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Questions 1-6

Three couples will dine at Pontillo’s restaurant: Bob and 3. If each of the diners orders a dessert, then each of the
Carrie, Fiona and Greg, and Paula and Quincy. The following could order the duck EXCEPT:
restaurant serves three different categories of items
including the following choices: Salads – house or romaine; A) Bob
Entrees – duck or trout; Desserts – watermelon or ice cream. B) Carrie
Each of the diners must order at least one item, and their C) Fiona
order must conform to the following conditions: D) Greg
No couple orders exactly the same items. E) Paula
Greg orders the duck.
If Paula orders an entrée, then she does not order a
dessert. 4. If all of the women order house salads, then the
Bob and Quincy both order salads, but not the same maximum number of people who could order the trout is:
If any of the diners orders a house salad, then they A) 1
also order ice cream. B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
1. Which of the following is an acceptable assignment of E) 5
items ordered to diners?

A) Bob - house salad, ice cream; Carrie – duck: Fiona – 5. If only one diner orders ice cream, then which of the
romaine salad, duck; Greg – romaine salad, duck: Paula – following CANNOT be true?
romaine salad, watermelon; Quincy – romaine salad, duck,
watermelon A) Bob orders ice cream
B) Bob – house salad, ice cream; Carrie – duck, B) Carrie orders ice cream
watermelon: Fiona – house salad, trout, ice cream; Greg – C) Greg orders watermelon
house salad, duck, ice cream: Paula – romaine salad, trout; D) Paula orders watermelon
Quincy – romaine salad, duck E) Quincy orders ice cream
C) Bob – romaine salad, trout; Carrie – house salad, ice
cream: Fiona – house salad, duck; Greg – duck, ice cream:
Paula – romaine salad, trout; Quincy – house salad, ice 6. If each of the diners orders an entrée, then the minimum
cream number of items ordered is:
D) Bob – romaine salad, duck, watermelon; Carrie –
romaine salad, trout: Fiona – duck; Greg – duck, ice cream: A) 6
Paula – duck; Quincy – romaine salad, trout, watermelon B) 7
E) Bob – house salad, trout, ice cream; Carrie – duck: Fiona C) 8
– romaine salad, duck; Greg – duck, ice cream: Paula – D) 9
house salad, trout, ice cream; Quincy – romaine salad, duck E) 10

2. If Bob orders the romaine salad, then which of the

following must be true?

A) Carrie orders the trout GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

B) Fiona orders the duck
C) Greg orders the watermelon
D) Paula orders the ice cream
E) Quincy orders the ice cream
Questions 7-12
10. If the mango preserves are placed in jar 6, then which of
Aunt Mae has finished making her yearly preserves and she the following is a complete and accurate list of preserves
must now place them in seven jars on her shelf. The jars are any one of which could be placed in jar 7?
numbered 1 to 7 from left to right. Aunt Mae has made the
following types of preserves: apple, cherry, date, fig, grape, A) apple, date, grape
lychee and mango. Each type of preserves must be placed B) apple, cherry, grape
in exactly one of the numbered jars according to the C) fig, lychee
following conditions: D) fig, grape
The cherry preserves cannot be placed immediately E) apple, fig, grape
next to the mango preserves.
The fig preserves must be placed to the right of the
date preserves. 11. If the cherry preserves must be immediately next to the
The lychee preserves must be placed to the left of fig preserves, which of the following must be true?
the apple preserves.
The cherry preserves must be on one end of the A) The apple preserves are placed in jar 5.
shelf. B) The date preserves are placed in jar 5.
If the fig preserves are placed in jar 3, then the C) The grape preserves are placed in jar 5.
lychee preserves must be placed in jar 5. D) The lychee preserves are not placed in jar 5.
E) The mango preserves are not placed in jar 5.

7. Which of the following is an acceptable assignment of

the preserves to the numbered jars from 1 to 7? 12. Which one of the following placements of the preserves
in the numbered jars would allow for only one possible
A) cherry, lychee, apple, mango, fig, date, grape assignment of preserves to jars?
B) apple, mango, date, fig, grape, lychee, cherry
C) cherry, date, fig, grape, mango, lychee, apple A) The apple preserves are placed in jar 2 and the grape
D) date, lychee, grape, mango, apple, cherry, fig preserves are placed in jar 5.
E) lychee, mango, grape, date, apple, fig, cherry B) The mango preserves are placed in jar 2 and the fig
preserves are placed in jar 3.
C) The lychee preserves are placed in jar 2 and the date
8. Which of the following preserves CANNOT be placed in preserves are placed in jar 6.
jar 7? D) The grape preserves are placed in jar 2 and the cherry
preserves are placed in jar 7.
A) apple E) The date preserves are placed in jar 2 and the lychee
B) cherry preserves are placed in jar 5.
C) date
D) fig
E) grape

9. If the cherry preserves are placed to the left of the lychee STOP
preserves and the fig preserves are placed in jar 3, then IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS
which of the following could be true? CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK
A) The grape preserves are placed in jar 6.
B) The apple preserves are placed in jar 4. ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.
C) The mango preserves are placed in jar 2.
D) The date preserves are placed in jar 4.
E) The lychee preserves are placed in jar 6.
1. Trace amounts of certain toxic chemicals have been 3. Spider webs are among the strongest known substances
found in Green River. Fish and wildlife experts believe on the planet. Although thin in appearance, the tensile
that these chemicals have entered Green River through strength of a spider web is almost ten times its mass.
the runoff of industrial waste from one or more of the As such, a spider web can hold insects or other animals
companies located along the banks of the river. These that weigh far more than the web itself. Thus, a spider
experts also speculate that even in trace amounts, these web could hold a rat.
chemicals may be harmful to many of the fish who live
in Green River. Nopac is a company located on Green For the conclusion above to be logically correct, which
River that produces chemical solutions for use in paint of the following must be assumed?
removal. It is well known that Nopac uses some of the
toxic chemicals found in the river in its manufacturing (A) Spiders are natural predators of rats.
process. Clearly, Nopac is responsible for the (B) A spider web can hold any insect or animal that
potentially hazardous situation in Green River. weighs less than a rat.
(C) No rats weigh more than ten times the weight of a
The argument’s reasoning is flawed because the spider web.
argument (D) There are no natural predators of spiders who can
destroy a spider web.
(A) fails to establish that the toxic chemicals in question (E) The natural habitat of rats contains some spiders.
will definitely harm the fish in Green River
(B) ignores the possibility that other substances may also
be harmful to the local fish and wildlife
(C) does not take into consideration that the fish and
wildlife experts cited may have their own personal
agenda regarding Green River GO ON TO THE NEXT
(D) overlooks the possibility that Nopac may properly PAGE
dispose of its chemicals and one or more of the other
companies located on the river may have created the
waste runoff in question
(E) fails to address the impact that the presence of the
toxic chemicals in Green River might have on the
humans that live there

2. All Italian cars are faster than French cars, and all
Italian cars are faster than German cars. However,
some French cars are faster than some American cars
and some German cars are faster than some Swedish

If all the statements above are true, then which one of

the following must also be true?

(A) Some French cars are faster than some German cars.
(B) Some American cars are faster than some Italian cars.
(C) Some German cars are not faster than some Swedish
(D) All Italian cars are faster than American cars.
(E) Some Swedish cars are not faster than Italian cars.
4. The burglars who broke into the bank last night must 5. Tyrone: I do not believe that the candidate for office is
have had access to the security code. The bank fit to serve. He has three convictions for drunken
manager was alone in the bank until after midnight and driving, he has spoken out in public against measures
she is certain that she set the alarm before she left. that would make our streets safer, and he has shown a
Only someone who knew the security code could have total disregard for the welfare of our community. If he
entered the bank after midnight without setting off the is elected by some miracle, he should be immediately
alarm. recalled.

The pattern of reasoning exhibited in the argument Ophelia: I think you judge the candidate too harshly.
above most closely parallels that exhibited in which one While he may have a checkered past, many politicians
of the following? have done things that they are not proud of, but that
does not mean they are unfit to serve in the capacity for
(A) The student who scored a perfect score on the science which they are elected. This candidate, if elected,
exam must have seen a copy of the exam before the deserves a chance to serve out his term.
test. The instructor had the test in her possession
until just before it was administered, and she had Tyrone and Ophelia are committed to disagreeing about
included a trick question to ensure that no student which one of the following?
would get a perfect score. Only someone who had
seen the test before it was administered could have (A) This candidate for office has done some things in the
known the right answer to the trick question. past that he is not proud of.
(B) It is clear that the thief who took the diamonds last (B) This candidate’s actions, past and present, disqualify
night knew where to find them. The jeweler him from serving in the office for which he is
consistently moved the diamonds to different running.
locations in the store, and he moved them last night. (C) Any candidate for public office must have a spotless
Only someone with the tools needed to break into the criminal record in order to be elected to that office.
jewelry store could have taken the diamonds. (D) This particular candidate is not the best possible
(C) The person who ate the last piece of cake must have candidate for the office he is seeking.
been alerted to the fact that it was not poisoned. The (E) If this candidate is recalled, it will be because of his
pastry chef is foul tempered and has been known to disregard for the welfare of the community.
poison cakes in the past. Only someone who knew
that this particular piece of cake was not poisoned
could have been sure it was safe to eat.
(D) Whoever left the graffiti on the park bench surely
knew the park ranger had gone home for the evening.
The park ranger regularly patrols the area of the park GO ON TO THE NEXT
where the bench is located. Only someone with an PAGE
inside knowledge of the layout of the park could have
successfully avoided the park ranger while he was
(E) No one who was not in clear view of the
photographer could have appeared in the photo. It is
physically impossible to take a picture of someone
you cannot see. Thus, the photographer could not
have taken a picture of Sam, who was behind him at
the time the photo was taken.
(E) To date, the museum project has not been offered
money by city art patrons who are not wealthy.
6. Ancient Sumerian warriors used a variety of weapons,
but according to historians, their weapon of choice was 8. At an early age, children are able to distinguish between
a long sword. Compared to a traditional short sword different colors and shapes. For instance, at one year of
from the same era, the long swords were approximately age, children know the difference between red and blue,
one foot longer but six inches more narrow. It is and they know the difference between a square and
believed that the Sumerian warriors preferred the long circle. Recent research with primates shows a
sword because it was easier to wield than a short sword strikingly similar ability in chimpanzees. One-year-old
and it allowed them to pierce an enemy’s armor from a chimps can also differentiate between primary colors
greater distance away – a major concern for the and basic shapes. On the basis of this research, it can
Sumerians as their own armor was relatively weak. be concluded that the brains of humans and
chimpanzees develop at the same rate.
Which one of the following, if true, casts the most
doubt on the historians’ belief? The argument above relies on which one of the
following assumptions?
(A) There is documentation proving that ancient
Sumerian warriors frequently used spears as (A) In the wild, chimpanzees are exposed to the same
weapons. variety of colors and shapes that human children are.
(B) Ancient Visigoth warriors, who were considered the (B) The research in question was done without any
premier fighters of their time, preferred crossbows to knowledge of how the human children reacted to the
long swords. same stimuli.
(C) Steel, the chief component of swords, was in short (C) The ability to differentiate between different colors
supply in ancient Sumeria. and shapes is an indicator of brain development.
(D) Evidence from the tombs of ancient Carpathians, the (D) Since humans are generally smarter than
main enemy of ancient Sumerians, shows that the chimpanzees, the human brain develops more rapidly
vast majority of wounds inflicted upon the after one year of age than does the chimpanzee brain.
Carpathians were from longbow arrows. (E) Both humans and chimpanzees are able to tell the
(E) Throughout military history, the weapon of choice for difference between disparate sounds as well as
most warriors has been the short sword. disparate colors.

7. At present, the only source of funding for the new 9. Cats are defensive animals. They will not allow anyone
downtown art museum is private donations. Yet the art or anything that they do not trust to get close to them.
council insists that it is committed to upgrading the If a cat feels threatened in any way, it will bare its claws
reputation of our city as being a cultural mecca. How and hiss. When I was at my Aunt Sally’s house the
can this be true when the council has not sought any other day, her cat Boo Boo hissed and bore its claws at
public funding for this ambitious project? If the council me. Even though I thought I was being nice, Boo Boo
continues to rely solely on the kindness of wealthy art must have felt threatened by me.
patrons, the museum will not open in our lifetime.
The argument above is flawed because
If all of the above statements are true, then which one
of the following must also be true? (A) the author mistakenly thinks that what is sufficient to
cause a cat to hiss and bare its claws is necessary for
(A) None of the wealthy art patrons in the city will it to do so
continue to offer private donations without matching (B) Aunt Sally’s cat Boo Boo may be a particularly
contributions from a public source of funding. territorial cat
(B) The art council will seek some sort of public funding (C) the author provides no indication that he is an expert
to back up its commitment to the new art museum. on the behavior of cats
(C) If the new downtown art museum does open in the (D) not all cats will bare their claws when approached by
near future, it will attract enough visitors to cover the a stranger
costs of any bond measure that may have paid for it. (E) when a cat hisses, that is not necessarily an indication
(D) If the new downtown art museum does open soon, that it feels threatened
then it must have received funding from some source
besides the city’s wealthy art patrons.
10. When someone states that they are “in love”, that is a 12. A recent survey of divorced couples revealed that the
misnomer. “Love”, like any other emotion, is a two main reasons people get divorced are financial
metaphysical state. Accordingly, it is neither tangible problems and infidelity. Therefore, if couples are able
nor purely physical. To be “in” something, one must be to resolve their financial problems and remain faithful
able to physically be encompassed by that thing, but to one another, there would be no more divorces.
since love is not physical such a state is an
impossibility. One can be “in” a room, but one cannot Which one of the following assumptions is made by the
technically be “in” love. author of the argument above?

The author of the argument above uses which one of the (A) Most divorced couples separate for a combination of
following argumentative strategies? reasons, not a single one.
(B) Financial problems are a more important factor in
(A) She argues that two different states of being are divorces than infidelity is.
fundamentally incompatible, since being in one state (C) Couples who do not get divorced do not have
precludes someone from being in the other state. financial problems.
(B) She offers a clear definition of a key term and then (D) The primary focus of marriage counseling is on
demonstrates how a particular condition is patently helping couples deal with the issues that cause them
inconsistent with that definition. to consider divorce.
(C) She demonstrates that two conflicting emotions (E) Infidelity and financial problems are the only reasons
cannot coexist. that people get divorced.
(D) She limits the terms to which her argument can be
applied, thereby creating a restrictive situation.
(E) She offers a series of evidentiary statements that 13. All molecules are composed of neutrons, protons and
prove her conclusion to be absurd. electrons. These are the smallest known elements of
matter, the fabric that makes up all things in the
universe. Scientists believe that there are still smaller
11. The building contractor who was hired by the town has elements, but they have yet to prove that these smaller
publicly stated that he wants to improve the elements exist. Experiments underway at this time
architectural aesthetics of the Main Street corridor. hope to use Super Colliders to show that matter is
However, he recently tore down the Clock Tower and actually comprised of at least three elements smaller
the Williams House, both of which are beautiful historic than the smallest electron.
buildings on Main Street.
Which of the following, if true, would most bolster the
Which one of the following, if true, does most to scientists’ argument?
resolve the apparent discrepancy between the
statements of the building contractor and his subsequent (A) Current research indicates that electrons are markedly
actions? smaller than protons.
(B) It is widely believed that Super Colliders can “see”
(A) The Clock Tower, while of some historical aspects of a molecule that have not previously been
significance, had fallen into a state of disrepair in identified.
recent years. (C) While matter is the most prevalent substance in the
(B) he purpose of tearing down the two buildings was to fabric of the universe, some scientists also believe
erect new, more architecturally pleasing edifices in that there is some anti-matter present as well.
the same space. (D) Super Colliders have identified several particles in a
(C) The building contractor did not recognize the molecule that have yet to be named, but appear to be
importance of the Williams House in the town’ smaller than electrons.
history. (E) Molecular biology theorizes the existence of quarks,
(D) The Main Street corridor has a variety of shops and a fourth element of matter.
stores interspersed with older buildings like the
Williams House.
(E) The Clock Tower was designed by Harry Hills, the
town founder and a well-known architect.
Judicial review, when the U.S. Supreme Court decides a U.S., the Brown decision was a logical next step for a court
case on its Constitutional basis, triggers a debate between that looked not only to the strict intent of the framers, but
those who view the Constitution as a fixed document and also to the direction of social development, which demanded
those who view it as an evolving creation. “Strict” a looser reading of the 14th amendment than the post-Civil
constructionists believe that all Supreme Court decisions War Congress could have imagined.
regarding the interpretation of the Constitution must be
viewed narrowly from the intent of the framers, and any
decision must be rendered accordingly. “Loose” 1. Which of the following titles best fits the passage
constructionists, on the other hand, believe the court must above?
look at the issue at hand and how present day implications
affect the reading of the Constitution. A closer look at the (A) A History of Race Relations in America: From
litany of cases dealing with slavery and segregation provides the Revolution to the Civil Rights Movement
substantial fodder for the loose constructionist viewpoint. (B) Settling the Constructionism Debate: A Review
Dred Scott v. Sanford was one of the most important of Slavery and Segregation cases in the U.S.
Supreme Court decisions of the 19th century. Dred Scott Supreme Court
was a former slave who lived in the free state of Illinois, and (C) The Warren Court: Bastions of Strict
petitioned to return to his home state of Missouri as a free Interpretation
man. The Supreme Court ruled that since Scott was black, (D) U.S. Supreme Court Cases of the Past 200 Years
he lacked standing and had no right to sue. In referencing (E) Slavery and Segregation: From Taney to Warren
the “all men are created equal” clause of the Declaration of a History of the U.S. Supreme Court
Independence, implied in the Constitution, chief justice
Taney reasoned that, “it is too clear for dispute, that the
enslaved African race were not intended to be included.” 2. The passage suggests that strict constructionists would
The Dred Scott decision seems to utilize a strict view the Dred Scott decision favorably because
constructionist stance. However, the very reason for the
case was the distinction of states as “free” or “slave” states; (A) they believed that there should be a clear
a distinction that did not exist until the Missouri separation between the rights of whites and
Compromise. How then could the framers have foreseen blacks
such an issue? Taney was dealing with a critical issue – (B) it prevented slaves from returning as “free” to
defining the standing of the now “free” slaves – and used a slave states
“strict” view to distance himself politically from what was, (C) it marked a turning point in the attitude of the
in many circles, an unpopular decision. Supreme Court
The Supreme Court at the turn of the 20th century dealt (D) the Taney court based its decision on the intent of
further with the ramifications of the now freed slaves in the framers
Plessy v. Ferguson. The Plessy case involved having (E) no consideration was given to a loose
separate white and black sections of a train, and Plessy, a constructionist viewpoint
former slave, sued to find such segregation unconstitutional.
The Plessy court found that such racial divides did not
violate either the 13th or 14th amendments of the Civil War 3. According to the passage, each of the Supreme Court
era, essentially creating the “separate but equal” doctrine. decisions mentioned shared which of the following
The 13th amendment freed the slaves and the 14th characteristics?
amendment granted them equal protection under the law,
but neither addressed the social issues that resulted from (A) They were made with some consideration of the
now freed slaves living among whites as “equals”. The social issues of the time.
“separate but equal” doctrine showed a sensitivity of the (B) They relied on a very narrow interpretation of the
court to the pressing social concerns of the country in its Constitutional question at hand.
interpretation of the Constitution – the definition of a loose (C) They were influenced by the justices’ own
constructionist view. political leanings.
The last segregation case that cements the court’s loose (D) They dealt with public accommodation issues
constructionist approach is Brown v Board of Education in brought on by the freedom of the slaves.
1954. In a case involving segregated high schools, the (E) They received harsh criticism from members of
Warren court found that the “separate but equal” doctrine of Congress.
Plessy did not apply to public high schools. Surely, the
framers of the 14th amendment could not have foreseen a
day when blacks and whites would attend public school side
by side. But given the evolution of race relations in the
4. The author implies that the Brown v. Board of
Education decision 7. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) finally resolved the social injustice of the slave (A) defending one of two competing viewpoints using
era specific examples
(B) took a restricted view of the application of the (B) providing a thorough analysis of two different
14th Amendment theories
(C) presenting opposing hypotheses and giving
(C) dealt with factors that the authors of the 14th
evidence that supports a third hypothesis
Amendment had not considered (D) outlining historical examples of a particular
(D) was a logical extension of the 13th Amendment phenomenon
(E) required the Warren court to make a socially (E) explaining why two varied opinions are each
unpopular holding valid

5. As it is used in line 13, the word “fodder” most likely


(A) refutation GO ON TO THE NEXT

(B) analysis PAGE
(C) interpretation
(D) support
(E) contrast

6. In lines 55-57, the author most likely included the

phrase, “the framers of the 14th amendment could not
have foreseen a day when blacks and whites would
attend public school side by side” in order to

(A) show how the strict constructionist view of those

framers limited their writing of the 14th
(B) demonstrate how far the state of race relations in
America had come by the mid 1950’s
(C) indicate the short sightedness of the U.S.
Congress after the Civil War
(D) give an example of a relevant social issue when
the Brown decision was rendered
(E) exemplify how the Supreme Court is more
concerned with social issues than is Congress
The United States has long been called a melting pot; a should determine how to balance providing certain legal
country where people of different backgrounds, colors and rights to these people while continuing to police the
creeds live together and have an equal opportunity to pursue situation in an effort to avoid undue hardship on their
the American Dream. While this idealism is laudable, it communities.
ignores the practical concern of how to deal with the several
million illegal immigrants who currently reside here. The
burden of this responsibility falls primarily on the state and 8. Which one of the following best expresses the main
local governments where these immigrants live, and it is a idea of the passage?
problem that can no longer be ignored. Two recent studies
of this growing population offer vastly divergent ideas as to (A) Illegal immigrants are central to the economic
how this increasingly pressing situation should be resolved. health of their communities and they should be
The first study, by research fellow Sven Hilliard, granted full legal rights to remain there.
suggests that these immigrants, although illegal, have a sort (B) The problem of illegal immigration has been
of “squatter’s rights” argument to bolster their contention largely ignored by the federal government of the
that they should be afforded the same legal rights as U.S.
naturalized citizens. Hilliard’s study focused on the Latin (C) Local and state governments should address the
American communities of California, and he found that of issue of the impact of illegal immigrants by
the illegal immigrant families he followed, more than 90% balancing the addition of some new rights with
had remained in the U.S. for at least one generation after the enforcement of current laws.
they initially immigrated here. Further, the vast majority of (D) The strain that illegal immigrants place on local
these families held regular jobs and otherwise supported economies is substantial and as such state
their local economies as much as any of the “legal” governments need to enforce immigration laws to
members of the same community. Hilliard reasons that address the problem.
from this “entrenchment and contribution” as he calls it, (E) Many illegal immigrants remain in their
these illegal immigrants are entitled to the same rights and American communities for several generations.
privileges afforded to naturalized citizens. Accordingly, he
calls for an end to the deportation of these individuals and
families and an establishment of driver’s licenses and other 9. The passage suggests that Hilliard would most likely
such rights by the State Legislature. support which one of the following?
In contrast, a recent study by Dan Braun of the
Immigration and Naturalization Service, found that these (A) The creation of a wage investment program for
same illegal immigrants create a significant strain on the illegal immigrants who work full time
economy that could be alleviated by their removal. Braun (B) A law requiring all workers, regardless of
studied primarily the Latin American communities of Texas citizenship status, to pay additional taxes to the
and Arizona, and he opines that the state and local federal government
governments where these people reside lose millions of (C) The passage of a bill in the California state
dollars each year in lost taxes from working immigrants legislature prohibiting family members of current
who simply do not pay them, and increased costs from law illegal residents to live with them
enforcement efforts to regulate their activities. He also (D) An easing of current laws enabling illegal
suggests that less than 10% of these illegal immigrants ever immigrants who live in America to more readily
seek naturalized citizenship. As a result of his study, Braun visit their homelands
believes that greater enforcement of current immigration (E) The revision of current driver’s license
laws, including deportation proceedings, is required to requirements to make it more difficult for illegal
reduce the losses that he claims these individuals cause. immigrants to obtain them
While both studies are based on various statistics from
local and state agencies, neither is entirely persuasive. The
optimal solution likely lies somewhere in between the
courses of action suggested by Hilliard and Braun.
Certainly, some illegal immigrants work hard, support their
local community, and otherwise pursue the American
Dream as millions have before them. Those immigrants GO ON TO THE NEXT
deserve to have laws that protect them. However, it is just PAGE
as likely that some of these individuals take advantage of the
lax enforcement of current immigration laws and create
unnecessary burdens on their local economies. To properly
address this growing issue, local and state governments
10. According to the author, the conclusions of Braun’s 13. The fourth paragraph of the passage most serves which
study are based on the premise that of the following functions?

(A) illegal immigrants are unwilling to work at low (A) It provides clear support for the position set forth
paying jobs in the United States in Hilliard’s study of illegal immigrants in
(B) those illegal immigrants who do live and work in California.
Texas do not generally pay taxes (B) It offers substantial evidence that undermines the
(C) American workers routinely lose jobs for which thesis of Braun’s study.
they are otherwise qualified to immigrants willing (C) It suggests future action to be taken to address the
to work for less issues detailed in the earlier paragraphs.
(D) once illegal immigrants enter the U.S., they tend (D) It explains why the reasons behind the
to bring other family members into the country immigration problems of Texas and Arizona are
later impossible to address.
(E) most illegal immigrants are active participants in (E) It gives unqualified support for the conclusions of
the health of their local communities both studies discussed in the passage.

11. The author’s attitude toward the issue of illegal 14. The author is primarily concerned with
immigration can best be described as
(A) assessing the validity of two studies and refuting
(A) overly condescending the second of those studies
(B) cautiously respectful (B) describing the context of a national problem and
(C) favorable yet muted its root causes
(D) critical (C) arguing for further research to clarify unanswered
(E) serious but objective questions raised by a number of studies
(D) outlining the findings of two different studies and
proposing a potential solution to the issues they
12. In the second paragraph, the phrase “entrenchment and raise
contribution” most nearly means (E) explaining how a particular problem has grown in
(A) illegal immigrants have clearly established
squatters rights and will be difficult to remove
(B) some illegal immigrants have remained in this
country for some time and added to their local
(C) where illegal immigrants have lived in the U.S.
for at least a generation, they should bear a STOP
greater tax burden than naturalized citizens
(D) state and local governments should determine the
rights available to illegal immigrants based on the CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK
length of their stay ON THI SECTION ONLY. DO NOT WORK
(E) increased border patrols are required to rid states ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.
like California of many of their illegal
14. Flights in and out of the Hart airport have been 16. In the military, when a soldier is captured by the
temporarily cancelled due to inclement weather. enemy, there is a strict code of conduct that is supposed
Adrianna’s mother is on a flight that is scheduled to to be followed. Once that soldier becomes a prisoner of
arrive at Hart airport in the next hour. The control war, they must not divulge any information about their
tower reports that the current storm system is due to troop location or combat strategy. Further, if the soldier
move on sometime in the next two hours. Adrianna has an opportunity to escape from their captors, they
should not wait for her mother, because her plane will must take that chance. Private Adams, who was held
not be landing at Hart airport until at least two hours by enemy combatants as a prisoner of war, escaped
from now. from his captors at the first opportunity. Clearly,
Private Adams followed the proper code of conduct.
If all of the above statements are true, then which one
of the following must also be true? Which one of the following pieces of information, if
true and added to the statements above, most
(A) It is standard Hart airport policy to cancel flights strengthens the conclusion that Private Adams followed
when the weather does not permit safe landing. the code of conduct?
(B) None of the pilots currently operating planes that are
scheduled to land at Hart airport in the next hour are (A) The military command center knew of Private Adams
capable of landing a plane safely in inclement whereabouts at all times during his tenure as a
weather. prisoner of war.
(C) The plane that Adrianna’s mother is on will not land (B) The enemy soldiers who held Private Adams captive
at its scheduled arrival time. regularly tortured him to elicit information.
(D) Any plane that is scheduled to arrive at Hart airport in (C) All of the other members of Private Adams platoon
three hours will not land at its scheduled time. who were captured also escaped from their captors at
(E) Adrianna will not wait for her mother’s plane to the first possible opportunity.
arrive. (D) In previous combat, Private Adams had been
captured and followed the code of conduct strictly.
(E) Private Adams never communicated in any way to his
15. Judges in Yele County have long had too much captors while he was a prisoner of war.
discretion in sentencing criminals. Certainly criminals
go to jail for the crimes that they have committed, but
Yele County has no sentencing guidelines for these
judges to follow, resulting in inordinately long
sentences for minor crimes. The legislature should
enact stricter sentencing guidelines to prevent excessive GO ON TO THE NEXT
jail time for criminals convicted of lesser crimes in Yele PAGE

Which one of the following is the main conclusion of

the argument above?

(A) Judges in Yele County are too harsh in sentencing

(B) The lack of sentencing guidelines in Yele County
gives judges too much discretion in sentencing
(C) Some criminals are given jail sentences that are
appropriate for the crime that they have committed.
(D) The legislature should pass new guidelines for the
sentencing of criminals in Yele County that give
judges less discretion in the sentencing process.
(E) Lengthy prison sentences prevent some criminals
from rehabilitating themselves.
18. Archaeologist: The ruins discovered on the coast of
17. Jane was sent shopping to find some fresh fruit for a Malaysia are intriguing. Until now, we have thought
dinner party. There are three stores that she could go that the Malaysian people did not use ceramic pottery
to. Mi-T-Mart is the closest to her house, but has the until at least 500 A.D. However, ornate ceramic pottery
smallest selection of fresh fruit of the three. Tam’s has been found throughout the Malaysian site, and
Grocery is the next closest to her house and has the carbon dating techniques estimate the age of the pottery
largest selection of fresh fruit of the three. Yummy to be approximately 450 A.D. Given this new
Organics is the farthest from her house, and while it information, it is obvious that previous estimates of
does not have as large of a selection of fresh fruit as when Malaysians first used ceramics must be incorrect.
Tam’s Grocery, it is less expensive than either of the
other two stores. Jane has decided to go to Tam’s Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the
Grocery. archaeologist’s conclusion?

Which one of the following principles, if accepted, (A) Malaysians are thought to have used clay pottery as
most strongly justifies Jane’s decision? far back as 300 A.D.
(B) Carbon dating techniques that are currently available
(A) If a shopper has several options of stores to choose have a margin of error of almost 60 years.
from, they should choose the store that is the easiest (C) There is strong evidence to suggest that the
to get to. Malaysian people made ceramic vases as early as 510
(B) When given a choice, someone looking for fresh fruit A.D.
should go to the store that carries the freshest (D) A large number of ceramic pots dated to 400 A.D.
produce. have been found in Indonesian ruins located a few
(C) Where one is shopping for a particular item, one hundred miles from the Malaysian ruins.
should shop at whatever store available has the (E) Previous archaeologists who visited Malaysia lacked
greatest selection of that particular item. the proper tools to accurately date the items that they
(D) In any purchasing situation, the purchaser should found there.
always choose the least expensive option.
(E) If there is more than one store available to find a
specific thing to buy, a prudent shopper should 19. Water is an amazing substance. Hailed as the
investigate the choices at all available stores. “universal solvent”, its uses are vast, from hydrating the
human body to offering life-giving sustenance to plants.
In fact the human body is composed of a significant
amount of water. That is why it is puzzling that so
many people drown each year. Given the percent of the
human body that is made up of water, it does not make
sense that only a little more water could cause someone
to die.

The author’s reasoning is flawed in that

(A) it overlooks the possibility that too much water in the

human body may in fact be harmful
(B) no consideration is given to the fact that some
substances may have both positive and negative
(C) an unwarranted assumption is made to justify the
supposed benefits of water
(D) it fails to address the impact that excessive water may
have on plants
(E) there is no discussion of how the human body
processes the various substances that it ingests
Questions 20-21
22. When highly-paid CEOs get fired, it is normally
20. David: No one should buy a car when they have the because they stole money from the company. Steve is a
option of leasing. Lease payments are usually much CEO who was just fired. Plainly, he stole money from
lower than regular car payments, and the buyer is his company.
typically able to get a better interest rate with a lease
than an outright purchase. Finally, at the end of the The flawed reasoning in the argument above most
lease, if the buyer really wants to keep the car, they can closely parallels which one of the following?
make a balloon payment to buy it.
(A) Alan is an attorney who recently was censured by the
Carolyn: You must work for a leasing agent. Leasing a Bar. He must have violated the rules of ethics
car is like renting an apartment. You are just paying for because typically when an attorney is censured, it’s
the use of the car or apartment, but you are not building for an ethical lapse of some kind.
any equity. Instead of wasting your money like that, (B) Kamil is a new father who does not know how to
it’s a better idea to buy the car or buy a house so that change a diaper. He couldn’t have taken a newborn
you are establishing an asset. parenting class if he doesn’t know something basic
like that.
As a response to David’s argument, Carolyn’s argument (C) Han is a doctor who has been sued for malpractice.
When a well-trained doctor is sued for malpractice,
(A) simply attacks David’s motivation without addressing that usually indicates an overzealous patient. Clearly,
any of the issues raised by his argument Han had an overzealous patient.
(B) points out that his premise does not logically lead to (D) Sanjay is a world-class cricket player who was just
his conclusion given a large contract. Normally, when a world-class
(C) questions the validity of his position on the grounds cricket player is given a large contract, it means that
that his evidence and his conclusion are contradictory the management wants to keep that player. The
(D) draws an analogy to make her point that David has management of Sanjay’s team must want to keep
not considered what she believes is an important him.
aspect of the issue at hand (E) Josiah is a swimmer who qualified for the Olympic
(E) appeals to authority to rebut David’s central thesis Games. In most cases where a swimmer qualifies for
the Olympic Games, it is because they are a well-
conditioned athlete. Josiah does not appear to be in
21. David and Carolyn are committed to disagreeing about particularly good shape.
which one of the following?

(A) Automobiles and domiciles are very similar in terms

of purchasing options.
(B) Someone looking to buy a car should lease instead of
(C) Leasing agents have a financial interest in convincing
people to lease cars and not buy them outright.
(D) Interest rates are applicable to both leasing and
buying cars.
(E) If one has an option to establish an asset, one should
do so.
23. Great white sharks are considered one of the most 25. Canadian bacon is higher in fat and sodium than regular
dangerous predators alive. Marine biologists have long bacon. Fat and sodium are major factors that contribute
thought that the great white has no natural predators of to high cholesterol. Hence, Canadians must have
its own. Yet a videotape from a marine biology class higher cholesterol than people in other parts of the
suggests otherwise. The tape clearly shows a killer world.
whale attacking a great white shark as the shark
attempts to strike at the whale’s baby. Thus, the killer Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the
whale must be a natural predator of the great white argument above?
(A) Carbohydrate levels also contribute to the total
Which one of the following assumptions is central to amount of cholesterol in someone’s body.
the argument above? (B) Canadians consume, on average, more Canadian
bacon than people who reside in other countries.
(A) The killer whale did not attack the great white shark (C) Some beef is also very high in fat and sodium, but
purely as a defensive response to protect its child. Canadians do not eat a lot of beef.
(B) The videotape was shot in an area where both killer (D) The countries of Latin America consume more
whales and sharks are known to live. Canadian bacon, on average, than anywhere else in
(C) No one in the marine biology class provoked the the world.
shark to attack the young whale. (E) A healthy diet that is low in fat and sodium will help
(D) Killer whales are natural predators of several other prevent high cholesterol.
shark species.
(E) Certification to become a marine biologist requires
knowledge of both killer whales and great white STOP
24. Many psychics predict that a large meteor will strike the ON THIS SECTION ONLY. DO NOT WORK
Earth sometime before the year 2010. Such an impact ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.
would definitely cause widespread flooding around the
globe. If these psychics are to be believed, it would be
sound financial advice to buy flood insurance before

Which one of the following is logically inferable from

the argument above?

(A) If there is global flooding in the year 2010, then the

prediction of the psychics was correct.
(B) Only the impact of a giant meteor could cause
widespread global flooding.
(C) The best investment that one could make is to
purchase flood insurance before 2010.
(D) All insurance companies provide some form of
protection against flooding.
(E) If there is no global flooding in the year 2010, then a
large meteor did not strike the Earth.