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# A&AE 251 Class 14 9/27/02

K Parasite

K Parasite

## Induced drag coefficient

K Compressibility

K Predicting

total drag

K With

CD p =

components

D p = C D p qS

KA

## means to compare drag of different aircraft

f e = C D p S ref

fe =

Dp q

## MD-80 Drag - Wing

C (CD )w = K wQwS f
p w

S wet w

K Parasite

ref

drag coefficient

( f e )w = C D p Sref

( )w

K Flat

## MD-80 Drag - Fuselage

C (CD ) f = K f Q f S f
p f

S wet f

K Parasite

ref

drag coefficient

( f e ) f = CD p Sref

( )f

K Flat

## MD-80 Parasite Drag Build-up

Component Wing Fuselage Horizontal Tail Vertical Tail Nacelles Pylons Total fe [ft2] CDp

## MD-80 Drag - Miscellaneous

K MD-80
n n n

aircraft

Flight conditions
V = 750 ft/s M = 0.76 h = 32,000 ft Re/l = 2.0254106 ft-1 = 8.270410-4 sl/ft3 a = 986.22 ft/s

Atmosphere
n n n

K Miscellaneous

drag

coefficient, CDmisc

K Parasite

## Parasite Drag Due to Lift

K Experimentally,

## CDp varies with CL2

2

CL 2 CD = CD p + kCL + + CDmisc AR
K Terms

## k and combined into Oswald Efficiency Factor, e

CL2 CD = CD p + + C Dmisc ARe
generally, 0.75 < e < 0.85

K

## Weight and geometry

W = 140,000 lb S = 1270 ft2 AR = 9.62 e = 0.8 (estimated)

Flight conditions
V = 750 ft/s = 0.76 h = 32,000 ft = 8.270410-4 sl/ft3 a = 986.22 ft/s

Lift coefficient, CL

## Induced drag coefficient, CDi

10

Compressibility Drag
K Factor

## in transonic (and faster) flight regime

Flow passing a body can be locally supersonic Supersonic bubble forms on airfoils

11

## Drag Divergence Mach Number

K Compressibility

(CD )c

airfoils

0 0 0.5 1 1.5

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Wing Sweep
KA

## means to increase MDD of the wing K Sweep angle, c/4

c/4

MT
simple estimator for wing MDD

M0

MN

(M DD )swept wing =

(M DD )airfoil
cos c 4

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K Difficult

## to predict CDc (methods beyond 251) K Select airfoil and sweep

speed required additional complexity and weight
K Jet

## MD-80 Drag - Compressibility Drag

K

14

Geometry
= 24.5 wing t/c = 0.11

Flight conditions
V = 750 ft/s M = 0.76 h = 32,000 ft = 8.270410-4 sl/ft3 a = 986.22 ft/s
K

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K Total

## drag coefficient C D = C D p + C Di + C Dmisc + C Dc

KiQi C f i S weti S ref CL2 + + C Dmisc + C Dc ARe

CD =
i