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presentation will try to answer the following question

1. What do we mean by a sentence?

2. What are phrases and clauses?
3. What are the major constituants?
4. How many types of sentences are there?
5. How many sentence forms are there?
1. What do we mean by a sentence?
2. What are phrases and clauses?
3. What are the major constituants?
4. How many types of sentences are there?
5. How many sentence forms are there?
A sentence is a grammatical unit that should:

§ Be independent [stand alone]

What’s this?
§ Make sense.
§ Express a single thought
§ Have a subject and a verb.
§ Start with a CAPITAL LETTER
§ End in a full stop (.)
The subject is who or what the sentence is talking about,
usually a noun or pronoun

• Ali is a Moroccan student

• I am working on the computer.
• A sentence is a group of words…
• They live next to the bank.
The verb tells what the subject is or does

• Ali is a Moroccan student.

• I am working on the computer.
• The cat drinks milk.
• They live next to the bank.
• We are fine.
Some sentences are composed of many phrases and clauses.
They are parts of the sentence and they rarely work independently.
A phrase is a fragment that consists of more than a word
and it conveys no meaning by itself as it lacks the subject.

There are many sorts of phrases:

Adpositional phrase
Postpositional phrase
Prepositional phrase
Noun phrase
Pronominal phrase
Verb phrase
Phrasal verbs
Some sentences could contain more than one clause.
They are two types:

Main clause Subordinate clause

Independent clause depends on the main clause

I feel tired because I work hard.

Main Clause Subordinate clause

While I was taking a walk, I came across my primary school teacher.

Main clause Subordinate clause

« I came across my primary school teacher » can be a whole sentence. So

It is the main clause.
« While I was taking a walk » is subordinate to the main clause. You notice
That its meaning isn’t complete. It depends on what the main clause says.

There are many types of clauses

These are the most frequently used either in writing or in speaking.
They are introduced by:

Who - whom - whose - which - that

The boy who solved the problem is my nephew.

The man whom you were talking to for a while is his father.
The lady whose eyes are blue is his mother.
The briefcase which is over there is his.

And « that » replaces « who », « which » and often « whom » in many situations
and it is mostly used in Spoken English.

Relative clauses can be restrictive or non-restrictive. Restrictive ones take

commas but non-restrictive don’t.
These are also used very so often and they are introduced by:

When - where - why

We visited the house where Shakespeare was born.

This is the reason why she wanted to go to Stratford.
She went there in the day when the house was being mended.
These are usually in pairs and they are subordinated one to the other by:

and - but - or

1 2

I will cook dinner and she will do the washing up.

1 Ali speaks four languages but Nadia speaks only one. 2

I will revise my lessons or I will do my homework.

1 2
Mostly used in stories. It indicates a true to life or imaginary existence
of a person or a thing.

It’s form is always:

THERE + was/were + noun clause

There was a beautiful little princess…

There were some huge ugly giants…

It is often used to invite readers to make some interpretations.

Is a subordonate clause that functions as a noun phrase.

I think that it’s alright.

From where he is, he could see the match.

A complement clause is a nominal clause.

 Equative clause e.g. She is young / she = young

 Finite clause is used with a finite verb

 Nonfinite clause is used with a nonfinite verb like the infinitive.

 Medial clause or nonfinal clause is distinguished in a clause chain

 Reference clause where the subject is an argument.

 Final clause is a dinstinguished clause in a clause chain

For further details submit any of them to search engines

The sentence is generally composed of three main constituants notably,

Ali is a doctor

Cats drink milk

Cars have horns

And this is the base form of the simple sentence

There are three types

The simple sentence

The compound sentence

The complex sentence

The simple sentence contains a subject and a
verb and expresses a complete thought, but it
can also contain a compound subject or verb.
Simple Sentence: Single Simple sentence with
subject + single verb a compound subject.

 Leila is playing tennis.

 Ali and Jamal like to stay in bed.
 Nadia goes to the park and revises her lessons.

Simple Sentence with

a compound verb
The compound sentence is two simple sentences or
independent clauses joined together by one of these
conjunction known as « FANBOYS »: For, And, Nor, But,
Or, Yet, So.

My sister is a doctor. Simple sentence 1

She works in a hspital. Simple sentence 2

My sister is a doctor, and she works in a hospital.

Leila is Moroccan, but she lives in France.

A complex sentence has at least one main clause and one or more
subordinate clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator
such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative
pronoun such as that, who, or which

I read the book (which) you gave me yesterday.

They jumped into the pool when the referee whistles.
She didn’t do well at the test because she was sick.
Since there is no milk left in the fridge, let’s buy some.

+ The sentences containing relative or adjective clauses are complex.

Sentence Forms
The flexibility of language styles makes it possible
to use different forms to express oneself
in different ways depending on what you want to say
and how you want to say it. So …

How many forms can the sentence take?

Those sentences looking for answers take the form of questions and
always end in a question mark.
We call them …

• What’s your name?

• How many slides are there in this presentation?
• Will you close the window please?
• How much does the jacket cost?
• Did leila invite you to her wedding party?
• It is very cold outside, isn’t it?
• How often do you connect to the Internet?
• Have you finished yet?
• And so on ………
Those which give direct orders, commands or advice and also
often express prohibition.
We call them …

 You must call the police right now.

 You should respect the elderly.
 Bring it up here.
 You can’t park your car here.
 You aren’t allowed to smoke in public places.
 Stand up.
Those which show that we are astonished or surprised and always
end in an exclamation mark
We simply call them …

 What a wonderful move

 That’s amazing
 How delicious couscous is
That little boy solved the problem
 Etc.
But those which state facts, arguments or indirect questions
We call them …

 Rabat is the capital city of Morocco.

 Water is a liquid.
 I always thought that love is sacred.
 She wanted to know how old I was.
 Etc.
All of them could be:


Did you see these?

Yes, I did
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