RADHAKRIS THE KUPPUS^ RESEARCH II MADRAS 1946 'opyright] [Rt- One & As. PROF. . KUPPUSWAMI SASTRI (Retired} M.. WITH A FOREWORD BY DR.S.omproiiiises in the History OF Advaitic Thought BY MM. I. S. Four.A. SIR S..E.


It is this feature which has enabled the Hindu mind in the _ While he good many scholars in Samskrit learning and criticism. the spirit of comprehension as distinct from that of exclusion. out. extent and trained a test Sankritists Professor the grea- past to welcome new ideas swami master plan of Hindu When the spirit declined. and not stand still. The book illustrates with a wealth of learning and critical penetration. . Professor Sastri's them and to the integrate lectures make Kuppu- us to move forward. S. THE late Mahamahopadhyaya Kuppuswami Sastri was one of of our generation. accuracy of his learning that he did not leave behind many publications. aim. The revival of the spirit to-day will help us to take up and answer the challenge of modern times. the Loyalty to ancient tradition of India. it is a matter of regret to those who knew the depth.FOREWORD S. The Research Institute founded in his name has for one of its objects the publication of his scattered In pursuance of this writings and lectures. in the world of philosophic and religious thought. the central characteristic of the Hindu mind. our cultural thought proeres got arrested. this book on Compromises in Advaitic Thought is brought out. requires RADHAKRISHNAN.

Kuppuswami Sastri as the Rao Bahadur K. son of the late Professor. Sastri.THESE lectures were delivered by Mahamahopadhyaya Professor S. The following scholars were in charge of this Professor M. R. Krishnaswami Rao Endowment Lectures under the auspices of the Madras University on the 1 6th and xyth February. Raghavan. V. K. Dr. Professor publication : Hiriyanna. for presenting to the Institute the Manuscript and Typescript copies of these lectures. K. A. 1940. T. Nilakanta Dr. Seshagiri. Ghintamani and . The authorities of the Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute are thankful to Sri G.

I have undertaken to lecture to you on compromises in the development of advaitic thought. In the first lecture. about certain typical cases of propose to speak chiefly accommodation.II aj^snftr: sorfcr: sriPxr: II COMPROMISES IN THE HISTORY OF ADVAITIG THOUGHT FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE DAV<* OF BRAHMANANDA SARAS VATIJ LECTURE I FRIENDS. . to the Syndicate of the Madras for the honour they have done me by invitUniversity this year 1 the lectures instituted iii ing me to deliver I am thankful . commemoration of "Dewan Bahadur K. instances of compromise during the later which will be and the latter will suggest the lines oji post-Vedic age. Krishnaswaml Rao. The second lecture. be evaluated* 1 I94Q. noteworthy delivered to-morrow. which are worthy of notice in the course of the development of Advaitic thought during the Vedic age and the early post-Vedic age. will comthe former of which will deal with the prise two parts. There I will be two lectures. to-night. which all these cases of compromise may.

management. immediate. the later Vedic mainly the age of the Upanisads." pp. .various results of accommodation in the development of It 4eetual Advaitic thought through the different ages of intellife. Many other kinds of accommodation. shape of immediate material benefit or emotional gratification are of the sordid type may be called illegitimate compromise. for the sake of convenience. in the ior individual gain of what . principle. Eversley edn. 1 principles and views. On Compromise. and personal expediency" and making chiefly. of authority and tradition it as to the partisans of the most absolute and unflinching rationalism. tending to ciliatory. Yet in practice all schools alike are forced to admit the necessity of a measure of accommodation All the results of in the very interests of truth itself. may be described as the early Vedic period. which. would be of great interest and value to study the . conformity or compromise these terms stand for a pacific. In To the partisans is as much a commonplace the working of the spirit of accommodation or com- promise in the interests of truth would come under the category of what may be called legitimate compromise. consynthesising attitude of mind. this is universally accepted. the pre~ 1 Morley " . economy. differences being minimised and settled through adjust- ment of Morley.Accommodation." the very heavens fall. if As is stated by John should "the one commanding law that men cling to truth and right. 3-5. resting mainly on the "paramount wisdom of counting the narrow.

of accommodative or compromising suppression of Advaita and secession from it.D.Samkara stage in the post-Vedic age. Sri Harsa (twelfth century A. During this period. attempt to read into these old verses of the the Advaitic theory in its finished form.. would become easily. down to the end of the eleventh century A. from. and the later post-Samkara period. with Rgveda the concept of the One Absolute Existent as the real substratum (Adhisthana) of the whole phenomenal To world of names and forms (namarupatmafca**prapancay and of Maya.) down to Brahmananda Saras vatl (circa eighteenth century A. liable to the charge o . the progress of philosophical thinking along the groove of Advaitic thought may be taken to have reached its culminating point in the monistic absolute boldly intuited by some Rgvedic seers in the well-known verses: Reality is the One. the demands of historical criticism would require some*attention being paid to the more prominent types. The early Vedic period. as the incomprehensible matrix of the world. and Matarisvan" *' "That one breathed. whom the wise call by many names. at least. including the epi-c and puranic ages. Yama. In this kind of study.D. the age of Samkara.). by ic its own 'power"* arpfl^ WHRT cl^ " (X-129-2). Agni.D. the early postSamkara period. windless.

However. an unmistakable foreshadowing. of thinking hidden by water. expression 'call variously' (bahudha vadanti] in the former verse from the first Mandala. this all was- which. Pursuing this line difficult to realise wojild be scarcely the accommodative significance of the it of thought. with the positive entity.V* I. in the process anachronism.little stretch of imaginaone might find in the two hymns R.ad together. x-129-3. unintentional or otherwise. was covered with the void. heat/' X. 164 and tion. indistinguishable. of vacillation. that One arose through the power of That. of nescience which is neither existent nor non-existent and described in later Advaitic works as sadasadvila**- ksana-MavarupafMna* . 129 re. to which thinking inherently tends and the many which thinking "Darkness was in the beginninginherently shuns. X. darkness. while it would be certainly difficult to miss the compromise sought to be effectuated between the original One and the originated tamos (darkness) and tucchya many through (nonexistent or void) two concepts lending themselves to equation. 129-3. with a that kind of vacillation which generally accommodations emerging from conflicts of precedes mutually impingent factors such as the One. as Sayana points out. coming into being.

it is that. pantheism and monism. samvadadhvam. In fact. in the sphere of thinking. by. dation. 'Meet together talk together (in an accommodative spirit. comprises the spirit of compromise. and perhaps. religion of itself the tiie accommodative vacillation the Rgveda was constantly manifesting in thehenotheistic exaltations of different deities.' We may be what Manu . sam vo manamsi janatam". in the verse. all through the ages. parasparabhavana mutual adjustment. tolerance. seeing how. beautiful and good. Max Muller in pointed out. so as to give and take.samhita strikes a highly significant note in the conclud- ing hymn. and considering how the Rgveda. in the course of progress towards monotheism. vak. synthesis and accommoy (the truth) alike/ It is noteworthy that the central concept of samvada in this verse. encouraging an ever-increasing stress on : forcefully reminded at this stage of one of our oldest lawgivers has said about the accommodation of satya with priya of what is true with what is agreeable. in this way. perhaps. as one of its essential components.That the iphical spirit dominating feature of of compromise was perhaps the all types of religious and philoso- thinking in the Rgvedic age is not at all difficult to maintain. kaya) thus. as opposed to vivada. speaking and doing (manas. this would be a very reasonable thesis to put forward. with its distinctive features of absorption. to live and let live) and may your mind apprehend * ^ sampratipatti samvada. as Prof. the cultural life of India has been growing. mutual regard and mutual concession. "Samgacchadhvam.

even in the case of the Some alien scholars. reserved for 'the latter part of the second lecture in connection with the evaluation of the are relevant. as . These two propositions have not to discover their lars found any encouragement at the hands of Indian schoand have been viewed with strong . giving which form the background of the Upanisads. parti- . are illogical strings of disjecta membra. in . This great maxim deserves to be amplified fully in a discourse on compromise and such amplifications. without due weight to the traditions of Indian thought. The results of this kind of study. 138.fire Manusmrti IV. Later Vedic period The age of the Upanisads. and that all the vedantic Upanisads. their thoroughness. belonging to different types of thought and different stages of development and any effort to find unity of thought in any of the vedantic Upanisads or dominating theme would be merely ploughing the sands. are found embodied in two propositions: that the fundamental part of the Upanisads is all thaumaturgy.the form in which * they are available to us. are different kinds of compromise adverted to. such as the Brhadaranyaka and the Chandogya. well-intentioned and known for have attempted to study the Upanitheir dominating theme. sads and find out earlier group of Upanisads constituting the basic Srutis on which the whole structure of the Vedanta-darsana rests.disfavour.

Deussen as one of the greatest Sankarites of the modern world. as Dr. who happens to be clothed in Kantian garb by the accident of birth. who. With a remarkably high degree of Dr.as deserve due consideration in the interpretation of an- The best and the most thorough going exposition of the philosophy of the Upanisads. rightly lays hold of the principle of accommodation. and in many. that has so far been undertaken and cient Indian texts. . Indian as well as foreign. but of many analogous phenomena in Western philosophy/' 1 An important limitation of this vedantist teachers in explaining many a clash or hitcfi in the process of vedantic thinking and points out that accommodation theory is. which has been freely and frequently used later by " the idea of accommodation becomes a key which is fitted to unlock the secrets not only of the doctrinal developments of the Upanisads. that the 1 See page ix of the author's preface English translation of Deussen's work "The Philosophy of We UpaHisads". Deussen's works would readily acclaim Dr. in the light of such aspects of the cultural traditions of India . Many Indian scholars who are sufficiently familiar with Dr. with special reference to the original texts and the traditional culture of india. Deussen has given to the world in his treatise on the philosophy of the Upanisads. Deusseri accommodative adjustments may. points have been unintentional in many cases. have carefully studied the vedantic Upanisads. Deusseii perspicacity. out.cularly by those scholars. successfully completed by any foreign scholar is what Dr.

in fact. vii. the Brhadaranyaka and the Chandogya. Brahman or In accommodative formulas of this type. while. Atman is the only reality. incomprehen-. Upanisa"Amrtam dic thought uses two brief mystical formulas channam" (Brh. the working of the accommodative spirit reality".8 others. In such formulas. I. reality. absolute reality. one may easily find the source of the compromise adopted by later Vedantists in all their explanations in which they draw a distinction between pheno. though intentional. vi. and the later Upanisads amplify this description in poetic style by means of paradoxes suggesting a negation of all empirical attributes. all the Upanisads are very particular . The earliest Upanisads. Nevertheless. sible.'xnenal or empirical reality (vyavaharika-satta) and absolute reality (paramarthika-satta). the immortal satyena 3)" (Brahman) * s veiled by the (empirical) Satyasya satyam" (Brh. 6) Such formulas are frequently employed by . II. as an attempt at a fair evaluation of them will reveal it must be remembered that they are believed to be necessary and legitimate. *6) directly conveys the incomprehensibility of Brahman." and " the reality of is r plainly discernible in applying the termsatya (reality) to the empirical world of plurality revealed by experiential knowledge as contrasted with the "reality of reality" (Satyasya satyam).Yajnavalkya and many other Upanisadic teachers. The sBrhadarariyaka text "Athata adeso neti neti" (II. A few typical instances of accommodative adjust- ments in the Upanisads may now be considered. describe Brahman as the One. iii.

to admire the farsightedness of Upanisadic philosophers in equating Brahman not merely with cit a shrewd also but with sat and ananda. however. so often repeated in later texts as well as popular parlance that it has become a common practice in Hindu name. which the human mind has formed. 132.about equating Brahman with Being (sat). cit and ananda and thereby the inveterate habit of thinking in positive terms. with remarkable unanimity. fallen into an error. the process of thought and exposition adopted by great LJpanisadic teachers like Yajnavalkya is often constrained to use positive terms like sat. The Brhadaranyaka text "Vijnanam dnandam Brahma (Brh. which we can most 1 . 1) are too well known to need any special In these two texts. In this connection* Dr. the source of the later formula Saccidananda-rupam Brahma. briefly describe by the word i' intellectualism" See p. Deussen regretfully remarks " that the philosophising spirit of mankind in India. II. III. society to use it (saccidananda) as a proper The Upanisads are all emphatic about the incomprehensibility of Brahman. In considering the accommodative process involved itself to accommodate in the idea behind the critic formula sacciddnanda. 28) and the Taittirlya text "Satyam jnanam anantam*' (Taittiriya. philosophical may pause. one can easily find amplification. The Deussen English . Consciousness (cit) and Bliss (ananda). by the way. Greece and modern times has. Ix.

(Br. idealism accommodates itself to the realistic view of the . (jyotisam philosophers describe up. xiii. the Advaita doctrine would sciousness (cit) come within the ambit of the charge of cold But Yajnavalkya and otker Upanisadic intellectualism. jyotih:(Glta. the concept of cit in the saccidananda iv..rupa-brahman. Deussen himself has repeaCJpanisadic thought. easily eft as < the light of lights. comprehends world as well as the inner nature of reality.* merged in the highest peak of advaitic synthesis. Every careful student of the sads is chief vedantic Upani- apt to be strongly impressed with the type of accommodation which has found a sufficiently prominent mode of thinking in the Upaniplace for the pantheistic sadic thought 'without abandoning the fundamental idealistic principle. iii. but at the same time maintaining that this manifold universe is in reality Brahman 1 (Sarvam khalmdam Brahma Chand. 17) svayam jyotih purusah. ) Here. and equation stands hemmed emotional aspects of reality (sat and ananda) and thus viz. If the advaitic Absolute were equated with have alone. in between the existential and saccidananda. . the whole province of tedly pointed out.10 the This criticism overlooks the fact that sat in as Dr.398405. Deussen's Philosophy of the Upanisads.9). world and presents interesting to note itself as pantheism.. the outer conman. Ill. by conceding the reality of the manifold universe. 1 It would be how the empirical category of causa- 1 C/. 1:59 162 335361. xiv.

in the advaitic sense is only Jwanmiikti and it is not a The The Katha text mmuktasca becoming something. isthat the intuitive knowledge of Atman is itself emanciStrictly speaking. original form of the doctrine of emancipation(mukti}. in its original form. on which the muktas were led' after death through a series of attractive intermediate stages to union with Brahman. The greatest monu~ . the supreme and individual souls appear in marked contrast with each other. mukti pation. 1) throws a flood of light on the manner in which the later contrast between mukti before the cessation of corporeal existence (JivanMukti) and the cessation of corporeal exisato$t and grew from the Upanisadic tence (videhamukti) accommodation of the advaitic truth of Atman being final deliverance after 9 Atman eternally mukta to the empirical way of fancying as becoming a mukta. vimucyate (V.11 introduced to remove the obscurity nature of the relation of identity between lity is felt in the- Atman and a later stage. the epic and puranir ages evolved numerous interesting compromises in the sphere of religion and philosophy. like the theory of the way of the gods (deva-yana). In the early post-Vedic stage. and this kind of compromise with empirical modes of thinking led to the formation' of. as it appeared in the earliest Qpanisads. how in vetasvatara and tic idealism and pantheism. represented by the Mahandrayana. eschatological theories. and theism emerges in a definite form and accommodates itself to the earlier types of thought &dvai- Universe.

- of accommodation and compromise. which the Glta teaches between the highest type of jfiana and the numerous . Patos. Path.samgraha) . avoidance of a revolutionary unsettlernentof 1 Heis (hen) Gk. which may be of great value. =(/. is the Bhagavad-gita. =Bridge. with their synthesis of all shifting emphasis laid alternately on true insight (jfi&na). tion in the sphere of the religion of the Rgveda could be summed up in the novel term 'Henothei&n brought 9 into vogue by Professor dative processes pattern'. . The Glta is called ment of the spirit note is a Yoga-sastra chiefly because its preponderant the ways of spiritual life.12 ' . viewed as one of the most potent of the factors contriand growth of buting to the conservation. emerge from these verses for giving and taking ( paraspara-bhavanS) . ^diverse ways of living leading most telling type of compromise. or principles . underlying certain important. continuity a Hinduism. genuine service (karma). JPanthah.) = One. similar accommo%t be described by the term PIeno~ of signifying an accommodative synthesis The to the final goal.kinds of karma which a person has to do is found Three incorporated in verses 11 to 26 in Chapter III. through If the devotion all (bhakti) *and legitimate types dedicated of com- workings of the spirit of accommodapromise. useful and legitimate types the need of compromise.=Gk.* may Max Muller.striking ideas. adherence to the established ways of the world with a view to it's orderly maintenance and healthy advancement (loka: . Skt.

works alone that men like Janaka became and works thou shouldst also do with a view to- maintaining the world/' f others as well. 341 " With this shall shall cherish you." fll% I! 3-25 act from attachment to their so too should an enlightened man actr work. so that he may maintain the order of the world. but without any attachment.20 "It is by blest. the same is done by- He up a standard and it is followed by the world. Thus ye cherish the gods.13 the minds of the ignorant and lifting them up bya healthy and feasible example in one's own setting conduct. and the godscherising one another. Bharata.'! "As ignorant men O . ye will- obtain the highest good." lfq- gq?q^|q?l% || 3. 3RcR[3 sets II 3-21 "Whatever a great man does.

" miss the In these verses. the later stages ideal of bhakti-yoga and there is a clear elevation of the it to the Advaita an equally clear endeavour to adjust doctrine of identity ideal of jnana and the Advaita and jlva (God and man). in the Hindu scriptures. who make others do should all works. ix. . with faith. a careful thinker dannot excellent Krsna has spirit accommodative device. doing so as well.sation (atma-jnana). II. a* unfa i] IV. he Let no enlightened man unsettle the their work. In this Purana. as taught The Srimad-bhagavataisthe.between the developments distinctive of compromise. typifying of the Puranic age. whenever one's mind happens the ideal of right be agitated over the collision between advaitic ideal of self-realiconduct and the trans-moral. which Sri Bhagavan in a furnished in the shape of 'selfless work to of dedication '.14 II 3-26 minds of the Himself are attached to ignorant. greatest monument of . . Attention Brahman is solicited in this connection to these two verses extract- ed from the Sriwiad-bhagavata.

10. Krsna In the former of the two extracts. the advaitic theory of jwa -being the reflection (pratibimba) of Isvara . devotion to is exalted "above the realisation of the advaitic Brahman.15 i I] VII. In the latter. .(viewed as bimbo) is used in explaining the idea that a worshipper is really worshipping himself by worshipping God. ix.

They provided Indian exegesis with highly. incorporated in the systems of Ramanuja found advocated and lastly. and they . those compromises which are by Appayyadiksita. Brahma-vadins and old Advaitins. Sarvajnatman. Prabhakara. like Suresvara Jaimini were both of them Badarayana and 52). Udayana. Anandabodha and Sri Harsa. Gaudapada and Mandanamisra. those which are found and Madhva.Vacaspati. representing the pre-Sarfekara stage in the development of Advaita during the later post-Vedic are advocated by Samkara.LECTURE The former part of II this lecture will be devoted to a brief account of the compromises which are associated with the names of Badarayana. Jaimini. elastic principles of interpretation which were all developed round the pivotal principle of thought-unity or sentence-unity N aiskarmyasiddhi. the sawianvayaoi the Brahmasutras and the eka-vakyata of the Karma-mlmamsa-sfttras . According (see to some later Advaitins p. Kumarila. endeavour to give a brief estimate part of BADARAYANA AND Jaimini are the earliest as applicable to exponents of the principles of exegesis. Vimuktatman. Madhustidana- The latter of this lecture will these compromises. the Jnana-kanda and Badarayana and systematic and authoritative JAIMINI. Padmaperiod those which . Vijnanabhiksu. pada. sarasvati and Brahmaaandasarasvatl. the Karma-kanda of the Veda.. Bhartrprapaiica > Brahmadatta.

PRAPANCAPRAVILAYA-VADA. groups of philosophers called 'pro-' pancapravilaya-vadinah and kama-pradhvainsa-vadinah arose. so that the karma itself may suitable mental process be gradually replaced by dhyana or fnana. Visistadvaita and Dvaita. g. of the Upanisads would reveal that One of those devices is the association of a suitable meditative process with some appropriate karma or karmanga. III. Badarayana and Jaimini themselves would appear to in the admissible own that respect of their philosophical convictions. Peihaps they believed philosophical thinking and the quest for truth would gain immensely by their Sutras being so composed as to admit of use by several bh&syakaras in support of Advaita. which show that in the pre-Samkara stage. Samkara on Vedantd Sutra. . M. Hiriyanaa. pp. 21. ii. Madras. to ' the establishment all of the Advaita doctrine.CXR. 109116. A careful examination many a gentle and acceptable device came to be adopted as transitional adaptations for facilitating the shifting of stress in thought and conduct from the ritualism of the Brahmanas to the Upanisadic doctrine of self-realisation.) There are references in the works of Samkara 1 Suresvara and later writers. J.17 lead were perhaps satisfied that the accommodative processes resulting from a wide use of the principles of samanvaya and eka-v&kyata by competent thinkers would eventually.. 2 Their method is a somewhat forced accommo1 2 E. a' . See Prof. Vol. I.' together with have exercised a wise reticence ways of compromise.

i. them. the. specifically ascribed to an old school of as describes Sudarsanabhatta Jaranmayavadinah. 4. and to enjoy to cloy. prapanca-pravilayavada may be embodied in a telling epigram like this: . They sought to subordinate the whole ritualistic scheme to jnana. 1 The whole spirit of. by putting forward the negative view karmathat every injunction or prohibition in the kanda is intended to keep a person engaged in a particular act so that he might eliminate the rest and avoid yielding* to impulses of various kinds and sublimate his self gradually and realise its true nature as transThis view called cending the world (nisprapanca) is found set forth and criticised prapanca-pravilaya-vada by Samkara and post-Samkara Vedantins. to do to forbear. to get at is is to forego. 1 Srutaprakasika on .18 dation between the ritualistic sections of the Veda known as karma-kanda and the Upanisads forming the jnanakanda. and it is Advaitins. " is Ay is otherwise nay." Numerous accommodative processes of the nature of adhyaropa (supposititious make-shift) and ap-avada (eventual elimination of make-shifts by outgrowing them) were advocated Advaita and came to be in the IJpanisads in teaching crystallised in post-Upanisadic Advaita in the oft-quoted dictum Thdugh it may familiarise thought with the be quite legitimate to attempt to acosmic (nisprapanca) I.

in the concluding part of the atma-vada in his Brhati. by a series of adhyaropas. the accommodation in * unobjectionable the prapanca- pravilaya theory did not find favour with the majority.Advaita bent of the early MImamsakas who would not hesitate to go to the length of suppression and p.aspect of Brahman. theory of typical of the . 256). the leading exponent of the Bhatta school. are very significant Prabhakara believes soundness of the advaitic theory of adhyasa and also in the soundness of the admonition conveyed in the Gita text " Na buddhibhedam janayed a/nanam karmasanginairi 9 in in this connection. which could {be justly very probable consequence of the practical applications of that theory in life. of Vedantins. It is clear that the " i " (Madras University edition of Brhati. and PRABHAKARA. and atman as the. chiefly on account of the obvious risk of a moral bankruptcy or chaos. were both of them well-disposed to the Advaita doctrine and give indications of their preference for that doctrine. the Tantravarttika and the Brhati. apprehended as a BHATTA KUMARILA works the SlokavSrttiBa. Prabhakara' s observations. only reality is pro. with whose name the Prabhakara school is prominently associated. Prabhakara's attitude towards the advaitic adhyasa. in their .

. who about the adjustments which should particular be effected between the advaitic ideal of . in those cases where adequate justificafound for these processes in the interests truth and in the environment of the people of Advaitic tion could be to whom that truth had to be taught. 13* See also Prof. Bhartrprathe advaitic theory are available parka's views regarding in the references found in the works of Samkara and The post-Samkara survivals of Bhartrpraviews are used by Bhaskara in his bhasya on the panca's Brahmastttras* Bhartfprapanca found handy the convenient and highly accommodative concept of differenceSuresvara. 4. who belonged to the pre-Samkara stage in the history of Advaita. N. Srinivasacharya. cum-identity (bhedabheda) which had already been introduced in philosophical thinking and proceeded to build up a monistic scheme of unity in which Brahman. i. a pre-Samkara Advaitin. lost their nerve in their allegiance to Advaita. without abandoning the reality of any of them.20 accommodation. BHARTRPRAPANCA and BRAHMADATTA. P.!. The compromise of bhed&bheda-vada adopted by Bhartrprapanca led ultimately to his secession from the acosmic form of Advaita and to the formation of a special group of bhedabheda-vadins of whom Bhaskara was the most prominent in the post-Samkara stage. The Philosophy of Bhed&lheda.Brahman- B&AHMADATTA was was very 1 For instance on Vedanta Sutras. Iiva and the world found their place as different entities. i. and II.

See Prof.21 realisation and the discipline of Karma. in so far as it could be studied in the Brahmasiddhi. M.O. Gaudapada has placed himself on the highest peak. effect the needed compromise by his dhyana-niyogavada and samuccaya-vada. Jiva originates from Brahman and gets absorbed in it at the time of liberation. the final liberation is achieved by: a co-ordination of karma with jfiana and through the contemplation of Jiva as identical with Brahman . till the end of life. Gaudapada has developed an aspect o Among the the Advaita doctrine which lent itself readily to being used as the basis of the Saiiikara Mandanamisra's exposition of the Advaita doctrine. Though Mandanainisra one of the elder contemporaries of Samkara. an Old Vedantin ". 1 . He attempted to. preserved the fundamental part of the Upanisadic Advaita and advocated some noteworthy compromises with nonadvaitic is form of Advaita. the which he of pre-Samkara compromises heritage in his work. 19. modes of thought. According to him.. pp. II. Vol. 1 pre-Samkara Advaitins. and the central teaching of the Upanisads is to be found in the injunctions requiring the constant meditation of Jiva as Brahman.R. Madras. would make it more appropriate advocates to refer to him as a pre-Samkara Advaitin. Hiriyanna's article in J. of Advaitic thought and has declared the highest truth in the Kdrika ' " Brahmadatta. GAUDAPADA outstanding and MANDANAMISRA are the most thinkers representing the Advaita doctrine as it stood before Samkara.

and points out acme of harmony. advaya- yoga. no origination. at every important stage of his exposition. and likewise. which he calls avirodha-yoga. . can be realised only in the Advaitic scheme of thought and life. himself towards bondage. he csees the need for accommodating his great intuition of Advaita with what he regards as sattarka. none release.22 11-32. nirdvandva-yoga. in his Karika." Still. Only a true Advaitin can afford to adopt and advocate the most far-reaching type of compromise without any risk to truth and any disadvantage to the ordinary world : of the verses in the concluding portion of Gaudapada's Karika are full of significance in more than one direction: Two If IV-95. avivada-yoga. none seeking in this is none none becoming released the great truth. to the how the highest requirements of rationalism. "No dissolution.samatva-yoga. sound reasoning. and adjusts himself. disciplining release .

to the requirements of Of active the pre-Samkara Vedantins who continued to be thinkers as elder contemporaries of Samkara. too high to be highest peak reached by ordinary people. Mandanamisra adopts and advocates certain valuable compromises in advaitic epistemologyy advaitic ontology and advaitic ethics. down to lower levels to giinabrahnianiht attri. two verses.fauteless absolute presupposses accommodation the expression yathdbalam (according to strength) clearly refers to the need for varying the modes of adjustment according the thinkers concerned. Namaskara to nirsays . and when the nature of the object of erroneous cognition examined. the anyatha-khydti or the viparita-khydti of the Bhattas should for all practical purposes be accepted. Mandanamisra is the most prominent. Gaudapada ways " Namaskurmo yathdbalam ". He inherited the Upanisadic tradition of Advaita along with the ideas with the" Sabdadvaita mode of Advaitic advocated by Vaiyakarana philosophers like thought.23 1ft qapFTRIcf In these spRfBRft qqpR^ |1 1V-100. associated Bhartrhari. Gaudapada indicates is how the . this theory has to be reduced inevitably to a form in which it -becomes hardly distinguishable from is . and even a great gifted soul like Gaudapada cannot stand long on this height and advaitic thought of has to get to ordinary accommodate himself of thinking and speaking. In Mandana's opinion.

in Advaitic literature as the doctrine of prasamkhyana and holds that the indirect knowledge of Brahman 9 Brahman is both the asraya and Mandana maintains what is known through arising the furnace of meditation (upasana} before the detractive and recessive elements of relation and raediacy could be removed from into the pure. authors of the Nyayamrta and of the Taranginl have . two famous Dvaita writers the necessary. prominently associated with bhdvddvaita( "ens-monism* ). he clearly accommodates himself to the prevailing theistic sentiment . not so much for the reason that he considers avidyd- dhvamsa in to be a 'real" factor. 157) and emphatically declares it to form the final and otherwise tinascertainable import of Vedantic texts. Mandana is accommodating himself to the common view that sabda tional can generate only an indirect cognition having a relaMandana's name has come to be content. where absolutely In fact. against the view that visaya of avidyd. efficient it. Herein a discerning student of Advaita may easily see Mandana's readiness to compromise with Dvaita. Here. as for the marked manner which he stresses the reality of prapanc&bh&ra in the concluding part of his Brahmasiddhi (p. which obscures the true nature of Brahman and thus has Brahman as its object (visaya) and in doing this. He definitely be reargues in favour of the view that the Jiva should garded as the locus of avidyd (nescience). from texts like tat tvam asi should pass and before it could be refined and direct realisation of the Absolute Real (Brahma-sdksatkara).24 the anirvacamya-khyati of the Advaitins.

SAMKARA. has an important place and function in the final stage of the causal scheme necessary to bring about Brahman-realisation. points out.25 brought out the significance of this accommodation by. in the form of agnihotra samuccaya and such other sacrifices or at least in the form of verdict in favour of a meditation.jndna and gives certain own type of jndna-karmain which karma. See Nyayamrta 23. satya and I. In his brilliant statement of the theory of adhyasa. the greatest of Advaita teachers has confined himself in his works to certain very legitimate types of accommodation for which one could find adequate support in the Upanisads. indefinable. 1 Brahman and prapanca. equating bhdvddvaita with what may be called abhavadvaita. anrta. 198. p. positive entity is the least objection- able solution for the difficulties felt by philosophers in bringing together the one and the many. into direct Brahman-realisation. In the concluding part of his work. 1 Again Mandana is prepared to accept Bhartrhari's sabdadvaita in so far as it does not come into conflict with the brahmddvaita for which he himself stands. in an accommodative spirit. he clearly shows how the recognition of ajndna or nescience as a beginoingless. 1. Mandana rejects Sarhkara's view about the his antithesis between karma and. Brahtnasiddhi. Cf. reality and all non-reality. . also IV. how vedantic texts may be linked with purposeful activity (pravrtti) by taking into account the pravrtti in the direction of the meditation necessary for transforming the indirect verbal cognition arising Mandana from the mahdvdkyas.

Prasna Up. Repeatedly he emphasises the idea that the world is mithyd only in the For all practical purposes sense that it is anirvacanZya. 2). as represented by all forms of knowledge within the empirical sphere tending to the achievement of the goal of para-vidyfy which has its root in the Upanisads themselves (cf. v. in life. between absolute reality (paramarutilises He effectively this and relative reality (vyavaharika-satta). upanisadic suggestion by in recognising a contrast. in Samkara's opinion. in his minor works especially.26 He realises clearly that the differences revealed in experience cannot be all reduced to nullity. purely tentative as it may be Advaitic thought. as also in his bMsyasj he has definitely indicated the limits within which accommodation to the theistic sentiment would be sufficiently warranted in Advaitic thought. The very first expression that he uses in his monumental bhasya on the Brahmasutras is a strong evidence in favour of his readiness to able to make all reason- the realist ways of thinking^ concessions Further.. the most comprehensive type of legitimate compromise with the realist and pluralist . and that they cannot be as real as Brahman or atman the reality of reality (satyasya sat yam*) spoken of in the Upanisads. The distinction between para-vidya (Brahman-realisation) and aparavidya. is. has developed this type of compromise in his works in such a way that the adverse comments usually made thika-satta) He by certain thinkers on the Sarhkarite scheme of thought might lose their force on scrutiny. the world is as important to Samkara as to anybody else.

& jivanmuktacontinue to live and re-incarnate himself in many a corporeal form through the force of his fructified karma and may attain to kaivalya either on the fall of the body in which he has come by Brahman-realisation or may don other corporeal forms till his fructified karma is may exhausted. According to Sarbkara and Suresvara. however. is not prepared to go Samkara in regard to the doctrine of jlvanmukti and would make a Brahpian-knower. reaching the grhastkasrama. strictly limited to the fall of the that sannyqsa-ftsrama is a better way of goal. namely that while karma may be given the place of greatest importance at the door of even the innermost shrine of advaitic truth. Sankara and Suresvara hold again. in this matter. karma in no sense reasonable kind of discipline the only Samkara considers should be co-oitlinated with jnana.27 ways of allow. In thinking that advaitic thought the sphere of ethical may justly accommodation which is what is implied in the sadhanacatusfay scheme. In regard to satmyosa. body in which he has come by Brahman-knowledge. functioning knowledge. Mandana. And in this way of describing a jwan- mukta. for reaching the highest highest goal. than the in society. and Mandana's chief ground is that there is full . accommodates himself more to the common run of mankind and views garhast hy a as providing a quicker method than sannyasa. Samkara has found a means of continued service in society for those who have reached the pinnacle of as far as Mandana.

735. III. in Saftkara's view. It p. in most of his in pre- works shows himself to be rather over-zealous One serving strictly the integrity of advaitic'thought. perpetuates the spirit of of his great master. p. pluralism and adjusting Advaitism wherever there is a need to do so. while the accommodative reasonableness latter. Vizianagaram Series. From Padmapada the latter extracts would be equally obvious how cavalierly uncompromising Suresvara's attitude is. 4. I! Naiskarmyasiddhi. With regard to VACASPATIMISRA.28 dedicated . as far as It may also be noted in possible. . has only to be invited to consider in this connection the following two typical extracts : w: Pancapadikd. it would be enough to say that he carries Mapdana's accommodait tiveness to the length of effecting a merger. the requirements of realism. verse 152L would be obvious from the is first of these extracts that a very reasonable accommodationist. Brhadaranyakd-vdrttika. 117.scope for having knowledge implemented by or selfless work in the life of a householder. Among Saiiikara's disciples. tinaccommodative than PADMAPADA is less The former SURESVARA.

If space and time furnished the relates to causality. causation may well be described It as forming its foundational may be said to be one of the highest of accommodative spirit in the "sphere of Advaita types to view the three theories of causality aranib ka-vada. See also II-7Q. though not a disciple as generally believed.29 this connection that Vacaspatimisra has amplified in his Bhdmatl. Mandana's epistemological attitude by clearly showing how anirvacaniya-khyati emerges from a critical review of the theories of asatkhyati. is far less unaccommodative in his attitude than the latter. . the lowest rung being the creationistic view. ' ft 11-61. the next higher step being the transformationistic view. and the the highest step being the the ladder through This verse from the Samktransfigurationistic view. deserves to be noted and remembered In> sepaiariraka this connection.&nd vivarta-vada as the three steps of structure. ' SARVAJNATMAMUNI of the 10th century. who was a close follower of Suresvara. The most striking type of accommodation which he commends to an Advaitin. bricks' of the empirical wall separating the 'reality of reality' from the world of empirical reality. which thought has to rise to the highest metaphysical peak represented by the one absolute Brahman. akhyati and any athakhyati. parindma-vdda.

the Advaita siddhi. . T CT Brahmananda's view. but a r something of the fifth variety. The doctrine of Maya as expounded by Samkara and his immediate followers is amplified as the main theme of his work by Vimuktatman. 230 and 451. of See Atmatattvaviveka.tattvaviveka. is the. treatises .. author of the Ista-siddki Mandana or accommodative than Vacaspatimisra. where he refers to Advaita. Chowkhamba edn. and this doctrine is rounded off with the view that avidya-nivrtti is neither sat nor asat&or both nor anirvacamya. In this ?/iew one may far less either . justify Udayana's accommodative concern for the vyavaharika world must have made him suppress his own Advaitic conviction. simply maintained the accomof Samkara and abandoned some of the modative level compromises Introduced by Mandana and adopted by ANANDABODHA has Vacaspati. UDAYANA as treated an Advaitin by Brahmanandasarasvati at heart and the Nyaya-Vaisesika produced by Udayana should be regarded merely as counterblasts to the Buddhist tenets of idealism and Some of Udayana's statements in his Atmanihilism. pp. find a clever way is in 'which to a an advaitic dialectician may 1 accommodate himself non-ad vaitic one.30 VIMUKTATMAN. 226-30. 1 See pp. 2 Anantakrishna Sastri's edn.

and nothing else would bear scrutiny: 1 Even Sri Harsa in Khandanakhanda-khadya when. 8. One group is headed by his RAMANUJA who is solicitous to way of monistic thinking on the one side to pluralistic realism.31 SRI HARSA'S Khandana-khanqLa-khddya is a full vindication from a polemical viewpoint of all the possi- and limits of compromise which Samkara's may allow. The crowning achievement of this group is accommodate typified in the denomination Visistadvaita which has 1 2 See Brahmdnandlya 9 p.generally necessary for ordinary people as an important cit according absolute one-ness of to Sri Harsa. anirvacanlyatva-vdda In the rationalistic sphere of enquiry. becomes very soft and pliable under the influence of the accommodative spirit which he inherited from early advaitic tradition. through the concept of anirvacanlyfltva are fully described in the Khandanabilities Advaita khanda-khadya. pacific teacher of great truths. and on the other. and points out that the discipline of bhakti is . See Siddhantabinduttka. verse . by the Advaitins are the only two admissible things. he places himself on the level of a non-combative. The inexhaustible resources which an Advaitin may command in the direction of accommodation with realist ways of thinking. with reference to the world of empirical reality. 225. to advaitic monism. In the history of Vedantic thought there are two groups of teachers who seceded from Advaita. and the as recognised 2 step leading to the advaitic goal.

showing: is headed by the a somewhat unaccommodative. In his Anandalahari. * Ibid. 5. This may be seen in the manner which what the Dvaitms call sanmukti would entitle a sanmnkta' to become absorbed into the body of His. MADHVACARYA. pp. given to Ramanuja's the whole Unity of Qod as the inner spirit.* 1 _______ iv. strongest and the Diksita himself points out. 146. viz. of non-dualism and guard the claims final state of release. in entirely shake off its leanings. Ramanuja* seeks In the dualism. boldest of India. for obvious reasons. It is easy "to see identity of the Jlva how this result would follow. . be experienced by another. ' Another group of seceders from Advaita. One's dnanda cannot. mukta-jwa and if pressed of compromise with the Advaitin's doctrine in the recognition of the further. 145 _ _____ bhasya IV. Narayana and to experience all His delights through ' indriyas. attitude. body the idea that Brahman is the inner self of the Through ' to safefiva and the material world. Ramanuja recognises the possi- bility of a Appayya As realising Brahmananda.32 been accepted as the most significant name that could be school of Vedanta. 1 this is in the direction Diksita has pointed out. which bears to Him of an individual bears to the embodied Jiva. even the Dvaita As Appayya mode of thinking cannot in favour of Advaita. Bharati Mandiram Sanskrit 6 and Madhvacarya's Brahma-s&tra- Series. would only result with Brahman. p. quickening relation that the the same universe.

MADHUSUDANA SARASVATI AND BRAHMANANDA SARASVATI are the greatest champions of Advaita dialecMadhusudana seeks to harmonise all the systems tics.) Here the 3 late Professor had proposed to add a para- graph about VlJNANABHIKSU. Only his pre-established Saiva obsessions have made him restrict this kind of accommodation to the Visistadvaita as the thought in the Srlkantha-bhasya and unwilling to extend it to the teachings of the Sribhasya. 10. forward by Sarva- I 5T gf WFcTU. .33 DIKSITA. Anandasrama edn. of thought and religion through the great accommodative device of difference in fitness off the ladder theory put ( adhikara-bheda) and rounds jfiatman. the renowned polymath of the sixteenth century. 1 p. : (Prasthanabheda. has clearly shown in his Anandalahari how the advaitic scheme of thought and discipline be accommodated completely to the visistadvaitic may scheme through the device of treating saguna-brahman intermediate purport (avantara-tatparya) of vedantic texts % and nirguna-brahman as the ultimate purport.

750). Benares. III. Achyutagranthamala edn. in his famous work called the Bhakti- rasayana. Brahmanandasarasvati mostly endorses Madhusudanasarasvati's views and develops pati. into And OT % in this connection. . 22-24.mrakara-vSda. Madhusudanasarasvatl prefers to show a high degree of accommodativeness to the views of accommodative Advaitins like Mandana and Upanisad VacasAdvaitins of the uncompromising type of Suresvara. This harmonious he it adjustment secures through the account he has given -of bhakti as the highest rasa. Madhusudanasarasvatl feels nervous. he considers perfectly legitimate to effect a compromise between the bhakti ideal as presented in the Glta and the Bhagavata with the advaitic ideal of Brahman-realisation. pp. as well as the 1 Bhagavadbhaktirasayana. Having perched himself high on the advaitic peak of. 142-4. and his thought seeks emotional comfort in (p. his service 3: the pliable he naturally presses text of the Taittirlya i. Within the sphere of the advaitic school of Vedantins. Further.34 giving vent to his bhakti impulse in the famous verse he composed at the end of the nirakara-vada section of the Advaita-siddhi..

f In this Bandana's Madhu- a himself - 255 Y (Brahmanandlya pp. In regard to some matters like jivanmukti. 4.35 further *Z^ ^ . and they should be differentiated carefully "from As John illegitimate. out. a wise suspense in forming reserve in and a wise the three the a "On compromi$e". and it is unintentional accommodation as distinguished from intentional accommodation. The quest for truth is a very complex process of thinking and most of the accommodative devices which thought itself spontaneously introduces should generally be considered legitimate and unintentional. even in cases where such accommodative devices result from all unavowed disingenuousness and self-illusion.a a ' some O f the accommodative m am <* and justification of it deserve attention. 252. 88. It would be difficult to decide which of them are wholly which wholly Morleyihas pointed opinions. pp. a wise should also be pusillanimity". from voluntary dissimulation and from indolence and It expressing them. And distinctions pointed out by Morley come under the category of intentional accommodation. pointed out here that there is a fourth distinction which Deussen has pointed out. tardiness in trying to realise them-these are the three provinces of compromise. though omitted by Morley. ada is not so accommodative as M- theories. . legitimate and So far we have been considering various instances of compromise in the history of advaitic thought.

. mise for which Mandana in estimating the is compro- responsible. after all possible effort. it may be pointed out that in adopting a reasonable compromise with the Mimamsakas by assigning to karma and upasana their due place in his scheme of Brahmanrealisation.36 exhaustion of the rationalistic resources. that the teacher of it. What would Morley say to Bhagavan Krsna's plea of loka-samgraha? Certainly he would approve of. For instance. and he would not certainly regard it as a case of voluntary dissimulation or an instance of indolence evaluating the instances described in these lectures. on the vulgar and their superstitions to pique one's self on sincerity with regard to them. if he the Gita knows everything about what contributes to individual and social well-being. in to I wish it were still be a hypocrite in this particular/' my power criticises Hume's attitude and describes it as a Morley revolting case of moral improbity. Some difficulty arises particularly in the pleas for compromise implied in the Gita theory of loKa-sathgraha and in the idea of provisional usefulness advocated by the author of the Prasthanabheda through his ladder Hume says "It is putting too great a respect theory. believes. like most of us. intentional compromise it and remember the distinction between would be useful to what may be called a courageous compromise and what may be called a timid compromise.a sweetly. reasonable.. of In pusillanimity.and soul-less cynicism. Mandana has shown a rare courage by f earlesssljr preferring to remain .

I cannot more legitimate concessions that can possibly be made whenever there is a clash between what is true and what is good and agreeable must be made. One word more. and it must be remem- satyam br&y&t.37 accommodative and Samkara ecletic type of Advaitin. Mylapore. kuryat and dhydyet. etc. . ffer : II Printed at The M. All The boundaries of compromise in his memorable dictum The interests of truth can never be wind up these lectures than by quoting again Manu's words with the two emendations which I would like to make for Irtiyat. the society as a whole matters as much as the individual concerned. Press. what is good and beautiful and helpful. L. truth must be maintained at all costs. not caring for the plaudits he might have gained by following closely. Mylapore SastrJ Kuppuswaroi MS 76 Published by Research lastitute. sacrificed to what is priya. appropriately. In the sphere of thought. are set clearly by Manu always bered that in determining what is safya and what is priya. namely. J. word and deed.


13 24 4 23 13 19 22 .INDEXES SANSKRIT QUOTATIONS Pages 3 2 22 8 22 28 3 ft ^ftffe^.

Pages 28 15 30 19 13 14 ^t I ^: 34 34 TO 9 11 29 13 9 T^R" 6.26 10 33 30' 10 22 .37 8.

34-36 16.20 .12 Udayana Rgveda Katha upanisad Karnianiimdmsdsutras \\ 16 16.9.29 26 33.8.19 14.30 3.33 Anandabodha* Anandalahari Istasiddhi 30 16.34 16.22 6.WORKS AND AUTHORS SANSKRIT Pages Advaita siddhi Appayyadiksita Atmatattvaviveka 30.4.34 628 28 Nydydmrta Padmapada Pancapddika Prabhakara Prasna upanisad Prasthdna bheda Badarayana ' 24. 1628 16.25 .36 Rumania Git a" Krsna.15.19.12-14. Bhagavan gri " Khandanctkhandakhadya 31 10.10 Jaimini Tan travarttlka Taranginl Taittirlya upanisad Naiskarmyasidd'hi 1 ^ 1617 \9 24 9.8.36 16.21-23 Gaudapada Gaudapadakarikd Chdndogya upanisad * 21.10 Brhaddranyaka upanisad Brhad&ranyaka-vdrtti'ka 28 % Brahmadatta 16.5.32*33 30 16.30 32.17 Brhatl 19 6.

35.17.27-30.25-8.oo i0 ' Vacaspatlmisra Vijnanabhiksu 3^ J^ ^ Vimuktatman VeMntasMra gankara _ Sankarabhasya Srikanthabhasya 16.34-37 Madhusudanasarasvati IA'T? Madhvacarya Manu t * Mahanarayana upamsad Yajfiavalkya Ratnanu j a 16 1 6 -^ 10 28-30 34 |^.37 76 *" SrfbMsya gri-Harsa Srutaprakasika ^ ^IA^I 3J6 -fJ v* SruW Slokau&rtttka Svetasvatara upamsad t . 1Q V Samksepasariraka Sarvajnatman ^ & Sayana Siddhantab^ndut^ka .23-25. snmat 16.IV Pages Brahmasiddhi Brahmas&tras Brahmasutrabhdsya (Madhvacarya) Brahmasutrabhasya (gankara) Brahmanandasarasvati JBrahmanandlya JBhagavadbhaktirasayana Bhartrprapanca Bhatrhari Bhagavata.

30 24.9. adhyaropa adhyasa anirvacanya anirvacaniya-khyati anirvacaniyatva anirvacaniyatva-vada anrta anyatha-khyati apara-vidya 26.34 ENGLISH Deussen Hume Hiriyanna.21 5.19 19.29.9.N.35. the Max Muller a On Compromise Philosophy of Bhedabheda. John [ 20 7.12 2.27.25 .35 Journal of Oriental Research.29 31 31 25 23 29 26 18 25 apavada abhava-dvaita avantara-tatparya avidya avidya-dhvamsa avidya-nivrtti avirodha-ybg a 33 24 24 30 22 . the Srinivasacharya.35 17. the Philosophy of the Upanisads.10.Pages Sudarsanabhatta " Suresvara 18 16. P.31 advaya-yoga advaita adhikara-bheda 33 18.36 2.17. " Motley. M 7.10 20 SUBJECT-SANSKRIT akhyati agnihotra ajfiana 29 25 25 30.21 36 17.

31 1 3 18 20.17.18 upasana eka-vakyata karman karma-kanda karmanga kamapradhvamsa.10. Janaka j aran-may a-vadinah jlva 10.Vt Pages a'vivada-yoga asat asat-khyati atma-jfiana 22 30 29 k.32 jivan-mukta iivan-mukti jnana jfiana-karma-samuccaya jnana-kanda tarn as 27 11. iz.18 tucchya devayana dvaita H 4 4 dhyana dhyana-niyoga-vada nama-rupa-atmaka-prapanca 17 17 21 3 Narayana (God) .21.18.32 atman atma-vada ananda arambha-vada Indiryas (of isvara ^ God) 29 32 ^5 24.zi.21 25 16.oo 16. nirakara-vada 32 34 23.36 17 Jo.^o 1^ 9.35 12.18 kaivalya grhastha-asrama girhasthya cit 27 27 27 9.vadinah _ 17 17.33 nirguna-brahman .

26 prapanca .37 bimba-pratibimba-bhava 15 8.25."yii nirdvandva-yoga nisprapanca nyaya-vaisesika Pages 22 18 30 5.12 -. prapanca-abhava pravrtti prasamkhyana Pfiya 25 24 25 24 5.34 24.33 * brahman brahman. 5 vivada .29.30 maya rnukta if 32 11 mukta-jiva mukti mithya yogasastra (Glta) lokasamgraha videha-rrmkti viparltakhyati vivarta-vada 26 12 ^2.31. kaya 20 20 20 5 mahavakya 25 3. saguna and nirguna brahma-vadins brahma-saksatkara brahmadvaita brahman anda 33 16 24 25 32 brahmanas ' 17 12.36 11 23 29. paraspara-bhavana para-vidya parinama-vada paramarthika-satta 26 29 8.35 bhakti bhava-advaita bheda-abheda bheda-abheda-vada bheda-abheda-vadins manas. vak.


visis tadvaita
1 7.3 1:

vedanta-darsana vyavaharika vyavaharika-satta sabda gabda-advaita

6 30


saccidananda saccidananda-rupa-brahman

33 33



^ 22
4 27 27 32 32 22
16.17 21 5

satya sad-asad-vilaksana-bhava-rupa-ajnana

sannyasa sannyasa-asrama san-mukta san-mukti samatva-yoga




absolute, attributeless absolute real, realisation of

23 24

absorption absorption in Lord's body

2.4,5,7 f 10.11,

evaluation of forced

and unintentional


legitimate to theism

8.35-37 17.18 31 7.35 8.25


with realism




28 37 34




8 30

processes reasonableness



accommodativeness acosmic

35 28.34 18



acosmic form of
dialectics 18.19.20


intuition of

post-upanisadic gankara form of secession from suppression of

21 18 21 3.31.32

upanisadic tradition of advaitic absolute conviction

23 10

30 30

doctrine of identity of


23 31 14.20.34





24 31 22 23

of thought and


accommodation with visistadvaita "

synthesis teachers, gratest of

22.33 32.33 10


of jiva as reflection of


highest peak of history of
integrity of tradition

IS L2.3.21 - 21,22

35 28
31 11.20.27




doctrine of
eclectic type of later

34 32 37
16 16 21



Ramanuja's compromise with
resources of


agreeable, the

34 28

ancient Indian texts, interpretation of anrta and satya antithesis of karma and jnana


25 25
11 11 11

eternally mukta identity of universe with intutive knowledge of

the only reality attachment without avidya jiva the locus of

19 13.14 13


the 'being benefit 24 30 5. bhaktiyoga adjusted to jfiana as highest rasa discipline of elevation of 14 34 31 14 31 important step legitimate compromise with jnana Madhusudanasarasvati and Miasyakaras 34 34 7 3 bhattas bhatta school bliss* 23 19 bondage Brahman absorption in asraya and visaya of identity of jlva with 9 22 840. 11 union with sutras Buddhist tenets of idealism and nihilism Brahma 20 30 10.XI Pages visaya of nivrtti.27.19-21. erroneous 29 29 37 31 23 .26 21 24 14.26.32 8.34 Shakti. of extra-ordinary nature Beautiful.31.37 9 2 14.14.29 causality three theories of causation cit.9 incomprehensible knower knowledge place of karma and upasana prapanca and realisation in the 27 27 realisation of 25 36 15. one-ness of clash between the true and the good cognition.24.

26.25 25 2.34.15 33 25.14 12.xii Pages indirect verbal 24.4.5ff compromise admissible ways of 17 boundaries of courageous evaluation of far-reaching type of four provinces of illegitimate legitimate limits of 37 36 11 conformity consciousness conservation of Hinduism contemplation of jiva-brahman identity continuity of Hinduism co-ordination of karma and jnana creationistic view cultural life of India distinctive features of 21 11 21 29 5 5 5 growth of cultural traditions of India cynicism dedicated work dedication devotion difference in fitness differences 7 35 28 12.35-37 22 35 2.26 .35 31 21 5 pre-Sankara spirit of timid 36 11 with empirical modes of thinking " concession legitimate 10 reasonable conciliation 37 26 2 2 9.35 2.12.

highest in Hinduism 32 33 12 12 27 . advaitic exegesis. differences in ^ 2 o Gita as yogasastra most potent factor r give and take' ^oal.*> dualism dvaita its 2 bearings towards advaita g <> 5^ ** writers dvaitins early post-vedie stage ^eclectic 1 1 economy emancipation empirical attributes negation of reality - ^ -^ i ff {7 X 2Q 3 ^ Z sphere world emotional comforts qualification ^ | 24 20 114 ^ 2Q ? j ens^monism environments epic age epistemological attitude eschatalogical theories ethical discipline ethics.xm differences. sphere of & 2 | * ~f -. minimised and adjusted Pages 7 *5 or disingenuousness dissimulation. principles of 2? 23 expediency experimental knowledge faith final state fitness. voluntary dissolution doing.

its traditions ignored by indolence.7 some scholars o.14 imagination India cultural life of cultural traditions of Indian scholars thought. the gratification.ll./ - injunction (s) ?Q"O^ 18 2 1 . emotional Pages 32 S" 5 great men sets f IS- followed by the world up a standard J^ ^3 * Greece growth of ^ * Hinduism ^ H 22 ^" 3. not compromise * f: -> 7 6.3 harmony helpful. the most potent factor in growth of e " 12: 1^ scriptures society historical criticism Hindu ^ ^ I0. unity of good.o0 hypocrite idealism idealistic principle ^ 10 ^ identity of atman and universe of God and man of jiva and brahman ^ ignorant minds unsettlement oi *J> l^f 32 15- 13. the harmonious adjustments harmonising all systems henopatism heno theism ^- 3/ ^ 1Z ** - Hinduism conservation of continuity *of Gita.XIV God.

meeting together mental process merger mimamsakas pro-advaitic bent of j .oo so o? c 2g monism monistic absolute jg 2 scheme way onotheism of thinking 20 21 c oral bankruptcy lg . principles of jlva ^ identical with brahman locus of avidya Q :^ i ^ 10 1471 ^7 origination from brahman of reflection of Brahman 24 21 i c jnana antithesis with karman 25 Kantian 7^77 zxz ^ ' 75 9? karman antithesis with jnana of discipline of ladder theory late vedic period late post-vedic period ?Q**vi 29.XV Pages insight. outgrowing man. - l. . true - 7 intellectualism interpretation. inner nature of mankind.36 1 9' liberation 'live and *^ ^ ^o let live' makeshifts.y. common run of many.33. the and the one In i7 mediacy meditation meditative process ^ - ^ 4 24 *y **. .

20 3.5.8. compromise with .2 prapanca and brahman prapanca-pravilaya theory 19 25 19 . .XVI Pages improbity -mutual adjustment cherishing concession 36 2.iu. ontology.ii ^ < pantheism phenomenal reality world philosophers philsophical _ convictions ^ I/ 20 9 ^1 . ^-f^ non-combative non-dualism non-existent non-reality nyaya-vaisesika treatises old school of advaitins one and the many one-ness of cit . early Prabhakara school oi 3. thinking philosophising pluralism realism pluralistic plurality . suspense \j j ^ 7 ' original texts pacifk 10 JJ s. spirit ^ lo polemical viewpoint post-Sankara age. stage vedantins post-vedic. advaitic and reserve in forming and expressing opinions. *l 31 ^ ^ ^ ^ ou 18 *<>.23-34 13 5 5 regard nescience nihilism non-advaitic modes.

17.20 purposeful activity puss|lanimity quest for truth if 6 ^ 2:> 35 Rarnanuja school rationalism rationalistic . Rgvedic B 9n ti 20 3 1 3 ' . - 'g reasonableness reasoning. the one relative 8 26 ' /g 3 4 8 . jiva and brahman one.36 _ release 24 f ^ f 22 revolutionary unsettlement isgvedic age ritualism transition '^ *~ | . exhausion of % brahman . ^6 35 32 * resources. sound reflection theory of br..XVII pre-gankara advaitin gG prohibition provisional usefulness Pages 16.ahman-ji va relational content *6 28. .7 ->\ |<> from Sankara age ^ankarite scheme of thoueht satya and anrta secession from advaita seers. of advaitic realist ^ 10 ways oMhinking and non-reality and the many' empirical f fJ of world. sphere reahsat lon of absolute real.

5.26 5 thinking. emergence of theistic sentiments 24. 07 2/ 36 37 27 27 supreme and individual H 29 space sphere of thought. criterion of the functioning in IS 16 o good service to soul. spirit.28 self-realisation self.XVI 11 Pages self-delusion selfless work 35 14. dedicated to society social well-being society. sphere of thought-unity time tolerance traditional culture of India traditions of Indian thought 16 2 ^ 5 / transfigurationistic view transformationistic view trans-moral truth interests of 6 29 29 z1^ -5 " quest for unaccommodative attitude uncompromising unity unity of God . inner word and deed X57 32 36 18 3o 6 11 superstitions suppositions make-shift synthesis systems of thought and religion ^ 2. sublimation of sentence-unity service.12 thamaturgy theism.

farsightedness of thought tradition 2 17 8...7. 7 8 H 1 1 21 age doctrine teachers. Ramanuja -school of vedantic texts import of intermediate purport of ultimate purport of thinking.. philosophers.11 philosophy of poetic style in vedantic upanisadic accommodation advaita .26 age of central teaching of earliest later 6 21 H 8.10 9 8.31 6..17.25..10 23 vaiyakarana philosophers vedanta. world body of God healthy advancement of identical with atman manifold orderly maintenance of realistic view of upanisad reality (s) 16 32 32 12 11 10 12. thought 23 32 25 24 33 33 7.XIX Pages of sentence universe.10 *19 ' upanisads vedantins ' advaitic school of pre-Sankara vedantists later 34 23 7 8 * .13 of 10 10 6.

vyavaharika transcending the worship of God equal to worship of self .14 20.2. 1.31 18 15 15 of empirical reality.22 32 work (s) (karman) practical purposes world (see also universe) body of God important for all 26 30. the m well-bein^r. dedicated and selfless 4 36 36 28 13.3 meaning of the scheme of name 32 33 void vulgar.XX Pages vedlc period visistadvaita. . individual and social work.

PUBLICATION Rs.. I . _ ... 600 8 3 Dhvanyaloka Uddyota I .600 Institute. 5. . The Kuppuswami Sastri V 8.. 2 The Journal of Oriental Annual Subscription Research. . Vibhrama Vivcka of Mandana Misra Vlnavasavadatta .. .... Highways Byways of . 1. The Kuppuswami Sastri Eesearch Sanskrit College. . II Part I 2 History ofrGrammaticalTheories in Tamil 6. Mylapore.. 12 Q 2. lume and - Commemoration .. Madras . A.. Criticism in Sanskrit 9.. 1 Q Q 4... Do. 7... Tolkappiyam Vol..... Vol. Literary . p. 3... -..

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