Magnetic Field Sensor 10 2009 Tcm183-52284 | Sensor | Integrated Circuit

F r a u n h o F e r I n s t I t u t e F o r I n t e g r at e d C I r C u I t s I I s

intelligent 3d Magnetic field sensor technology


hallinone® one sensor – Many advantages I n t e g r at e d 3 d M a g n e t I C F I e l d sensor teChnology InexpensIve sensor produCtIon t h r o u g h s ta n d a r d C M o s p r o C e s s t e M p e r at u r e C o M p e n s at I o n n o t requIred robust agaInst InterFerIng external MagnetIC FIelds through g r a d I e n t e va l u at I o n I n t e g r at I o n o F M a g n e t I C p I x e l Cells veCtorIal MagnetIC FIeld MeasureMent In a sIngle poInt angle based and gradIent based e va l u at I o n Integrable CustoMer-speCIFIC eleCtronICs .

The digitalization of the measured values is integrated in the sensor chip. If the Hall element is supplied with control current according to the depicted voltage source. It is possible to connect the chip directly to a computer or microcontroller. The red arrow indicates the direction of the magnetic field to be measured. Hall voltage proportional to the adjacent magnetic field is generated between the two contacts in the middle. While conventional Hall sensors are sensitive only to magnetic fields which are perpendicular to the chip surface. leading to a low selling price. The HallinOne® sensor can be produced at low cost in large quantities without any additional process steps in standard CMOS technology. . The sensor chip has a separate sensor for each of the three magnetic axes.hallinone® – 3d Magnetic field sensor technology on one chip The integrated 3D Hall-sensor technology HallinOne® allows 3-axis magnetic field measurement with one sensor chip to realize low-cost contactless position measuring systems. the perpendicular single sensor. It illustrates how a vertical Hall sensor can be realized in standard CMOS technology. the sensor also responds to magnetic fields parallel to the chip surface. The figure below shows the essential part of the sensor element.

Sensor for the Z-axis: Sensitivity: Noise (@800 Hz): Offset (without compensation): Resolution: ∆f = 100 Hz: ∆f = 1 kHz: ∆f = 10 kHz: Sensors for axes X and Y: Sensitivity: Noise (@800 Hz): Typ. The sensitivity of the HallinOne® sensor for instance decreases by about 30 percent at temperatures rising up to 100 degrees Celsius.or temperature sensors. Further advantages are the small space requirements of 3D sensor technology as well as an increased reliability due to reduced external connections. A reference source current can constantly measure the sensitivity of the sensor during operation. light-. Angle measurements (see also application example “Joystick” on page 9) do not require temperature compensation. Offset (without compensation): Resolution: ∆f = 100 Hz: ∆f = 1 kHz: ∆f = 10 kHz: 6 µT 20 µT 60 µT < 20 µV (≈ 500 µT) ca. except for the external reference resistor. interfaces together with any other digital logic plus sensors can be integrated in one chip. digital-to-analog converters (DAC). The benefits are potential price advantages and a high level of protection against unauthorized replica. microcontrollers.6 µT 2 µT 6 µT < 2 µV (≈ 10 µT) ca. the customer has the opportunity to realize complete systems for magnetic field measurement. g. All circuit parts necessary for reference measurement are integrated in the chip. 200 mV/T 11 nV/sqr (Hz) temperature response The magnetic sensitivity of silicon Hall sensors decreases in higher temperature ranges. including signal processing. It is also possible to combine complex systems with various sensors on one chip by combining the magnetic field sensor elements with e. Sensors have further potential for improvement in the measurement of tangential magnetic fields. . 40 mV/T 20 nV/sqr (Hz) 0. Particularly analog-to-digital converters (ADC). Integration The multidimensional magnetic field sensors in HallinOne® are part of an extensive sensor library. since the magnitude of the magnetic field has no influence on angle calculations. At the current state of technology the magnetic field in the Z-direction can be measured with higher accuracy than presently the X-axis and Y-axis. the Z-axis has different characteristic values than the axes X and Y. the measured values can be corrected by the reference source current. If certain applications do require temperature compensation. force-/torison.hallinone® integrated 3d Magnetic field sensor technology in standard cMos Characteristics Due to the different sensor geometries necessary to measure vertical and tangential magnetic fields. Using the library. in one application specific integrated circuit (ASIC).

sensor Characteristics: – – – – – Contactless angle measurement Integrated 3D magnetic field sensor technology Resolution as rotation angle sensor better than 0.hallinone® allows Better products with new technology high-perforMance washing Machines through intelligent 3d Magnetic field sensor technology Optimized operation and control processes in washing machines through intelligent control – now possible with HallinOne ® technology. sensor requirements: – – – – Positioning of the laundry drum Determination of the load weight Detection of imbalances Prevention of excessive use of mechanical components The 3D magnetic field sensor HallinOne® allows for 3-axis measurement of any magnetic field at one spot in the washing machine. The 3D magnetic field sensor developed by Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS in cooperation with Robert Seuffer GmbH & Co KG optimizes the performance of washing machines.1 degree Cost-effective sensor production through standard CMOS process Integrable in customer-specific electronics Customer benefits through 3d Magnetic Field sensor technology in Washing Machines: – – – – – Efficient use of detergent Optimized use of drum bearings Higher spin speed Spinning with imbalance compensation Increased volume capacity .

The Fraunhofer IIS division in Dresden created a design environment for HallinOne® sensors. Hall Hallsensoren den sensors Magnetic field lines Magnetfeldlinien zur illustrating the field Veranschaulichung des Feldverlaufes distribution Example for linear positioning position sensors There is a vast field of industrial applications for position sensors. simulation support during system design is not only a sensible measure regarding costs. The technological development of the magnetic position sensors are leading the way from simple angle and distance sensors to multidimensional. robust. which allows the simulation of components but also entire systems during the early design phase. intelligent sensor systems.linear positioning with 3d Magnetic field sensors in standard cMos Hydraulic cylinder Hydraulikzylinder Magnet bewegt sich Magnet moves with the cylinder mit dem Kolben Evaluation ASICmit Auswerte-ASIC with HallinOne® provides sensors. Hence. This approach is not more expensive than conventional approaches since the sensors are integrated in the evaluation chip. The complexity of the design task for magnetic positioning systems is closely correlated with the number of degrees of freedom and the sensor complexity. especially in vehicles and automated manufacturing plants. Neither temperature changes nor homogenous noise fields can cause inaccurate measurement results. Linear positioning uses two or three (depending on the evaluation method) of those so-called pixel cells to determine the position. but indispensable at already two degrees of freedom. which can measure all the three axes of a magnetic field practically punctiform. Gradient based and angle based evaluation allow for robust positioning. at cylinders 3D magnetic field sensor 3D-Magnetfeldsensor „pixel cell“ ‚Pixelzelle’ Evaluation ASIC Auswerte-ASIC Schematic structure of the evaluation ASIC with three integrated magnetic pixel cells . Fraunhofer IIS developed the HallinOne® technology for multidimensional Hall sensors integrated in one CMOS IC.

The integration of both sensors in one chip allows a compact design and an exact reproducibility of their geometry. which is not integrated in the chip. like the earth field. The used Hall elements measure only the Z-component of the magnetic field. which can be realized in a standard CMOS process. which is perpendicular to the chip surface. they have opposite signs in a field created by electric current. While the Z-components of external noise fields have the same value and sign in both sensors. A single calibration measurement can compensate the positioning mistakes of the conductor. This way hysteresis and saturation effects can be avoided and a simple design as well as a high level of integration capability achieved. This way the current in the conductor can be measured without interference. which concentrate the magnetic field.hallinone® – the technology of the future current sensors technology Current sensors measure the electric current created by the magnetic field using Hall elements. Two magnetic field sensors are necessary to measure current since external magnetic fields. can be compensated only this way. The high sensitivity of the sensors and their ability to compensate offsets and temperature dependence with integrated electronics allow to forego /to pass on elements like ferrit cores. .

developed a gradient Hall sensor for complex applications and operation in high temperature ranges up to 170 degrees Celsius. This opens a wide range of new applications compared to conventional magnetic field sensors: – – – – – – – – – Magnetic switches with one or more axes on a single chip Multiaxial magnetic field measurement. It is possible to adjust the distance between the magnet and the sensor chip to realize an analog or digital button on the joystick. characterization of permanent magnets Linear motion in machine tools with suppression of external fields through gradient evaluation Contactless potentiometers on one single chip Proximity switches with high operating distances (up to approx. . All three spacial directions of the measured magnetic field are used to define the direction of the joystick above the field generated by the magnet. customized for individual customer requirements. In this case. in cooperation with Micronas GmbH. Electrical connections to the moving part of the joystick are not required allowing for a high-end and robust joystick which can even be employed in a humid or unclean environment. These inexpensive systemon-chip solutions provide unmatched competitive advantage in the marketplace. This way. the entire signal processing and evaluation and the sensors can be integrated in one chip. 15 cm) High-precision position measurement using multidimensional magnetic scales Rotation angle measurement with high resolution and / or high distance to the magnet Off-axis rotation angle measurement with absolute values as well as gradient based Fraunhofer IIS. the temperature compensation for the magnetic field values should be activated to ensure a stable absolute value of the magnetic field. A permanent magnet is mounted to the lower end of the lever whose orientation is measured continuously in relation to the sensor chip underneath.application exaMple – Joystick The 3D magnetic field sensor can be used for the contactless record of the current position of a joystick. further fields of application For the first time all three axes of the magnetic field can be measured practically punctiform and at low cost with the integrated 3D magnetic field sensor. The sensor can also be used for applications in engine construction.


wake-up receiver custoMer support for series production and sMall voluMe production .that is hallinone®: high-precision lateral Magnetic field sensors Based on hall-effect technology vertical Magnetic field sensor (integrated 3d sensor on cMos) noise optiMized sensor signal processing for Magnetic field sensors integrated self test. integration of ultra-low current radio receivers and radio transMitter asics. self Monitoring and sensitivity caliBration Magnetic gradient sensors Magnetic “color” caMera our expertise – your Benefit: developMent of custoMized 3d Magnetic field sensors and current sensors (in standard cMos technology) MeasureMent and siMulation of Magnetic fields single-chip integration of optical and Magnetic sensors Mixed-signal ic design.

Heinz Gerhäuser Director Prof.iis.fraunhofer.-Ing. Klaus Taschka Phone +49 9131 776-4475 Fax +49 9131 776-4499 www.taschka@iis.iis.Dembowski www.fraunhofer. Germany .-Ing.fraunhofer.fraunhofer. Günter Elst Am Wolfsmantel 33 91058 Erlangen. Dr. Contact Dipl.10/2009 Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS Executive Director Prof.

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