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When you have completed this unit, you should be abk to : understand the process change different reasons for process change
1 echnrques to manage the process change
Introtluction Reascws For The Process Change The E'rocess To Manage The Change Sumrnary Self-~tsessment Questions ~urther e a d i n ~ s ~
Unleashing a continuous improvement initiative of some kind has become the norm for a large cross section of organizations throughout the world today. The aim is often to reinvent the:mselvesas a cut above competitors, fine-tuned to customer needs and adapt to changes in business conditions. A number of techniques and approaches can be used to support to this process such as: SWOT analysis, right-sizing, Organisation Analysis and Review (OAR), Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, Breakthrough Manal;emeiit, Reengineering, Operational Excellence, etc. Nevertheless, at the heart of each of these programs remains the ultimate object of achieving breAk through by funda~nenta changing the way business is executed. Ily
Change is a process, which progress over a period of time. Whilst change itself always carries with it improbability, the process of change should be managed by an unambiguousrules, processes, protocol and systems. Educational effective pli~n, researchers have defined the change process for both organizations and individuals as: Change is not a single event; it takes time to plan for change, try new practices, and incorporate new programs effectively. Change can energize, act as a catalyst, and build a sense of community. The process of change may not be embraced by all. Conflicts are a natural part of the change process. Change begins with the individual and will not be manifested in the organization until ir~dividuals believe in the change and understand the reason which prompted change. I~ivolvement the change process is individualistic and ultimately the responsiin bility clf each person within the organization. When individuals have clearly defined goals and expectations along with an understandingthat the change can be effective, success and more acceptance of the change process can occur.
within the world of management thei-eare numerous systems to introduce order and standardisation-which may be the right option in many cases-but one may decide to opt for greater staff autonomy in order to achieve a higher degree of flexibility and diversity. seeing problems as sources of creative resolution. but externally oriented. being internally cohesive. Process Based Change According to Professor Van den Broeck.Activity 1 Recently your organization has undergone a large-scale restructuring programme. Al I these eight lessons are fit together. 21-22). having a vision. being prepared for a journey of uncertainty.) Lesson Four: Vision and strategic planning come later (premature visions and planning blind) Lesson Five: Individualism and collectivism must have equal power (there are no onesided solutions to isolation and group think.) Lesson Three: Problems are our friends (problems are inevitable and you can't learn without them. As Fullan (1993) notes later: "There is a pattern underlying the eight lessons of dynamic change and it concerns one's ability to work with polar opposites: simultaneously pushing for change while al lowi~ig self-learning to unfold. not a blueprint (change is non-linear." Fullan ( 1993) lists eight "basic lessons" that can be learned about the process of change and improvement: - Lesson One: You can't mandate what matters (the more complex the change. To a large extent.) Lesson'Two:Change is ajourney. personal change . Explain your experience about the change process in the light of the characteristics as mentioned above.) b Lesson Six: Neither centralization nor decentralization works (both top-down and bottom-up strategies are necessary. this choice will depend on the type of duties the members of staff are expected to carry out. personal mind set and mastery is the ultimate protection) (pp. but not being blinded by it. the less you can force it. After all. loaded with uncertainty and excitement and sometimes perverse.) Lesson Seven: Connection with the wider environment is critical for success (the best organizations learn externally as well as internally.) Lesson Eight: Every person is a change agent (change is too important to leave to. and valuing. Chairman of the Competence Centre People and Orgsnisation: "Whenever an organisation embarks on a process of change. valuing the individual and the group. the experts. it first needs to be sure of the direction it wants to take. incorporatingcentralizing and decentralizing forces.
1992. Tlechnological Advancement With the (emergenceof new technologies. This necessitates upgrading of the existing skill sets of employees. quality. The advancement in the Information Technology requires organisations to: Be able to develop an IT strategy that fully supports and enables the business strategy to develop and grow. As newer technologies are developed and implemented. not structure reorganisiitionare the common objectives of reengineering " The classic definition of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is given in Michael Hammer's and John Champy's pioneering book. These are decisions by management based primarily on cost refduction. 2000). basically CRM. providing them advance training. dynamic organisaton structure that facilitates change and adaptation to changes in the organisation's environment The growing trend for 'Total Quality Management initiatives for employees focus on collaborative attempts lo improve organizational processes to ensure continual improvement in the qua1ity of'the organisation's product process or service. Adopt a process-oriented view of how the business operates Pursue a radical business process redesign policy which starts with a 'clean sheet' that seeks to recreate from the ground upwards how the business should be run ideally. Listen to business needs and translate them into technology requirements. 36 . Blusiness Process Reengineering (BPR) 1 Re-engineering has been a popular activity and another name for making major organisation-wideimprovements. improving their communication skills. e-business and Knowledge Management.Forms of Organisational Change -- --IUCASONS FOR THE PROCESS CHANGE 8. encouraging collaborative team work etc. Regard organisations as open socio-technical systems that must constantly adapt in an integrated way in order to improve customer service. and also to constantly review and evaluate HR practices to allow an organization to respond to changes taking place in the environment. "The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical." From this definition it is clear that BPR is an ongoing. The fowwing are ones about which there was most agreement . such as cost. service and speed. Similarly. become more prevalent and estimated to grow at a pace of 20% annually (Harvey. rather than an automation tool :is in the past. the ski1Is and work habits required ofemployees change as well.2 I. a number of defining characteristics of BPR were proposed. They define BPR as. Tecl~nology also facilitated the relocation of work from the office to the home. technology is now considered as a strategic tool. 1 . Breakthrough redesign and process improvement. as a result. has become more than just business process improvement and It simplifica~tion. Use easy access to a knowledge management approach and technology to turn individual knowledge into company wide knowledge speedily and effectively. has Telecomrnuting has. contemporary measures of performance. Make the common database available to all in customer service management thereby joining market and business strategy with data provision. technology has created more flexible. iterative process itself requiring strong commitment and vision from senior management During thte Forum organized at Warwick University on April 30th 1996. "Reengineering the Corporation-A Manifesto for Business Revolution". All these technological changes require the people to change the fundamental way of their working.
6. Identify short-term improvements in the process. Process B a d Change Concept - a Fundamental rethinking Radical redesign Process Dramatic improvement Measures Return Risk Activities Customers Measures Work ordering Time Space Beginning Ending Inputs Outputs Structure Action Baseline Process . . the process. such as increased revenue. Pursue a radical business process redesign policy which starts with a 'clean sheet' that seeks to recreate from the ground upwards how the business should be run ideally. Table 2: Critical Redesign Activities Understanding and improving existing processes 1. There are usually two methodologies to reengineering activities: (i) Critical Redesign Activities and (ii) High-level Reengineering Activities. Both the methodologies are listed in the following tables. Table 1: Key Reengineering Concepts Topic Reengineering . seeking improvements relentlessly and continuously. enhanced quality. shorter cycle times and an improved cost base. Identify problems with. Set 'stretch targets' which seek to make major 'breakthroughs' in measurable benefits in competitive performance.Unlearn past habits of thinking and adopt new ways. 4. or shortcbming of. Assess the process in terms of the new process attributes. 3. 5. Encourage greater team working in which each member has multiple skills. Assess current information technology and organisation. Treat stability as dysfunctional. 2. Move away froln centralised command and control processes to more devolved managehent styles with more local empowerment and autonomy. Describe the current process flow Measure the process in terms of the new process objectives.
Worlcers make real decisions.H. Hanard Business School Press. in the case of Ford Motor Company invoices . Creativity. and '4 case manager provides a single point of contact When a customer calls with a complaint. This indicates the importance attached in the BPR paradigm to deep and radical change. and prototyping a new process ESrainstorm design alternatives Assess feasibility. When a team member makes design is changes those changes are immediately propagated to other team members for ]review. Through shared databases and decision support systems this generalist has access to all the required information and expert systems make a sound decision. Prototype the new process design 1)evelopa migration strategy. T. Reconciliation and the associated overlhead is minimized. The process of reengineering 1 itsell'has no fixed rules. 4. op. Table 3: High-level Reengineering Activities Identifying process for innovation. For example. Sozirce: Davenport. cit. Boston. identified common themes fountl in raengineered processes." Managers act more as coaches than "bean counters." Worlr is performed where it makes the most sense. (1993). . Hammer. Obliterate'. Further. They have a full grasp of the entire process and can take responsibility if a customer is dissatisfied. BPR involves the total creative rethinking of one or more of a company's key business processes. in his landmark book. and Source: Davenport. (Checksand Controls are reduced. for example.we no longer reconciled with what is shipped because a shipment is not received unles:. A product development team. Some of these include: Several jobs are combined into one Work normally performed by a number of specialists in different functional departments can now be performed by one individual or team. thus forcing the supplier to deliver q~lality to be in tune with Ford's production schedules. Elelect the preferred process design. 5. one person is responsible and takes ownership for the resolution of that complaint. suppliers are not paid until iheir parts are actually used in production. Implement a new organirational structures and systems. risk and benefit of design alternatives. Dt:veloping process visions. Reelrgineceringand Organisational Change One ofthe best known BPR sayings is the exhortation by Michael Hammer (1990): 'Don't Automate. 3. Identifying change levers (that is enabling or transformation technologies). ability to work independently and a sense of responsibility are required attributes of this "new work~:r.Forms of Orgrnisrtionrl Change 2. instead of being spread out over multiple locations and (departments now under one roof or group. Ui~derstanding improving existing processes. it agrees with the original invoice. Process Innovation: Reengineering Work Through information Technology.
a-be-it significant. and developing a 'communications programme'. They also advocate for 'empowering staff. for example through forced or coerced redundancies. change their behaviour and are self managed. predominately management consultants. This is very mi~ch case of breaking down the cultural resistance to change rather a than creating a positive atmosphere for change. They map this out in their 'business system diamond': 1) business processes determine 2) the jobs and structures which are then 3) managed and measured to 4) shape values and beliefs (p 8 1). diversity). appear to see organisations as systems with BPR another. and carried out a significant reduction in the workforce that slashed costs and signaled the end of [a] traditionally paternalistic culture. and something to be seen in a positive light (e. p32) Changing Role of Leaders: Despite a reduction in managerial layers there is still a role for leaders: . change the culture and thus the characteristics of the organisation. encouraging 'team working'. Other viewpoints would take a middle stand. 1993. Whilst all writers on BPR highlight the importance ofthe human factors in implementation 1 Hammer & Champy clearly see a new culture as the outcome of BPR and the process of implementing a new process. they would see this as natural part of a human social system. in due course. change to be systematically implemented. Hammer & Champy do recognise that the culture may not be conductive to even initiating BPR. Academics take a broader view but the contenders among them see failure to consider the human dimension as the reason for a supposedly high failure rate. Hammer & Champy's "New World of Work" is very much addressed to those that survive BPR. They would emphasise the significance of power and politics within the organization. Changing Role of Employees: Reengineering also needs change in the behavior of employees. Process Based Change Cultural Change: Many of the BPR writers or commentators address the cultural issues in more than one way. but they helped create an environment in which of Reengineering could succeed" (Hammer & Champy. to be neutralised. They are consequences of process designs and they can only be achieved in that context. as an inhibitor to effective implementation of BPR. None of these steps fits our defi~~ition Reengineering. installed a new senior management team. A number of HR commentators have highlighted the BPR pre-occupation with the processes. They describe characteristics or attributes that one might want an organisation to exhibit. Their response is quite vicious giving the example of a CEO who: "[first] created a new organizational structure that emphasized the autonomy of major business units and eliminated cross subsidies. Hammer is quite clear where he stands: "'Tea~nwork' and 'empowerment' are abstractions and generalities around which it's impossible to get one's arms. pl10). but there is no direct way to achieve them. They shall be rewarded with more fulfilling work.BPR involves significant organisational change and that managing the change process must therefore be critical to the success of such undertakings with all its major implications. their mindset. or at least the neglect of people. at worst as an inhibitor. At best cultural aspects are seen as an enabler to be directed towards the organisation's new goals. The protagonists. Whilst they see culture as an inhibitor." (Hammer & Champy. see culture. These force new behaviour which will. 1993.g. emphasising a need to equally manage the system and human aspects within what is a complex change management issue. The social scientists. attitudes etc.
p103). Besides customer service. positioning and managing TQM as a large-scale organizational change. people. Ambition.tomersand employees. TiQMdoes impact almost all of an organization's components (work. and Bu i Id teamwork. values etc. conducting.. Toyota began to develop the concept shortly thereafter and it has been used slince1977.200l). It is often used in conjunction with Quality Function Deployment. Work Redesign: Reengineering leads to several changes in the job characteristicsof e~np loyees mainly because of two reasons: (1) reengineering requires employees to use a wider viuiety of skills to perform theirjobs. the essentials of quality management cal I for accurate measurement. Xerox..scalt: organizational changes is given below: Design of :Experiments (DOE): DOE was first developed by Ronald Fisher in Engltu~d the 1920s to evaluate agricultural experiments in the natural conditions in while in the fields and was further developed by Taguchi in 1950s.ture. Purpose: DOE is a branch of applied statistics dealing with planning.. . analysing and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters.ervicesalong with proper problem solving methodology" (Anandaram. thc: organisation derives the spiritual energy that it needs to em barlc on a voyage into the unknown. and (2) reengineering typically results in downsizi~ig short term periods of understaffing.Forms of Organisational Change "The leatler's primary role is to act as visionary and motivator. "TOM is an organisational strategy with accompanying techrlique:. However. 1993. and IBM successfully use QFD. that deliver quality products and/or services to customersW. continuous improvemenl-. Make:continuous improvement on everyday matter. . and the support of upper management. Any quality approach used by an organization must be treated as an organization in change. A descriptive analysis of some of the important TQM methods which need large. TQM focuses on customers' needs and demands that to the manager be primarily accour~table the customer. l. trust and mutual respect e 0 The above basic principles can be implemented by putting into practice suitable TQM methods. Ford.. Qualiity Function Deployment (QFD): QFD was originated in 1972 at Mitsubishi's Kobe Shipyard site. From the leader's convictions and enthusiasm.culture. .isten to and learn from cus. According to Fred Luthans.). work relationships based on trust and teamwork. . Today companies like GM. restlessness and intellectual curiosity are the hallmarks ofthe Reengineering Leader".TQM also is deficed as "an integrated organisational approach for delighting the customers (both internal alld external) by meeting their expectations on acontinuous basis through everyone involved with organisation working on a continuous improvement in all prod~~cts.Thereare four common TQM principles: 0 Do it right the first time to eliminate costly rework. struc. Si~ccess implementingTQM and receiving a return on investment depends upor1 undexstanding.. (Hammer & Champy. any attempt to change and very jobs freq~~ently often leads to a diminution or even a reversal of anticipated outcomes.
People are willing to accept imperfection in some areas and at the same time they expect the number of defects to Process Based Change . CE occurs by assigning product development to a cross-functional project team consisting of people from the key functional organisations like marketing. Process: Generally. processes and procedures. in Toyota Company. departments or a similar organisat ion as a means of improving performance. The first success with JIT occurred in Japan i. However. Crosby (1 984) to address a dual attitude in the workplace. the zero defects methodology states that.Purpose: QFD is a structured method in which customer requirements are translated into appropriate technical requirements for each stage of product development and production. reengineering. Benchmarking is an improvement process in which a company measures its performance against that of best-in-class companies.e. Crosby (1984) to address a dual attitude in the workplace. manufacturing. Purpose: Zero Defects allows teams to experience the success involved in meeting over more demanding target without demotivating them by not achieving absolute success at once. Zero Defects: Zero Defects is a performance standard developed by Philip B. It determines how those companies achieved their performance levels and use the information to improve their own performance. they can move closer to the goal of zero. Comparative benchmarking: It is the comparison across all business sectors aimed at establishing best practice in all areas of operation. Purpose: JIT is an optimal material requirement planning system for a manufacturing process in which there is little or no manufacturing material inventory on hand at the manufacturing site and little or no incoming inspection. The subjects that can be bencll~narked include strategies. Zero Defects: Zero defects is a performance standard developed by Philip B. This dual attitude had developed because of the recognition of the fact that people are human and humans make mistakes. low cost and fast delivery. Purpose: Benchmarking identifies and fills gaps in performance by putting in place best practice. These are: Internal benchmarking: It is the cornparison between functions. quality engineering and suppliers. Purpose: CE is a ~nethodology the design.. Process: There are three distinct types of benchmarking which can be used by an organisation progressively to stimulate the improvement process. operations. development and manufacture of for products that meet the market/customer demand for high quality. Concurrent Engineering (CE): CE refers to the cross-functional integration and concurrent development of a product or service and its associated processes. The QFD process is often referred to as listening to the voice of the customer. ifpeople commit themselves to watching details and avoiding errors. Competitive benchmarking: It is a cross-comparison within one industry sector aimed at establishing best practice through the identification of gaps between own and competitor's performance. Benchmarking: Xerox developed the system of benchmarking in 1979 and subsequently it has been widely adopted by others. Thus it establishes superior performance. People are willing to accept imperfection in some areas and at the same time they expect the number of defects to be zero. Just In Time (JIT): JIT usage began in the US in the late 1980s.
Delegate as far down as practical the decision on whatever or not to implement the suggestion. Purpose: Zero Defects allows teams to experience the success involved in meeting over more demanding target without demotivatingthem by not achieving absolute su(:cess $at onct. It ensures consistent quality for customers IS09000 certification indicates that a company performs above a minimum level of quality and cornpetence. I S 0 9000 Series The: IS0 9000 Series were developed by International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). why not. This dual attitude had developed because of the recognition of the fact that people are human and humans make mistakes. 1971). Look for reasons to say 'yes' rather than 'no'. Give awards to supervisors and managers whose employees generate most ideas. To Process: The following are guidelinesfor successful running of suggestion schemes. Sug. 42 . the zero defects methodology states that. Set up a steering group to oversee the process.Forms of Organisational Change be zero. To generate ideas in manageable numbers try to set themes for ideas and change the themes regularly. beginning with the pioneering work of Shewhart at Bell Laboratories in the 1920s. In the early stages be prepared for ideas to be about environmental aspects rather than operational ones. However.gestisnschemes provide a way of moving to continuous improvement via small incl-emen~tal changes. if people commit themselves to watching details and avoiding errors. a spu~ial international agency for standardisation comised posed of the national standards of 91 countries in the year1987. In t'he early stages go for quantity of ideas rather than quaiity. the Union of Japanese:Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) fostered the development of seven management tools for QC . Ensure that all ideas are acknowledged quickly and that the person generating the idea is told whether it is to be implemented and if not. Kaoru Ishikawa made the next major practical contribution to the QC tool kit in the 19(iOsby combining Shewhart's work with some of his own and describing seven Quality Control (QC) tools (Ishikawa. Also in the 1960s. It is considered as a subset of TQM and operates according to the premise that organisations can always make improvements. Suggestion Schemes: Pu~rpose: generate ideas for improvement. Process : A number of tools have been developed over the years for achieving CI. Continulous Improvement (C9: Purpose!: CI includes the actions taken throughout an organisation to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of activities and processes in order to provide added benefits to the customer and organisation. they call mobe closer to the goal of zero.
Process: The requirements for IS09000 are depicted in the following Table. Table 4: Requirements of IS0 9000 IS0 9001 IS0 9002 w Process B a d Change IS0 9003 a a a A Management responsibility Quality system Contract review Design control Document control Purchasing Purchaser-supplied product Product identification and trace ability Process control Inspection and testing Inspection. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Principles and Practices of Organisational Performance Excellence. value to those inputs and then pass those outputs on to their own customers. Process: The customer-supplier chain given in the above Figure shows that any work can be seen as a customer-supplier chain in which customers receive inputs from their suppliers. Ltd: New Delhi . everyone in an organisation must understand that. information or service from others inside tlie organisation or from outside. measuring. Internal Customer Satisfaction (ICS): Purpose: The purpose of ICS is to build positive relationship between customers and suppliers both inside and outside the organisation. employees realise that providing outstanding service to the internal customers also enables the organisation to provide outstanding service to external customer. u Requirements and fedback u Requirements and fedback u Requirements and fedback u Requirements and fedback Customer-Supplier Chain . storage. Therefore. and delivery Quality records Internal quality audits Training Servicing Statistical techniques w Full requirement a Minimal A w w A w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w A w a A w w a a a w a a • • A Not required Source: Cartin. In a quality organisation. Thomas 3.2000. and test equipment Inspection and test status Control of nonconforming product Corrective action Handling. a One becomes a customer when he gets materials. packaging.
Downsizing is the planned elimination of positions and jobs. information or services to otht:rs inside the organisation 01' to external customers.5. HRM (human resource management systems) and TQM (total quality management). etc. As customer things received from others are inputs. even grateful that they survived to keep their jobs. Rightsizing is a successful effort to achieve an appropriate size at which the company performs most effectively. people wait and see what happens. where the cuts are few and widely felt to be justified. Activity 2 Your Manager often makes a statement that "TQM is all about statistical process conitrol. How would you like to comment upon it ?. However. and other dramatic changes in the workplace are now "normal" business practices. delayering.~vioral cultural commitment to customer quality. restructuring. Downsizing has a long term impact on the personal and emotional experience of people who are caught up in the process. and TQYvl becomes a system within itself by default or by choice. The familiar pattern is broken and the nlornentum that comes fiom routine and repetition will take time to recover.Forms o f Organisational Change One: becomes a supplier when he supplies materials. The survivors experience an emotional shock that prevents them fiom suddenly changing direction. in the large scale cutbacks that result in a decimated organization where long: term working relationships are severed and people are expected to take on new role.something quite different occurs. . not about people". This might be true in some cases.downsizing. mergers acquisitions. As a supplier things that are supplied are outputs. Not knowing what to do. Some managers believe that those who are not tlismi ssed feel relieved. DOWNSIZING As ar result of increased competitions. Customers and suppliers exchange information about their requirements and provide one another with feedback on how to meet those requirements. Even more than the loss . divestiture. IV. These three management systems must be aligned in a successful TQM initiative: OM (organizational management system). TOM and Associated Organisational Changes Successfi~l Totai Quality Management requires both behavioral and cultural change. A successful TQM Systen~ brings two other management systems together with a beh.
It is a time of uncertainty and often confusion. OUTSOURCING Outsourcing has becoming an accepted way of functioning for organizations the world over today. New Beginnings:As people come to accept and master their new roles. they are networked through technology and passwordprotected intranet sites. It feels very much like a death in the family and needs the compassion and time for mourning that we expect whenever a loved one is lost. compared to maintaining an in-house contact center. First. 8. The old organization .Virtual centers are centers comprised of agents who work from the comfort of their homes. are great for overflow or if you only need a small numbu of agents for outsourcing. It is a process of acquiring value from the outside vendor. V. Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate ModerateILow Low Low Moderate Low Moderaternigh Control Low The outsourcing process has a significant impact on the people and their way of working in the organization. . e Virtual. Outsourcing is not a normal buy or sell deal. who assumes responsibility for one or more functions of a product or services. discomfort and high stress. Transitions: There is an in-between time when employees are letting go ofthe old and getting familiar with the new. There are three large groups of outsourcers: : ! i Domestic. Productivity increases A people focus on the job at hand rather than dwelling on personal anxieties. The agents can work as independent contractors and thus.Domestic outsourcers are based in the same country International . Here's a swift outline of some ofthe key differences among the three. Process Based Change Ending: People need to understand and come to accept that the changes are real and not reversible. People feel competent and confident again.These outsourcers are based in other countries. The old ways fade into memory and the new ways become s the expectation.the old ways of doing things are gone and won't be restored.3 THE PROCESS TO MANAGE THE CHANGE lmplementation of the above processes bring large scale organizational changes which must be managed properly. new skills and new roles. People may even feel incompetent until they master new tools.of familiarity and momentum is the sense of personal loss that many people feel at seeing their friends leaving or their positions eliminated. There are actually 3 steps that need to be accomplished before the new organization is back on its feet. the structure of the organization begins to set and once again a routine and sense of "normalcy" begin to become apparent. Contact center outsourcing has gained popularity over the last few years as companies search for new ways to added cut costs. but a case of building longterm relationships. In-house Domestic Virtual International Labor Cost Overall Cost Day-to-Day Risk High High High Moderate High . where both the parties are convinced of mutual benefits. Generally. every employee must strive to appraise the situation so as to identify major barriers and evolve strategies to deal with the new situation.
Chris Clegg and Reg Sell given at Warwick University on April 30th .5 SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1) What kind of role does Business Process Reengineering (BPR) play in bringing abcst change in organisations? Illustrate with reference to an organisation where this process wvas used and was successfil. Hi2mmt:r. Malcolm. Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifestofor M. 45.. 's .but change brings destruction as well. Explain the concept of Total Quality Management and discuss the relevanceof it. determinle the lcey strategies for achievingthe change. and Work Culture-Key Trends in the Next Millennium'. Response Books: New f Delht. & Champy. including support mechanisms. "Change brings renewal. and Hard skills include strategic planning and com~nunication. To the extent it generates fear and cynicism. Illustrate. pp. Sevent'n Edition. "Total Quality Management: A Goalfor Organisations". 5. Describe the Process of Outsourcing and what impact does it make in functioning of the organisations. Forunt Four: Proceedings Business Process Re-engineering: The Htrman Issues. New York : McGraw-Hill.H. internal sales conflict management.1993.S.develop implementation plans. Diversity. B. K. Reengineering the Management: The Mandatefor New Leadership. and reasons for the change.16 FUTHER REA1)INGS Anandaram. J'oseph M. No. Vol. 8. and structure to support change . H:~rnmer. 1995.1995. 'Technology. 2) 3) 4) 8. organizational alignment.cribe the System of Benchmarkingand its role in bringing an effective performance. Singapore. Harvey. vision. 1993. and implement and monitor progress. 44-53. Pleltu. & Champy. Btrsiness Revolution. (7). As James Charnpy and NitinNohria wrote in Fast Forward. K. M.2001. Incorporation of both these hard and sofi:skill 3 will help to win widespread support for process changes and metPIodologies to axecute the solution effectively. 2. J. Indian Journal o Training and Development. July 2000. 8. project management. Organisational Betzaviour.. Managerial Breakthrough: A New Concept o the &ager f Job. Ju ran. Harper Business: New York. 2001. HR Magazine. De:." Implementing process change requires a powerful combination of "soft" skills ancl "hard" skills: Soft skills include leadership. XXXI. 1996. McGraw Hill International Editions. establish the roles. responsibilities. Management o Organisational Change. it not only halts progress. it takes us backwarti.Forms of Org~nisational Change And seco~id. Harigopal. organization itself must clarify the mission. ISBN 0070340374 (originally 1964). Harper Collins: New York . coalition building. Luthans. Fred .4 - SUMMARY The challenge of implementing the change process is as immense as the challenge of creating innovative business process solutions. illustrate with reference to some orgmisations. f April-Jime.
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