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22 Reproduction
Class Practice 22.1 What is reproduction? 22.2 Asexual reproduction in bacteria 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 22.3 Asexual reproduction in flowering plants A. 1. corm 2. bulb 3. tuber 4. rhizome B. 1. 2. 3. 4. D B B C

22.4 Sexual reproduction in flowering plants A. (a) anther (b) stigma (c) pollen tube (d) style (e) ovary B. 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. B 22.5 Fruits and seeds 22.6 The advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction compared with asexual reproduction in flowering plants

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Structure A B C D A.

Name seed coat cotyledon plumule radicle

Function protects the embryo provides stored food for seed germination grows and develops into the leafy shoot grows and develops into the root

B.

1. 2.

C C

22.7 Sexual reproduction in humans A. 1. (a) testis 2. (b) epididymis 3. (c) seminal vesicles (d) prostate glands (e) Cowper's glands 4. (f) scrotum 5. (g) urethra 6. (h) ovary 7. (i) oviduct 8. (j) uterus 9. (k) vagina
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B.

10. (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) 1. C 2. A 3. D 4. E 5. B

cervix ovulation sexual intercourse ejaculation fertilisation menstruation

22.8 Human embryos A 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. T B. 1. A 2. A 22.9 The birth process 22.10 Parental care A. (iii) → (ii) → (i) → (iv) B. 1. F 2. F 3. T 22.11 Birth control 1. condom, surgical method 2. surgical method 3. condom, diaphragm 4. IUD 5. natural method 6. condom, diaphragm
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Exam Practice A. Multiple Choice Questions 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. C 10. B B. Structured Questions 1. (a) (i) B, E (ii) G (iii) B (iv) C (b) Internal fertilisation takes place in this flower. After the pollen grains have landed on the stigma, they develop pollen tubes to send the male gametes down into the ovule inside the ovary where fertilisation takes place. (c) The anther and stigma are enclosed inside the corolla. The nectaries secrete nectar to attract insects. (d) It carries out photosynthesis and protects the flower bud. (e) A, B and C will wither. D will become the fruit wall/fruit. E will become the seed. 2. (a) B – stigma, D – filament (b) C (c) Feathery stigma – to catch pollen grains in the wind Anthers hang out of the flower – to shake off the pollen grains (d) They are light with a smooth surface. (a) (i) urine (ii) kidneys (b) F/testis (c) (i) F (ii) F
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3.

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(d)

4.

(a) (b) ( c) (d) (e)

5.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

6.

(a)

(b) (c) C.

(iii) E (vi) C, D The temperature in G is slightly lower than the body temperature. Sperm production is very sensitive to heat and more sperms are produced in cooler conditions. A / ovary E / oviduct B / uterus No, because the female sex hormones can still be secreted by ovaries (A) and transported by blood to the target organs to exert their effects. Women's urethra (H) is shorter than that of men. It is easier for bacteria to pass from the urethra (H) to the bladder to cause infection. glucose, amino acids, mineral salts (Any two) urea and carbon dioxide The embryonic tissue would be destroyed by the higher pressure of the maternal blood. It is the amniotic fluid. It acts as a shock-absorber, protecting the embryo from mechanical injury. It prevents the embryo from becoming desiccated and allows some freedom of movement as it grows. The nucleus of the sperm is haploid but that of a cheek cell is diploid. It can make sure that during fertilisation the diploid number of chromosomes can be maintained. There is a large amount of food storage in the ovum but very little in the sperm. The food storage in the ovum is for the development of the zygote. Mitochondria are the sites of respiration to provide energy for the sperm to swim.

STS Connections 1. (a) insect pollination (b) No. The pollen grains should come from the same species in order for fertilisation to occur. (c) It provides a 'landing platform' for insects. Insects can then transfer the pollen gains from one to another. 2. (a) It occurs by diffusion through the wall of the blood vessels in the placenta. (b) It reduces the amount of nutrients and oxygen carried to the foetus. (c) It combines with the foetal haemoglobin and reduces and the haemoglobin’s oxygen carrying capacity. (d) Coffee contains caffeine which may stimulate the heart of the foetus to beat faster.

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