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Explanations to Test B

Scoring test B
Using the number of correct answers from test B, find your scaled score using the
chart below. In each column, the raw score is the number on the left, the scaled score is
the number on the right.

Number of questions correct – scaled score
>49 – 180 40 – 165 30 – 153 20 – 141 10 – 125
49 – 179 39 – 164 29 – 152 19 – 140 9 – 123
48 – 177 38 – 162 28 – 151 18 – 138 8 – 122
47 – 175 37 – 161 27 – 150 17 – 137 <8 – 120
46 – 173 36 – 160 26 – 149 16 – 136
45 – 172 35 – 159 25 – 147 15 – 135
44 – 170 34 – 158 24 – 146 14 – 134
43 – 169 33 – 157 23 – 145 13 – 132
42 – 167 32 – 156 22 – 144 12 – 130
41 – 166 31 – 154 21 – 142 11 – 127

Section 1 – Analytical Reasoning
Couples Dining
This puzzle requires that you use a matrix (or grid) diagram. Matrix puzzles are very
common. Virtually every LSAT has at least one matrix puzzle. Typically the matrix
puzzle is tested by using a schedule matrix. In the schedule matrix there will three to five
days with a morning and an afternoon time slot. But, in this game we have a grid with
people’s names on one axis and the types of food on the other axis. The diagram for this
game is fairly elaborate. (Figure 4)

Salad H
R
Entree D Yes
T No
Dessert WM
IC
B C F G P if* Q

Greg orders duck, and it is safe to assume, even though it is not explicitly stated, that
he will not also order the trout. Bob and Quincy have been linked with an arrow, and an
asterisk, to show that they have a relationship. An arrow from the house salad to the ice
cream shows that link. Finally, an asterisk next to P will remind us to look back at the
rules to see how the rule effects P. We use an asterisk when the rule cannot be graphed
easily.

D – If all of the women order house salads. so go directly to the questions. When you reverse and negate the terms you get: if Paula orders a dessert. B is the correct choice. D and E eliminated. B – Again. By the same reasoning used in the previous question. Paula cannot order the duck and E is the right answer. then Quincy must order the house salad. think about what you know about ice cream. if Bob orders the romaine salad. That is often the best tactic if you “can’t find a correct answer”. she does not order an entrée. See the end of this explanation for more information on how to handle ambiguous language. 4. that rule will not be triggered. This systematic approach to this question type works every time! A note about ambiguous language in the rules. The hypothetical information given (Bob orders the romaine salad) allows you to deduce something (Quincy orders the house salad) which in turn allows you to deduce something else (Quincy orders ice cream). Both Bob and Quincy order salads. 5. The original rule is: if Paula orders and entrée then she does not order a dessert. reverse and negate the terms to form the contrapositive. then she does not order an entrée. Hence. answer choice D. Thus. but . 3. Here. and by rule 5. B – OK. since all of the diners order dessert. 2. Sometimes it is not clear what the rule means. C. E – This is a classic example of using the contrapositive. Rule 3 is violated in answer choice E. Rule 5 is violated in answer choice C since Fiona orders the house salad but does not order the ice cream. Rule 2 is not violated in any of the answer choices. which must also be true. see if you haven’t cut the deductive process short by a step or two. Start at the top of the rules and work your way to the bottom! Rule 1 is violated in answer choice A since Fiona and Greg order exactly the same items. You also know from rule 2 that Greg orders the duck. then he must also order ice cream. by virtue of rule 5. Thus. Paula then cannot order an entrée. as was the case with rule 1. The ambiguity will be resolved when you review the answer choices. Anyone who orders the house salad also orders ice cream. This is a classic example of the deductive process. use rule violation answer elimination one more time. but as long as Bob orders a romaine salad instead of the house salad that Carrie orders. Rule 4 is violated in answer choice D since Bob and Quincy both order the romaine salad. then they also order ice cream. E . When you have an if/then rule like the rule regarding Paula. the maximum number of diners who could order the trout is four. but not the same kind of salads. so never let ambiguous language slow you down. since Paula has both an entrée and a dessert. With A. If you ever get stuck on a question in logic games. The only remaining rule to watch out for in this scenario is that no couple orders exactly the same items. There are no obvious warranted conclusions for this puzzle. 1. Paula orders dessert. so E is correct. so from the contrapositive.What do you know about Bob? You know that both he and Quincy order salads.

So. so the minimum number of items ordered in this question is nine. either A or E could be true. answer choice D. it must be either Bob or Quincy. when either Bob or Quincy orders the house salad he must then also order ice cream. D – With maximum and minimum questions. Here. Right there are six items. but Carrie definitely cannot order ice cream and thus B is the correct response. 6. Does anyone have to order something else? Yes. as discussed in the previous question. whichever one orders the house salad. so now you have at least eight items and you can eliminate A and B. start with either the smallest number and work your way up (with a minimum question) or start with the largest number and work your way down (with a maximum question). Eliminate answer choice C. not the same kind. so that is now nine items that must be ordered. Since only one person orders ice cream in this question. There are no other rules that say one of the diners must order anything else. Finally. . so one of them orders the house salad and one of them orders the romaine salad. Bob and Quincy both order salads. you are told that each of the diners orders an entrée.

Here. C and D are eliminated. note the three conditions that we could not place on the diagram. So use the rules to eliminate the answer choices. but that we were able to create shorthand notations for. but that if it is in position 3. start with rule 1. Aunt Mae’s Preserves Simple line games. This helps us remember that the fig is not required to be in position 3. The parentheses () show that the cherry is not fixed in the positions. there were no obvious warranted conclusions. since the cherry . Rule 3 is violated in answer choice B. C – Sometimes a question will appear difficult but is actually quite simple if you follow the rules. line games. The line that connects the two (C)s will help us remember to keep track of the cherry preserves. 8. since the lychee preserves are to the right of the apple preserves. so go directly to the questions. even if lychee is in position 5. note the one-way arrow from (F) under position 3 to (L) under position 5. 3 Note the (C) on opposites ends of the line. Often there will be two. Rule 4 is violated in answer choice D. 9. Rule 1 is not violated in any of the answer choices. What would preclude one of the preserves from being placed in jar 7? If it is one of the preserves that must be to the left of another preserve! Either date or lychee preserves would fit this criterion. usually it is the second piece that is more helpful. since the fig preserves are in jar 3 but the lychee preserves are not in jar 5. Since A. Note. E must be the right answer. since the cherry preserves are not on an end of the shelf. are the most common puzzle type. B. Rule 2 is violated in answer choice A. That is why this is a one-way arrow. The preserves game uses a traditional seven-position line. A – When a question stem gives you two pieces of hypothetical information. It is very easy to diagram the rules of this game. so C is the correct response. Rule 5 is violated in answer choice C. You will always see at least one simple line game on an LSAT. or even three. (Figure 3) __ __ __ __ __ __ __ (C) (C) (F) (L) CDC D F L A Fig. Next. see if it is violated in any of the answer choices. 7. Work your way down the list of rules until you have only one choice left. this does not automatically require that lychee be in position 3. Finally. that L must be in position 5. Just like question 1 from the first game. E – Here again the first question of the game is an acceptable order question. (Figure 3) In this game. since the fig preserves are to the left of the date preserves. like this one.

the lychee preserves are not in jar 5. There are no rules regarding the grape preserves. once the fig preserves are in jar 3. 11. With the mango preserves in jar 6. B should be tempting because it gives you some significant limitations. either the fig or grape preserves could be in jar 7. That eliminates answer choice B. The only choice that must be true is D. Any of the remaining preserves may or may not be in jar 5. so A and D are unlikely to be correct. but we don’t know exactly where. but so could the apple preserves. since the cherry preserves must be on one of the ends of the shelf and the fig preserves must be to the right of the date preserves. any of them COULD be in jar 7. Right away that eliminates D and E. so C and E are probably not right. cannot be true either. that means it must be true at all times. B – You certainly could solve this type of question by trying every answer choice to see which one works. The smarter way to solve for the answer choice that seems the most limiting. Also. If you put the cherry preserves in jar 1 and the fig preserves in jar 2. once you know that the fig preserves are in jar 3. mango preserves in jar 2. since the apple preserves are to the right of the lychee preserves. then by rule 5 the lychee preserves must be in jar 5. E – Again. Now. bear in mind that when a question asks for what must be true. start with what you know about the hypothetical piece of information. then they must be in jar 7 and jar 6 respectively. In answer choice D. since they must to be on one of the ends. since the apple preserves must be to the right of the lychee . and the date preserves must be in jar 1. preserves are to the left of the lychee preserves. and by rule 2 the date preserves must be in jar 2. since they have to be to the left of the fig preserves. Also. Once the mango preserves are in jar 2. Remember what we learned in second question? Neither the date preserves nor the lychee preserves can be in jar 7 since they both must be to the left of another type of preserves. D – If the cherry preserves must be next to the fig preserves. so E is the right answer. On this question. not just that it could be true. then the lychee preserves must be in jar 5. there would be nowhere to put the date preserves to the left of the fig preserves. yet they must be on one of the ends. placing the lychee and date preserves means that the apple and the fig preserves respectively must be somewhere to their right. Furthermore. then you can deduce that the cherry preserves are in jar 1. since they must be to the left of the apple preserves. 10. B cannot be true. Note that the question asks for a complete and accurate list. Eliminate answer choices A and C. then C. except the lychee preserves. the cherry preserves must now be in jar 1 since they cannot be next to the mango preserves. and since you know that the date preserves are in jar 2. Finally. then the cherry preserves must be in jar 7 since they cannot be next to the mango yet must be on one end of the shelf. so A is correct. according to rule 5. That still doesn’t tell you much about the rest of the jars. since that is the one that is most likely to restrict you to a single possible set up. Often the deductions made for the early questions can be very useful for later questions. there is no restriction against the grape preserves being in jar 6. However. 12. Of the remaining three types of preserves.

and the only remaining jar for the grape preserves is jar 4. they must be in jar 6. B is the correct response. .preserves.

Accept it as fact that there is only one way to get in. they are just as likely to come from one of the other companies as they are to have come from Nopac. stay focused. Don’t dream up conspiracy theories. or that they snuck in before midnight and hid in the building. if the web can hold a rat. and E must therefore be true. C – The tensile strength of the spider web is almost ten times its mass. the burglars must have known the security code because that is the only way they could have gotten in without setting off the alarm that the manager set. To conclude that a spider web could hold a rat involves the assumption that rats do not weigh more than ten times the spider web. Since all Italian cars are faster than German cars and some German cars are faster than some Swedish cars. we don’t know if some American cars are faster than Italian cars (we do know that some American cars are slower then some French cars. 4. Choice D is also wrong. 3. A – Parallel reasoning questions are definitely the harder questions on the LSAT. by using the code. it seems logical that it can hold something that weighs less then a rat. Notice how choice C referred to both elements. but none of them have to be true. and thus are slower than Italian cars). Certainly.Section 2 – Logical Reasoning 1. than Italian cars must be faster than at least those Swedish cars. so for the web to hold an object that object must weigh less than ten times the spider web’s weight. The one thing we know for sure is that all Italian cars are faster then all German cars and French cars. therefore they must . like that the burglars are in league with the manager. The argument acknowledges that there are several companies located on the banks of Green River. but then lays the blame for the toxic chemicals squarely at the feet of Nopac because Nopac uses some of the chemicals in question. This person achieved that result. E – Make sure you definitively connect the relationships here. D – We start with an easy question. There is only one thing a person can do to achieve a particular result. With choice A. Stay calm. We are told as a fact that they only way to get in without setting off the alarm is to use the code. D is the choice that identifies this error in reasoning and thus is the credited response. We know that all Italian cars are faster than some American cars. Choice C is another one that we don’t know the answer to. Look for those same elements in the correct answer. But the more accurate and direct assumption that we need to assume is that the rat is not more than ten times the weight of the web. we don’t know how German and French cars compare. None of the other choices comes close to describing this flaw. Therefore. but we don’t know about all American cars. the weight of the rat and the weight of the web? Choice B did not refer to both elements of the argument. A – D all could be true. there is no direct evidence linking Nopac to the chemicals in the river. 2. In choice B. However. Choice B may have caught your eye. and dissect the argument. Choice C is correct.

However. D is the best choice. Choice E is a more attractive wrong answer. the money must have come from somewhere besides the wealthy private patrons. C – Again. Choice A misguidedly focuses on matching funds. As for choice C. Tyrone does not say that a person must have a spotless record. By reversing and negating those terms. Ophelia believes that this candidate. and having tools to break in. Thus. the evidence concerns the ability of human children and chimpanzees to distinguish between different colors and shapes. much like the burglars had to know the security code to get into the bank without setting off the alarm. maybe this person didn’t know the cake was poisoned or the ranger patrolled. Choice E is not something that Ophelia addresses. 6. Choice B is not necessarily true. 7. The argument pattern was that there is only one way to achieve a goal. the only way the student could get a perfect score is if he knew all the answers before the test. Choice E at least discusses something relevant. and the majority of wounds to the Carpathians came from arrows. Choice A is somewhat appealing. we are not told about any other candidates. if rely only on wealthy private patrons it will not open. view the argument as a series of facts: the only source is private money. The argument states that if the council relies solely on the donations of wealthy patrons. at most. with assumption questions. In A. Choices C and D are wrong. discussing bonds. “so what?” Choice E would. thus the person did the act that was necessary to achieve the goal. this new fact undercuts the assertion that long swords were the weapons of choice. A is the best choice. have done that one thing. knowing where to find the diamonds. or was just taking his chances that he wouldn’t be poisoned. if D is true. despite his past. D – This is a classic contrapositive question. Choices B and C should have made you say. In choice A they actually agree about this issue. other funding must have been acquired. but it is not a conclusion that must be true based on these facts. Choice B does not match the pattern. but it doesn’t have the right pattern. In regard to Choice D. should be allowed to serve if elected. D – The author asserts that ancient Sumerian warriors preferred long swords as their weapon of choice because they were light and could be used a safer distance from the enemy. he says this candidate has a bad record. no public money has been sought. find the assumption that connects the evidence and the conclusion. 5. the goal was achieves. Therefore…if the museum does open. B – Tyrone believes that this candidate is not fit for office for the several reasons stated. Alternatively. only slightly weaken the historians’ assertion. It discusses two elements. and . or caught by the ranger. 8. the contrapositive would be that if the museum does open soon. D is correct. Choice C goes well beyond the facts. Here. they are committed to disagreeing about choice B. so as not to expose the Sumerians to as much danger. the museum will not open anytime soon. but just because they used spears frequently does not mean that the swords were not their first choice.

and then defines “love” as being a non-physical phenomenon. Choice C discusses history. so the physical cannot be contained by this non-physical state. Choice A provides “who cares” information. Choice B seems to contradict the facts. However. as B states. but it is not an assumption. she argued that the physical could not be contained by the non-physical. Choices D and E discuss issues that are irrelevant to aesthetics. the conclusion is that their brains must develop at the same rate. then that explains the paradox. contradictory fact. There may be other reasons that a cat would hiss and bear its claws. 11. Something–like feeling threatened–that is sufficient to produce a result–make it hiss and bear its claws–is not by itself necessary to produce this result. Choice D is an inscrutable answer. A – The correct answer here has to identify a flaw in the reasoning of the conclusion. B is correct. B – Here. Choice A does not address the aesthetic issue. Choice C is a criticism of the author’s knowledge. For method of argument questions where the answer choices use generic language. Choice B is not a credited because it is a new fact. but we are focusing on aesthetics. she defines “in” as being a physical phenomenon. The author then concludes that something cannot be “in love”. the evidence she offers supports her conclusion. if the purpose of tearing down those buildings is to replace them with something even more pleasing. Then the author declares that “love” is not physical. Choice E. This is called a negative . it does not prove her conclusion is absurd. Thus. 10. Choice E also is a new. try to decide how the author made their argument before you look at the choices so you will not be as tempted by the language of incorrect choices like A or D. Choice A is wrong because she did not argue that being in one state precluded being in the other state. yet he has torn down two supposedly beautiful buildings. The test makers regularly test the distinction between sufficient and necessary conditions. not a flaw in the logical reasoning of the conclusion. there were not two conflicting emotions. 12. 9. it is not necessary that cats feel threatened. Choice D contradicts a fact. Choice D is certainly a logical conclusion one could draw. Choice C is wrong. The correct answer should not simply dispute the facts of the argument. E – To conclude that their would be no more divorces if couples fixed their financial problems and infidelity requires the assumption that there are no additional factors that could also cause a divorce. Only choice C links the ability to distinguish things and the conclusion about brain development. she goes to great lengths to define two words. does she limit how her argument can be applied? No. Choice E brings up a totally new subject. B – Here is another paradox question. The building contractor says he wants to improve the architectural aesthetic of Main Street. the author states that an encompassing physical presence needs to exist before a thing can be properly considered “in” something else. so A is the best choice. which is not what you are supposed to do in a flawed reasoning question. but does not necessarily indicate a reasoning flaw.

the argument discussed both issues together and did not separate them. since it brings up a totally new subject. the argument never ranks the reasons. Choice B is not the necessary assumption. Choices C and D discuss issues that are not related to the size of this hypothesized matter. that something besides the two suggested causes is not present. assumption. Choice A is not the necessary assumption. Who knows. . Focus on the key words in the argument. you want a new fact that indicates that there are. The argument states as fact that these two reasons are the main reasons for divorce. It then assumes that these are the only reasons people get divorces. If D is true. You should see at least a few of these on the LSAT. marriage counseling. Choice D is not the necessary assumption. this would strongly indicate that something smaller than electrons do exist. Choice C is not the necessary assumption. To bolster that argument. elements that are smaller than an electron. Then it concludes that if you can eliminate these two main reasons there will be no more divorce. maybe these couples do have financial problems. D – The scientist believes that there may be elements smaller than neutrons. we don’t know and we don’t care. Choice A is irrelevant. We care about divorced couples. we want things that are smaller than electrons. Choice B would only partially strengthen the argument. electrons and protons. but they haven’t yet proven they exist. 13. “main reasons” and “no more” divorces. in fact.

That said. A is the correct choice. and again. and beware of answer choices that support the opposing view. Choice E is close. don’t be fooled by choices that only address part of the issue. which is the focus of the passage. is presented. Choice B is incorrect. 2. They would approve of the decision because it employed a narrow interpretation of the intent of the framers. but they both lack the central issue. race relations were not the issue. A subject. it is not important if you have no prior knowledge of the subject. A – The entire point of discussing these three particular cases is that they support the idea that the U. not substance. loose constructionism. this question asks why the strict constructionists would find Dred Scott favorable. the two ways to interpret the constitution. It is a bit tricky. how the court construes the constitution. constitutional interpretation. Choice C is overly narrow. or. in this case. In this example. B – As is typical. the Warren court was just one court.Section 3 – Reading Comprehension Constitutional interpretation As is often the case.S. The specific subject of the passage can vary widely. . B must be the correct answer because it is the only choice that mentions the main point about the constructionism debate. the first question of the set is a main idea question. it is always nice to have a passage on a subject that you are familiar with. the right answer is a pretty good paraphrase of the main idea. Thus. This passage employs the opinionated observer technique. privacy of e-mails in the workplace. Watch out for choices like D. 1. As with the other reading comprehension topics. but Dred Scott did not. Make sure you clearly distinguish between the different opinions and viewpoints presented in the same passage. Supreme Court follows a loose constructionist viewpoint. An answer choice that is only partially correct is a red herring. D – It is very important to read the question stem carefully. the passage deals only with segregation cases. This is a good example of such a question. You will occasionally see questions on the actual LSAT where only one choice includes the necessary terms. Both A and E are close. strict vs. the Warren court used a loose interpretation. Even though the point of the passage is how these cases support a loose constructionist approach. 3. and is then illustrated with the example of how slavery and desegregation cases were interpreted. one of the four passages will discuss a legal topic. taking into consideration the issues of the day in making its decisions. Choice D is too broad. it is an examination of a specific issue. Your familiarity helps you organize the passage. especially when there are conflicting viewpoints in the passage. D is the best choice. Choices C and E don’t have any support in the passage. The issues you will be tested on are issues of format. deepening your comprehension. Plessy and Brown dealt with public accommodations. but this passage is not a mere history of the court. It may be the rights of American Indians to tribal burial grounds. Choice A is overly broad.

although the writers of the 14th Amendment did not foresee this issue. not a strict one. Be careful with choice D. Don’t make comparisons that go beyond the scope of the passage. D is the correct response. Finally. like the one in answer choice E. not a logical extension of the 13th Amendment. D – This is a vocabulary in the context question. The whole point is that the Warren court had to take into consideration a social issue (blacks and whites schooling together) that the authors of the 14th Amendment most likely never thought of. 6. Occasionally you will see a question like this. Notice how similar question 19 is to question 17. like this one. Thus. you must read something more into the language of the passage. The author begins by outlining the basic tenets of both the strict constructionist view and the opposing loose constructionist view.4. There is no indication of what social issues Congress may or may not have deemed relevant when passing the 14th Amendment. C – To answer this type of question. D – Often in reading comprehension different questions will focus on the same issue. Thus. The passage seems to indicate that there was social acceptance for desegregation. the author did not include this information to criticize them. The Brown decision was a logical next step in the evolution of the slavery and segregation cases. That’s why it was a loose constructionist decision. clearly a loose interpretation of the Constitution. 5. and D is the best choice. The last sentence of the first paragraph says that these three decisions support the claim that judicial review follows a loose interpretation. . A – Often the final question in the set is a main idea question. and then sets about defending the loose constructionist approach using the slavery and segregation cases as supporting examples. Answer choice C points out that this could not have been a strict interpretation of the framers intent. The choice that best summarizes that focus is A. The last paragraph states that the Congress that passed the 14th Amendment could not have imagined black and white children going to public school together. the Warren court had to factor in social issues of the present time to make its decision. so choice E is wrong. the author included it so as to illustrate the Warren court’s loose interpretation. Look to how the word is actually used in the sentence. 7. Support is the word that fits best in this sentence. A and C are wrong.

Choice B and choice E discuss things that are not directly mentioned in the passage. immigration. It is normal to have one social science passage and one earth science passage. or three. and the proper way to address the issue of illegal immigration lies somewhere between their two opinions. It is likely that the LSAT uses these controversial subjects in order to test your ability to focus on the issue at hand. Also. Often the LSAT will discuss a controversial issue. read the question carefully. Choices A and C are wrong. This passage employs the neutral observer technique. B – Once again. 8. 9. productive members of their communities based on his study. theories of an issue are presented and the author explores their strengths and weaknesses. but does not recommend one theory over the other. He further asserts that they should be given the same sort of rights and privileges afforded to naturalized citizens. it is fair to test your ability to do it. Since Braun’s study was done in Texas and Arizona. Choices C and E would be favored by Braun. . This is a rarity in reading comprehension. but there is never a discussion of making it easier for these illegal immigrants to go back to their native countries. so A is definitely better. there was no discussion of the types of jobs. Hence. View the passage as a whole and ask yourself what the purpose is. The author seems to think that both Hilliard and Braun are partially right. and his thesis is that the U.S. Choice D isn’t bad. because you don’t really get a true sense of the author’s opinion until the last paragraph. loses tax money because working illegal immigrants do not pay them. race-relations. make sure you know who said what. Choice A is exactly the type of program that Hilliard would encourage based on his study. since it the examples were all drawn from racial charged issues. C – This is an especially tricky main idea question. drug decriminalization. Although immigration is not as controversial as some topics. and so there is no way they can be the main idea. but it can happen.Immigration issues This passage deals with a social science issue. and other hot-button issues. and on the LSAT. Social sciences passages can cover issues taken from the fields of economics. This passage discusses immigration. it still fits under the hot-button classification. Choice B is not relevant to anything in the passage. which is the basic premise of Hilliard. like abortion. 10. A – Hilliard’s study is discussed in paragraph two. Don’t be fooled by E. and others. Braun’s study is discussed in the third paragraph. B is the correct choice. he would support a program offering some benefit to illegal immigrants for the contribution that they make. political science. when two opinions are presented in a passage. Since lawyers and judges have to do this in the practice of law. There was no discussion to support choice D. The interpretation of the constitution passage could also be classified as a controversial topic. Choice A focuses solely on Hilliard’s view. Choice C finds the middle ground that the author espouses in the final paragraph. it’s the best choice that is correct. Two. and he clearly believes that illegal immigrants can be good. instead of becoming distracted by the controversy. while D focuses solely on Braun’s view.

Even if you aren’t sure what “entrenchment and contribution” means. leaving the correct answer! Also. in neutral observer passages. for at least a generation and contribute to their local economy. you can quickly narrow the choices down to E. E – When more than one viewpoint is expressed. which were discussed in paragraphs two and three respectively. By eliminating any choices that are too positive or too negative. and then suggests the best course of action for state and local governments to address the illegal immigration issue. So. Hilliard mentioned squatter’s rights. The author lays out the findings of Hilliard’s study. C – If you create a skeleton outline of the passage. the author understands that it is an important issue and must be dealt with. look out for extreme language like “impossible” in choice D – that is typically the mark of a wrong answer. Hilliard addresses the fact that many immigrants stay in the U. the purpose of the fourth paragraph is to finally tell you what the author thinks about the issue of illegal immigration. The author doesn’t really seem to be for or against illegal immigration. in a neutral observer passage. 12. the author’s attitude is going to be neutral. The answer choice that most follows this skeleton outline is D. since that is the most important one. 13. you know that the second paragraph is about Hilliard. Again. look for an answer choice that has something positive to say.11. then lays out the findings of Braun’s study.S. B – Use the topic sentence of the paragraph to help answer the question. 14. Here. The author acknowledged the importance of the issue in paragraph one. D – A skeleton outline would be helpful here as well. Choice E is wrong. Rather. make sure you understand what the author’s viewpoint is. how could the author give unqualified support two contradicting theories? Choices A and B are wrong. . The author believes that state and local governments need to find a balance between Hilliard’s approach and that of Braun. Avoid answer choices that simply throw in a phrase from the passage. Sometimes using the process of elimination allows you to throw out four choices. Choice B most closely captures this idea. but choice A clearly does not work here. you can get a clear sense of what each paragraph contributes. Choice C is the best response. who favors illegal immigrants and believes that they have something to offer their community. the author does not favor one of the theories over the other.

For choice D.Section 4 – Logical Reasoning 1. C – Jane chose to shop at Tam’s Grocery. so he performed the second requirement. but we don’t know whether or not he told his captors anything. it is true that the judges are too harsh in their sentencing. but again. . D is the correct answer. Answer choices C and E are off the subject. you can easily infer that her mother’s flight will not arrive at its scheduled time. so it was easy to eliminate. Thus. In choice E. 4. which is neither the farthest nor the closest store to her house. we would want to know that he met the first requirement also. The main point is that the legislature should thus enact new sentencing guidelines to deal with this problem. Choice A doesn’t even address either of the two requirements. we want to know about his performance this time. Choice B is somewhat more related. so this strengthens the conclusion. would justify her decision. and C is the credited response. 2. it is true that the flight Adrianna’s mother is on will not land until at least two hours from now. but that is not the main point. Some of the uncredited answer choices are true. So it would be a very weak conclusion if we were to discuss things that happen later than two hours. C – Choices A and E are bad conclusions. As to choice B. C is the credited response. Do you see how D has both elements. E – The two specified requirements of the code of conduct are that the captured soldier does not divulge any information about the location of his troops or combat strategy and that he tries to escape from his captors whenever possible. However. but that is not the main point. D – Be careful with conclusion questions. but they justify going to Mi T-Mart and Yummy Organics respectively. Choice D discusses things that will happen after the two-hour period that we have information about. we know that Private Adams escaped at the first opportunity. we don’t care about his previous performance. does not indicate if Adams told his captors any information. So a principle stating that a shopper should go where there is the greatest selection of the item they seek. Choice B is new information. Here. legislating new guidelines and preventing overly harsh sentences? That is why D is the best main point answer choice. but it is scheduled to arrive in the next hour. not his allies. as C states. A and D might sound good. 3. Often wrong answer choices will focus on the different parts of the stimulus than the question focuses on. To strengthen the conclusion that he did adhere to the code. Make sure to read the question carefully. you cannot infer what Adrianna will do or what the standard policy at Hart Airport may be. but they are evidence. but it does have the largest selection of fresh fruit. Choice B brings up a totally new issue (which you should not do when making a conclusion) concerning the pilot’s capabilities. not the conclusion. Choice C is wrong because the conclusion was about Private Adams. Choice D would not justify her going only to Tam’s. For choice A. he did not communicate with his captors in any way. it is true that the judges have too much discretion in sentencing.

6. However. It is a logical flaw to conclude something about Steve (who may not be a highly-paid CEO) based on what is true only for highly-paid CEOs. Carolyn compares leasing a car to renting an apartment in order to make her point that building ownership equity should be a major consideration when buying versus leasing a car. What he fails to consider is that too much water could be harmful instead of beneficial. they disagree about whether a person should buy instead of lease. There is no discussion of how much water the human body can really withstand. she does not critique the method of David’s argument. B – David argues that someone interested in owning a car should lease instead of buy because the payments are cheaper and the interest rate is lower. it is a better choice than B. 7. That is the primary flaw in the argument and A is the best choice. Carolyn does not base the logic of her argument on his motivation. B – The archaeologist’s concludes that earlier estimates are incorrect because the carbon-dating tests indicate the pottery is fifty years older then they initially estimated. If. if carbon dating technology has a margin of error of 60 years. Choices B and C are wrong because Carolyn introduces a new consideration. Despite her statement that David must work for a leasing agent. The trick here is that the first sentence refers to highly-paid CEOs. 8. it discusses Indonesia. before you look at the answer choices on this question type. Choice E is also an issue that is discussed only by Carolyn. Choice E is irrelevant because it discusses previous archeologists. Choice D and E are irrelevant. the previous estimates are not wrong. Choice B most weakens the argument. Choice C is wrong because the flaw had nothing to do with the benefits of water. Choice E is wrong because it does not appeal to authority. then she would have appealed to authority. 9. whereas Steve is only identified as a CEO– with no mention of whether he is highly paid or not. Carolyn argues that they should buy instead of lease so as to build equity. since these issues were only discussed by Carolyn. If so. Because choice A discusses quantity. Look for the answer choice that commits the same type . Choice D is irrelevant. Analogy is a synonym for comparison. Choice A contradicts a fact in the argument. D – Again. decide how the argument is made.D. Choice D is wrong because Carolyn did not argue about interest rates. The carbon dating showed the ceramic pottery to be from 450 A.. Thus. some fifty years before the previous estimates of the earliest usage. A – The author touts the benefits of water and then wonders aloud how humans could drown when their bodies are made up of a significant amount of water. Choices A and C are wrong. then the pottery found by the archaeologist could really be from 510 A. Carolyn had said that nine out of ten economists say that leasing is bad. which indicates that D is the correct response. Choice C doesn’t add any new information of value. which is a bit too vague.5. for example. C – Read parallel reasoning arguments very carefully.D.

and the rest of the logic is the same as the given. then such a meteor did not strike the Earth and E is logically inferable. Choices B. C and E were completely off-target. Choices A and E are. and the countries of Latin America eat more Canadian bacon. it must be assumed that the killer whale was not attacking the shark for some other reason–such as the defense of the baby whale. then the attack does not prove that the killer whale is a predator of the great white shark and the argument would be weakened. For the author to conclude that the killer whale is a natural predator of the great white shark on the basis of this one attack. but Steve was not identified as being highly paid. Look out for choices that correct the flaw. If choice D is true. If it is a good assumption. than anywhere else in the world. but it is also possible that something else caused the flooding. D – The author concludes that Canadians must have higher cholesterol than people other parts of the world based on the fact that Canadian bacon has high fat and sodium content and those factors contribute to high cholesterol. of flaw. Choice D has Sanjay as a world-class cricket player (like highly-paid CEO). Choice B would strengthen the conclusion that Canadians have higher cholesterol. when you take the opposite of that assumption it should weaken the argument. 11. since it discusses other shark species. 10. In choice C. Choice D was irrelevant. So. Han is only identified as a doctor. E – It is stated as fact that the impact of a large meteor on the Earth would definitely cause widespread global flooding. so C is the credited response. not great whites. If that were the case. not a well-trained doctor. Choice A is wrong because it does not identify a specific type of attorney. “so what?” choices. . A – This is another negative assumption. Choice C discusses a different kind of food. Why is choice A wrong? It gets a bit picky. This is another example of the contrapositive in action. so D is not parallel. on average. The LSAT test makers are fond of testing this concept. which makes for a logical argument. If there is global flooding it is possible that a meteor caused it. Choices B and E do not even slightly follow the pattern of the argument. 12. then by the author’s own logic Latin Americans should have higher cholesterol levels than Canadians. if no such flooding occurs in the year 2010. That is one way to test an assumption answer choice.