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Igor Kokcharov and Anatolii Lepikhin
Welding is a method of joining two parts by melting and/or pressing them together. Welds are permanent joints of metals (iron, steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys) or plastic materials. Aluminum and steel cannot be melted together since they have different melting points (temperatures).
There are the following types of welds: A. butt-weld B. corner weld C. T-weld D. lap weld
Static and fatigue strength is highest for a lap-weld in comparison with other joints from the list. n forge welding, A, for steel chain manufacturing, two parts are heated and then hammered together. Gas welding, B, uses an oxy-acetylene flame to
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heat the metal and a rod of metallic filler material. In electric-arc welding, C the filler rod forms one electrode and the metal itself another. Electric current passes across the gap between the electrodes by arcing or sparking and melts the surfaces together. The electric current (ac or dc, alternating current or direct current) is stable with an amperage of 150 - 500 Amperes. Industrial power sources usually work with voltages between 22 - 36 Volts. Contrary to gas welding, electric-arc welding is used for thick pieces of metal and high temperature. If an electric current passes through two metal surfaces in close contact the temperature rises and melts the surfaces together known as spot welding or seam welding, D. This method is used in mass production.
There are the following types of butt-welds: A. without a gap B. with a gap C. with one-sided bevel D. with two-sided bevel A butt-weld without a gap is used if there is a guarantee of full melting. A butt-weld with a gap is used for thin-walled structures. Edge preparation guarantees full melting and improved quality of the joint. There are Y-, U- and X-shaped edge preparation. U-shaped edge preparation is used instead of X-shaped edge preparation for thick parts if it is not possible to weld from two sides. Joints can be welded in a single pass or by few passes.
Weld joining of thick tubes also involves edge preparation, B in contrary to thin-walled tubes, A. Additional casing, C can be used. Welds with a В«smoothВ» transition correspond to a stronger structure. A great deal of skill is required to produce a reliable weld.
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Arc heat is expended during the melting of metal electrodes as it is in the heating of base parts. Approximate values of arc heat expended in shielded metal-arc welding: A. Dissipation into the neighboring environment - 20% B. Transition with molten drops - 26% C. Vaporization of electrode metal - 24% D. Absorption by base metal - 30%
Mechanical properties are directly related to the material structure of weld and base metal. Weld metal is comprised of the metals of electrode and molten edges of base parts. High temperature affects the structure of base metal. Grain size enlarges at boundaries of the weld joint - in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Large grains have relatively poor mechanical properties. Outside the HAZ grain size is the same as in the base metal. In molten weld metal the grains grow from colder parts of base metal.
Lower amounts of molten metal correspond to lower heat and smaller HAZ. HAZ is smaller for electron beam welding: A. Arc welding, butt-joint B. Electron beam welding, butt-joint C. Multi-layer arc welding, butt-joint
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The welded specimen is tested until a crack first starts. Gas welding. There are special tests for weld joints.kokch.html# D. The hardness is lower in the weld. The weld is stronger if it lies for a long time before a test. Increase in strength corresponds to decrease in ductility (elongation is a measure of ductility).kts. Fast cooling. could result in strength increase.8 WELDS http://www. Mechanical properties of a high-strength steel weld depend on carbon content in the material.ru/me/t8/index. build-up weld For steel welds mechanical properties are usually highest at the weld. similar to quenching. 4 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increase with higher cooling rate.
html# A large angle a characterizes the ductility of the weld joint.kokch.8 WELDS http://www. o Passing through welds. inner forces meet obstacles on their path. lines cannot bend sharply. The force lines bend smoothly as they pass through the welds. They concentrate at the ends of weld. There are welded joints for which the angle could reach 180 .kts.ru/me/t8/index. 5 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .
There is stress concentration in corners.html# The figure shows a stress profile in the butt-weld.ru/me/t8/index.kokch.kts.8 WELDS http://www. Stress in the wider central section of weld doesn't exceed the nominal value. 6 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .
Stress concentration is higher if rigidities of connected parts are different. not inside geometry of the weld. In order to fulfill these requirements.kts.html# This stress pattern is typical for a welded joint. A large fraction of inner force goes through the end nugget in the row.8 WELDS http://www. Stress is higher in the beginning of the short weld. The numbers indicate approximate values of the parameter. Fatigue strength of a machined joint is higher than the first one. Sum of the area (force) under the curve must be equal to the sum of the area under the line corresponding to nominal value. the smaller the stress concentration factor.kokch. Nominal shear stress is twice as large as the shorter welds. a special cutting operation is made. The larger the angle q. Stress concentration depends on the surface shape.ru/me/t8/index. 7 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .
kts.html# 8 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .8 WELDS http://www.kokch.ru/me/t8/index.
undercutting is caused by high amperage B.8 WELDS http://www. lack of fusion is caused by low amperage and improper edge preparation E.ru/me/t8/index.kts. slag included in bead is caused by low amperage and short arc D. s The quality of weld depends on many factors: A. The quality of manual welding is usually less than that for other methods.kokch. 9 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .56 defects / 10 meters. Some imperfections that are not dangerous: A. porosity is caused by fast travel or dirty material surfaces C. Lack of fusion.html# Stress concentration can be evaluated by stress concentration factor a which is equal to the ratio of maximum and nominal stresses. D is the sharpest and the most dangerous defect. Electroslag welding: 0. overlap is caused by electrode shaking Surface defects perpendicular to tensile force are usually more dangerous than an inner defect of the same size.
Residual stresses and cracking are smaller in this situation. Electric arc manual welding: 35 defects / 10 meters. C.kts. Surface damage: small droplets and arc strike (electrode touch) Cleaning the weld area prior ro welding improves the fusion of weld and base parts.html# B. Narrow weld at underside Incomplete penetration means that tensile force lines meet obstacles on their path.5 defects / 10 meters. Incomplete penetration B. 10 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . Automated welding under flux: 2. The operation can guard against incomplete fusion. Cracking: toe. transverse. Curved weld D. Undercutting and underfilling D.kokch. A surface defect E in the heat-affected zone can be considered the most dangerous defect in the Tee-joint. A.ru/me/t8/index. and underbead cracks B. Better melting takes place if there is a gap between the parts of Tee-weld. Other defects from the list do not cause high stress concentration. A. The second instance is poor for heavy welded construction. longitudinal. Incomplete fusion C. causing high stress concentration.8 WELDS http://www. Residual tensile stresses in the vertical plate is less than in the first instance. showing lack of ductility through the thickness of the material. B. Excess metal handing C.
Tensile stress in a weld is compensated by compressive stress in base metal. Uniform weld is preferential B.8 WELDS http://www.ru/me/t8/index. High pressure or low speed C.kokch.html# Friction welding of steel bars. A. The depth of the defect is more important than the length. 11 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . The bars are rotated relative to each other and squeezed together. Unhomogenous heating causes local thermal expansion of metals. Low pressure or high speed Two defects can be considered as one if the distance between them is on the order of it's own size. Residual stress is a tensile stress in the center of a weld. This is reflected in residual stress after cooling.kts.
During welding.ru/me/t8/index. If a welder 12 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .8 WELDS http://www.kts.kokch. edges move relative to each other.html# Weld metal is squeezed as it cools. Residual stress results in shrinkage of the structure. The choice of welding sequence affects the distortion of the welded structure. mostly perpendicular to the welding direction.
The angle b is small for small weld depths. the distortion is smaller.kokch.kts.8 WELDS http://www. If a weld is below the neutral axis the shape is concave up. 13 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .html# uses opposite directions.ru/me/t8/index. If a weld is over the neutral axis the shape is concave down. The angle is not too large if the weld depth is equal to the thickness of the plate.
8 WELDS http://www.ru/me/t8/index. it decreases as thickness increases.kokch. The structures are shown in order of increasing rigidity. For thin plates the displacement caused by residual stress is rather large.html# A similar effect can be observed in a tee-joint. Residual stress is at a maximum for a rigid structure with a large number of welds and with closed loops.kts. 14 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .
Strength of a welded joint depends on weld geometry and strength of materials. The throat of a fillet is a measure of the weld size. The minimum cross section of a weld is considered in strength calculations. Critical force P for a lap joint using a 45 degree filet weld 15 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .kokch.ru/me/t8/index. Throat is the distance from the root to the surface of a fillet weld.kts.8 WELDS http://www. There are annealing procedures that can reduce residual stress to zero.html# The residual stress decreases as annealing temperature increases. Throat a is at a minimum.
The second example is three times stronger than the first. it's weld joint can have a brittle fracture mechanism: smaller critical stress at low temperature. Usually the temperature of brittle- 16 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . not tensile strength.8 WELDS http://www. Strength of nugget increases with thickness. allowable Bending stress is small if moment of inertia of the weld cross-section is large. Build-up welds are often produced to increase wear resistance.html# depends on allowable shear stress for the weld material t .ru/me/t8/index. Contrary to uniform low-carbon steel plate. The tensile strength of a butt-joint is higher for the case with low stress concentration.kts.kokch. The moment depends on the cross sectional area and it's distance from the neutral axis shown in the figure. The nugget is stronger under shear than in tension. Spot resistance welding.
the critical value of stress intensity factor depends on test temperature. Annealing increases the ductility of materials and prevents brittle fracture. ranging from -100 C to -40 C.8 WELDS http://www.kokch. lower limits are equivalent. weld and heat-affected zone are similar. The characteristic of ductile fracture (upper limit) is usually smaller in the welded zone. 17 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .html# ductile transition is below zero.kts. Presence of oxygen in weld material affects the embrittlement of the material. o o Crack resistance characteristic . Usually the brittle fracture for base metal.ru/me/t8/index. High oxygen content corresponds to embrittlement (relatively high transition temperature).
ru/me/t8/index.8 WELDS http://www.kts.kokch.html# 18 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .
kts.ru/me/t8/index. [cycles]. Fatigue is characterized by fatigue strength s .html# Fatigue strength is the strength of material under cyclic loading. [MPa]. During the initial cycles a notched ductile steel specimen can sustain stress exceeding the ultimate tensile stress. 19 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . 5 The figure shows approximate values of fatigue strength for carbon steel welded joints. A machined weld demonstrates greater fatigue strength.kokch. Geometry of weld affects the fatigue strength. The numbers shows percentage of fatigue strength of a uniform plate under tension. It has unit of stress. Fatigue strength at N=10 of notched specimen is usually lower than the unnotched. Fatigue strength is usually two or more times less than ultimate tensile strength. The fatigue strength varies over a wide range.8 WELDS http://www. [MPa] and fatigue life N. R is R cycle parameter. equal to the ratio of minimum and maximum stress.
Initial manufacturing defects in welds decrease fatigue strength. The critical stress is sufficiently smaller than the static one. For large values of s the parameter does not affect the fatigue life of the joint. There are two main mechanisms of fatigue crack growth: I for small weld sizes s and II for large s.kts.html# Fatigue cracks can start from all defects. 20 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .8 WELDS http://www.kokch.ru/me/t8/index. Lack of fusion on the surface is a case where the fatigue crack grows fastest. but only one crack becomes dominate and results in failure.
Imperfections such as offset d decreases fatigue strength of butt-welds. fatigue crack is initiated faster for a weld with an offset. It creates high stress concentration.ru/me/t8/index.html# A large angle q corresponds to high fatigue strength. 21 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .kts. The effect of stress increase is higher for fatigue strength than for tensile strength.8 WELDS http://www.kokch.
html# Fatigue strength decreases for greater cross-section due to larger number of surface defects and lower ability to deform plastically.ru/me/t8/index. 22 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . Loading with negative cycle parameter R leads to increased local plastic deformation and faster crack initiation.kokch. Fatigue strength is lower at negative cycle parameter R.8 WELDS http://www.kts.
3) corrosion fatigue: a crack propagated by joint action of corrosion (local embrittlement) and cyclic loading.kokch. usually occurring within a second.html# There are three basic fractures connected with welded structures: 1) brittle fracture: fast crack propagated from a welding defect into a heat-affected zone. 23 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .ru/me/t8/index. 2) fatigue fracture: fatigue crack growing slowly from welding defects under cyclic loading.kts.8 WELDS http://www.
kts. For wider welds there is a higher probability of weld defects and fatigue cracks.ru/me/t8/index. Hot cracks are usually curved and open. The strongest welded structures have the smallest concentration of welding defects and residual stress in the most highly loaded zones. the trajectory of a fatigue crack can be curved. Cold cracks are usually straight. 24 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . Scale effect.kokch.html# For complex structures.8 WELDS http://www. A fatigue crack initiates from or tends to zones of maximum tensile stress. C. Some welding defects can be observed at the weld surface. Lamellar cracks are perpendicular to the thick plate surface. Defects in welds have different geometry and location: A. Fatigue life decreases with weld size increase. B.
8 WELDS http://www.2%C. The more rigid a welded structure. To form a defect-free tee-joint it is better to use similar thickness of welded parts. Poor weldability results in hot cracking.html# Weldability is the ability of materials (or structures) to form a strong defect-free weld.kokch.kts. cold-rolled Stainless steel Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 Ductile iron The melting points of aluminum alloy and steel differ by more than 500 degrees Celsius. 25 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . cold cracking or lack of fusion. The metals cannot be melted together.ru/me/t8/index. the more susceptible to hot cracking. Weldability depends on materials. Preliminary heating of base parts (preheating) decreases hot cracking. This list is in order of decreasing weldability: Steel 0. An all-around welding of two massive (rigid) parts results in hot cracking. The specimens are shown in increasing order for susceptibility to hot cracking and decreasing order of weldability. The best weldability can be obtained in the gravity position.
html# 26 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .ru/me/t8/index.kts.kokch.8 WELDS http://www.
8 WELDS http://www.html# 27 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .kokch.kts.ru/me/t8/index.
Tension of a machined specimen for studying susceptibility to lamellar cracking. This test helps to estimate susceptibility to hot cracking. Don't make butt-weld intersections. 2.kokch. Keep welds away from zones of high stress concentration.kts. C. Keep welds away from surfaces to be machined. 3.html# 1.8 WELDS http://www. Hot cracking in the new weld is under investigation.The implant method for studying weldability and determining susceptibility to cold cracking. 28 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . B. We mention a few of them here: A. There are some simple rules how to design a reliable welded structure.ru/me/t8/index. Y-groove restrain cracking test for heavy plates with a new weld in the center.
8 WELDS http://www. Don't use sharp rigidity transition in tensile 29 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . F. Choose proper weld size.ru/me/t8/index. Avoid gaps.html# D.kokch.kts. Place vertical walls where force is applied. E. G.
Vol.Composite Materials 30 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM . and T. Mechanical Properties 4. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.. Modern Welding Technology. J. T. New York : Butterworths.B.: Prentice-Hall. Welds 9. 1979. 1987. 1983. 6: Welding. 9th ed.ru/me/t8/index. Englewood Cliffs. Fracure Mechanics 3. Material Science 8. Theory of Elasticity 6.8 WELDS http://www.H. Ohio: American Society for Metals.kokch. Kalpakjian S. Spence. Strength of Materials 5. Cary. and Soldering. N. Theme Theme Theme Theme Theme Theme Theme Theme Theme 1..J. Structural Safety 7.F. 3 vols. H.G. Maiami: American Welding Society. Welding Handbook 8th ed.kts. Stress Concentration 2. Brazing. Manufacturing Engineering And Technology. 1989. Metals Handbook. Gray.. 1975. North Rational Welding Design.html# flange. Metals Park.
ru/me/t8/index.kokch.8 WELDS http://www.kts. Finite Element Analysis _____________________ 2011______________________ /html> 31 of 31 6/5/2012 11:36 PM .html# Theme 10.
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