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Framework for Integrating

Biodiversity into the
Site Selection Process

The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
1. Background........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
2. Introduction....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
3. Principles............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7
4. Application of the Framework.......................................................................................................................................................................................8
QUESTION 1. Has the project area been identified as having high biodiversity values? .................................................................... 8
QUESTION 2. Does the project area contain, or exist within, a Protected Area?.................................................................................10
QUESTION 2.1 Is the PA designated under international agreements?.................................................................................12
QUESTION 2.2 Is the PA designated under regional agreements?..........................................................................................12
QUESTION 2.3 Is the PA designated under national processes?.............................................................................................. 13
QUESTION 2.4 Is the PA designated under sub-national processes?......................................................................................14
QUESTION 3. Can the Protected Area be avoided using technical options?.........................................................................................15
QUESTION 4. Can the Government approve hydrocarbon development activities within a
Protected Area through a valid process?.............................................................................................................................15
QUESTION 4.1 Is oil and gas exploration and production allowed? ........................................................................................15
QUESTION 4.1.1 Is the PA inscribed as a World Heritage site? ...................................................................................16
QUESTION 4.1.2 Is the PA a Ramsar site? ........................................................................................................................ 17
QUESTION 4.1.3 Is the PA designated nationally, regionally, locally and/or privately?.........................................18
QUESTION 4.2 Could exploration and production activities proceed without compromising
the biodiversity values of the PA? .......................................................................................................................19
QUESTION 4.3 Can project authorization be granted? ..............................................................................................................19
QUESTION 5. Can the biodiversity values of the Conservation Priority Area Not Currently Under
Protection be confirmed? .......................................................................................................................................................20
QUESTION 6. Are there any significant biodiversity issues? ....................................................................................................................21
QUESTION 7. Can impacts be mitigated to an acceptable level?............................................................................................................24
APPENDIX A. “Amman Declaration” – Recommendation 2.82 (World Conservation Congress)......................................................................26
APPENDIX B. Industrial Activities and World Heritage and Ramsar Sites ............................................................................................................28
FIGURE 1. Relationship between PAs, CPAs and “rest of the world”....................................................................................................................... 6
FIGURE 2. The Framework flowchart ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9
FIGURE 3. “Filtering” using QUESTIONS 1 and 2........................................................................................................................................................... 11
FIGURE 4. Relationship among sub-questions in QUESTION 4 ................................................................................................................................16
FIGURE 5. World Heritage Sites Nomination Process................................................................................................................................................30
FIGURE 6. World Heritage Sites Monitoring & Reporting Process........................................................................................................................... 31
FIGURE 7. World Heritage Sites Threat Identification Process ............................................................................................................................... 32
BOX 1. The IUCN Protected Area Management Categories ........................................................................................................................................ 13
photo credit: ©Conservation International, Haroldo Castro
Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site capital and operational costs and improved reputation
Selection Process (the Framework) is designed to support management, etc.
companies in identifying and developing appropriate
responses to managing new business ventures in areas • Benefits for companies of participating in or
of high biodiversity value. To ensure that biodiversity encouraging regional land use planning exercises may
is addressed everywhere, regardless of the legal status include early identification and diffusion of sensitive
or other protective status of the area in question, the biodiversity-related issues; increased credibility with
Framework considers three categories – areas with local stakeholders; and investment and project design
legal protection, areas that have a high conservation decisions that fit existing plans for regional development.
priority without legal protection and the “rest of the
world,” which may contain areas of high value yet to be As a means of simplifying the issues and options that
identified. The Framework is part of a wider context of a confront a company, the Framework uses a flowchart
complex and multi-layered decision-making process in based on seven key questions to first identify the extent
which companies prioritize and evaluate risks according of the biodiversity values in an area. Whether the area
to a broad range of perspectives. A company may choose has been legally protected or not, the Framework assists
to terminate its interest in a new business opportunity with identifying the nature of the protection or priority
in an area irrespective of the options indicated by the associated with the area or, for areas that fall into the
Framework. “rest of the world” category, the presence of previously
unrecognized biodiversity issues and values. The logic behind
Several principles have informed the design of the the key questions can be summarized as noted below:
Framework:
Question 1. Has the project area been identified as having
• Biodiversity exists within and outside of Protected high biodiversity values? Regions may be identified
Areas (PAs). as having high biodiversity values by governments,
by international convention bodies, conservation
• Biodiversity conservation is an integral element of organizations or the scientific community. Areas are
sustainable development. categorized into those with legal protection, those
without legal protection but with recognized biodiversity
• Companies should respect the reason for which PAs values, and those that may contain as yet unidentified
have been established. biodiversity values.

• Not all PAs are closed to industrial activity. Question 2. Does the project area contain, or exist
within, a Protected Area? PAs are a common feature in
• Aggravated risks may result from operating within or conservation schemes in almost every country of the
near to a PA or Conservation Priority Area (CPA). world. PAs may indicate an area of high biodiversity and
societal value, and they are often related to the provision
• Opportunities to benefit biodiversity may arise at oil of important environmental services and products.
and gas operations. Knowing where PAs are in relation to planned operations
can give a company an idea of where governments may
• Addressing biodiversity issues in PAs and CPAs, or may not allow it to work, as certain activities may
and any other area, has significant advantages for be restricted by law, and what the potential risks to its
companies – e.g. reduced risks for shareholders, reputation may be.
potentially improved access to capital, an easier path to
obtaining and maintaining a license to operate, lower

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The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative

Question 3. Can the Protected Area be avoided using science should then direct the need for additional work if
technical options? Having identified that the company’s values are initially deemed to be high
project area is within, or contains, a PA, the next
question is whether the company can avoid entering Question 6. Are there any significant biodiversity issues?
the PA. Are there reasonable location, re-routing or It is extremely important to identify any significant
technological options available which may preclude the biodiversity issues as early as possible in the ESIA
need to enter the PA? Has the company considered the process. The company can then take steps to manage the
option of not continuing with the project, as well as the potential impacts, identify what the residual impacts may
social, ecological, and economic tradeoffs of avoiding be and determine what the benefiting (compensatory)
the PA? Assessing alternatives should be a standard measures might be. If these are ignored, there are
procedure within the Environmental and Social Impact increased environmental risks with the associated
Assessment (ESIA) process that should look at the no- potential reputation issues, and the prospect of
project alternative (i.e. what would happen if the project technically difficult and costly retrospective mitigation.
did not proceed) based on biodiversity issues as well Once damaged, it may be extremely difficult to recover a
as technical alternatives (e.g. building mitigation into company’s positive reputation.
engineering design, pipeline routing options, deviated
drilling, etc.). Question 7. Can impacts be mitigated to an acceptable
level? In most instances, it may only be possible to reduce
Question 4. Can the Government approve hydrocarbon an impact to a certain degree. For example, although
development activities within a Protected Area through a land-take can be minimized in areas of high biodiversity
valid process? Government authorization of a project value, it is not possible to construct a production facility
in a protected area is not a foregone conclusion, and without any land-take impacts. These impacts are
a company should exercise significant care even if therefore “residual” in the sense that they remain after
it receives such authorization. There are a variety of the mitigation measures have been designed into the
scenarios under which a government may consider intended activity. However, facilities and infrastructure
authorizing activities in a protected area, including ones can be designed in a way that can facilitate reuse
in which the existing protected area legislation allows (interpretation or social centers, research facilities,
oil and gas activities, and those in which it does not but etc.) after the life of the project, thus minimizing land-
government may have legal authority to authorize such take impacts. Mitigating impacts to a reasonable and
activities under specific circumstances. Each of these acceptable level is the basic premise of the ESIA process.
scenarios presents different risks to the company that An ESIA is conducted to identify, predict, assess and then
the company should carefully evaluate in making any mitigate potential impacts of a project. If the company
decisions whether or not to pursue such authorization or cannot mitigate impacts to a reasonable/acceptable
to proceed on the basis of any authorization granted. level, then it will have to feed the findings back into the
decision framework to include modifications such as
Question 5. Can the biodiversity values of the improved design and/or more robust mitigation measures.
Conservation Priority Area Not Currently Under Protection If it still cannot mitigate impacts, then this should be fed
(CPA) be confirmed? CPAs can be defined in many ways. into the overall decision-making process for the company
A starting point is to take areas either identified by and other stakeholders, as appropriate, to evaluate
governments and/or scientific organizations as part of whether the project should proceed in that location.
their national planning processes or areas recognized by
conservation organizations as a preliminary indication For each of these possible outcomes arising from the “yes
of high biodiversity value. However, it is important to or no” answers to these questions, appropriate responses
recognize that this is not a comprehensive definition of are suggested. These include choosing not to proceed
biodiversity value and the related need for conservation. and the consideration of alternative sites. It is not the
Companies may be advised to undertake testing of intent of this Framework to encourage companies to
biodiversity value during the very early stages of the seek exemptions, redesignation of area boundaries, or
project, even where this requires additional financial other means to obtain authorization to operate in a PA
support and staff time. In cases where there is little where the applicable PA legislation does not explicitly
or no information available, or the information is permit oil and gas activities. However, in very limited
contradictory, best professional judgment should be used circumstances the process of seeking redesignation of
to identify the initial level of effort required to confirm protected areas or their boundaries to allow oil and gas
biodiversity values of a particular area. The results of the activities to proceed may also be considered.
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Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process

including sections simplifies the process to facilitate use of the indigenous people. local communities. it is also useful The Framework also provides background information for minimizing tensions usually associated with these and context to the questions that are used to guide priorities. the issues and options confronting NGOs and development agencies. • Provides a means to identify whether regions of To be used most effectively. However.g. The first is evident at the global/national scale. Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIA). irrespective of stakeholders to better understand issues related to the options indicated by the Framework. the Framework: is necessary to fully understand both. largely be answered using information the company is It is important to recognize that these two perspectives likely to gather as a matter of course. The methodology laid out in the following but incorporate the views of all stakeholders. In more detail. The second exists at the regional/local to lead the user through a process of identifying and scale where areas may be classified as having high responding appropriately to the challenges posed by value because of local community or indigenous people areas with high biodiversity values. Long-range strategic land-use planning is an biodiversity issues within and outside legally protected important tool for determining priorities for regional areas. it may choose at any point to terminate its interest in a may also help conservation organizations and other new business opportunity in an area. recognizing the differing perspectives on • Provides a decision-support framework to address land use. The Gas Development contains a summary of the analysis and recommendations of the EBI. such are sensitive with respect to biodiversity and its as Environmental Management Systems (EMS) and conservation. BACKGROUND The Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site is designed for use as a standalone document. developing appropriate responses to managing new business ventures in areas of high biodiversity value. development and conservation. both inside and outside of legally protected areas. A company document will be oil and gas companies. Framework. where governments or the scientific and conservation communities have identified particular The Framework is laid out using seven key questions priority areas. These Integrating Biodiversity Conservation into Oil and responses may include the option of not proceeding with the development on biodiversity grounds. based on geological. However. or to which it has may not always overlap and that stakeholder engagement ready access. other Selection Process (hereafter referred to as the Framework) Energy and Biodiversity Initiative products offer detailed is designed to support companies in identifying and guidance on key elements contained within it. hunting grounds or community reserves). although this document for biodiversity conservation can be the transfer of 4 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . ecological. cultural and economic factors. Additionally. the reader. perspectives. Such a process should be led by government. which form the i Framework considers biodiversity value from two overall context for the Framework. 1. However. the Framework should be interest to the company and other stakeholders integrated with other approaches to environmental (including those likely to host pipelines and roads) management and biodiversity conservation. It may also be used in conjunction with regional • Highlights where specific management responses are planning exercises that can help identify where oil and required. Companies typically prioritize and evaluate relative risks It is anticipated that the principal users for this within a much broader business process. a company are normally complex and multi-layered. gas development and other economic activities are appropriate. oil and gas projects and facilitate improved dialogue it should be borne in mind that a potential challenge between all parties. These questions can priorities (e. the private sector.

the continued improvement of this Framework is dependent on the active participation of end-users and stakeholders. 1919 M Street NW. content and breadth and depth of application in the oil and gas sector. Website: www. exiting the process The Center for Environmental Leadership in Business may bring its own risks where operation or rights to Conservation International operation are transferred to another company. oil and gas activities from one company to another. Thus.carter@celb.org Finally. SUGGESTIONS This can result in a lack of continuity of philosophy.org Processes. Assheton Stewart Carter its investment in conservation.TheEBI. PLEASE SEND COMMENTS. Suite 600 Washington. 5 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . AND QUESTIONS TO: commitment and practice between companies. Therefore we welcome any comments and suggestions relating to revisions and additions that will improve the usability. DC 20036 USA Additional information surrounding the issue of Tel: +1 202 912 1449 divestiture can be found in Integrating Biodiversity Fax: +1 202 912 1047 i into Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Email: a. jeopardizing sustainable biodiversity conservation and THE ENERGY & BIODIVERSITY INITIATIVE a company’s ability to maintain the reputational value of c/o Dr.

in the South Pacific). of governments or conservation organizations. must make themselves aware of the potential ecological In addition. and of natural and associated The relationship between these three categories is shown cultural resources. Note that although most protected areas are designated under national. which may • Protected Areas (PAs): those areas of land and/or sea contain areas of high value that are yet to be identified. World Heritage or Ramsar sites) or to PAs some areas have been identified as priorities for regional processes (e. INTRODUCTION When considering new ventures or acquisitions. are addressed everywhere. Nevertheless. European Union Natura 2000 biodiversity conservation (CPAs) based on the judgments sites). local or Almost everywhere hydrocarbons are developed will have regional legislation.g. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PAS. 2. When choosing to work in these areas. CPAS AND “REST OF THE WORLD”’ REST OF THE WORLD PROTECTED CONSERVATION AREAS PRIORITY AREAS AREAS NOT YET IDENTIFIED AS IMPORTANT FOR BIODIVERSITY 6 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . some protected areas are recognized under impact of their operations. especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity. and managed through legal and in Figure 1. in addition international (e. Operating in areas that are not protected but still have • Conservation Priority Areas Not Currently Under Protection high biodiversity values may carry the same level of risk (hereafter referred to as CPAs in this document): those to biodiversity and corporate reputation as working areas that are not currently under protected status in formal PAs. regardless of the legal or other protective status of the potential project area in question: • Rest of the World (RoW): the remaining areas not specifically included in PAs or CPAs.g. so companies customary law and tradition (e. conservation priority. but have been identified by governments and/or the the company should also recognize that it can provide scientific or conservation community as having a high benefits that may not occur if there were no development.g. Examples include WWF Global the Framework distinguishes between three broad 200 Ecoregions and Conservation International’s geographic categories to ensure that biodiversity impacts Biodiversity Hotspots and Wilderness Areas. FIGURE 1. some areas are designated under potential implications for biodiversity. other effective means.

biodiversity-related issues. lower • Biodiversity conservation is an integral element of capital and operational costs and improved reputation sustainable development. development. PRINCIPLES The Framework has been developed according to the • Addressing biodiversity issues in PAs and CPAs. management.g. and investment and project • Aggravated risks may result from operating within or design decisions that fit existing plans for regional near to a PA or CPA.3. • Companies should respect the reason for which PAs • Benefits for companies of participating in or have been established. has significant advantages for companies – e. encouraging regional land-use planning exercises may include early identification and diffusion of sensitive • Not all PAs are closed to industrial activity. an easier path to obtaining and maintaining a license to operate. • Opportunities to benefit biodiversity may arise at oil and gas operations. 7 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . reduced risks for shareholders. etc. increased credibility with local stakeholders. • Biodiversity exists within and outside of PAs. potentially improved access to capital. following principles: and any other area.

Qx Qy 8 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . Can the biodiversity values of the Conservation Note that the information gathering process may be Priority Area Not Currently Under Protection (CPA) constrained by confidentiality considerations in a be confirmed? competitive business environment (i.1). Protected Area? 3.3) and sub- left). a company should look for either PAs or CPAs as • Each of the seven principal defined in Section 2. Certain specific sources are listed at the end of each question within this 2. summarizes the potential pathways that may arise when Has the project area been identified as having high using the Framework.e. responses and actions are presented operating in areas of high biodiversity value. national processes. The flowchart Regions may be identified as ���� uses the symbols noted in the key below it as a visual ��� �� having��� �� high biodiversity ��� values �� ���� “prompt” to the user where further action is required. Has the project area been identified as having high Many sources of information are available to answer biodiversity values? the questions posed by the Framework. These for some of the principal questions – these flowcharts questions are: expand upon and supplement Figure 2. which are examined in greater detail in the following sections. or exist within. it may only be possible to conduct a desk-top study in the early stages 6.4). which may then lead on to field-work and 7. which shows the reader the There are many different systems under which PAs are next question in the sequence designated. APPLICATION OF THE FRAMEWORK As noted above. (an example box is shown to the national and provincial legislation (Question 2. Are there any significant biodiversity issues? of a project. conservation Two further aides are used to assist the reader in using organizations or the scientific the Framework and in following the logical flow of community. Users should refer to this as they biodiversity values? work through each of the questions. Can the Protected Area be avoided using technical options? Additional sources are described in more detail in 4.2). The decision-support flowchart shown in Figure 2 QUESTION 1. Can impacts be mitigated to an acceptable level? stakeholder engagement). including private PAs (Question 2. the Framework uses seven principal • More detailed flowcharts showing the interrelationship questions to inform a company’s decision regarding of sub-questions. During this early questions: identification phase. including international agreements such as based on whether the answer to the the World Heritage Convention and Ramsar Convention current question is “yes” or “no” (see Question 2. 1. i development activities within a Protected Area through a valid process? 5. Can the government approve hydrocarbon the Online Biodiversity Information Sources and International Conventions. a document. Does the project area contain. by international convention bodies. YES NO �� �� �� �� �� �� �� questions has a “next-question” box. 4. regional processes (Question 2. by governments.

Measures Above and Beyond Standard ESIA Practice: Triggers a management response to consider Additional additional early risk management or measures that may be conducted above and beyond normal Measures activities in the ESIA process. and take action to avoid.3 valid process? NO YES 7. Can the biodiversity values of the Additional Measures Conservation Priority Area be acceptable level? & ESIA values confirmed? YES YES Lower values Project Management Phase NO 6. THE FRAMEWORK FLOWCHART Project Identification Phase 1. Companies will need to feed this outcome into their overall decision-making frameworks as part of an integrated environmental.g. no legal permission or impacts cannot be mitigated or offset). Are there any significant biodiversity issues? ESIA GO This flowchart MUST be used with the accompanying text. 2. social.FIGURE 2. Caution: “Yellow flag” is raised and an appropriate response is triggered. social and economic risk and benefit assessment. Can impacts be mitigated to an Higher 5.1 .g. pressure to do so may be derived from non-voluntary or external drivers (e. health ESIA and other environmental impacts of an operation.4. Can the government approve NO hydrocarbon development activities See Questions within a Protected Area through a 4. GO Green Light: Proceed – feed outcome into overall company decision-making frameworks. World Heritage site/UN Listed Protected Area) YES YES 3. but at the “Stop and Assess” points shown in Figure 2. minimize or mitigate their effects. Has the project area been NO identified as having Note: a company may choose at high biodiversity values? any point to terminate or divest its interest in a new business YES opportunity in an area irrespective of the options indicated by the Framework. Can the Protected Area be avoided using technical options? NO 4. The assessment process therefore reaches a potential “do not proceed” decision. Stop and Assess: The company may choose to voluntarily exit at any point in the process. Does the region of interest contain. or exist within. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA): Used to identify the biodiversity. 9 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . a NO protected area? (e.

iucn.org/xp/CIWEB/strategies/tropical_ This is a “filtering” question that allows companies wilderness/tropical_wilderness.org/resources/programmes/global200/ that have some form of legal designation and those that pages/home.htm consistent with such agreements will therefore help to enhance the reputation of the company with the conservation community and with funding sources that are particularly committed to biodiversity conservation goals.cfm Moreover. international agreements – particularly the World Heritage Convention – are on the “radar screen” • Centres of Plant Diversity: areas of global botanical of the conservation community.org/sites/ibaprogramme. in domestic statute. with the aim of tackling the problem of biodiversity loss at the global level. 10 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . freshwater Question 1 distinguishes between areas that have and and marine habitats. the number of species present (even if this is not there would be potential for communication campaigns accurately known) and/or the presence of a large that could damage the reputation of companies number of endemic species. regional and national laws and to ensure that the • BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas company operates within these laws. adapt its planning and operations to the special nature. a Protected the richest and most threatened reservoirs of plant Area? and animal life on Earth.” Earth’s biologically outstanding terrestrial.org/aboutus/howwework/ requirements of PAs as defined by international.au/coasts/mpa/nrsmpa/global/ • WWF Global 200 Ecoregions: a global ranking of the Question 1 and Question 2 are coarse-scale “filters. in signing an international/regional more species of bird and include sites for breeding. if conserved. www. Question 2 divides important areas into those www. Acting in a way www. A starting point is to • Global Representative System of Marine Protected take areas either identified by Governments as part of Areas (GRSMPA): this joint IUCN-World Bank their national planning processes or areas recognized by product documents the biogeographic and ecological conservation organizations as a preliminary indication characteristics in each of the 18 marine regions of the of high biodiversity values. conservation. national governments are committed wintering. values. WHY IS THIS QUESTION IMPORTANT? www. Were companies to importance identified by IUCN on the basis of operate without due regard for these designations. CPAs can be defined in many ways. IBAs are usually to its implementation through adopting its terms discrete sites and may include public or private lands. • Conservation International Biodiversity Hotspots QUESTION 2.birdlife. several world and summarizes the range of marine biodiversity international organizations have identified particular within each region and the major threats to its areas as priorities for biodiversity conservation. and/or migrating birds. including: http://ea. interested in operating at such sites. and they may be protected or unprotected. making the country subject to or both. It is important (IBAs): sites that provide essential habitat for one or to recognize that. For example. or exist within. its primary function is to enable the company to will help ensure biodiversity over the long term. which helps identify the highest-priority responses necessary to conserve biodiversity.org/themes/ssc/plants/centres. places – landscapes and seascapes that.gov.conservation. agreement.xml to consider the appropriate action to take according to whether the project area is within/contains a PA • The Nature Conservancy’s Conservation by Design – or within/contains a CPA. Although this question Last Great Places: a strategic science-based planning is an integral part of the process to define the process.org www.panda.biodiversityhotspots. This “filtering” effect is shown in Figure 3. providing a critical blueprint have not been identified as having high biodiversity for biodiversity conservation at a global scale. and Wilderness Areas: a system designed to identify Does the project area contain.htm do not. international/regional regulations supported by law.

In high likelihood that oil and gas companies may find these cases. be restricted by law. �� ������� in other cases. Moreover. government authorization ������� ���� many countries are still updating for such activity may be unclear. the relevant PA legislation percent of the Earth’s land surface). PAs are also increasingly designated by state. they relate to operating in or near to a PA. government authorization may increase. About national protected areas system. In �� ��� �� ��� conservation ��schemes in������ almost������ ��� �� many countries. mainly Latin America and the Caribbean and increasingly FIGURE 3. the company’s potential risks as concessions. knowing where PAs are is Therefore. There may be clear PAs are mainly designated under national business gains from choosing not to operate in such legislation or. “FILTERING” USING QUESTIONS 1 AND 2. Finally. �� �� �� define�� new areas �� of importance. companies must carefully consider not only important to the process of identifying potential risks to the potential biodiversity impacts of operating in or near a company’s reputation. established and/or proposed PAs in or near to their rather than decrease. provincial and even See also Opportunities for Benefiting local governments. the number of private PAs is increasing. There is a out of step with the concerns of some stakeholders. Even where oil and gas exploration and production projects can PAs may indicate an area of high biodiversity and be operated in ways that either do not threaten the societal value. or might even benefit it (see Question of important environmental services and products. irrespective of the nature of government approval.000 PAs worldwide cover an area similar to that of China and As noted in Section 3. provincial legislation. in the case of federal countries. the risk of significant can give a company an idea of where governments may biodiversity impacts and related impacts to reputation or may not allow it to work. as certain activities may are increased by operating in or near to that PA. In some cases. as well as by local groups. 96. 4. and they are often related to the provision integrity of a PA. but also the business consequences. under areas. in a number of regions. PAs are a common feature in ����� ������ in Africa.2) and the government has explicitly authorized that Knowing where PAs are in relation to planned operations operation through a valid process. private��� PAs are�� recognized as part of the every country of the world. However. �� so �� However. including Biodiversity Conservation. not all PAs are closed to industrial India combined (totaling nearly 11 activity. i indigenous peoples. due to trends in the decentralization of governments’ functions. ����������� ������������������������������������� �� ����������������������������������� ���������� ��������������� ������������������������������������� ������������������� ����������������������������������� ������������� ������������������������� ���� ��������������������� ������������������������� ��������������������� ����������� ��������������������������������� �� ������������������������������� ���������� ������������ ��������������������� ������������������������� ����� ���� �������������� ���������� 11 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . to a PA. opaque. or simply their national protected areas systems. will explicitly authorize such activity as compatible Biodiversity research continues to with the purposes for which the PA was established.

ramsar. This is achieved by managing both Network of Biosphere Reserves. and through the use of biodiversity- aiming to contribute to the conservation of supportive policies in the non-protected areas.int/comm/ as internationally important.8 million acres). The procedures set out under these two for coordinating activities within the total Reserve conventions are different. However. provisions have been made to enhance the wise use of wetlands and their resources. the translation of these a primary function of all parts of a Biosphere Reserve. monitoring. totaling 110 million hectares Union-wide network of nature conservation sites (271. restrictions than the basic international designation: • World Heritage Sites: The 1972 World Heritage For summary details of. species and genes. see i for all humanity. in 128 countries inscribed on the World Heritage List included 149 natural. Is the PA designated under Regional Agreements? • Ramsar Sites – Wetlands of International Regional refers to more than one country (e. Each reserve Is the PA designated under international agreements? consists of a core area (or group of core areas).htm for further information oriented toward establishing a World Representative on Natura 2000). As of 2003. conservation is not necessarily World Heritage sites. One example is the European with 1. Under some regional international cooperation for the conservation and agreements.308 wetland sites. The MAB Programme is environment/nature/natura. 23 mixed and 582 cultural sites. to foster economic 12 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . the challenge and reward of biosphere international and resulting national policies. Member governments are required • Biosphere Reserves: The UNESCO Man and to identify these sites and take steps to protect them.org. The core area requires If the operation the company is planning will take place legal protection and is often part of the existing in a PA that has been designated under an international PA network and may even be recognized by other convention such as the UNESCO World Heritage international conventions such as World Heritage Convention or the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of or Ramsar. Biosphere Programme (MAB) recognizes government ensuring that they have what is referred to as “favorable nominated areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems conservation status” (see europa. Questions 2. to safeguard European biodiversity by designating and protecting key sites. with each reserve these sites. As of July 2003. designated for inclusion in the known as Natura 2000 and established under the EC Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance. education and information exchange related to local. economic development.eu. national and global issues Question 2. Many of the areas have mixed ownership International Importance.org. management of existing PAs as key elements of socio- there were 138 Contracting Parties to the Convention. Further information on World Heritage Sites can be Question 2. regulations reserves is establishing an appropriate mechanism and guidelines. and a transition area. and to provide support relevance to the project area being considered. Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the EC Wild Birds Further information on Ramsar sites is given in Directive (79/409/EEC). designations into national statute is often done as part Further information on Biosphere Reserves can be of stronger legislative support. The objective of this network is Question 4 and at www. as oil and gas operations are – while biodiversity conservation is a central feature more likely to be permissible within Ramsar sites than of Biosphere Reserves.org/mab/wnbr. the Importance: The Ramsar Convention (signed in European Union) or more than one state or province 1971) provides a framework for national action and within a single country. the 754 total sites International Conventions. a buffer zone.unesco.unesco. Further ecosystems. with the core area often under government as UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Programme. for research. and online links to. then ownership and the buffer zone in private or community the company should recognize and be aware of both hands. This may place tighter found at www. Thus. a Convention defines and conserves the world’s heritage comprehensive range of relevant international by drawing up a list of natural and cultural sites whose “outstanding universal values” should be preserved conventions including information on World Heritage and Ramsar sites and Biosphere Reserves.2 found in Question 4 and at whc.1 of conservation and development.4 examine the variety of designations and human development which is socio-culturally available for PAs and allow a company to understand their and ecologically sustainable.htm.g.1–2. or related programs such regimes.

Protected Landscape/Seascape (managed for conservation and recreation) VI. However. THE IUCN PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENT CATEGORIES National legislation for protected areas varies from country to country as well as across types of protected areas. but are a way of classifying Again. Some protected areas may allow certain types of activities. not designations for PAs. while The IUCN Protected Area Management categories are other designations may not allow any activities at all. Strict Nature Reserve (managed mainly for science) I(b).examples include the recognition of PAs in Central countries. But. This variety across national classification systems is part of the rationale behind the creation of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories system. Habitat/Species Management Area (managed for conservation through management intervention) V. In many developed national legislation that establishes its own restrictions BOX 1.000 ha. the management objectives – based on the IUCN Protected category system itself if not typically enshrined in Area Management categories (see Box 1). IUCN Categories I(a). Regional not used in national legislation in many countries. it is imperative to understand and follow the national law regarding PAs. Rather. which then reviews the proposal against three criteria: (a) size – only protected While the IUCN Categories system is a convenient areas 1. The laws relevant to PAs. regulations and agreements on PAs may enable national regulations that allow for certain types of activities. provides an overview potentially significant degree of risk for a company that of national protected areas around the world. where others may be totally off limits to any human activity apart from research. the UN actually sits between Categories IV and V. except that Category VI nationally designated protected areas. Managed Resource Protected Area (managed for the sustainable use of natural resources) 13 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . categories promote internationally agreed standards of protection and management. All categories of designating protected areas at sub-national levels. with numerous means gradient of management intervention. among PA managers. to demonstrate the full range of PA Is the PA designated under national processes? values. based on an international framework.000 ha (2. as each nation is sovereign and national law binds companies. National Park (managed for ecosystem protection and recreation) III.3 and comparisons. it is important to understand and follow regional PAs around the world using common terminology. In addition. operates or seeks to operate in or near to such areas. and Protected Areas and the special protocols containing excluding substantial numbers of protected areas from provisions for PA conservation and management in the WCMC database.471 acres) or larger are included. Therefore List of National Parks and Protected Areas. the typical protected area is less than 1. to help global accounting Question 2. not least because some environmental and conservations Countries propose protected areas for inclusion in NGOs may consider them as “no-go” areas. (b) tool for making comparisons between countries. The six categories in the IUCN system are based Each country has its own processes and sets of on conservation management objectives and reflect a designations for protected areas. and (c) national legislation. and to encourage governments to create systems of PAs. are equally important but reflect an increasing human This leaves a somewhat confusing global picture of influence on the environment. Wilderness Area (managed for wilderness protection) II. America under the Central American Commission on making the IUCN categorization a very coarse sieve. compiled by Category V is the category where human influence is IUCN and the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring likely to be the greatest. Natural Monument (managed for conservation of specific natural features) IV. which creates a common language. Each category carries a varying but Centre (UNEP-WCMC) since 1959. the UN list to UNEP-WCMC. each government has its own authority of the management agency. the categorization is the Caribbean and Mediterranean regions.

ramsar.biodiv.82 could also be extended to include oil and gas operations given that it: Information sources for answering Question 2 • Invites all governments and corporations to promote General and implement best practice in all aspects of mining and mineral extraction. protected areas are publicly owned. the situation at the sub- WCC is the key gathering for conservation organizations national level may be even more complex with a myriad (governmental and NGOs) and is part of the IUCN of different types of protected areas ranging from private governing system. recommendations that should be implemented as part of These protected areas will need to be identified through that program.org/ for the exploration or localized extraction of mineral resources. core areas of UNESCO biosphere reserves. whc. even if these lie or developments. UNESCO World Heritage 14 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative .).g. October 2000. through the right of pre-emption over any land that comes on the market. adopted Recommendation 2. consultation.unesco. and countries. but each government decides for itself outside protected areas. well over 100 types of Natura 2000 sites in European Union countries). In some sites. protected areas have been named.unesco. or to their categorization. and through the ESIA process. local The World Conservation Congress (WCC) in Amman.unep-wcmc.org/mab/wnbr. particularly. what kinds of activities are permissible within which types of protected areas.htm protected area in the first place. where its members approve the reserves to local community protected areas to state and IUCN program of work and propose resolutions and provincial parks within federal government systems. NGOs. from first exploration through • UNEP-WCMC Protected Areas Database: to decommissioning and subsequent land use. such as Australia. www. etc.4 biological diversity of protected areas from the negative Is the PA designated under sub-national processes? impacts of mining and exploration” (the full text of the Recommendation is presented in Appendix A). sometimes areas selected through ecoregional planning exercises. The Relative to the national level. National Sites The Amman Recommendation is the basis of the World • National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans: Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF) To Dig or Not to Dig.org/protected_areas • Calls on all IUCN’s State members to prohibit by law International all exploration and extraction of mineral resources in protected areas corresponding to IUCN Protected • World Heritage Sites: Areas Management Categories I to IV. should be subject to procedures at least as • Biosphere Reserves: rigorous as those involved in the establishment of the http://www. government agencies.org • Urges that proposed changes to the boundaries of • Ramsar Sites – Wetland of International Importance: protected areas.htm • Highly protected areas (IUCN categories I-IV.org/mab/wnbr. access to local knowledge resources (e.unesco. academic or scientific institutions.82 that related to the “protection and conservation of Question 2. marine category I-V protected areas. Although specifically targeted at mining. In many countries. Public ownership is commonly • Areas containing the last remaining examples of felt to be an advantage in preventing harmful activities particular ecosystems or species.asp?t=ap which it is suggested that mineral activity (including fossil fuels) should not take place in the following places: • UNESCO Man and Biosphere Reserves: http://www. Recommendation 2. in http://www. requiring that the • Proposed protected areas within priority conservation State acquire the land from private owners. on land use in various types of protected areas. • Places where mineral activities threaten the well- being of communities including.org/world/reports. communities and indigenous people. to allow http://www.

It should be recognized that concerns may be raised regarding the nature of any authorization – as noted in Question 2. This guide explains �� �� �� �� not carrying�� �� ������� on with the project/ ������� processes���� associated with: 15 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . • Can project authorization be granted? • Establish credibility: for a company to hold a credible The relationships among these sub-questions are shown position when discussing options of operating in PAs in Figure 4 (which supplements Figure 2). QUESTION 4. However. ecological and economic tradeoffs of avoiding the PA? Assessing • Regional Departments responsible for PAs. three sub-questions that Although. pipeline routing options. the government process to Having identified that the company’s allow industrial activities in PAs may lack clarity or ������ ����� �� ��� �� project area ������ is within.).). Are there reasonable location.e. and society that all options Is oil and gas exploration and production allowed? have been seriously considered and the only viable alternative being chosen is to operate within the The first question is whether hydrocarbon activities are PA. alternatives (e. The reason for knowing this is consideration of alternatives can be a powerful tool so that a company can operate within the law. the next question is whether activities should not be undertaken irrespective of the the company can avoid entering the legal right to do so. �� consistency. authorize them. seek to avoid PAs. As stated in establishing credibility. which should look at the no-project • IUCN Environmental Law Centre alternative (i. re-routing or technological options The type of designation that the protected area has been available which may preclude the assigned will guide the process that a company needs need to enter the PA? Has the to follow to determine if the government will allow company considered the option of hydrocarbon activities in that area. Germany proceed based on biodiversity issues) as well as technical Phone: ++49 228 2692 231. it is important to have demonstrated to the conservation QUESTION 4. companies should. alternatives should be a standard procedure within the ESIA process. acquisition/purchase. • National Government Ministry responsible for PAs.org design. Identifying an seek government authorization to conduct hydrocarbon alternative that avoids the PA early in the planning of activities even if the PA legislation does not explicitly the project can help avoid unnecessary costs.g. building mitigation into engineering Email: Secretariat@elc. what would happen if the project did not Godesberger Allee 108-112. governments. as a basic premise. Can the Protected Area be avoided using technical options? Can the Government approve hydrocarbon development activities within a Protected Area through a valid process? WHY IS THIS QUESTION IMPORTANT? In order to answer Question 4. above. Being able to articulate a clear decision-making allowed under the legal structures or exceptions allowed and risk assessment process that demonstrates under those structures. 53175 Bonn.1 community. as well as the social. etc. companies have voluntary assess the government approval process in greater detail options to exit at any stage in the business process. ��� �� raising stakeholder concerns that such a PA.iucn. or reputational costs for a project. deviated drilling etc. Fax: ++49 228 2692 250. (such as avoidance. companies may choose to pursue operations in PAs may result in incremental business and if the PA legislation explicitly allows such activities. when technical options do not exist • Avoid unnecessary costs and delays: operating to allow this. offsets. or ��� ������ contains. must be considered: they may also have the opportunity to avoid a PA through the use of suitable technical options. as noted above. • Is oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) allowed? Alternative locations to the PA should be investigated in order to: • Could E&P activities proceed without compromising the biodiversity values of the PA? • Fully assess and consider all pre-operational options for minimizing impacts on biodiversity. QUESTION 3. PA. best practice.

where legally permitted to do so. FIGURE 4. World Heritage site being listed “in danger” (July 2002 Operational Guidelines).1 legislation. 2002 Operational Guidelines) to protect the property. Heritage sites indicate that there are essentially three regional and local laws. As mentioned under Question 2. Heritage sites would be the best option in terms of easier reputation management and avoiding the potentially • Nationally. ������������ ��� ������������ ���������������������������������������������������������� �������������������������� ������������������� ����������� �������������������� ����������� ������������������������� ������������������������ �������� �������������������������������� ���� ���� �� ��� �� ��� ������������������������������������� ���� ���� ������������������������ ����������� ��������������� ���������������� ������ ������������ ��� ����������� ������������������������������������������������������ ������������������������������ ������������������������� ������������������������� ���������������������������� �� • World Heritage Sites. which entails having the relevant forms of legislation. The processes associated with these three mechanisms Whether industrial activities are allowed in a World are illustrated in Appendix B.1. funding and management plans (July • Through stakeholder identification. area is inscribed as a World Heritage site. avoiding World • Ramsar Wetlands of International Importance.1. natural and cultural properties of outstanding universal value. Heritage site depends on the legal and administrative structures relevant to the site. Therefore. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SUB-QUESTIONS IN QUESTION 4. Education. the World Heritage Convention provides protection for • Through the nomination process. There are currently no formal guidelines under the Convention for approaching Question 4. industrial • National Government Ministry responsible for World activities are viewed by the Convention as incompatible Heritage.1. such as national Information sources for answering Question 4.1 operations in such areas. so this Framework recommends Is the PA inscribed as a World Heritage site? that the company contact both the Ministry responsible for managing World Heritage (e. protected areas. any regional or local regulations and the site management plan. the company should be familiar with the guidelines and procedures of Experiences with industrial developments and World the World Heritage Convention as well as the national. Culture or Where the protected area within the company’s project Environment) and the World Heritage Centre in Paris. regionally. 16 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . staffing.g. The Convention relies on the Parties to protect • Through reactive monitoring and periodic reporting. with World Heritage status and mining is specifically named as an activity that may lead to a natural or mixed • Regional Departments responsible for World Heritage. as the sites are designated under ways industrial activities may be considered in the national law in addition to being inscribed on the World context of a World Heritage site: Heritage List. the sites. locally and privately designated long and involved process of progressing with an option. But generally speaking.

However. Due to the potential significant risks to biodiversity and corporate reputation. although in some cases governments may explicitly allow industrial activity (e. if companies propose changes to designation or boundaries of PAs (where this can be done without compromising biodiversity values). companies should seek to avoid PAs. Throughout the process of gaining government authorization. change zoning within the area. or agree to the re-designation or alteration of PA boundaries to allow hydrocarbon activities to occur outside the area. rigorous. and where impacts are likely or even possible. but unknown. International Centre are obligated to formulate and implement planning for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of that promotes the conservation of the Ramsar wetlands Cultural Property (ICCROM). Typically. National Wildlife Refuges in the U. taking into account the cumulative and secondary impacts. urgent national interests). If key stakeholders perceive that a company is seeking to enter a PA.org/whc • First. Therefore.unesco. it is important to recognize that conflicts between government agencies regarding development and conservation priorities may be reflected in conflicting regulatory provisions (such as one ministry prohibiting hydrocarbon activities in a PA. This will. it may be that a single project may not irretrievably compromise the PA’s biodiversity values. Nevertheless.org/wurc_index. then it must be done via a transparent. determined on a site-by-site basis as WHY ARE THESE QUESTIONS IMPORTANT? Governments may have various options to authorize hydrocarbon activities within a PA. the Contracting Parties Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). or other means to obtain authorization to conduct hydrocarbon activities in or near a PA where the relevant PA legislation does not explicitly authorize such activities. In some cases.• World Heritage Centre: www. the wise use of wetlands within their territory (for further information on the wise Question 4.) or invoke national interests to justify the presence of such activities.g. Therefore. the actual and perceived risks to biodiversity are likely to be greater. the company can voluntarily exit should issues arise that cannot be satisfactorily resolved. and another authorizing them) or activities by one ministry to persuade another ministry to alter its regulations.1 of the Ramsar Convention. legal and objective process. governments will make such decisions having considered the environmental. if the redrawn boundary opens the door to multiple projects. If a PA boundary is redrawn to permit hydrocarbon activities. the government may not act in a way that is transparent and credible to concerned stakeholders. and. Similar problems may arise between federal and regional/local authorities. grant a formal exemption to a prohibition where the legislation provides for an exemption (e. It will also increase the probability that the company that originally sought the redesignation will be viewed as responsible for damage caused by subsequent projects not under the company’s control. social and economic trade- offs of the potential hydrocarbon development.2 use concept see www. it is essential to note that risks for companies and biodiversity can escalate in association with such activities. redesignation of area boundaries. although governments may also choose to “short-circuit” the formal process where such an approach is not explicitly prohibited by international laws or conventions. International Council on 3. if it is to be credible to key stakeholders. There may be formal processes whereby governments can issue a permit for such activities if they are not explicitly prohibited.1. have potentially significant implications for the company’s reputation. A Is the PA a Ramsar site? precautionary approach is advised. it should be There are two aspects of the Ramsar Convention to assumed there is a possible change in the ecological consider in the context of oil and gas operations: character.S. giving rise to increased stakeholder opposition. It is not the intent of this Framework to encourage companies to seek exemptions. In addition. the reality is that a company may be inclined to undertake such efforts and that government may have legal processes to grant such authorizations. The specific authorization approach may also have its own implications. the company should expect more vocal and intense opposition from such stakeholders. as far as possible. proposed or existing operation affect. 17 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process .g. or have the potential to affect the ecological • World Heritage Advisory Bodies: The World character/integrity of the Ramsar site? Under Article Conservation Union (IUCN).ramsar. in turn. does the planned.htm).

regionally. designations of protected areas is usually a difficult and 18 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . However. • National Government Ministry responsible for Ramsar.org/ reclaiming degraded land.org for conservation. IUCN. Conservation Congress Recommendation 2. trade-offs of the potential hydrocarbon development. supporting the management of PAs and research. such as establishing a fund • Ramsar Bureau: www. placing other territory under protection. while many conservation organizations and • IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas: government protected area agencies will recognize that http://www. regional (both supra and sub-national). in its World Convention. grant a formal exemption to a prohibition where the legislation Information sources for answering Question 4. and is viewed as adequate compensation.wetlands.1. • Wetlands International Database: www. Companies need to determine examined all possibilities for avoiding. country-by-country basis mitigating impacts.1. For found in Opportunities for Benefiting i example. For example. Typically governments will make such decisions having • National and Regional Departments responsible for considered the environmental. It is critical to discuss Question 4. Invariably the risks will be greater to Convention. significant if the area is opened to a series of projects (which may or may not be oil and gas related.ramsar.org/ boundaries may not always be perfect. to allow hydrocarbon activities to occur outside the area. called for proposed changes to protected areas boundaries or • Second. within certain countries there may be formal Biodiversity Conservation. not least because of the dynamism of ecosystems. categorization or may come up as a separate discussion. in consultation with ministries and other relevant stakeholders. changing boundaries or • IUCN Programme on Protected Areas. does not privately? negatively impact local communities.iucn. An example includes offsets. Protected areas that are designated under national. and to know that it followed due process the company and the impacts to the biodiversity more in so doing.82.” It should be noted any national interest” (see Appendix B). processes whereby governments can issue a permit for such activities if they are not explicitly prohibited. Therefore. Ramsar Parties are expected to only consent categorization to be subject to “procedures at least as to activities or developments that will cause loss or rigorous as those involved in the establishment of the damage to a Ramsar site if that activity is of “urgent protected area in the first place.2 logging or tourism development). or managing the area of interest as a conservation zone. locally and/or ensure the planned offset meets their concerns. such as Information sources for answering Question 4. minimizing and these on a case-by-case. part of the application process for listing under the controversial process. change zoning within the area. local or private Compensatory measures should not be a first recourse. or agree to the • National Government Ministry responsible for re-designation or alteration of protected area boundaries Protected Areas.3 possible offset options with relevant stakeholders to Is the PA designated nationally. efforts by a company (working with the Government) to operate within the spirit of the Convention it is to re-draw PA boundaries could present a significant important to know if the government has invoked the impact to biodiversity as well as an increased risk to “urgent national interest” clause under the Ramsar the company.3 provides for an exemption (such as for the national interest). processes will have restrictions and regulations relating and should only be explored as an option after having to their designation.wcpa. Further information on measures useful Governments may have various options to validly for consideration as compensatory can be authorize hydrocarbon activities within a PA.1. Compensatory measures may be part of the process of discussing possible boundary changes and/or re- • Regional Departments responsible for Ramsar. social and economic Protected Areas.

and one that First. undertaking a detailed impact assessment on which to etc. NGOs. and gas operations might impact biodiversity in the PA. after overarching international agreements and conventions assessing all risks and impacts. habitat for a rare/endangered species. QUESTION 4. and gas activities on the basis of existing legal permission Second. an area providing important In other cases. the government may only authorize oil ecosystem services and goods to local communities). Rapid Assessment Program and the business risks that may arise from operating in a PA more detailed ESIA).3 Could exploration and production activities proceed without Can project authorization be granted? compromising the biodiversity values of the PA? Project authorization by the government is not a foregone Even though it might be legally possible to undertake conclusion irrespective of the answers to Questions an oil or gas operation within a PA. • National Government Ministry responsible for Protected Areas. this scenario is likely to be a rarity. be instances when those impacts may be too significant. • Environmental and Social Impact Assessments. • National and Regional Departments responsible for Protected Areas. and studies indicate that there will i See also Integrating Biodiversity into Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Processes. unless maintain credibility among stakeholders.g. it even though it would be legal to undertake the oil/gas may exceptionally invoke “urgent national interest” and operation.2 QUESTION 4. an area important for migratory species.2. such that the values of the PA would be compromised. The company may still need to consider Environmental Profile. academics. the company will need to work with others (such a conscientious company would respond to by voluntarily as government. the full range of mitigation measures will need on other factors and pressures that it faces. However. even if risks to biodiversity are absent. In cases where there is no explicit legal permission for operations in PAs.) to determine the values of that particular PA (e. post-authorization. such as to be identified to reduce the impacts to a minimum stakeholder concerns. which may include an the PA will arise. if the government and its own economic. thereby presenting a greater reputational risk short-circuit the process of assessing whether or how oil to the company. The various the biodiversity values of the PA is assessed. There may possible outcomes are examined in Figure 4. By may be significant impacts.1 and 4. it is almost certain that following a formal transparent process.2 proceeding with the decision. 19 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . local communities. social and environmental allows the company to operate in a protected area and priorities (including consideration of “urgent national the company decides to do so. be no significant impacts on biodiversity values. depending Next. formal transparent procedure to identify acceptable offsets. the government may or may not consider re-designation and authorization at the company’s request. it is imperative that 4. base its own judgment of whether to proceed. Where a government allows oil and gas exploration. and a company should exercise significant the likelihood of the project having negative impacts on care even if it receives such authorization. ensuring compliance with acceptable level (see Question 7). for reasons of “urgent national interests. it is advised to follow a interests”). in cases where there is no legal basis for the ministry responsible for oil and gas can lead to a lack industrial activity in PAs and studies indicate that there of consultation and additional risks to the business. the company may governmental authorization would not be given.” It is then up to each individual company to evaluate the potential risk of Information sources for answering Question 4. the company will need to identify the potential when studies are undertaken to demonstrate that no impacts of the project upon those values (normally significant impacts on biodiversity values in or around done through the ESIA process. Finally. Undertaking a unilateral discussion only with Finally.

spiritual values that indigenous and traditional peoples attribute to natural areas. and the religious/historical/traditional value? related action plans will constitute the sequence of steps to be taken to meet these goals. these designations provide an indication that the company’s proposed project area may contain an WHY IS THIS QUESTION IMPORTANT? area of high biodiversity value. Example criteria may that this is not a comprehensive include: �� �� �� �� ������� ������� ���� definition of biodiversity value and the related need for conservation. CPAs are often established on However. the criteria for However. as valuable. the company should be aware of other limitations of scientific and/or conservation organizations. and the company these areas. carbon capture. (For instance.g. As noted above. it is necessary to confirm the values bird species or migration corridor for terrestrial associated with such priorities. given the large geographical extent of some of ecological rather than social priorities. the entire country of Madagascar is included. and the lack of attention to cultural/ recognized. it is important to confirm the biodiversity should consider the full range of potential impacts as it values within them. as this will enable a company to ������ ����� CPAs can be defined in many ways. QUESTION 5. Therefore. Examples of CPAs are described in Question 1. Moreover. However.biodiv. More than 145 countries • Areas used for ethno-botany (e. threatened and/or fragile by governments.org/world/reports. medicines)? The list of countries and their respective NBSAPs may be viewed at www. The company should be sure to examine its specific area of interest to determine It is important that a company knows if a project might if it holds some of the characteristics for which the take place in a CPA.g. Prioritizing areas • Are there any key ecosystem services/functions of for conservation is a large. categorized as a CPA. They are not homogeneous and will proceeds with its assessments. soil stabilization)? At the national level. subjective concept and may critical importance in the concession (e. identified by Governments as part of their national planning processes The first step in determining if there are high or recognized by conservation biodiversity values in the company’s project area is to organizations as a preliminary identify why the overall region or area was originally indication of high biodiversity value. so potential operational plans may be adjusted accordingly. traditional have to date either completed or drafted their NBSAPs. it is important. mainly the lack of recognition of to the company from an operational or reputation biodiversity values associated with cultural landscapes perspective may be high if these areas are not (such as in Europe). Article • Key hunting and/or fishing grounds for local 6 creates an obligation on governments for national communities? biodiversity planning. A understand how to examine each area in the context of its �� ������ ������ ���point starting ��is to take areas��� either �� unique value. Designations can cover enormous areas of land or Can the biodiversity values of the Conservation Priority Area water. The risks these assessments. breeding depend on local needs and concerns that exist within a and feeding areas for global and regional migratory region.asp?t=intro. critical watershed. in the case of the Ecoregions and Not Currently Under Protection (CPA) be confirmed? Hotspots. National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) prepared under the Convention • Are there any other uses of special concern: on Biological Diversity (Article 6) may include a chapter on habitats that are a priority for conservation. because such areas are regarded overall region was originally classified. to understand the criteria used in defining CPAs. it is important to recognize each type of CPA are quite variable.) Essentially. • Areas that have an amenity or spiritual value? • Areas that have high research/education potential? 20 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . A national strategy will reflect how the country intends to fulfill the objectives of the • Areas with significant archaeological/spiritual/ CBD in light of specific national circumstances. contain particular areas of higher or lower values. species.

g.org/resources/programmes/ then the standard ESIA process global200/pages/mainmap. and the Information sources for answering Question 5 prospect of technically difficult and costly retrospective mitigation. ignored. ��Understanding �� how�� an �� ������� ������ ecosystem changes through time. The company can then take steps to manage confirm these values may involve commissioning an the potential impacts. even where this requires additional financial support and staff time. best professional judgment should be used • Ministries (e.redlist.htm introduction of alien species (e.e. The results of the science should then direct the need for additional work QUESTION 6. In cases where there is little • Field guides.htm should identify whether there are any significant biodiversity issues.org/ corridor between other isolated habitats of ecological themes/ssc/plants/centres. If there is no access to professional judgment in- WHY IS THIS QUESTION IMPORTANT? house.org • Conservation International – Biodiversity Hotspots and Wilderness Areas: www.iucn. is the habitat/ecosystem an ecological • Centres of Plant Diversity: http://www. biodiversity issues as early as possible in the ESIA then a particular response should be triggered. IUCN Red List: www. Museums of Natural Sciences). on an island or another isolated habitat)? • Information on rare ecological resources (e.org/themes/ssc/sisindex.biodiv.g. This may lead impacts may be and determine what the enhancement to a more thorough biodiversity baseline and monitoring (compensatory) measures might be.org/sites/whatareibas. http://www. or the information is contradictory.org/aboutus/ Prediction of impacts on biodiversity howwework/ �� �� �� �� is �� difficult. it may be extremely difficult • National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans: to recover a company’s positive reputation. If these are program as the project develops.biodiversityhotspots.panda. to identify the initial level of effort required to confirm Fisheries). To process.htm importance? • Species Survival Commission: • Is the ecosystem particularly vulnerable to the http://www. http://www. biodiversity values of a particular area. • The Nature Conservancy’s Conservation by Design – Last Great Places: http://nature. identify what the residual ESIA or linking up with third party studies. Trade.• At the local level. there are increased environmental risks with the associated potential reputation issues. Companies may be advised to undertake testing of • National NGOs. community groups and other biodiversity values during the very early stages of the stakeholders. if values are initially deemed to be high – for whatever Are there any significant biodiversity issues? reason. is the habitat/ • National publications. Finance. project. is not simple.cfm An important first stage in gaining an understanding of how the system might be changed by the proposed 21 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . Once damaged. Agriculture.birdlife. ecosystem well-represented or is it unique)? This will give some idea as to the distinctiveness of that • National academic research institutes (including particular habitat. third party assistance should be sought.iucn. or no information available. It is extremely important to identify any significant If it is determined that the biodiversity values are high. www. • Birdlife International – Important Bird Areas: even without an oil and/or gas project. Health.g.org ��� �� ��� �� If��� the company’s �� early������ ����� screening ������ ������ ��� �� ��� does not identify any designated • WWF – Global 200 Ecoregions: PAs or CPAs within its project area.org • Is the habitat/ecosystem representative of that within the company’s project area (i.

Having established a biodiversity baseline and discussed it with stakeholders. be a case of professional judgment (either in-house or resulting in the smothering of aquatic fauna and flora. etc. but it will in significant sediment loads in local watercourses. effects of those activities on the baseline. that baseline surveys within Another example would be if the forest clearance resulted a standard ESIA should not be conducted. negative – causing biodiversity loss. systematically through the various activities and aspects of each development alternative to determine the likely • Temporary nature/cycles of some processes (e. and this in it still more difficult to develop an accurate assessment. in the design of appropriate emergency response plans. academics and local organizations will See also Negative Secondary Impacts from Oil help to build a more accurate baseline.g. Utilizing the Impacts such as these need to be assessed to determine skills of an expert within the ESIA team can expedite both their significance. long-term or short-term. monitoring program that systematically assesses impacts against the baseline. project is to take a “snap-shot” of the existing conditions Social change also needs to be considered – for example. making resulted in an influx of people into an area. to some extent subjective. moderate. this is often not done in many Impacts and Conservation Actions and Good i Practice in the Prevention and Mitigation of ESIAs. It is essential that the criteria by which impact significance is judged be clearly defined and set out in the ESIA See also Biodiversity Indicators for Monitoring (unfortunately. and Gas Development. Expert (x hectares/acres of an ecosystem or habitat. external) of how detailed they should be. An This results in issues such as migratory patterns and example of an indirect change would be if the project seasonal variations not being addressed properly. Often the main difficulty how social changes caused by the project might affect associated with assessing biodiversity baselines is the biodiversity resources. • Global. Setting the criteria for what amounts to Primary and Secondary Biodiversity Impacts. it is then necessary to work • Local value and role of biodiversity.). it is necessary to take into account i and Social Impact Assessments. either directly or indirectly limited time within the ESIA for a thorough assessment. “medium” (moderate) or “low” (minor) magnitude impact for a particular project involves 22 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . x number judgment can also play an important role in designing a of individuals of a species. In addition. the: • Ability of an ecosystem/habitat or species to recover. or increased hunting. Although this is neutral – no net change). This is not to say. poaching or logging. by affecting other components of the ecosystem. i See also Integrating Biodiversity into Environmental In predicting impacts. – the baseline environment. expert judgment (and stakeholder engagement) will ensure a reasonable degree • Determine the likely magnitude of the residual impact of consensus on the intrinsic value of a resource. consultation with local stakeholders such as local communities (harnessing local knowledge such as ethno-botany). migrations etc). making sure to: flooding. cumulative impacts. turn resulted in the clearance of forest for subsistence farming. high) on the components biodiversity. This will assist in determining • Take into account the effects that could be associated adaptive measures to enhance operations while limiting with emergency situations so as to consider such risks their negative impacts. however. etc. For the purposes of an ESIA. it is useful to place some • Identify the type of impact (positive – enhancing sort of value (low. due to the apparent difficulty in determining significance). and this information needs to be fed the fieldwork and the interpretation of related findings. or that might potentially be affected. effects from values or ecological processes.). national or local significance (or importance) • Take into account the nature of the impact (direct of the biodiversity component and other national or indirect. into the overall decision-making framework. “high” (major).

Many such improvements. of is also important. targets sets in national. where a significant net make an ecosystem or species important are related gain is evident (determined through stakeholder to the environmental. or its own or together with other proposals) may when there is no possibility of recovery. specific criteria will need to • A high magnitude impact on a species affects an be developed on a case-by-case basis based on expert entire population or species in sufficient magnitude opinions. will not provide a significant gain to the biodiversity interest within Engagement with key stakeholders is vital in determining the natural area – these should be assessed as significance. impact may also affect a subsistence or commercial by substantially changing in the long term its resource use to the degree that the well-being of the ecological features. over a wide area would be regarded as a Major Impact. or any population or species dependent upon it. in a positive manner to the achievement of the aims. The the effect on the site is likely to be significant in size. The area/region may be able to recover – through A short-term effect upon the well being of resource natural regeneration and restoration – to its state at users may also constitute a moderate impact. and cumulative character. but not all. as many of the ecological functions that minor positive. Such an assessment may also woodland. “Off-the-shelf” criteria more damaging. of the consequence the short to medium term to some. Ideally. immigration from unaffected • Assessing Impacts to Habitat areas) would not return that population or species. A Moderate Impact multiplied its ecological features. its whole area. decline in abundance and/or a reduction in the distribution over one or more generations. but • Moderate negative impact: the area/region’s integrity does not threaten the long-term integrity of that will not be adversely affected in the long term. across user is affected over a long term. linear ecosystem/habitat).g. or the appropriate use of design national or local level and cover a species or an features such as ditches. • Positive impact: examples include a mitigation It is also important to look at a holistic level to assess package where previously fragmented areas were whether the project will affect the achievement of the united through habitat creation work (the concept aims of any BSAPs (which could be at an international. • Assessing Impacts to Species Where there are no appropriate targets/nature conservation objectives. appropriate objectives/targets for individual habitats It should be noted that if not properly designed. complex of habitats and/or population levels of • A moderate magnitude impact on a species affects species that makes it important. specific group of localized individuals within a but some minor impacts of limited extent. population itself. hedges. A major adversely affect the integrity of an area/region. • A low magnitude impact on a species affects a • Minor negative impact: neither of the above applies. structures and functions. definitions should not be encouraged. the time of the baseline study. of connectivity). regional or local what appears to be a positive impact in the short Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans [BSAPs]) and/or term can lead to longer-term impacts that may be from stakeholder engagement. or to population over a short time period (one generation some elements of the area. Two examples of criteria used to assess to cause a decline in abundance and/or change in significance are based on habitats and species: distribution beyond which natural recruitment (reproduction. However. the features should be assessed as case (sometimes referred to as the “limits of acceptable either intermediate positive or major positive (if change”). and species (e. • Major negative impact: the proposal (either on to its former level within several generations. The whole area can a portion of a population and may bring about a irreversibly change into a different landscape.deciding what amount of change is acceptable in that engagement). structures and functions. these criteria will be derived from for example the net gain is of national importance). that enable it to sustain the habitat. large wetlands or small ponds identify opportunities for the project team to contribute to create microhabitats. are evident but easy to or less). economic or cultural values and 23 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . while being very useful. but population or any population dependent on it. but does not affect other levels or the recover through natural regeneration. grassland. scrub.

land-take can be minimized in sensitive areas. if a distinct or isolated subspecies. a monitoring process is required to assess the actual effectiveness of the management plan and to adapt/modify it to ensure that impacts have been reduced to a reasonable and acceptable level. as appropriate. However. The ESIA process is examined in detail in Integrating • Measures may need to be considered to either offset i Biodiversity into Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Processes. If it still cannot be weighed against the benefits to the company’s mitigate impacts. Thus. thus often resulting in a more if a company’s effective control of the concession balanced view of the project. as well as those that are important an impact to a certain degree. to evaluate whether the “offsetting” or “compensating” for the negative project should proceed in that location. the predict-evaluate-mitigate sequence ESIA is conducted to identify. assess and then mitigate indicators against significance criteria is important potential impacts of a project. It should be impacts. it may only be possible to reduce important to people. research facilities. etc. can be designed in a way that can facilitate reuse (interpretation or social centers. agriculture. If the in demonstrating that the residual impacts are company cannot mitigate impacts acceptable (for the project and to stakeholders). then this should be fed into the overall business and the positive benefits it could deliver decision-making process for the company and other to others. QUESTION 7. For example. 24 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . the presence of well- stakeholders to make an independent judgment of managed oil and gas operations may benefit biodiversity cost and benefits. involving WHY IS THIS QUESTION IMPORTANT? stakeholders in determining significance can help ensure the mitigation measures address those impacts that are In most instances. then this should feed into the overall decision-making process for the company to evaluate whether the project should proceed as The ESIA process should feed back into project design to originally planned or whether it requires further assess potential impacts to biodiversity and to identify modifications. this allows negative impacts to include modifications such as improved design and/ (and potential indirect risks. area prevents other human activities (e. it is not possible to construct a production facility without It may be noted that a moderate or low-magnitude impact any land-take impacts. it allows them to weigh the pros and cons impact on biodiversity in the area. the mitigation or enhancement measures that are required to address these impacts. although for the environment. Setting clear measurable predict. to reputation) to or more robust mitigation measures. Having developed a management plan. services of that ecosystem or species.g. e. urban development and hunting) that would otherwise have a more significant long-term negative • Where the ESIA is submitted to regulatory authorities. facilities and infrastructure affected by a project. can be repeated. An • Where the ESIA and decision making/design are still evolving. If this cannot be achieved.g. in some cases. thus minimizing land- Can impacts be mitigated to an acceptable level? take impacts. so that: Mitigating impacts to a reasonable �� ��� �� and acceptable level is the basic premise of the ESIA process.) after the life of the project. then it will have to feed the findings ������� ������� ���� • Where the ESIA is being undertaken primarily to aid back into the decision framework a company’s decisions. of the company’s proposals in deciding whether or not to allow the project to proceed or not. Consultation on ESIA outputs also allows recognized that. forestry. The latter could in turn be regarded as stakeholders. An ESIA should identify residual impacts and evaluate how significant they are. mitigation measures have been designed into the population or geographical variant is significantly intended activity. These impacts are therefore to a species may be regarded as a high-magnitude impact “residual” in the sense that they remain after the on a genetic level. to a reasonable/acceptable level. or compensate against the residual impacts.

To answer whether the residual engineers and operations. Factors such as technical and financial feasibility. Furthermore. to an acceptable level.Determining what is reasonable/acceptable is Information sources for answering QUESTION 7 something the assessment team cannot do in isolation. The impact assessment process will have identified constructability and operability all need to be whether there are ways of mitigating residual impacts considered and will involve the project design team. stakeholder impacts are acceptable it is necessary to consult with identification and consultation is a critical feature of relevant stakeholder groups as early in the design of the this process. project as possible. 25 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process .

82 (WORLD CONSERVATION CONGRESS) Protection and conservation of biological diversity of protected 3. or to their categorization. APPENDIX A. threatened activities of the mining project indicates the species. exploration and CONSIDERING that protected areas of various localized extraction would be accepted only definitions and categories are home to a substantial where the nature and extent of the proposed portion of the Earth’s biological diversity. RECOMMENDS that: areas from the negative impacts of mining and exploration (a) in categories V and VI. RECOMMENDS that exploration and extraction efforts for nature conservation. which is outside of a protected The World Conservation Congress at its 2nd Session in area. monitoring. and compatibility of the project activities with the cultures. should be subject to: 1. monitoring. guarantee the conservation of biological diversity. indigenous communities. and threatened communities require strong legislative instruments to strengthen their 5. objectives of the protected area. 26 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . URGES that proposed changes to the boundaries of mineral exploration activities worldwide with particular protected areas. from competent authority and stakeholder groups first exploration through to decommissioning and after public disclosure of the EIA draft subsequent land use. 4–11 October 2000: which the protected areas were established. environmental groups. the EIA draft document. CONCERNED by the negative social and environmental impacts associated with the rapid growth of mining and 4. Jordan. and resources. operating. INVITES all governments and corporations to promote and implement best practice in all (a) EIA preparation and approval from relevant aspects of mining and mineral extraction. mining require an environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the project and approval RECALLING that a large majority of State members of by the relevant competent authority and IUCN are signatories to the Convention on Biological stakeholder groups after public disclosure of Diversity. and ACKNOWLEDGING that many of IUCN’s State members (c) authorized exploration and mining projects have established national systems of protected areas to be subject to strict planning. and post-use restoration conditions. resources in protected areas corresponding to IUCN Protected Areas Management Categories I to IV. lifestyles. of mineral resources and allied infrastructure development work. document. to allow reference to the risks posed to the preservation of for the exploration or localized extraction of mineral biological diversity in protected areas. CALLS on all IUCN’s State members to prohibit (b) strict planning. all exploration and extraction of mineral post-use restoration conditions. and 2. but which may negatively affect the values for Amman. NOTING that protected areas act as an important natural (b) authorization for localized exploration and system for the regulation of the world’s climate balance. should be subject to procedures at least as rigorous as those involved in the establishment of RECOGNIZING that the positive endeavours of States. operating. and by law. the protected area in the first place. “AMMAN DECLARATION” – RECOMMENDATION 2.

and reiterating Proceedings. management of parks and requirements for 27 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . “in the US. that.This Recommendation was adopted by a show of hands. the US for the Record indicating that it had opposed and voted Government has acted strongly to limit mining where it is not against the Recommendation. In this context. The environmental assessments are based on domestic laws and delegation of the United States made a formal Statement regulations.” The full Statement is reproduced in the Congress is an internal matter for sovereign states. not a global framework. noting that mining policy appropriate.

services and benefits offered implemented enabling legislation (however. The listing of a site on either the World Heritage or Furthermore. INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES AND WORLD HERITAGE AND RAMSAR SITES Introduction – the Impact of International Convention. Resolutions in the past on the of the treaty. once a state has expressed its consent to any irreversible action is taken. and in the majority communities (either to extract resources or to benefit of cases where an enabling statute has been passed (non from the natural functions of the wetland) a government self-executing). the Ramsar Bureau of changes in the boundaries at the earliest possible time (Article 2. APPENDIX B. The site does not have to have An international agreement (treaty) is binding on been declared a protected site prior to being listed. them. Under this provided that such entry into force is not unduly guidance. compensating for losses are a last resort and should only happen after all feasible alternatives have been • Signed the treaty subject to ratification. where it has been in the case of sites subject to intensive use by human signed and ratified by that country. the STRP and/or the Standing Committee before Therefore. acceptance examined through rigorous and transparent assessments or approval. see Urgent by the wetland is an appropriate first step when a National Interests and Ramsar sites below). Additionally. Treaties of this nature are known also bound to promote the conservation of wetlands as self-executing treaties and apply directly as the law of whether or not they are included on the list. conservation and presentation of such sites. An international agreement sometimes should provide the necessary protection to ensure its would be directly applicable (that is without the need for long-term sustainability. or has signed either the Ramsar or the World Heritage Convention. Whether or not a treaty is self-executing will the World Heritage Convention. until it has made its intentions clear in consultation with all relevant stakeholders.20). Nevertheless. the Contracting Party is obliged to inform delayed. Parties to the convention are an enabling statute). Party is invoking the right to delete a site or restrict its boundary and proposes related compensatory measures. while these negotiations are in issue have stressed that redefining boundaries and progress. General not to become a party to the treaty. not a treaty has become a part of national law. guidance for interpreting “urgent national interests” and considering compensation have recently been adopted • Expressed its consent to be bound by the treaty and by the Ramsar Parties (Resolution VIII. and citizens and entities within a country. be bound by. regardless of whether it has the full range of functions. it is under an obligation The guidance adopted by the Parties requires an to refrain from acts which may frustrate or defeat the environmental assessment that takes into consideration objects of these agreements. this assessment should be made in full Ramsar lists confers on such a site international consultation with all stakeholders. a State is obliged to refrain from acts tending to frustrate the Urgent National Interests and Ramsar sites object of a treaty when it has: The discussion of what constitutes an “urgent national • Agreed to enter into negotiations for the conclusion interest” is ongoing.5) and is encouraged to States are also obliged not to defeat the object and notify changes to the Bureau so as to request advice from purpose of a treaty prior to its coming into force. the recognition. 28 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . a government is obliged to take all steps Agreements at the National Level necessary to ensure the maintenance of the ecological character of the site. By having a site listed under the Ramsar guidelines state that Parties should take into account that. whether or protection. By signing the land. each country pledges depend on the law/constitution of the particular country to do all it can to the utmost of its ability to ensure the and the nature of the treaty.

alternative location. and threat identification including “without project” option. 29 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process . rare. More specifically. etc. the ecological character. the guidelines recommend a Contracting Party take the following items into account • The alternative that will best minimize harm to the when invoking “urgent national interest:” site in question. the Parties have committed • Whether maintaining the status quo threatens a themselves to take a number of factors into account when national interest. social and ecological values of the site in question. finding an processes for World Heritage sites.where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage. lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a threatened. the availability of compensatory land. including the maintenance of the overall value of the wetland and wetland areas in the • Whether the prolonged change is consistent with country as a whole. • The national benefits of maintaining the integrity of • Transboundary effects. timing. considering compensation. the wetlands system and its related benefits. • Whether the proposed action provides benefits to a large base of recipients. itself. • All reasonable alternatives to the proposed action monitoring and reporting. reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. vulnerable or endangered species. • The existing functions and economic. In terms of compensation. and • Whether the immediate action is required to avert a potential adverse impacts of the compensatory measure significant threat. • Whether a national interest is being increasingly World Heritage Processes threatened. The following figures outline the nomination. introducing buffer zones. • The particular value of habitats harboring endemic. habitat or value of the site. national policies. and uncertainties associated with compensation.

FIGURE 5. change in applied are sufficient be denied because of boundaries. the Audience & Nominating State) Defers nomination with Approves nomination Turns down nomination a proposal for on the basis that (note: it is not automatic addressing the situation measures already that a nomination will (e. data check & mission Provides recommendation to Committee via the Centre (contains information on potential threats such as oil/gas activities and reserves) Committee discusses (with possible input from Advisory Body. assurance process) 30 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . WORLD HERITAGE SITES NOMINATION PROCESS Nomination submitted to the World Heritage Centre Centre checks that nomination is complete Hands over nomination to Advisory Body Advisory Body conducts desk review.g. mineral leases/activities) management processes.

for expert advice. for a mission. the Audience the Audience & State & State) Committee makes a recommendation (e. data collection.g.g. Committee for a roundtable discussion) Committee lists site as Committee decides World In In Danger Danger && Heritage values not recommends action threatened 31 Framework for Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process .FIGURE 6. submitted tofor expert advice. WORLD HERITAGE SITES MONITORING & REPORTING PROCESS Existing World Heritage sites are subject to reactive monitoring & periodic review Monitoring/reporting identifies threat from oil/gas activity Centre hands report over to Advisory Body Advisory Body assesses the situation (desk review.Body . for a roundtable discussion) Committee Results makes a recommendation of further assessment (e.) Advisory Body provides report to Committee Committee Committee discusses discusses the the situation situation (with (withinput possible possible frominput from Advisory Advisory Body. etc. for a mission.

) Advisory Body provides report to Committee Committee discusses the situation (with possible input from Advisory Body . citizen. etc. NGO.) Centre notifies Advisory Body Centre contacts State for verification Advisory Body assesses the situation State provides further information (desk review. FIGURE 7. etc. data collection.g. for a roundtable discussion) Results of further assessment submitted to Committee Committee lists site as Committee decides World In Danger & Heritage values not recommends action threatened 32 The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative . for a mission. WORLD HERITAGE SITES THREAT IDENTIFICATION PROCESS Potential threat identified by a stakeholder (Advisory Body. UNESCO. for expert advice. the Audience & State) Committee makes a recommendation (e.