MASTER PLAN for Orissa

To develop the Sacred Buddhist sites as a Tourist circuit

DESIGN REPORT

Kiran Keswani

kiranmkeswani@gmail.com Bangalore, INDIA mob : 99169-02049

Design Report commissioned by CRISIL Infrastructure Advisory Group Hyderabad as part of the Master Plan for the Department of Tourism Govt. of Orissa

CONTENTS
page page

Architectural Principles for the Buddhist Circuit Buddhist Circuit Development Plan for Orissa Dhauli & its environs Dhauli development Plan Peace Park & Amphitheatre Plan Elements to be used in the Peace Park Meditation Path Spiritual Maze & Lotus Pond Buddha Statue and Art & Sculpture Amphitheatre Museum & Vipassana Centre & Jataka tale dep. Nature Trail Along the trail on Dhauli hill Entrance Plaza to Peace Park Riverside Development Tourist Cottages at Dhauli Ratnagiri & its environs Ratnagiri Development Plan Buddha & Bodhi tree landscape and Display systems Zen Garden proposed at Ratnagiri Udayagiri & its environs Udayagiri Development Plan Orissan Crafts village & Campsite at Udayagiri Lalitagiri & its environs Lalitagiri development Plan Sculptors’ Village & Site replica at Lalitagiri

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Deer Park at Lalitagiri Langudi & its environs Langudi development plan Site Artefact facility at Langudi Relocation of a few existing buildings along the circuit Landscape Design for the Buddhist sites Landscape design Principles Landscape details Stone in Landscape Details for Accessways to the Buddhist sites Lighting details Lighting effects Existing Built-environment along the circuit Understanding the Local materials Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts Design of Gateways at entry to the Circuit Entrance Gateways to the Buddhist sites Entrance Plazas – typical plans Wayside amenity Proposed Bazaar at NH5 between Cuttack & Chandikhol Approach Roads 3-Star hotel and Museum of Buddhism Signage Orissan Art in the Tourist Circuit

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

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ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES for the Buddhist Circuit

The basic design concept underlying the Orissa Buddhist Circuit is a natural integration of modern facilities into the existing historic fabric and developing an design aesthetic that takes its inspiration from the prevalent Vernacular architecture of Orissa.

The tourist facilities such as Orientation Centers and Museums will be designed to harmonise with the physical and environmental setting of Jajpur & Khurda districts, where the archaelogical sites are located. The use of local building materials and construction techniques is recommended. This will involve also a natural participation from the local community in the building activity. It will generate a sense of belonging since the new development will merge beautifully with the existing built-environment. Within the new structures, the design of interiors, furniture, furnishings and graphics will utilize and propogate local craft traditions.

Most of the Indian cities now have buildings that are built with brick walls, plastered with cement concrete and finished with paint, roofs that are RCC slabs. We have therefore, streets and urban spaces that differ in character from our historic towns and cities. Towns that have developed around temples and Buddhist monasteries still have winding streets and open spaces with a tree as the focal point. In Bhubaneswar, Konark temple is built entirely in stone. The Buddhist sites of Ratnagiri, Udayagiri & Lalitagiri and others show remnants of stone & brick construction.

It is recommended that a new architectural vocabulary be developed that uses stone and also uses concrete so that an economic and aesthetic solution becomes available for the Buddhist circuit. This will require research into an understanding of local materials, knowing the existing built environment, establishing an Institute for the Revival of Traditional Building Arts such as lime plaster, stone masonry, sloping tiled roofs and so on; setting up of Brick kilns that make good quality bricks: and initiating Training Programs for Stone masonry construction for masons, architects & engineers.

General Principles • The new structures must be aesthetically pleasing, functional buildings that complement the ancient structures and provide a visual and cultural continuity. • Wherever possible, only low-rise structures will be used that do not disturb the ambience of the rural setting • The archaelogical monuments are visible today only in part and not in whole. They do not stand in grandeur as they once did in the past. The new constructions must therefore be simple forms that do not call attention to themselves but blend with the surrounding landscape so that the Buddhist sites still stand out as the more important between the old and the new. • Inspiration for the new architectural forms may come from Buddhist architecture. However, it is recommended that no attempt be made to copy the old monuments.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Way-side eating joint CHANDIKHOL

NH-5 Gateway at Bhubaneswar Museum of Buddhism 6 Two ‘Wayside amenities’ along NH-5 Way-side Two ‘Wayside amenities’ along NH-5A Expressway eating joint Rural Tourist Resort at Lalitgiri village Two ‘Wayside eating joints’ between NH-5 turning & the Langudi site 6 One 3-Star hotel along NH-5A 8 Budget hotel Three Budget hotels Bazaar on NH-5 between Cuttack & Chandikhol River Kelua Proposed Exhibition Pavilion on NH-5 close to Cuttack Langudi 9 Bazaar Highway Plaza

4

Way-side amentiy 10 km

River Brahmani

11
Highway Plaza 19 km

Udayagiri
Way-side amentiy

Ratnagiri
11 km

3 3 4
River Birupa CUTTACK Exhibition Pavilion

Way-side amentiy

8
Lalitagiri
Way-side amentiy Budget hotel

3-Star hotel

7

5

Rural Tourist Resort

NH-5A Expressway

10

2
Budget hotel

Museum of Buddhism

8
Buddhist Circuit Development Plan for Orissa
4

BHUBANESWAR

Dhauli

1

Gateway at Bhubaneswar

DHAULI & its environs

Stupa of ‘Peace Pagoda’

Buddhist monastery prayer hall

Steps leading to ‘Peace Pagoda’

Shiva Temple dedicated to Lord ‘Dhavaleswara’ beside the Peace Pagoda

Ashoka’s Rock-cut edicts

5

Dhauli Development Plan
Zone of Peace Ashtamarga Meditation Path Spiritual Maze Other natural features

Water Zone

Nature Zone

Display Zone Amphitheatre Museum Entrance Plaza Sound & Light show
Prayer hall

Peace Pagoda

Art Zone Zone of Learning Zone of Peace

Zone of Learning Orientation Centre Jataka tale depiction Vipassana Centre

Accomodation

Entrance Plaza

Nature Zone Nature trail Perennial garden Hamlets
Display Zone

Art Zone Sculpture Garden Water Zone Riverside Restaurant Cycling along River Daya Row Boating 6

Riverfront development

Peace Park & Amphitheatre Plan

RIVER

Cycle Path

Entrance Plaza

Dhauli Bazaar

Tourist Cottages

Fields

7

Elements
to be used in

The Peace Park design is based on the principles of Japanese landscape where Buddhist thought is reflected , the “permanent impermanence“ of life

the Peace Park
at Dhauli • Water • Stone • Landform • Planting Design

Japanese landscape design

influenced by • religious beliefs • symbolism

Garden for Meditation . . .

• the Lotus Pond at the entry to the meditation path
• the water pond with the Buddha statue • water basin fountains along the pathway near the amphitheatre • along the meditation path, little stone or wooden bridges to cross over a rock outcrop

through which the purpose & meaning of life was revealed

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Meditation Path
Every courtyard will be a “Space for Contemplation” to reflect upon an aspect of the eight-fold path laid out by Siddartha Gautama. As one enters each courtyard, there will be a different experience of nature, one may be a Fern Court, another a Palm Court . . .

Courtyard of “Right Intention”

Sketch Layout of Meditation Path within the Peace Park

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Spiritual Maze

Lotus Pond
Buddhapadda in stone

Maze of hedge & wall with the auspicious symbols of Buddhism

the Lotus Pond is the beginning of the meditation path. 10

Buddha Statue & Pond Art & Sculpture

The meditation path takes a visitor along the eight courtyards and finally leads to the statue of the Buddha through a water pond. One walks across rock steps over the water to pay one’s respects.
Way to Meditation Path

Art as the sacred expression of religion is best exemplified in Buddhist art and architecture. For the sculptures, local stone such as Khondalite i.e. Balipathara or Kandapathara may be used. Also, Chlorite or Mugguni Pathara from Nilgiri, undivided Balasore district may be used. It is recommended that the art works in the Peace Park such as the mural at the entrance plaza and others use indigenous colours such as yellow of turmeric, white of shells, black of lamp black, red of haritala and green from leaves. 11

Plan showing location of Buddha statue in Peace Park

The Amphitheatre

The symbolism of the wheel is implied within the plan of the amphitheatre here, just as a Stupa plan derives its meaning from the wheel The wheel takes two forms in Buddhism : the wheel of Becoming (samsara chakra) and the wheel of the Dharma (dharma chakra)
Plan of the Stupa at Nagarjunakonda

Stone archway leading to the toilets below the amphitheatre

• Votive Stupas as part of the amphitheatre wall
• The Spectators see the Peace Pagoda as backdrop • RCC structure with stone masonry & stone steps • Slope is 20 degrees to achieve good sightlines • The flow of people into & out of seating area is well planned

Plan of amphitheatre at Dhauli

The Amphitheatre at Dhauli will be nestled in the hillside similar to the one in the image here.

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Museum

Vipassana Centre

The Museum will be housed beneath the Amphitheatre and will depict the story of King Ashoka’s entry into Buddhism. It will focus on Peace and the message of the Buddha.

Road Stone detailing for tourist development project

Murals by artists from Raghurajpur depicting Jataka tales along the steps

Jataka Tale depiction
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Nature Trail

the Herb garden Sitting areas /huts Benches Hammocks Birdshop Retreats Birdfeeders Green field home Perennial garden

Layout showing the Nature walk that begins at the Orientation Centre and winds up the hill towards the Panth Niwas

14

Along the trail on Dhauli hill

Elevation of Birdshop

Viewing deck on tree

Retreat

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Entrance Plaza to Peace Park

View of Point of entry into Peace Park

View of the Entrance Plaza, with amphitheatre in the background. The path on the right leads to the Peace Park and the Meditation Path Mural on the wall of the amphitheatre symbolising the rolling of the wheel being equivalent to the Buddha’s walking through the worlds.

Proposed design for toilet block near the Peace Pagoda Plan of Entrance Plaza

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Riverside Development

Wooden bridges & jetties

Plan of Dhauli hill showing the cycle path along the River Daya, the parking facility for buses before the entry to the Rock-edict. The layout shows the location of the tourist cottages for visitors to Dhauli.

Rest areas near the river

Section through the Riverside restaurant at Dhauli showing decks & the landscape

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Tourist Cottages at Dhauli

The Cottage complex consists of 24 double rooms facing the green fields on one side and the Shanti Stupa on the other. Two rooms are clubbed to make one unit with a sloping roof. The residential rooms with attached bath open out into a little terrace. One enters through a wide front verandah.

The interiors will be designed in a simple style. The rooms will have fabrics and crafts that are locally available such as patachitra wall hangings, stone sculptures, curtains made of Sambhalpur Ikat and so on.
Layout Plan showing cottages at Dhauli

Detail Plan of Cottage units

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RATNAGIRI & its environs

Entrance to monastery

Brick & Stone doorway

Votive Stupas

Sculpture at Ratnagiri

Open space outside the monastery

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Entrance Plaza Information centre Restaurant Crafts Bazaar Parking Site Miniature Replica Zen Garden Bodhi tree in white pebbles Dhyanavanam

7
Votive stupas

6 8

9
Dhyana vanam

1 4 3 2

5

Ratnagiri Development Plan

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Buddha meditating under Bodhi tree Display systems within the Proposed Archaelogical Museums

Me dit ati on a rea

Plan of Bodhi tree landscape

Dhyanam vanam

Existing Archaeological museum at Ratnagiri

The Buddha meditating under the Bodhi tree (Peepal tree) will be symbolised at Ratnagiri as part of the landscape. The tree will be created with white pebbles/stone pieces on the hillside and will be visible as one approaches the archaelogical site of Ratnagiri. The creation in white stone will be similar to the one shown in the image above. The finishing will be done as shown in the image on the right.

21

Zen garden

proposed at Ratnagiri

Rocks Sand
Plan of Zen Garden

•Small & enclosed •Inward-looking •Simple materials

Sand Raked sand, particularly white raked sand (shirakawasuna) is a feature of many Japanese gardens & will be used here in the proposed Zen garden Bridges Bridges can be built of either wood or stone. In some instances, the bridge is actually part of a dry landscape, spanning only a sand or gravel stream. The bridges could be interpreted as symbolizing the passage between this world and the next, and in a Zen context they can represent the journey toward enlightenment. Flowers The lotus is a symbol of Buddhist enlightenment. In Japanese zen gardens water-loving flowers such as the iris, the water lily, and the lotus are used.

• Rocks like rugged islands in the waves of an ocean • Ripples of sand flow as patterns of energy • The only vegetation is some moss around stones 22

UDAYAGIRI & its environs
Miniature Chaitya hall

Concept Plan

Courtyard

Main entrance

Gallery 3

Museum shop

Workshop

Gallery 2

Courtyard

Gallery 1

Map showing location of stupas and monastery at Udayagiri

Colonnade

Source : Archaelogical Survey of India, Orissa

Proposed Site Archaeological Museum & Miniature Chaitya hall

Location proposed for Tourist Entrance Plaza

Stupa overlooking the beautiful hillside

23

HILLS Monastery no.1

8

Brick amphitheatre

Udayagiri Development Plan
6
Archaelogical Museum & Miniature Chaitya hall

7

Camping site

Shrine complex

Monastery no.2

5
Tourist Cottage Complex
Step well

Apsidal Stupa complex

Sketch view of proposed brick amphitheatre along the hills of Udayagiri

KEY for Proposed tourist facilities
Staff quarters

Entrance Plaza

Structural complex

2 3
Orissan Crafts village

4

Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Parking Entrance Plaza Orissan Crafts village Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts Tourist Cottage complex Archaeological Museum & Miniature Chaitya hall Camping site Brick amphitheatre

Parking

1
Main entrance

NORTH

BRICK AMPHITHEATRE is proposed at Udayagiri similar to the one at Dakshina Chitra in Chennai as shown above

Protected ASI site

24

Camp-site layout at Udayagiri

The Camping site will consist of twenty tents. There will be an office unit for check-ins and maintenance of the Camp site.

Orissan Crafts Village at The Crafts Village will consist of units such as the one Udayagiri shown above. Each unit is a cluster of three workspaces
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and a seating area designed like a little amphitheatre where tourists and visitors can sit to watch the craftsmen at work.

LALITAGIRI & its environs
d a c

b e

Existing Stupa on hill

Apsidal temple

e 26 b c d

a

5 2 3
8

1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Entrance Plaza Site Miniature Replica Sculptors Village Deer Park Nature walk Proposed archaeological museum Monastery, Stupa, Temple & Institute of Buddhist learning Camping site

4

8
Camping Site

6

Proposed temple, Stupa & Institute of Buddhist Learning

7

Lalitagiri Development Plan

Proposed monastery may derive inspiration in its design & planning from the existing brick monastery shown here.

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Camp-site layout at Lalitagiri

Buddhist site Replica or Re-creation in miniature

Sculptors’ Village at Lalitagiri
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The Proposed Site Replicas will be modeled on the Miniaturised Holland at Amsterdam and such other similar projects abroad as shown above

Deer Park at Lalitagiri
Wooden bridge Information Centre Nursery

Monastery no. 2

Entry to Deer Park

Nature walk Promenade Pond

From Entrance Plaza

Machaan Picnic village Hammocks Water Deer home

Shaded seating areas

Monastery no. 3

Monastery no. 1

To Apsidal temple & Proposed monastery

It is proposed that a Deer Park be developed at Lalitagiri. In the Deer Park of Sarnath, Buddha delivered the first sermon after he gained enlightenment. In fact, Sarnath derives its name from Saranganatha Lord of the Deer.

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LANGUDI & its environs

Newly discovered sites at Langudi hill

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Monastery

Langudi Development Plan
KEY for Proposed tourist facilities

Stupa

1 2 3 4 5
Rock-cut votive stupas

Entrance Plaza Information Counter Site artefact facility Circulation Path Landscaped area

5

It is recommended that the circulation pathways for Langudi be well-defined for the tourists who will visit here. This pathway can be have random stone paving. It cannot be made a permanent path since there remains much to be explored at this archaelogical site. Once all the excavations are completed, the circulation pattern will have to be revised once again to allow visitors to walk through the newly discovered parts of Langudi. In the first phase of the Tourist Circuit development, an Information Counter, a Site Artefact facility and an Entrance Plaza that includes toilet facilities, a cafetaria and adequate parking will be provided.

4

3

Proposed Site artefact facility

1

Entrance Plaza

Information Counter

2

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Artefact

Site Artefact facility at Langudi
Information display

Section

The archaeological site of Langudi continues to be excavated. At present, the artefacts being unearthed are being housed in a shed at site. It is therefore proposed that a ‘Site Artefact Facility’ be set up which may be temporary in nature but which protects the archaeological remnants found.
Dotted line indicates the extent of roof above

Information display

Artefacts

This facility will be a place which the tourists and pilgrims can visit, where information about the on-going findings can be obtained and perhaps an orientation film can be viewed here. A regular museum may happen at Langudi after all the excavation activity has been completed. Until such time, the design of this temporary museum will consist of change of levels that add interest to the viewing of the pieces. 32

Information display

Plan

Plan of Dhauli

Proposed Location for Gram Panchayat Office

Re-location of few existing buildings along the circuit
The School building needs to be relocated to allow for the planning of an entrance plaza to the Ratnagiri site as well as the proposed crafts bazaar To Allabadha village

Monastery Proposed Location for School Building Stupa

Map of Orissa showing the Buddhist sites of Lalitagiri, Ratnagiri, Udayagiri, Dhauli & Langudi

Existing School Building

Plan of Ratnagiri Buddhist site

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LANDSCAPE DESIGN for the Buddhist sites

Sometimes, a stream will be allowed to flow through a garden zone and a little stone bridge may go across.

In specific areas, a grass and stone landscape may be provided. Paving materials to be used at the Buddhist sites may include terracotta colour tiles, bricks with river pebbles, bund walls with stone and brick, stone slabs and pebbles.

Paving details

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Landscape Design Principles

Since Tourism development for a Buddhist circuit must necessarily keep new construction to a minimum and conserve the existing historic monuments, what a Master Plan can do is lay emphasis on the Landscape development of the several zones within this region that will be traversed by tourists and pilgrims alike.

• The first step towards realizing this goal is to reorganize the circulation pattern within the ASI sites with interesting landscape elements to create a peaceful and enriching experience • Lotus ponds, meditation pavilions, parks, garden courts, stone fountains are to be included as essential features of the total plan • To provide paved walkways in stone interspersed with spaces for thought and enjoyment • Wayside amenities will have large evergreen trees to provide the necessary shade • A large number of trees to be planted also along approach roads and pathways to provide shade, colour and fragrance • Trees that are associated with the Buddha, like the Sal, Mango, Peepal & others that have found a place in ancient mythological literature – the kadamba, temple tree etc. will be planted extensively • Rejuvenation of water bodies in the vicinity of the buddhist sites • Programme of afforestation to be planned for the individual zones in which each of the sites exist • Landscaping as part of the architectural zones such as the tourist facilities will further serve to control temperature, wind & dust with trees, mounds & foliage acting as sun and wind breakers • There are agricultural lands in the vicinity of the Master Plan area. It is recommended that the farmers be encouraged to plant trees along the boundaries of their plots. 35

Landscape Details

Plan

1

2

It is important that the Pathways through the buddhist sites be designed interestingly since these will be the most visible element and used continually by visitors. Seating areas may be provided in front of a relic or Archaelogical remnant.

36

Stone in Landscape

Wherever possible, stone slabs will be used for paving the pathways. The patterns will be sometimes regular and sometimes irregular as shown here. At all the sites, any existing parapet walls built in concrete will be repainted. Wherever the wall is not in a good condition as along the winding road up to the Peace Pagoda at Dhauli, new parapets will be built and these will be in random rubble masonry. Stone lanterns will be designed using Japanese forms such as those used in Japanese Buddhist parks as well as local Orissan forms.

3
37

Details for accessways to the Buddhist sites

Along the tourist circuit, the footpaths need to be aesthetically & functionally improved. Some paving patterns are suggested here that use a combination of concrete paving blocks and wire-cut bricks. The drawings also indicate the detailing for tree-surrounds.

38

Lighting details

for Steps Sculptures Ponds

To be used especially in the Dhyanavanam at Ratnagiri

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LIGHTING EFFECTS to be used at the Orissan Buddhist sites

for Architecture and for Landscape It is recommended that various kinds of lighting effects be incorporated into the Landscape Design of the Buddhist sites. Some of these are given below :

Downlighting is lighting in a downward direction from a structure to project a pool of light onto a surface or feature below to provide general illumination for safety, security.

Uplighting from below is is a dramatic lighting effect which demands attention as it reverses the daylight perspective of even light from above.

Grazing is lighting from an acute angle from a position close to a surface to emphasise it's texture by casting strong shadow.

Washing is an even coverage of light on a wall to bring out colour or reflect from light walls to define the space and create an intimate atmosphere.

Silhouetting is the creation of a dark outline of an object by lighting a wall or surface behind it.

Floodlighting is the ultimate type of area lighting, designed to mimic the high power and bland spread of daylight.

Steplighting is a functional requirement rather than a lighting technique and will be provided by small lights set into or mounted on a flanking wall

Spreadlighting is the use of a low level stem mounted light with a hat or shield on top to provide a glare-free, usually circular pool of light for a path, step, terrace or area of low planting.

Shadowing is the projection of the outline of a plant or small tree onto a wall behind by placing a spotlight in front of the plant to shine through foliage and stems towards the wall. It is an easy way of exaggerating the role of a small tree in a newly planted garden. 40

Existing built-environment along the Buddhist Tourist Circuit

There are several villages en route to the Buddhist sites of Ratnagiri, Lalitgiri and Udayagiri and also Langudi and Dhauli. The images here show the houses built by the inhabitants of these villages. They use mostly local building materials and technologies such as stone walls, stone or timber pillars on a stone base, sloping roofs made out of thatch. Sometimes, there are also houses built with laterite stone and cement mortar. There are RCC jalis that use motifs from the temples of the region. Increasingly, RCC construction is replacing the Vernacular houses in Orissa. It is suggested that some research work be carried out on Vernacular architecture of Orissa in order to further the understanding of local materials and building technologies in the region. This will help develop the appropriate architectural language for all new tourism development for the Buddhist circuit in Orissa.

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Understanding the local material

The Heritage zones in Khurda, Jajpur & Cuttack districts, where the Buddhist sites are located monuments that have been built out of stone. This is a material locally available.

have

Use of Laterite stone (Mankada pathara) to be emphasised. e.g. compound walls in Khurda, Jajpur districts are often in laterite stone. It must be made “mandatory” to use laterite stone for compound walls of all buildings. However, it is important that the mortar joints of the masonry work to not exceed ½” in thickness. Khondolite variety of sandstone (Balipathara) to be used as façade columns, cladding material, steps and paving material.

Khondalite stone used in the sculpture at the temple at Dhauli

A revised building code that specifies heights, setbacks, window specifications and so on must be formulated after highly skilled masons become available in Orissa through training programs.

Stone detailing

It is suggested that lessons be learnt from the stone detailing of the buddhist monasteries, of lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar and the Konarak temple for any new construction towards tourism development

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To establish an ‘Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts’

This is essential since the most important resource in our vernacular and traditional architecture is the skill of the building craftsman. A Conservation professional to be appointed to establish an Institute that will revive the Traditional Building Arts of Orissa.

The work strategy for the institute will be : • To document old traditional building art forms through a survey of buildings of historical and architectural importance • To extensively photograph work done in such buildings. The cataloguing will be done building-wise and building art formwise. • To locate master craftsmen of traditional building art forms in the various districts in Orissa and to catalogue them including their addresses and other particulars • To select old heritage precincts and buildings which need restoration, reconstruction, revival etc. and to make these available to the Institute for conducting training on actual working conditions • Selection of artisans / trainees for receiving training and to lay down minimum educational or experience standards for a particular art form • To prepare the curriculum indicating the period of training, theoretical and practical classes to be conducted and to identify faculty for imparting training • Document the trainees skills and addresses, on completion of the training, so that this talent pool is available for being called upon whenever work is needed to be executed on a commercial basis and also to provide employment to them, wherever possible, through the efforts of the Institute • To prepare films, videos, slides and literature for use as training material. This will need to be done separately for each building art form • Brochures and technical literature to be prepared for dissemination of information to the prospective customers of such work

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Design of Gateways at the point of entry of the Buddhist circuit

1

2

The Gateways will be built in stone with the design reflecting symbols of Buddhism such as the Elephant and the Lion. The structure of the gateway will take inspiration from the rock-cut elements within the archaelogical sites to which these gateways lead.

44

Entrance Gateways to the sites

AT LALITAGIRI

Alternative

1

AT UDAYAGIRI

Alternative

2

Alternative

3

AT RATNAGIRI

45

Entrance Plaza – typical plans
It will be unaffordable to suggest 100% use of stone for new structures as in the buddhist sites. Concrete buildings and stone buildings will never blend. Therefore, design strategies to be developed using stone, brick and concrete that bring together traditional and modern materials & technologies such as shown here in Architect GeoffreyBawa’s buildings in Sri Lanka.

The Entrance Plazas to all the Buddhist sites along the circuit will typically consist of a parking zone, a restaurant, a souvenir shop, perhaps a cyber café, an information counter, toilets and a lounge area. Here, two alternatives have been shown which will be adapted suitably to the site.

46

Way-side amenity

Some design options for wayside amenities are shown here in plan and elevation. 1

1

The built-up seating found at many road junctions within or leading up to a village in the Orissan districts also have a function similar to a way-side amenit. They act as resting places. Some more of these need to be planned along the Buddhist tourist circuit.

47

Approach Roads

Highway leading from Bhubaneswar to Buddhist sites of Ratnagiri & Udayagiri

It is recommended that along the approach roads, details of seating, of steps, of pedestrian linkages be detailed out in stone/ concrete as shown here in this image

Highway Plaza
Along the national highway-5, it is proposed that at least one highway plaza or petrol-filling station be provided. The layout may be as shown here. Such a plaza will include a convenience store and an STD kiosk.

Scenic beauty along approach roads through the villages on the way to the archaelogical sites in Jajpur & Khurda districts

48

3-Star hotel along the Tourist Circuit in Orissa

• 140 double occupancy rooms • Promenade • Exhibition pavilions • Shops on the ground floor • Food Court • Restaurant

Museum of Buddhism
This will be located at the starting point of the Circuit. The galleries within this museum may have the following exhibition themes :

a Concept plan for the ground floor

The major spatial needs may be :

Ground floor – Shops, Department stores, Cafes, Restaurants, Canteen, Medical shop, Bookshop, Postoffice, Toilets, Travel agents and also store rooms, Maintenance cell, circulation and Services. On the first floor, there may be a Business Centre, Conference hall, Exhibition hall and upper floors may have the Lodging facilities or Rooms. The builtup area of the proposed 3-star hotel with 150 rooms has been taken as 70,000 sq.ft.

• Buddhism then, Buddhism now • One day in the Life of a Buddhist monk • Why I am a Buddhist • Religions of the world • Archaeology for the common man • Influence of Buddhism on Orissan development • Stone sculptures of Orissan Buddhist origin • Representation of Buddhist Life in Orissa (through Paintings, etchings, & drawings) • Buddhist art • Concept of co-existence, interconnectedness & interdependence of people in the world 49

Orissan art in the Tourist circuit

The tourist facilities such as the Orientation Centers & Museums will be designed to harmonise with the physical and environmental setting of the districts where the archaelogical sites are located. Within the new Buildings, the design of interiors, furniture, furnishings and graphics will utilize and propogate local craft traditions. The waiting areas and the transition spaces within the tourist facilities will be adorned with Orissan art, both traditional & contemporary. Sometimes a cloth painting depicting Jagannath (as shown below) and sometimes a palm leaf manuscript encased in a glass niche will belong to the walls of the new architectural development

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