Efficient Airbag ECU Tests
Validation of Software Requirements with Automated Tests during Development
In the automobile, airbags are one of the safety-critical systems whose reliability can be a matter of life or death. The airbag control unit is responsible for proper operation of the entire occupant restraint system, consisting of all sorts of airbags, belt tensioners, sensors and switches. Even during product development, numerous validation tests are indispensable at all development stages. A new test system from Robert Bosch, increases efficiency in early test phases in development; it shortens test times while simultaneously increasing testing depth. It also reduces the number of test iterations for system tests on existing HIL test benches.
The functional integrity of the safety system depends on the airbag control unit. Airbag systems must operate absolutely errorfree, and so they are subject to the most stringent safety requirement level: ASIL Level D. It requires continual monitoring of all of the system components involved such as squibs, sensors, switches and the airbag control unit itself. Fault conditions are stored in fault memory and can be read out in the service garage. The test system presented here focuses less on crash-triggering tests, and more on validation of software requirements derived from customer and internal requirements. In addition, the test hardware is used to simulate the vehicle environment of the target systems. The hardware makes it possible to automatically simulate nearly all external system states that are relevant to functional software tests (Figure 1). One of the test system’s capabilities is to generate various error states of the airbag system to study the ECU’s behavior in such situations. The desire to improve test quality and automate test sequences in testing that supports development motivated Bosch to subcontract the development of a compact, mobile airbag test system. The goal was to obtain a flexible system that implements the requirements of early test phases more costeffectively than powerful HIL systems (Figure 2), and which is well-suited to worldwide use at all Bosch development sites for airbag systems
Requirements of the new test system
In the framework of project services, Vector Informatik developed the test system software and integrated the test hardware. The project-specific hardware was designed and built by TBM SoftwareEntwicklung & Elektronik (TBM). In the joint planning phase, it was
for example. warning lamps and the CAN bus. the system must be capable of generating short circuits between lines and different voltages. Afterwards. Resistor decades simulate the operating ranges of squibs and seatbelt switches in this application. The air bags are only activated for a short period of time. Airbag triggering process
An airbag triggering process consists of a sequence of highly precise. switches. The test system must also simulate connection of the wrong lines as well as overvoltages and undervoltages. To drive the TBM test hardware. and the CAN bus. The interface to CANoe is made via a channel of the Vector CAN hardware.
internal monitoring correctly identifies the error states.The airbag ECU applies other parameters in its computations – such as weight distribution on seats. Mapping tables handle the assignments between test hardware channels and project-specific pin names. because it would have to handle many Bosch projects for different OEMs. is responsible for core functions: Test hardware drive control via CAN. CAN remaining bus simulation. This makes additional functions available to users. The test sequences themselves are created in CAPL. the central control unit. a C-based script language to conveniently support specific application cases. These aspects must be taken into consideration. Sensors supply information on the vehicle’s speeds. at what times and with which strength. This environment consists of squibs. states of seatbelts. Vector developed a C++ DLL. In creating the test sequences. interrelated and coordinated individual actions. peripheral acceleration sensors. including automatic reporting. Basic properties of TFS are automatic execution of ECU tests and parallel generation of test reports. easy operation and flexible test software
Vector’s CANoe test and simulation software and integrated Test Feature Set (TFS) made a significant contribution toward quick and successful implementation of the new test system. which can be influenced by the use of different ignition pills.Success Story
determined that software and hardware requirements for the new system would vary widely.
. which provides all of the necessary CAPL test functions. Another important parameter is the speed at which the bags fill. as well as the number and type of squibs and seat belt buckles vary with each project. vehicle lines and variants. project-specific extensions are made. names and assignments of the pins used. Another important requirement is configurability of the test system. transverse and longitudinal acceleration values and rotational movements. The number. This involves use of an integrated voltage supply to run through various individually programmable voltage curves. The goal here was to find a reasonable compromise that would allow a majority of the software requirements to be validated for the ECUs.
A key requirement is simulation and monitoring of the ECU’s immediate environment. CANoe. is controlled via CAN. a check is made to determine whether the airbag ECU’s
Figure 1: Layout of the test system. To simulate line errors. switches. warnign lamps. The ignition pills are pyrotechnical propellant charges that generate a lot of gas in a short period of time. so that the test system can be conveniently used in different projects. The test hardware from TBM. specially developed for this project. peripheral acceleration sensors. it is often very advantageous to be able to address ECU pins by meaningful names. An important requirement is the simulation and monitoring of sqibs. so precise ignition time is a crucial parameter. belt tensioners and switches – to determine which airbags should be ignited.
for example. seatbelt buckles and configurable warning lamps. and this renders the previous manually operated test hardware unnecessary. Excel tables are also used. Production diagnostic services are already integrated in ECU implementations very early in development. These services have been integrated in CANoe. In addition. Extensive CAPL functions allow Bosch to create complex test cases as well.g. and test log depth of detail is set separately for each test run. These functions are used to control switching of short circuits. The system lets users automatically test ECU functions. and it is well suited for automated software requirement tests as well as error replication and analysis. Excited about the many capabilities and potential of CANoe. After an initial automation effort. In addition.
The new airbag test system for software requirements testing exceeded expectations in fulfilling project goals. e. CANdela files in CDD format or ODX files may be used as standard diagnostic description files. Additional CAPL convenience functions are used to search for a specific ECU pin name. in testing the ECU’s error memory. vehicle lines and equipment variants. This makes it possible to use symbolic descriptors for diagnostic services and parameters in all projects. The Bosch airbag ECUs also support production diagnostics – an internal company diagnostic protocol. India. At Bosch. Since diagnostic descriptions are not available in these formats on all projects. For the time from startup to in-house maintenance of the new system by Bosch. Global use of a uniform test system for software validation levels at all Bosch sites for developing airbag ECUs makes it easy to reproduce faulty behavior independent of the site. manually executed tests.Success Story
diagnostics and reporting (Figure 3). The system offers a graphic CANoe operating panel for this purpose. the system enables significantly shorter test times despite the much higher number of test cases. There are also arithmetic functions for processing arrays. the test system was systematically further developed and a test control was implemented for individual. It is universally applicable for
Figure 2: Use of the new test system in the V-Model
Figure 3: Components of the CANoe configuration
. or to query switch states and compare them. log the observed behavior and recognize deviations from expected behavior. the USA and Japan.
The new test system – subcontracted by Bosch and implemented by Vector and TBM – includes project-dependent squibs. Bosch is already considering further extensions of its airbag test system.
the airbag ECUs of most OEMs. The cost advantage compared to large HIL test benches enables its use in low-cost countries. it is already being used for certain software integration tests and module tests. setting of resistances and setting of current sources. In total. early implementation of automated tests during software development means that errors in the airbag ECUs can be detected and corrected more quickly. XML/HTML reports generated from the CANoe TFS can be modified to be project-specific. The primary software and hardware developments were completed within the very short time of just half a year. 42 systems are now in use in Germany. Subsequent validation stages build upon a high level of software quality. Vector was the central contact partner for application support and modifications to the overall test system. They are also used to send and evaluate CAN messages.
uk USA. Germany.com/canoe
Dr. Geisler. Sweden. Bosch has been employed at Robert Bosch GmbH in the Airbags area until 2006. Stuttgart.com Great Britain Vector GB Ltd.Success Story
Translation of a German publication in Hanser Automotive. Belgium. www.com Sweden.vector-gb.com
Katja Hahmann. and since then as technical project leader for ESP application projects in France. India. Detroit. Martin C. www..vector. Finland... Canada. France.vector-scandinavia.
David Oberschmidt.com Hompage Vector: www.jp Korea Vector Korea IT Inc. Norway. Bosch has been employed at Robert Bosch GmbH since 2002. Vector since 1997 she has been employed at Vector in Stuttgart where she is group manager for CANoe Application Development in the Networks and Distributed Systems product line..com Japan Vector Japan Co. Mexico Vector CANtech.co. www. Ltd. Göteborg. 10/2009
Cover picture Robert Bosch GmbH Figures 1-3 Vector Informatik GmbH
. Ltd.com Product Information CANoe: www. Bosch since 2005 he has been employed at Robert Bosch GmbH as sub-project leader and later as team leader for software validation in the Airbag area.vector-france.vector. Tokyo. Luxembourg Vector France. www. Seoul. Pune. Denmark.vector. www.vector. Inc.vector-japan.kr India Vector Informatik India Prv. Republic of Korea. specializing in the areas of Test Automation and Test Tooling. Birmingham. USA.com France.. Paris. www. www. bosch.in E-Mail Contact info@vector. not named below Vector Informatik GmbH.vector-cantech. where he works as a development engineer in the Airbag area..vector. United Kingdom.
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