transform
- Laplace Trsnsform_8
- Information Technology 2006 Sem I & II
- Courses 2
- Syllabus en 3 SEM
- Inst syllabus Mumbai University
- lec2
- The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America

You are on page 1of 14

Graduate Student of Physics (in Solid State ) at UPV/EHU

Address: P.O 644 48920 Portugalete , Vizcaya (Spain)

Phone: (00) 34 685 77 16 53

E-mail: josegarc2002@yahoo.es

ABSTRACT: In this paper we study the methods of Borel and Nachbin resummation applied

to the solution of integral equation with Kernels K(yx) , the resummation of divergent series

and the possible application to Hadamard finite-part integral and distribution theory

1. INTRODUCTION

Divergent series are widely known and appear in many context involving Physics or

math, for example if we integrate by parts the error function (Laplace) :

e− x

2

∞

∞ (2n)!

∑ (−1)

−t 2

erfc( x) = ∫ dte → 1 + n

(1.1)

x

π n =1 n !(2 x) 2 n

Or using the ‘Saddle point mehtod’ for n! when n is big then we have:

1 1 ∞

Γ( x + 1) → 2π n( n +1) / 2 1 + + 2

+ ..... ∫ dte − t t x −1 = Γ( x) (1.2)

12n 288n 0

But (1.1) and (1.2) are only convergent as x → ∞ for small values of x they both

Diverge. Another example with ODE’s is the following for the ODE:

dy ∞ e−t

x2 + y = x , y ( x)=x ∫ dt (1.3) (exact solution)

dx 0 1 + xt

For (1.3) Euler gave the series solution: y ( x) = x − (1!) x 2 + (2!) x3 − (3!) x 4 − ... (1.4)

Which converges only for x=0 !!! , A similar thing happens with the series:

1

a0 + a1 g + a2 g 2 + a3 g 3 + ....... g << 1 (1.5)

That apear in QFT and Quantum Mechanics , where g is the ‘coupling constant’ , in

general series of the form (1.5) although divergent are used to calculate the ‘mass’ or

‘charge’ (renormalized value), for a given physical theory.

Also as a last example let be the next Taylor series around x=0 :

x x

x + x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ......... = , x + 2 x 2 + 3x3 + 4 x 4 + ......... = (1.6)

1− x (1 − x) 2

Convergent for |x| <1 However taking the limit x → −1− (-1 by the left) we find

the amazing results -1/2 and -1/4 Although we know that in general, any series of

the form 1 + 2m + 3m + ...... is divergent, in the last section we discuss a method to

deal with divegent integrals with poles on the interval. [a,b] with a and b real

numbers for example the integral of f ( x) = x −2 on the interval (-1,1) .

Of course this paper pretends to be only a kind of introduction to the subject for

further references I strongly recommend ‘Divergent series’ by G.H Hardy or ‘Zeta

regularization methods’ by E.Elizalde and others for historical examples involving

divergent series and integrals.

The Zeta function regularization method was used to give a meaning to clearly

divergent series in the form:

For any positive and real number ‘a’ , the series could be re-arranged in the form:

Where in (2.2) we have used an Analytic prolongation for the Riemann Zeta

Function, now letting s tends to 0 we could find the ‘sum’ of the series (2.1) as the

Value ζ (−a) which can be calculated in general (except if a=1) by the contour

Integral on the complex plane:

q − ( a +1)

ζ (−a) = Γ (2aπ+i1) ∫σ dq (2.3)

e− q − 1

πs

ζ ( s ) = sin Γ(1 − s )ζ (1 − s )π (2π )

−1 s

(2.4) ζ (−2n) = 0 n=1,2,3,4,.....

2

2

For ‘a’ being a Natural number, the calculations can be simplified, first if we

introduce the ‘Bernoulli Polynomials’ using the Generating function:

∞

te xt tn

= ∑ n n!

et − 1 n = 0

B ( x ) (2.5)

The value on the left of (2.5) for the 2n-th Bernoulli Polynomial at x=0 are the

‘Bernoulli Numbers’ and have a vital importance in Mathematical Analysis, for

example the sum of the first N powers of f(x)=xr for r >0 and integer can be

written using the Bernoulli Polynomials in the form:

N

Br +1 ( N + 1) − Br (0)

∑n

n =0

r

=

r +1

(2.7)

Although it may seem we are somhow ‘Cheating’ to get a finite value, Zeta

regularization has been proved frutifull, in many calculations involving theoretical

Physics such us the ‘Casimir effect’ where the value ζ (−3) = −1/120 is used in

Calculations, or string theory whenever you need to calculate 1+2+3+4+5.+…..

Regularization was Leonhard Euler in XVII century, he desired to calculate (in

modern notation and using Operator theory):

f ( x) + f ( x + 1) + f ( x + 2) + ........... = S (2.8)

d

e aD f ( x) = f ( x + a ) D= (2.9)

dx

( The formula (2.9) can be proved making the Taylor expansion respect to ‘a’ and

remembering the Taylor series for the Exponential , In Modern Lie Algebra this is

just a classical result involving group theory).

Applying (2.9) ot each term in (2.8) we have a geommetric series in eaD for

a=0,1,2,3,… multiplying and dividing by ‘D’ Euler found the relation (involving

again Bernoulli numbers):

∞

D Bn n dF

e −1

D

= − ∑

n =0 n !

D F

dx

= f ( x) Bn (0) = Bn (2.10)

If we put f(x)=x or f(x)=x3 and use (2.10) the series is just a finite one and we

get the values -1/12 and -1/120 using tables.

3

o Application to divergent integrals:

presented here, is (using the rectangle method to calculate integrals):

∞ ∞

β

∫ dx( x + β ) m ≈ ∑ ( β + ε n) m ε → ζ , −m ε m +1 m > 0 (2.11)

0

n =0 ε

To give a finite value to the divergent integral (2.11) using the ‘Hurwitz Zeta

function’ (a direct generalization to Riemann zeta function) defined by:

∞

ζ ( s, β ) = ∑ (n + β )− s ℜe(s)>1 (2.12)

n =0

With ‘beta’ a real number different from a negative integer, for other values we

can use the Functional equation:

ν 2Γ( s) µ

πs 2π rν r

ζ (1 − s, ) =

µ (2πµ ) s

∑ Cos( 2

r =1

−

µ

)ζ ( s, )

µ

µ≥ν≥1 (2.13)

Bm +1 ( β )

ζ (−m, β ) = − (2.14)

m +1

Hence if taking the limit ε → 0 (2.11) has a finite value , this value could be

considered as the regularized ‘sum’ or ‘Area’ for the function f ( x) = x m on the

inteerval [0, ∞)

‘Renormalization’ when we are forced to give a finite meaning to clearly

divergent expressions such as:

∞

∫0

dpp m m∈Z (2.15)

For positive m (UV divergences) we can find a recurrent formula to obtain the

values of the different integrals in the form:

∞

B2 r

I (m, Λ) = (m / 2) I (m − 1, Λ) + ζ (−m) − ∑ amr (m − 2r + 1) I (m − 2r , Λ)

r =1 (2r )!

Λ Λ m Λ m ∞ B2 r Γ(m + 1)

∫0 p m dp = + ∑n −∑ amr Λ m−2 r +1 amr = (2.16)

2 n =1 r =1 (2r )! Γ(m − 2r + 2)

4

Λ

Where we have called I (m, Λ) = ∫ dpp m , here the meaning of ‘Lambda’ is

0

a momentum cut-off (the maximum value of the modulus for the momentum

of the particle) , the Renormalization procedure involves taking the physical

limit Λ → ∞ , at the end the quantities involving these divergent integrals

can’t depend on the value of the regulator/cut-off ‘Lambda’ introduced , where

we have used the ‘Euler-McLaurin sum formula’ in the form :

b f (b) b−1 ∞

B

∫0 f ( x)dx = + ∑ f (n) − ∑ 2 r f (2 r −1) (b) (2.17)

2 n =1 r =1 (2r )!

negative values of m or ‘infrared divergences’then make q=1/p and apply the

process described above)

method called ‘Ramanujan resummation’ of a series, a recurrence formula for

evaluating this kind of sum is :

[ R] [ R]

N

dta (t ) N>1

1

n ≥1 n≥0

(2.18)

Here the [R] stands for Ramanujan or resummation, applied to a(n)=1/n gives

[ R]

1

the regularizad value ∑

n ≥1 n

→ γ .for the Harmonic series.

by recursive calculations, where the divergent series associated to the

divergent integral is ‘summed’ by a zeta regularization method, the case m=0

is simply :

Λ

∫ dp = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + ........ + Λ → ζ (0) as Λ → ∞ (2.19)

0

For more complicate analytic functions F(p) we expand them into a ‘Laurent

(convergent) series’ in the next form:

∞

F ( p) = ∑c

n =−∞

n pn (2.20) and perform term by term integration

Depending on the region of the complex plane we are located (2.20) may

include either positive or negative power series, or them both .

calculating divergent sums of primes in the form:

5

∞

d k −1 ζ ′(−ns)

∑ p s (ln p)k → ∑ µ (n)(−1)k

p n =1

ds k −1 ζ (−ns)

(2.21)

With s >0 a real non-integer number, so the series on the right is convergent,

k >0 , used to extend the domain of convergence for P(-s) .

∑p p

s

= P( s ) valid for s> 1 (2.22)

analytic prolongation of the Gamma function (and hence a similar to

integrals involving Euler’s Beta function), using the functional equation :

π ∞ e−t

Γ( x)Γ(1 − x) sin(π x) = π so →∫ dt α (2.23)

Γ(α ) sin(πα ) 0 t

With α real number bigger than 0 and different from an integer, clearly

(2.23) is a form to give a finite meaning to otherwise divergent integral due

to the pole at t=0, using the analytic prolongation to negative values for the

Gamma function, in both cases involving (2.1) and (2.23) we consider that

The ‘sum’ or ‘Area’ for the series or integral is just the value of

Γ(α ) , ζ (− a) , this process of ‘regularization’ avoids the pole for the

Gamma and Riemann zeta function at the points α = 0 (Gamma) and s=1

(Riemann Zeta function). Also for alternating series:

∞

1 − 2m + 3m − 4m + .... = η (− m) since η ( s ) = ∑ (−1) n n − s = (1 − 21− s )ζ ( s )

n =1

(2.24)

Appart from Euler the formalism of ‘Zeta regularization’ (but not with this

name) was introduced by Ramanujan in his Notebooks using the Euler-

McLaurin sum formula defining the ‘constant’ of the series:

∞

1 B

c=− f (0) − ∑ 2 k f 2 k −1 (0) (2.25)

2 k =1 (2k )!

B2 n +1

1 + 22 n +1 + 32 n +1 + ................. = − (ℜ) (2.26)

2n

1 + 22 n + 32 n + ................. = 0(ℜ)

6

3. BOREL RESUMMATION FOR SERIES AND INTEGRALS

S = a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 + ......... (3.1)

Borel gave a very ingenious method to calculate it, first we multiply and

divide each term by n! getting :

∞ ∞ ∞

an an

∑ n! ∫

n =0

0

dtt n e − t ∑ n! t

n=0

n

= f (t ) (3.2)

Using (3.1) and (3.2) and supposing that f (t ) = O(ebt ) for a real positive

number b then we can writte the ‘sum’ of the series in (3.1) as:

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

0 0

n=0 n=0

approximate evaluation of our Borel transform, we can use the ‘Euler-Abel’

transform widely known for power series, to calculate a power series:

p +1 ∞

∞

(−1)k x k ∆ k [(−1)n an ]n=0 x

p

∑

n =0

a ( n ) x ≈ ∑ n

k =0 (1 + x)k +1

+

1+ x

∑ (−1)

n =0

k + p +1

∆ p +1[(−1)n an ]n =0 x n

n

n!

∆ n a(0) = ∑ (−1) m an − m (3.5)

n =0 n !( n − m ) !

∞ tp − st 1 ∂p ∂p ∞ e−t

∫ dt e = E1 (cs )ecs E1 ( x) = ∫ dt = − Ei (− x) (3.6)

0 (t + c) p +1 p ! ∂s p ∂c p x t

The first expression in (3.5) is an approximate evaluation for f(x) setting x=t

then the B(S) ‘Borel sum’ for our divergent series (3.1) is:

1 p 1 ∂k ∂k

B(S ) ≈ ∑

s k =0

(−1) k

k ! ∂s k ∂c k

∆ k [(−1) n bn ]n =0 E1 ( s)ecs (3.7)

c =1, s =1

With an = bn n ! , only in case that the coefficients of our initial series (3.1)

were of the form (-1)n n!P(n) with P(n) a Polynomial (3.7) is exact. The

7

error term is given by the expression:

1 1 ∂ p +1 ∂ p

E = O E (cs )ecs (3.8)

s p ! ∂s p +1 ∂c p 1

c =1, s =1

In case (3.1) were convergent then its ‘ Borel sum’ is equivalent to the

term-by-term Laplace transform at s=1, in that case if we had f(t) and g(t)

analytic series near x=0 ::

∞ ∞

an

∑ an x n = g ( x)

n=0

and ∑ n! x

n=0

n

= f ( x) (3.9)

∞

If we define g ( s ) = ∫ dtG (t )e − st ,since f(t) and g(t) are convergent series

0

then we should have as a main property of Borel sums:

∞ ∞

an 1 ∞

g ( x) = ∫ dt ∑ ( xt ) n e − t = ∫ dtf ( xt )e− ( t / x ) (3.10)

n =0 n ! x 0

0

Setting s=1/x , and using the a known property for the Laplace inverse

transform of g (1/ s ) s −1 we find the relation:

∞

f (t ) = 2 ∫ duuG (u 2 ) J 0 (2 tu ) F0 (k = 2 t )(2G (u 2 ) = f (t ) (3.11)

0

∞

(−1)i ( x / 2) 2i

evaluated at the point k = 2 t with J 0 ( x) = ∑

i =0 (i !) 2

acomplished if we define the Riemann sum multiplying and dividing each

term by a Gamma function we have:

∞

f (a + n∆x) s ∆x + a ∞ a + n∆x + − t α

∑

n = 0 Γ ( a + n∆x + 1 + α )

∫0 dtt e t ∆x (3.12)

∞ ∞ f ( x)t x α − st

s ∫ dt ∫ dx t e (3.13)

0

0 Γ( x + 1 + α )

∞

Of course in general, unless ∫ 0

dxf ( x) is convergent ‘Fubini’s theorem’

does not hold for (3.12) and (3.13) so:

8

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ f ( x)

∫ dt ∫ dxσ ( x, t ) ≠ ∫ dx ∫ dtσ ( x, t ) σ ( x, t ) = t x +α e − t

0 0 0 0 Γ( x + 1 + α )

(3.14)

∞ f ( x)

Hα (t ) = ∫ dx tx With H α (t ) = O(eb2t ) (3.15)

0 Γ( x + 1 + α )

If the 2 conditions on (3.16) holds then the ‘Borel integral’ is just the

Laplace transform of Hα (t )t α , α > 0

But. Can a ‘Borel sum’ be the real sum of the series?, let’s take :

∞ e−t e− x ∞

(−1) n

E i ( x) = − ∫ dt

−x t

≈

x

∑

n =0 xn

n! (3.16)

∞

1 ∞

(−1) n

x ∫ dte − xt

→∑ n! (3.17)

0

t + 1 n =0 x n

Using the result for the Laplace transform of 1/(t+1) ,we find:

1 s

L = e Ei ( s) (3.18)

t + 1

‘summed’ even for high values of x.

transform with s=1 L {t x } = Γ( x + 1) then the definition of ‘integral’

s =1

(3.13) is the same as the usual definition for the integral in terms of

convergent Riemann sums.

as this, using the next property for Laplace transforms:

∞ f ( x) F (ln s)

L ∫ dxt x =

Γ( x + 1

and { }

L t n f (t ) = (−1) n D n F ( s) (3.19)

0 s ln s

9

∞ d α Fα (ln s )

∫ dxf ( x) s − x → s (−1)α (3.20)

0 dsα s ln s

f ( x)

Where Fα ( s ) is the Laplace transform of g ( x) =

( x + 1)( x + 2).....( x + α )

function Γ( z ) and use the definition of the differintegral Dxα f .

Fourier series that don’t belong to an L2 (−∞, ∞) , but may have a defined

∞

dxf ( x)e − iω x → ( iω ) eiω F ( s = iω ) . F(s)

−1

Fourier transform re-defined as ∫0

is the Laplace transform of f(x). Another deep relationship between the

Borel resummation for series and for integrals can be obtained using the

Euler-Mclaurin summation formula and using the property (3.20) :

t

x

∞

∞ an t n − t ∞ ∞ B2 r ∂ 2 r −1 a ( x )

F (ln( s ))

= ∫ dt ∑ e + ∫ dt ∑ s e−t

r =1 (2r )! ∂x

2 r −1

Γ( x + 1)

ln( s ) 0 n =1 n ! s 0

(3.21)

a ( x)t x

All the derivatives ∂ 2x r −1 must be evaluated at x=0, with lim =0

x →∞ Γ ( x + 1)

∞ ∞

an

B (an ) = ∫ dtf (t )h(t ) f (t ) = ∑ tn (4.1)

0 n = 0 M ( n + 1)

∞

With M (n + 1) = ∫ dth(t )t n , in case h(t ) = e − t and M(n+1)=n! , expression

0

(4.1) is just the Borel transform of the sequence {an } , with the advantage

that now f(t) can grow faster than ebt so f (t ) ≠ O(ebt ) , we will study the

applications of this Nachbin/Generalized Borel resummtion to solve

integral equations and to the Riesz criterion for Riemann Hypothesis

equations with Kernel of the form K(st)and to the Riesz

function Riesz(x):

10

In order to apply the Borel generalized resummation to integral

equations, let be the Fredholm equation of first kind :

∞ ∞

g ( s ) = s ∫ dtK ( st ) y (t ) Kˆ (n + 1) = ∫ dtK (t )t n (4.2)

0 0

Here K(st) is the Kernel of the integral equation , and g(s) has the form

of a Z-transform involving inverse powers of ‘s’ :

c1 c2 c3 1

g ( s ) = c0 + + + + ........ cn = ∫ dzg ( z ) z n −1 (4.3)

s s 2 s3 2π i γ

Since the Mellin transform for Kernel K(u) exists, we will apply Nachbin

resummation to solve the integral equation given in (4.2)

∞ ∞

∞

∞ cn tn

g ( s ) = ∑ cn s − n = ∫ dt ∑ . n K (t ) = s ∫ dtK ( st ) y (t ) (4.4)

n=0 0 n =0 Kˆ (n + 1) s 0

∞

cn

proven that a infinite power series in the form ∑ t n = y (t ) can

n = 0 K ( n + 1)

ˆ

solve an integral equation similar to (4.2) , as an example if we consider

the function y (t ) = π ( et ) , and the Kernel K (t ) = ( et − 1)

−1

with

Kˆ (n + 1) = Γ(n + 1)ζ (n + 1) we have the identity for the prime counting

function in terms of an infinite series as:

∞

dk 1 dz

π ( x) = ∑1 = ∑ ln k ( x) dk = ∫ ln ζ ( z ) (4.5)

p≤ x k =1 ζ ( k + 1)Γ ( k + 1) 2π i γ z1− k

infinite series of powers involving ln(x), in general this idea can be

∞

a

extended to include Dirichlet generating functions H ( s ) = ∑ ns with

n =1 n

n≤ x

with K(t)=exp(-t) so we can find the Nachbin resumed solution

∞

ln m ( x) 1 dz

A( x) = ∑ an = ∑ um um = ∫ H ( z) (4.6)

n≤ x m=0 m! 2π i γ z1− m

For the case of the Riesz function involved in Riesz criterion, the

Riemann Hypothesis can be stated as the condition

11

∞

(− x)n

Riesz ( x) = −∑ = O( x1/ 4+ε ) (4.7)

n =1 ( k − 1)!ζ (2n)

resummation and the Taylor expansion for the exp(-x) and the identity

∞

n 1

1= ∫ dt t n −1 , the integral equation for Riesz function reads

ζ (2n) 0 t

∞

( − x) n

∞

∞ (− x) n t n −1 1 ∞ dt x

1− e −x

= −∑ = − ∫ dt ∑ = ∫ Riesz (t )

n =1 n! 0 n =1 ζ (2n)(n − 1)! t 0 t t

(4.8)

then (4.8) is a proposed integral equation for the Riesz(x) ,from the

definition of floor function [x] when x=0 both sides on (4.8) are 0

f ( x) → ∞ as x → 0 , but let’s suppose that for a < c < b then

f (c) → ∞ as x → c we can define the ’Cauchy’s Principal value’ P.V

of the integral in the form of a limit:

lim+

ε →0

(∫a

c −ε

dxf ( x) + ∫

b

c +ε

dxf ( x) ) (5.1)

c b

∫ a

dxf ( x) = ±∞ ∫c

dxf ( x) = m ∞ (5.2)

ε

a d k −1 g ( x) d k g ( x)

F .P ∫ dxf ( x) = f ( x) = (5.3)

−a dx k −1 −ε dx k

possible singularities of the integral lie on ( −ε , ε ) for k=1 we get the

usual Leibniz’s rule for integral calculus.

12

k −1

Pk 1

g ( x) = k, m > 1 Pk = (−1) k ∏ (5.4)

x m−k i =0 (m + i)

a

k −1

d i 1 d k −1−iϕ ( x) a ϕ ( x)

∑ (−1)

i =0

i +1

i

dx r m−k

dx k −1−i

= FP ∫ dx m

−a x

(5.5)

−a

uses the properties of distributions, for a test function , so ϕ (±∞) = 0

then if we introduce the scalar product in the form:

∞

S , ϕ = ∫ dxS ( x)ϕ ( x) so S ′, ϕ = − S , ϕ ′ (5.6)

−∞

d nϕ (0)

δ [ϕ ] = ϕ (0) and δ ( n ) [ϕ ] = (−1)n (5.7)

dx n

∞

2πδ ( n ) ( x) = ∫ dx(ix) n eikx (5.8)

−∞

So for every Analytic function f(x) we can define its Fourier transform in

term of ‘test function’ as the linear functional:

I [ f , ϕ ] → 2π f (−i∂ x )δ ( x) (5.9)

The ‘Borel integral’ (3. ) and ‘Hadamard finite-part integral’ can be useful

to deal with divergences in the form ∫ d 4 p | p |r for r >0 and r<0 , r ≠ −1

and the modulus of the momentum | p |→ 0, ∞ that appear in QFT at long

or short distances (wavelength), since in natural units λ | p |= 1 , hence we

could use these 2 techniques to get rid of the divergences, introducing a

cut-off or regulator Lambda and making Λ → ∞ .

6. REFERENCES

Dover (1972)

[2] Brendt Bruce “Ramanujan´s Notebooks: Parts I-II” Springer-Verlag New York

(1985-1989)

13

[4] Demidovich B.P and Maron I.A “Fundamentos de Analisis Numerico” (Spanish)

Ed: Parninfo Madrid (1985) , ISBN: 84-283-0887-X

[5] Elizalde .E, Romeo .A “Zeta regularization techniques with applications” World

Scientific Publishing company. (1994)

[7] Mostepanenko, V. M. and Trunov, N. N. §2.2 in “The Casimir Effect and Its

Applications. Oxford” , England: Clarendon Press, 1997.

[8] Nachbin L. "An extension of the notion of integral functions of the finite

exponential type", Anais Acad. Brasil. Ciencias. 16 (1944)

[9] Peskin M.E and Schröeder D. V “Introduction to Quantum Field Theory” Addison-

Wesley (1995)

CRC Press. ISBN 0849382734 (1994)

Boundary elements Vol 4 Nº 2 pp 49-57 (2006)

14

- balal EnggUploaded bysatyajti
- SeriesUploaded byRaja Sekhar
- Starting in on understanding Riemann's paperUploaded byUninvited Guest
- Proof of Riemanns Zeta HypothesisUploaded byhumejias
- Sequences and seriesUploaded byamit_animaster4063
- ap06_calcbc_syllabus3[1]Uploaded byEbuka Efobi
- Unit-7 General SeriesUploaded byChandradeep Reddy Teegala
- C2 notesUploaded byCoolman Poon
- Area of Torricelli's Trumpet or Gabriel's Horn, Sum of the Reciprocals of the Primes, Factorials of Negative IntegersUploaded bySinisa Bubonja
- theopaper.pdfUploaded byWalid Matallah
- Chap 16 Applications of the Laplace TransformUploaded bydalbaas
- Laplace Trsnsform_8Uploaded by최대영
- Information Technology 2006 Sem I & IIUploaded byJinu Madhavan
- Courses 2Uploaded byxishi0346
- Syllabus en 3 SEMUploaded byAditya Saini
- Inst syllabus Mumbai UniversityUploaded byMayur692
- lec2Uploaded bylonlinness

- TDD (Test Driven Development) for Puppet, by Gareth RushgroveUploaded byozukecalo
- cbi reflection in century gothicUploaded byapi-248069607
- Gramatika engleskog sa vezbama.docUploaded bycrnitulipan
- Beginning Arduino Ov7670 Camera DevelopmentUploaded bybeicnet
- Assembler Option TechnicalUploaded byiastalin
- stega1Uploaded bygedozen
- 03 Maths Syl NumberUploaded byMerich Jane Barlas
- Datasheet SE-Wonderware SupervisoryHMIUploaded byDeanLefebvre
- Sentence SnarlsUploaded byRaphy Alvarez
- FM17-70 Signal Communication in the Armored Division 1950Uploaded bydieudecafe
- Cpp Program1Uploaded bytin
- Medalist 3070-05-40 Release Notes Rev7Uploaded byHaseena Shaik
- Introductory American History by Benton, Elbert JayUploaded byGutenberg.org
- Daniel DayanUploaded byanca_v
- Case Study on LinuxUploaded byElton Gonsalves
- Cloning Oracle Applications 11iUploaded byThen Masters
- Aristotle's works by BEKKER NUMBERS ++++.docUploaded byparasoly
- unit1lesson2 lifeinthepastUploaded byapi-240931569
- Yuri Gurevich and Saharon Shelah- Spectra of Monadic Second-Order Formulas with One Unary FunctionUploaded byJgfm2
- arduino.mUploaded byEmanuel Mendoza
- Hugh Grady, Shax CriticismUploaded bylithebob
- Boliyan , Tap'Pe , Dholki and Wedding SongsUploaded byPuneet Jindal
- I, Lalla Book ReviewUploaded byabirbazaz
- SystemTap - Instrumenting the Linux Kernel for Analyzing Performance and Functional Problems (IBM, April 2009)Uploaded byEledel
- OOAD LABUploaded byVengatraman Pondicherry
- Destination 1 (6)Uploaded byoldhastonian
- CCIE Collaboration TopicUploaded byBen Q Nguyen
- Prayer PointsUploaded byNathan Goni
- Microsoft Outlook QuestionsUploaded byRipunjay Mishra
- T. S. ELIOT’S ‘ASH-WEDNESDAY’Uploaded byAsis Yuur