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Physics Unit 3 Cheat Sheet (Motion and Gravity)

Energy (J) and q Force (N)


1 = 2 2 = (only if gravity is constant!) = cos 1 = 2 2 AVOID = = sin

Power (W)
= = =

Momentum ( ) and Impulse ( )


= 1 1 1 = 2 (2 2 ) Impulse = = = SI Units
Speed: ms -2 Acceleration: ms Distance: m Time: s Mass: kg Force: N Energy: J Power: W Current: A Resistance: Voltage: V
-1

Motion (, , )
= + + = 2 1 = + 2 2 1 = 2 2 2 = 2 + 2 =

note that impulse does not depend on acceleration, ie. a collision will have the same impulse regardless of the presence of padding Sources of centripetal force: Tension, eg: o Gravity o Along a string Sideways frictional forces

Centripetal Motion

Inclined Planes

(normal force acts at right angles to the surface)

Newton's Laws
1. Every object continues in a state of rest or constant velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force. 2. The rate of change of momentum is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force and is in the direction of the net force. 3. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Action-reaction forces act on different objects, e.g.. Joe and wall Newton's laws assume that space and time are absolute, in contrast with Einstein, who proposed that space and time are relative. The inertial frame of reference refers to objects moving at a constant speed, where Newtons laws work (ie. the third law wouldnt work if Joe broke the wall down). Driving force = weight force - normal force

= sin = sin

2 4 2 = 2 2 4 2 = = 2 2 = = = =

Normal Force

p pico 1012 n nano 109 micro 106 m milli 103 c centi 102 k kilo 103 M mega 106 G giga 109 t tonne 103 kg
Area under Gradient

Collisions
Elastic: Energy conserved Momentum conserved Inelastic: Energy lost as heat / sound / deformation Momentum conserved

Gravity
g a F v M m r T gravitational field strength (N Kg 1 ) acceleration ( 2 ) Force (N) velocity (M s1 ) Central mass (kg) Orbiting mass (kg) radius or orbit (m) period of orbit (s)

Graph interpretation
X-axis Y-axis

Extension Time Time Time Displ. Dist Strain

Force Velocity Accel. F Force Stress

Displ. Velocity Impulse Work Work /3

Spr. const Accel. YM ()

= 6.67 10

11

N m2 kg 2

Acceleration is independent of mass Force acts equally on both bodies Velocity is directed at a tangent to the path

4 2 2 = 2 = 2 4 2 2 = 2 = = 2 = = = 2 =

3 = 2 2 4 1 1 = 2 2
Action / Reaction

Action/reaction forces: Always exist in pairs Are equal in magnitude Act in opposite directions Act on separate objects

This value is a constant for bodies orbiting the same central mass

Physics Unit 3 Cheat Sheet (E/P and M/S)


Transistor Amplifier

Phototransducers
LDRs Vary resistance with illumination Ohmic As illumination increases, resistance decreases Advantages Disadvantages Simple, sensitive Very slow response Wide range time Can be used in voltage dividers Phototransistors Operate as transistors with base as light source Photodiodes Vary conductance (resistance) with illumination Non-ohmic Work in reverse bias Advantages Disadvantages Very fast Not sensitive response time

Advantages Sensitive Gain of 10 to 100

Disadvantages Not as fast as photodiodes

= + is very small = + = + = = 2 1 + 2

0.7v 1 = 1 2 1 2 = = out = =

Voltage Divider

note that if one of the components is a diode then the maximum voltage consumed by it is the bias (0.7v)

LEDs

LDs

< 1s > 1ns Forward bias Forward bias Wide beam Narrow beam Wide wavelength Narrow wavelength Slow switch speed Fast switch speed Youngs Modulus is independent of thickness and therefore the same for every sample of a given material

1 = 2 VR 2 = R1 VR cc

= R cc R = cc

1 + 2 1 1 1 + 2

N m2 = Pa

Stress ( ) and strain


Stress = = Strain = = or Young s Modulus = E = = = Area =

Torque ( )

Total current, voltage and resistance


Series Current Resistance Voltage Parallel

= 1 = 2 = 1 + 2 = 1 + 2

= 1 + 2 1 = 1 1 + 1 2 = 1 = 2

Area under vs.

Torque is equal to the product of radius and the perpendicular force component . = sin and = = sin Torque Work

Est 1 1 2 = = E2 = Vol 2 2 2E = Area Vol

Skin effect
Low frequencies can travel along the entire wire, whereas high frequencies can only travel along the skin. Therefore, high frequencies encounter more attenuation than low frequencies, limiting data transfer rates. This doesnt happen to optic fibres.

Remember that this energy is per unit volume

Jargon
tough amounts of strain energy per unit brittle
materials which can absorb large volume before failing materials with little or no plastic region materials with a high value for Youngs Modulus *not needed* materials with a large plastic region how much stress a sample can be subjected to before failing flat points in an output signal caused by the input signal being out of range when the input voltage is greater than the linear region when the input voltage is less than the linear region the gain of an amplifier where the signal is not clipped the DC blocking effect of a capacitor
Glass fibre

Equilibrium

The torque = 0 in equilibrium regardless of the reference point.

stiff malleable ductile strength

Translational = 0

Rotational = 0

Static = 0 and = 0

clipping saturation cut-off


Note that maximum stress is not equal to breaking stress

linear gain de-coupling


Copper

Concrete Steel Cast iron

Strength (MPa) Tensile Compressive 2 20 820 500 170 550

one signal per wire skin effect thick fibres expensive affected by EM interference convenient to branch and join

1000+ signals per wire no skin effect thin fibres cheap not affected by EM interference inconvenient to branch and join