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CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS SIMPLY STUNNING SUCCESS

INTRODUCTION
In a world filled with faces, how many do you remember? Admittedly the ones that evoke some kind of feeling in you, whether its humor, acceptance, appreciation or recognition. These are the faces youd turn to look at, the ones that would stop you in your tracks. And thats when you have more than just a face. You have a personality. A Personality thats reflective of your brand and promises to take it that extra mile. India has opened its markets only recently and is witnessing an era of competition that its industry never imagined. Many venerable old organizations are now clutching at expensive straws to survive. Consequently, one of the most noticeable trends over the last five years has been the plethora of celebrity endorsements. Across product categories, from toiletries to telecom, hi-fi's to hotels, ready-mades to razor blades, everyone seems to be roping in a "Brand Ambassador" to sell their products. If we take a look at the set of brand ambassadors who have been contracted so far, they are all either from the world of film or cricket. This is because India produces and consumes vast quantities of both. So why do the public love celebrities? Why is the ad world depending on celebrities so much? Do they help in building brands? And more than anything else is it worth the investment? These are the few questions that need to be answered. And this is exactly why this topic has been researched. This project has been carried out with a view to generate interest in celebrity endorsement. Not that it needs a special research to generate interest. But interest not as just another marketing tool, but as an intelligent way to make brands stand up in the market, a simply stunning success stories all the way!
Bank of Baroda opens 24-hour branch in Mumbai Rahul Dravid appointed Brand Ambassador

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CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS SIMPLY STUNNING SUCCESS

CLASSES OF ENDORSERS
As mentioned in above an endorser is a person, character or organization that speaks or appears in an ad in support of the ad or its claim. The term endorser includes the term spokesperson or model. The endorsement process is the identification, selection and use of endorsers to communicate with a target segment. Endorsers can be grouped into three main classes: Experts, Lay person Celebrities.

EXPERTS:
They are individuals who the target audience perceives as having considerable knowledge accumulated trough experience, training or study in a particular area. For example: Coleen Khan endorsing Sunsilk shampoo, Dr Shubhalaxmi endorsing Complan, Shahnaz Husain endorsing beauty products.

appears and adds, "Isliye jab bhi hair oil lagaayein, sirf...

An expert is the best choice when the product is technical or the consumer needs to be reassured that the product is safe to consume (high involvement decision). An expert can allay the fears in the audience concerning the product whether those fears arise from not knowing how something works, concerning about side effects, concern about fulfilling a roles such as father, mother, housewife and so on or health related concerns about product use. Doctors, dentists, lawyers, engineers and other kind of experts can be chosen and at considerably less cost than a national celebrity. The purpose is to protect consumers from misleading advertisements. A seal of approval is a logo of the certifying organization vouches for the merits if the product. For example: The Indian Dental Associations for Colgate Dental Cream.

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CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS SIMPLY STUNNING SUCCESS

LAY PERSON:
A lay individual is often the best choice when it can anticipate that there will be strong audience identification with the role involved. For example: Harpic Sanitary ware, Surf Excel and most of the FMCG products The person is like many members of the audience and attributes of sincerity and trustworthy are likely to come through. These lay endorsers may be chosen because they personify the aspiration of the target segment. To maximize the naturalness of the situation it is often useful to a hidden camera and captures the consumer s real world reaction in using the product in and situation the audience can identify. Lay endorsers can be real or fictitious, and are (initially at least) unknown. The anonymous voice over in radio and video ads is generally of a lay endorser. In such cases the target segment may not visualize an explicit person as am endorser but may treat the speaker as the voice of the advertiser. So advertisers need to take care in selecting speakers for this role, though the selection may not be critical as with an endorser who is visible. The three classes of endorsers are not mutually exclusive. Sustained and effective use of lay endorsers over time may make them celebrities in their own right (Surf Excel s Lalitaji). Also some individuals could belong to more than one category depending upon the product they endorse. (Sachin Tendulkar may seem to be a celebrity endorsing the Palio but an expert while endorsing sports shoes). We have also seen famous chefs are also being used for endorsing products related to food and kitchen.

CELEBRITIES:
Celebrities are individuals or characters who are known to a large portion of the general population, primarily because of the publicity associated with their lives. Most celebrities are associated with the entertainment world (Aishwarya Rai), or the sports world (Sachin 3

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Tendulkar), talk show hosts, business personalities, politicians (Maneka Gandhi for AntiNon vegetarian campaign} etc. Thus when we say experts, layperson or celebrities there are no rigid boundaries for them. Activists, Actors, Actresses, Authors, Cartoon characters, Columnists, Directors, Entertainers, Fictitious characters, Journalists, Models, Musicians, Playwrights, Commentators, Religious Personalities, Political Figures, Professionals, Sportspersons are often used for endorsements.

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CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS SIMPLY STUNNING SUCCESS

HISTORY OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS


Around the globe for nearly a century, celebrity advertisement has helped consumers to feel safe, to feel connected with the product; they help to fulfill needs of the consumers, and provide guidance. Today, the market for celebrity endorsements is more competitive than ever.

Detail from advertisement postcard India Gets Telephone! Indian Saree, 1930s picture from 1950s shows a of couple engaged in phone romance. Camel from 1931 Cigarette Ad

This

The beginning Since 1870 when the Reverend


Henry Ward Beecher appeared in an advertisement in Harpers Weekly endorsing Waltham watches, companies have used characters of note to help market products to consumers.1 Entertainment personalities were first Harry employed by the cigarette industry in 1905 when Murad Cigarettes used comedians Fatty Arbuckle and Bulger in its ads. Then celebrities were hocking off

cigars and patent medicines for local businesses. The earliest dated endorsements of products by celebrities may have even happened by accident. Kodas Cigarettes began including baseball cards in their packs of cigars; the 5

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baseball cards were intended as gifts to loyal customers. The most famous of these is from 1910 of Honus Wagner, worth well over $500,000 in today's market. As the packaging popularity rose, and people began buying the cigarettes for the cards, advertisers realized the potential of this new phenomenon. In no time, celebrity endorsements began to flood the United States. Up until the early 1930's, athletes were among the biggest celebrity endorsers. By 1935, a new trend had begun. Celebrities had actively begun promoting products and businesses. In 1905 B Dattaram & Co claims to be the oldest existing Indian advertising agency in Bombay, India. in 1912 ITC (then Imperial Tobacco Co. Ltd.) launches Gold Flake. 1920s saw the entry of the first foreign owned ad agencies in India.
Lux signs Leela Chitnis as the first Indian film actress to endorse the product

First shot Celebrity endorsements became quite popular from the 40s. By 1945, celebrity endorsements saw a switch from athletes to movie personalities. Movie stars, such as Charlie Chaplin, became the mainstream of American advertising. Movie celebrities continued to be the popular choice of product endorsements for the next 40 years. Leela Chitnis, who passed away recently, had her first role as a leading lady in Master Vinayak's Hindi melodrama Chhaya in 1936. She became the first Indian actress to model for Lux, which till then used only foreign models. Chitnis did her first Lux campaign in 1934, even before the use of movie celebrities was evident. Since then Lux has continued the tradition of using film stars to promote the soap.

Trade Cards: The trade card, used most heavily as an advertising device between
1875 and 1900, was implied celebrity endorsement. The cards often featured the visage of the famous individual, but no direct reference was made to the celebrity, nor was the celebrity quoted. Lily Langtry, famed stage star, appeared on a trade card for Brown's Iron Bitters. Actress Sarah Bernhardt's image appeared on a trade card for Carter's Liver Bitters as well as on a larger cardboard sign promoting Climax Catarrh and Croup Remedy. Even P.T. Barnum's famous elephant, Jumbo, was pictured on numerous trade cards. Willimantic Thread Company, for example, used the ponderous beast in a whimsical trade card illustration to demonstrate the strength of their product. 6

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Because these famous folks from the past are no longer around, it is difficult to say whether they gave permission for their names and faces to be used on ads. At least one famous sports figure, Honus Wagner, is known to have stopped the use of his name and visage on a baseball card that one Tobacco Company was inserting in its cigarette packages. The official Honus Wagner Web site carries the story that Wagner was a non-smoker who objected to being associated with tobacco because he felt it would set a poor example for children. Because Wagner was such a great player, and because so few of the cards survived once they were recalled, the Wagner card is today among the most desired of all baseball cards. One of the few known examples sold on eBay for $1.1 million on July 5, 2000.

Celebrity on press advertisements & packing: This is, was and the
most common method of using a celebrity. Put his picture on the packing and the jobs done! One of the first success stories of such a use was with the great author Mark Twain. His name and image appear on at least two cigar boxes: Great Mark Cigars and Mark Twain Cigars. Mark Twain once joked that he bought his cigars by the barrel. It is not known if he truly endorsed these brands, but someone admired the famous cigar smoker and author enough to believe that attaching him to the product would sell cigars. Both box labels are attractive and colourful. The Great Mark label featured vignettes from Twain's short story, "The Notorious Jumping of Calaveras County." The Mark Twain label carried images of boys along the river, perhaps Tom Sawyer or Huckle Berry Finn. Twain's image was further exploited by the Voigt Milling Company of Grand Rapids, Michigan, which used his picture on bags of its Mark Twain flour.

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Celebrity Testimonials: Celebrity testimonials have a long and interesting


history. They associate favourite people with a product, and people buy the product. Flawed as that logic may be, the technique has worked well for a long time. Testimonials have been one of the prime ways that celebrity endorsements have been the answer to many of the advertiser's prayers. While many famous folks were apparently mum about the products with which the ads associated them, at least two well-known Americans were quoted directly in patent medicine advertising. One fellow was a Wild West hero, the other was a preacher.

"Don`t forget the Cherry Blossoms!" An old Advertisement for a shoe polish.

Buffalo Bill Cody was a symbol of the frontier even before the West was settled. His fame as a scout, sharp-shooter, and entertainer was known throughout the world, and his Wild West Show perpetuated both the romance of the West and his own heroic image. Kickapoo Indian Medicine Company used trade cards of Cody to promote their products with his testimonial behind which was: As remarkable as Buffalo Bill's testament may be, a man with a slightly holier definition of testament gave his endorsement to a patent medicine as well. The man was Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, a highly regarded man of cloth in his days. He was preacher at Plymouth Church in Brooklyn, New York, from 1847 until his death in 1887.

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It appears that the he suffered from hay fever. He was apparently moved to try Dr. M. M. Townsend's Remedy for Hay Fever, Asthma and Catarrh. It must have done the trick. In September of 1881, and again in October of 1882, Reverend Beecher wrote glowing letters of praise to Dr. Townsend. The closing lines of the 1881 epistle tell Dr. Townsend, "You are at liberty to make such use of this letter as may secure the relief of all Hay Fever patients." The Success From the accidental inclusion of a baseball card with cigarettes to the recent successes of inshow advertising, advertisers have focused on the triumph of the celebrity spokesperson. Celebrities flood the advertising scene and it is not uncommon to see three well-known celebrities supporting brands in one commercial break alone. For as long as people will buy Boost from Kapil or keep on dialing for KBC, the popularity of the continue to rise, explored and old Heroes, authors, even preachers during the 1800s continue to do high-profile a has variety used of this celebrity advertiser will new outlets will be ones will be renewed. entertainers, athletes, all were employed to sell and early 1900s and will so. Evidence of these endorsements is found in formats. interesting The ad world means of strategy well. Over the have come up and each
1940s Ad claiming 9 out of 10 Stars use Lux.

years new and endorsements

of them are unique in themselves. The history has been repeating itself!

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A journey from back bencher to front runner THENTIME


WAS when advertising was considered a backbencher, an also-ran of the marketing wheel. A peripheral activity master-minded by the clever, arty types - Westernized, selfindulgent, creative poseurs offering flash without flesh, masquerading as communication packages, frequently inspired by models appearing in the West! It was seldom perceived as potential dynamite, a strategic marketing tool and an agent of change powered to revolutionize the way people think, feel, buy and live.

ENTER CELEBRITY ADVERTISING.


In truth, celebrity advertising in India, now seeing its heyday with the World Cup still afresh, began in the era of innocence - the golden fifties - with Hindustan Levers Lux campaign. With time, the street-smart marketers quickly recognized that to win over the consumer in a competitive market, it needed to target his two prime obsessions - cricket and films! What followed was a tidal wave of celebrity-endorsed advertising that frequently entertained but seldom struck target in achieving their prime objective building brand equity through raising awareness levels of the product/service to translate into a sale. The transformation came with the boom of consumer goods and the rise of aspiration levels. Suddenly, the heavy-duty wooing and seduction of the consumer took center-stage. It was easy to realize that mass production needed mass consumption. What better way then the mass media to have a healthy swipe at those delectable purse strings? And what better route into the home and hearts of the teeming millions than TV, than advertising capsules that beguiled, enticed, ensnared, lured and generally speaking zonked the viewers into becoming consumers.

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CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS BEGINNING RUN UP.


Remember cricketing legend Sunny Gavaskar inviting people to say Sunil Dinesh Gavaskar and urging viewers to take the world in their stride? And who can forget the other star thats Palmolive Da Jawab Nahin became a folklore? Kapil Dev even confessed the secret of his energy Boost. With the rise of color TV in 1965, the TV celebrity saw a surge in popularity over the movie screen celebrity. By 1975, the number of TV spots featuring a celebrity had jumped to one in eight. During the 1970s Brylcreem ads had Farokh Engineer as the first Indian cricketer to model for it. It was also one of the first sports endorsements in India. Eventually they even convinced Kishore Kumar to endorse for them early in his career, his only endorsement ever. While the movie and TV celebrities were minting money through endorsements, companies grabbed the opportunity to use cricket players to sell their products in a cricket loving country. Not far behind was Tiger Pataudi and his Begum epitomising royal lifestyle while endorsing Gwalior in a class of its own, with the Chhote Nawab making a courtesy appearance in a follow-up edition which Saif insists got him noticed by some Bollywood guys and set the ball rolling. There was a spurt of advertising, featuring stars like Tabassum (Prestige pressure cookers), Jalal Agha (Pan Parag), Kapil Dev (Palmolive Shaving Cream, Usha fans) and Sunil Gavaskar (Dinesh Suitings).

In the Cricket World Cup, 2003, all the members of the Indian team were busy singing hosannas to Samsung, Sahara, Himalayas and what not! From Sachin to Yuvraj, from Kumble to Kaif, they are all hooked and booked. Something similar happened in Bollywood, ever on the lookout for a quick sting, zoomed in at 24 seconds per frame!

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Queen of Hearts, Sridevi swung gamely for Cema bulbs while the lovely Poonam Dhillon endorsed hair oil. As did Jaya Prada. Dimple Kapadia of the drop-dead looks, huskily confessed the secret of her deadly mane - Crowning Glory, while macho men Vinod Khanna and Imran Khan wowed the joys of Centhol soap. From another wing two hottest bubblegum stars of generation next, Aamir Khan and Salman Khan leapt into the fray. While the baby-faced, pint-sized hero of Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak hawked Hero Punch, the golden boy of Maine Pyar Kiya invited the world to taste the thunder via Thums-Up.

Govinda promptly flexed his muscles to plug a brand of massage oil. Meanwhile, the hottest Khan, Shah Rukh, sashayed into the frame with deadly coolHero Puch, Mayur, Pepsi, Vidiocon , Santro car he swung through them all, charming one and all as only he can! Aamir Khan, Akshay Kumar and Juhi Chawla also hit the Pepsi trail while the Mast-mast Rani Mukherjee took time out to Nestles Munch and Preity Zinta endorsed Cadburys Perk. Kareena Kapoor, Sushmita Sen, Malaika Arora Khan are others riding this wave.

AND NOWIn the year 2005 clearly the days of innocence are over with companies, stars, products, ad-spends and star-fees going berserk! The scintillating Aishwarya Rai leads the heroine-brigade and Amitabh Bachchan leading Bollywood actors camp with a very long list of endorsement packages. In the latter part of this project we will discuss the same and other categories like sports persons, models, TV stars and so on.

CATEGORIES OF CELEBRITY ENDORSERS


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TELEVISION CELEBRITIES: India's foremost television network Doordarshan


Television first came to India in the form of Doordarshan (DD) on Sept 15, 1959. Doordarshan is the National Television Network of India and also one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world. At present there are more than 40 different channels operating with nearly 15-16 Television companies beaming programmes to India. The major players being Doordarshan, STAR TV (Satellite Television Asia Network), Zee Television, United Television, CNN, Sony Television, ATN (Asia Television Network), BBC World, SUN TV, Discovery Channel, TNT and Others.

Media penetration in India Source: Times of India, July 2003 1998 Television sets 70 million Cable connections 25 million 2004 (est) 105 million 52 million

Note: Total television viewer ship of 415 million is amongst the world's highest. India has an estimated 105 million homes having TV sets (as compared to 98 million homes in the US) which amount to 270 million watching in their homes. The total number of viewers is around 415 million including non-TV home viewers. Ratings influence who gets the bigger slices of India's US$1.18 billion (Rs 45 billion) television advertising market that is heading rapidly upwards. "Hindi entertainment channels continue to sway the market, while regional channels are working to push ad revenue. We expect 50 new channels in 2005-06. Fragmentation is likely in news channels, specifically regional news and business news ones,"

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Infotainment or childrens channels (Cartoon Network, Pogo, Nickelodeon) are likely to witness change in viewership as well as in revenue with the entry of Disney in India. This trend is also visible with channels like National Geographic squeezing a separate band for kids in their channel. English entertainment (HBO, Star Movies, Zee English) has just 2 per cent viewership and earned 4 per cent ad revenue. Music channels (MTV, Zee Music, Channel V, B4U) have just 1 per cent viewership in the TV space. TV CELEBRITIES: He's the man of millionaires, he's the king of morning TV talk, he's a huge success ... he's Regis Philbin. This native New Yorker has hit prime time with a bang. Philbin is host of the hit ABC special, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, in which he has already coined the phrase, "Is That Your Final Answer?" The Indian version of this game show transformed the fortunes of Mr. Amitabh Bachchan and started a new formula of success of Indian TV. Now Kaun Banega Crorepati 2 is creating history.

DISNEY ON THE SCENT OF SPIN-OFF BRAND


Media executives behind Desperate Housewives, the hit American TV show, are considering the launch of consumer products - ranging potentially from perfume to lingerie - in an effort to exploit the popular series. Walt Disney, the US entertainment group whose ABC network produces Desperate Housewives, is looking at a spin-off consumer brand as part of a big expansion in television and filmlinked products.

In India K factor TV serials of Balaji telefilms became instant success, and opened the doors of endorsements for small screen actors. Smriti Irani, Mona Singh, Sakshi Tanwar, Gauri Pradhan and host of other TV stars have become household names and so do the brands endorsed by them. 14

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SPORTS CELEBRITIES
Indian scenario:
PAST: Movies and cricket are two passions that light up the average Indians otherwise drab existence. Movie and cricket stars are so revered that they acquire cult figure personas. The result: popularity marketers cash in on their and use them to promote

everything from colas to financial products. It is a question of passion. It has got to do with the passion of the people involved. Athletics does not have as much of a mass following as cricket does or for that matter, as football in Kolkata and Cochin, or hockey in Punjab. Athletics is more of an individual sport. You get into cricket not only because you like the sport, but also because you like the package surrounding the sport. You like the fan following, the crowds, the money. There are a lot of other things that attract you to the sport than the sport itself. This is not the case with being an athlete. Maybe that is one reason why there is no diehard, passionate following. Again, passion

about a sport has a lot to do with recurrence of a sport. How often do you see the sportsperson? It is the visibility factor. How many people see you, or the team, day in and day out? People like to be involved in what happens on a day-to-day basis. Cricket, as a sport, happens very frequently. That is why there is so much following. That is not true with many other sports.

Harsha Bhogle
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It was rarely non-movie or non-cricket celebrity, like Mahesh Bhupati (Tennis player) Vishwanathan Anand (world chess champion), Baichung Bhutia(footballer) who were called on to say good things about products. Celebs add to the buzz around an ad, proclaims Shailendra Singh, the 37-year-old managing director of the Rs 6 billion (US$125 million) multimedia company, Percept IMC. He should know. He has got leading Indian sportsmen to endorse his clients products. Utilising Soccer stars in advertisements can also be explained by the next World Cup 2006 other tournaments which have enjoyed extensive media coverage. This game has not much following in India but its popularity is on the rising. Except one player Baichung Bhutia but his endorsements are modest in comparison to other Indian sporting stars. The footballer made about Rs 15 lakh (Rs 1.5 million) in endorsements, most of them for companies in his home state, Sikkim. Baichung's club East Bengal is now endorsed by UB Group's Kingfisher. The club has now changed its name to Kingfisher East. Even in hockey players other then Dhanraj Pillai are not getting much media attention. If you popularise a sport, like golf - today, Jeev Milka Singh has won a place in the US Open (golf) - then you expand the market. If there are sportsmen who play hard and try hard, and they get some good packaging around them through companies such as ours which can attach some values to their talent, and through media support, there is enough reach that one can create for these celebrities. That will lead to a fan following that creates the celebrity. For example, right now (Pullela) Gopichand is a winner. Right now, Leander Paes and Mahesh Bhupathi have done quite a bit but they can still not match the fan following of cricket, because cricket is played all round the year. The minute you increase the frequency levels in other sports, and people start performing, and sportsmen bring laurels to them and to their country, automatically their fan following will increase. They will 16

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become celebrities in their own right. Take Mahesh Bhupathi and Paes. Its unfortunate they have split, but in 1999 to 2000 there was tremendous demand for them. They were Grand Slam finalists; they were two Grand Slam winners.

PRESENT & FUTURE: Now picture is fast changing. Non-cricket players like
Sania Mirza, Dhanraj Pillai, Narain Karthikeyan are rising up the popularity chart. Basically what do clients look at? Fan following. Only then can you convince fans to use the product that they are endorsing. So if you do not have a fan following, you are not a celebrity. What do you need to have a fan following? Play on a regular basis and win as much as possible. Then you have a fan following. Let us think even beyond the fans. Think about brand recognition. Today most of these players are not celebrities, unfortunately because they are seen very little, and they win very little. Every time there is a drop or increase in performance, there is a drop or increase in the value of the celebrities. They go hand in hand. You perform, you bring laurels for you and the nation, and then there is no stopping you. On the other hand, in the United for with States, you have seasons case baseball. So is the basketball. sThey do not wait for China or Japan to come and play basketball or for an event to take place. Their internal leagues are interesting enough. Why is that? Because it happens very often. Imagine Maharashtra playing Karnataka in basketball or badminton. Nobody cares a damn here, because it doesnt happen, not on a regular basis. 17

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Take Formula One racing. It is a very niche sport, but there is a very small niche that is regularly following Schumacher. They actually follow races lap by lap, second by second. Why? Because it happens on a regular basis. Every sport that happens on a regular basis has a certain element of passion and emotion. If we can package that emotion and passion, the sport will turn out to be a winner as well. It is reported that cricketers like Sachin Tendulkar command around of Rs One crore+ per endorsement, while those lower down the rung too, take home half that amount per endorsement. Call it the S factor. Like Sachin like Sania. Indias latest sporting sensation, 18-year-old Hyderabad resident Sania Mirza, has been inundated with endorsement offers that promise her a sum that on a per deal basis is comparable to the top five or six sportspersons in the country. Sachins dominance on the game is really amazing. In spite of injuries that forced him to remain away from the field still he manages to remain on the top. Whats so special about him? We will find out the same in the following study on Sachins journey to success. Sachin Tendulkar is the worlds highest-earning cricketer. At a brand value of $4 million a year, he leaves Brian Lara at $1million far behind. He may not come close to Michael Schumacher and Tiger Woods, who earn a whopping $100 million a year by way of endorsements. So what marketing gurus sign him on for astronomical sums? His schoolboy image and dedication to the game have endeared him to all to such an extent that when the betting scandal first broke out in 2000, Pepsi withdrew all commercials featuring cricketers, except those featuring Sachin. For six years he has advertised exclusively for Pepsi. Says a spokesperson, Sachin is a symbol of hope, of Indian achievement, of Indian values, and of grace under pressure. Naturally companies love him. There are three essential elements to Tendulkars brand equity: He is extremely good at what he does, which enhances the quality perception of the product. He is squeaky clean, almost to a fault, which gives the product the sheen of reliability. He is completely untouched by murky dealings, which lends the product durability. Sachin has been dominating the cricketing world for the past decade. But Sachin the businessman began maturing only after 1995. Before that he did campaigns for Band Aid, Action Shoes, Boost, Gillette and Pepsi as just another celebrity endorser. 18

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He was paid just over Rs 1 lakh per year to endorse Action Shoes, and Johnson & Johnson paid him even less for Band Aid. Mark Mascarenhas, CEO Worldtel, unleashed Tendulkars moneymaking potential. From a mere pittance of Rs 1.23 lakh, Sachin was transformed by a guarantee of about Rs 20 crore by Worldtel for the rights to exploit his name for five years. Mascarenhas simply said, We just raised the stakes. He has sponsorship deals with Pepsi, Philips, Colgate, Visa, Todays and MRF. Adidas has signed him for a sportswear deal of 300,000 pounds per annum for six years, for marketing his signature brand of T-shirts and shorts. But success has not gone to Tendulkars head. He has steadfastly refused promotions by liquor and tobacco majors even after being offered very hefty sums. He has that sense of responsibility that if he does such an ad, kids by the millions would take to these vices. He is carefully selective. The appeal of Sachins brand is that he is an unadulterated guy and he really is like that. Sachin vis--vis other players : A brief comparison : Sachin Tendulkar: Rs 20 crore (Visa Cards, Pepsi, Palio, Boost, TVS Victor, Todays pens)
Rahul Dravid: Rs 6.2 crore (Kissan, Castrol, Palmolive, Reebok, BOB) Sourav Ganguly: Rs 4.5 crore (Pepsi, Himani Sona Chandi, Sahara, Britannia,

Tiger, Hero Honda, Samsung)

Virender Sehwag: Rs 2 crore

(Samsung, Coke, Britannia, Hero Honda) V V S Laxman: Rs 1 crore (Pepsi) Harbhajan Singh: Rs 1 crore (Bank of Punjab, Ray Ban, Pepsi) Mohammed Kaif: Rs 75 lakh (Britannia, Pepsi) Hemang Badani: Rs 50 lakh (Britannia) Zaheer Khan: Rs 50 lakh (Pepsi)

Yuvraj Singh: Rs 50 lakh (Pepsi)


{These figures are only approximation, indicative which keep

fluctuating, as the runs continue to flow, so do the earnings. }

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Dynamics of Sports Marketing: Around the world: Basket Ball, Soccer Ball, Golf Ball, Tennis Ball & Base Ball:
These Ball games rule the world of sports globally and so do the celebrities endorsements. At one point in his career Michael Jordan was endorsing 14 products including Nike, Gatorade, and Hanes. Combined, Jordans past and current endorsement, sponsorship, movie, book, and video deals totaling $124 million. The logic behind celebrity branding of a product is simple. Using sports stars to promote a company or its message grabs the publics attention, it cuts through the advertising clutter because we are fascinated with fame and famous people. Stars help give brands identity and sell more product. The UK has one of the most advanced advertising markets in the world, and one of the most successful ad campaigns has been the tie-up of footballer Gary Lineker with Walkers potato chips. Sales soared and now Lineker is better known for his TV commercials than his foot-balling career. The key to product endorsement success is for the qualities and the lifestyles of the chosen celebrity to have some relevance and appeal to the target audience. Car manufacturer Lexus chose Europes number one golfer, Colin Montgomerie, to promote its luxury cars because 90 percent of Lexus owners play golf, and Montgomerie is contracted to host 20 corporate days a year.

Advertisements involving footballers:

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Footballer
Gary Lineker Ruud Gullit, Steward Pierce David Ginola David Beckham Eric Cantona Ronaldo Del Pierro, Zinedine Zidane Ian Right Peter Schmeichel Alan Shearer

Brand
Walkers Crisps Pizza Hut LOreal Elvive Brylcreem, Adidas Eurostar, Nike Nike Adidas BUPA Health Centre, One-2-One Danepak, Sugar Puffs McDonalds, Braun Razors

Michelle Sung Wie a 16-year-old Hawaiian teenager signed endorsement deals reputedly worth $10 million when she turned a professional golf player last week. Tiger Woods is just as marketable as Jordan. According to MSNBC, Woods made $9.1 million on the golf course in 2000 made $54 million in endorsements. His father Earl Woods said he expects Tigers net worth to eventually exceed $5 billion. Recently Tiger Woods netted $100 million from his deal with Nike alone. Most stars can earn more by fronting an ad campaign or being seen using a product than they can from their day job.

The reason for the interest in sports marketing? Nick Paul As


head of 361 Sports, over the course of a 13-year sports marketing career, Nick has 21

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developed winning sports promotions for a number of Blue-Chip brands. His agency works with clients to integrate brands into the sports market. He revealed some important insights into the dynamic sports marketing environment is US: By 2008, 25 million homes will have TV, putting standard commercials on the endangered species list. It will change the behavior of core sports fans and challenge marketers to find alternative ways to reach these fans. Studies suggest that four out of ten consumers will pay 10% more for brands that have a sports tie-in. The same number will switch brands if the sponsorship is meaningful to them. $11 billion was spent on sports marketing sponsorships in 2004. 83 out of the top 100 U.S. companies allocate a part of their budget for sports marketing. The fact is that sports sponsorships appeal to the emotions of consumers. Other sports like chess, boxing, athletics, water sports do have celebrities mostly in their respective countries. Next Olympics and other world cup tournaments lined up; one can safely say that sports advertising will break all previous records with huge fans and alumni; sports and entertainment enthusiasts; and corporate sponsors fueling multi-billion industries of sports marketing. Its never been truer than in todays sports. Sports are no longer just the actual games played. Billions of dollars are invested every year into sports advertising. Are you ready to drop out of school/college or change a career and wish to try hands on any sports?

BRAND BOLLYWOOD ON THE TOP

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Its

advantage

Brand

Bollywood. As men in Blue lose matches,


fans and endorsements, film stars are laughing their way to the bank. Says Shailendra Singh, M.D. of Percept DMark, Bollywood hasnt had such a good year in a long time while the performance on the pitch has been dismal. Its only logical that film stars fill the vacuum left by cricket. He further states Indians are emotional and servile to celebrities. They make demi-gods out of them. Over 2000 respondents surveyed across 50 cities revealed that Bollywood actors have a higher celebrity quotient compared to cricketers. Celebrity Track assesses popularity on three counts: recognisability, affability and image. A slew of contracts signed in the past few months shows how fortunes have swung. And its on just Big B, SRK or Aamir Khan who have signed bigticket deals. The line-up includes Lara Dutta (New Pantene), Zayed Khan (LG brand ambassador), Saif Ali Khan (Frito Lay), Kareena Kapoor Dutt (Citizen), for a Vivek Oberoi (Dabur) and Sunjay television channel. Even Samsung,

known for using cricketers to endorse its products, has signed on John Abraham for its cell phones.

Which is what happened in the case of actor Amitabh Bachchan after a string of flops at the marquee had led to his being written off. Then 23

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came televisions Kaun Banega Crorepati, an Indian adaptation of the popular- who will be a millionaire. Aging Bachchans career received a fillip and the common man interacted with him, related with him and he was soon endorsing Parker pens, credit cards for ICICI Bank, BPL mobile phones and Pepsis cola, among others. Arch rival Coca-Cola has just renewed (for three years at a cost of Rs 30 million), the contract of Aamir Khan, whose Lagaan was nominated for the last Oscars in the Best Foreign Film category. Actor Saif Ali Khan, son of former Indian cricket captain Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi and movie queen of yesteryears Sharmila Tagore, have recently got into the endorsement game. On the other hand, veteran actor Jackie Shroff is an old hand, modeling mainly for cigarettes and whiskey. Insurance joint venture Tata AIG has roped in Naseeruddin Shah to sell its personal life products. And wonder of wonders, the Indian screens macho man, Sunil Shetty, is plugging, of all the things, Lux underwear. Among the actresses, Rani Mukherjee, Aishwarya Rai, Preity Zinta and Juhi Chawla are also often seen on TV extolling the virtues of various products. Pepsi has always been on the uptake to rope in contemporary film stars. These days, Shah Rukh Khan, an idol of the young crowd, is its brand ambassador. Khan, who introduced the concept of the anti-hero in Hindi movies, also models for Clinic All Clear shampoo, Top Ramen noodles, Santro cars, Mayur suits and Omega watches. Originally from the Indian capital of New Delhi, Khan stormed Mumbais Bollywood world and was soon one of the richest actors around - on the back of his film and advertising earnings. Within a decade of appearing on the scene he was able to buy a fancy bungalow costing a whopping Rs 130 million in Mumbais up market Bandra area. Khan was the beneficiary of a peculiarly Indian trait, their love for their heroes and heroines - on-screen as well as off. Indians always believe that their heroes can do no wrong. They attribute to their stars certain special qualities. Khan, for example, is expected to possess dynamic qualities like attractiveness, likeability, sexiness, appeal 24

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and manliness. These qualities, it is believed, will be transferred to the products he endorses. So, night after night, when Khan tells a believing TV audience that they can get rid of the dandruff in their hair by using Clinic All Clear shampoo, they are all ears and it sends the sales of the product soaring. The crowning glory for Pepsi came last summer when it managed to rope in two of the biggest Indian celebrities, Bachchan and cricketer Sachin Tendulkar, for the same campaign. So movie and cricket stars are shining on earth, all involved - the marketing companies, the advertising agencies, the advertisers and the stars themselves - are making pots of money and all is right with the world of celebrity advertising, right? Not really, if you ask Hrithik Roshan. One of the biggest stars to be launched in recent times, Hrithik Roshan became a household name overnight after the phenomenal success of his debut-making film Kaho na pyar hai. After Koi Mil Gayas grand success on box office again turn the fortune wheel for him. He is appearing in John Players latest advertisements. After gap of few years Kajol has come out of her solitude. Kajol has hit the endorsements deals with Ajay Devgan by signing Tata Indicom mobile ad. Now she will be also appearing in Asmi Diamonds ads and she looks gorgeous in her new look. IN THE DRIVERS SEAT:

Aamir Khan is back, not just in films but endorsements as well. Khan is now brand ambassador for Toyota Innova, while good friend-cum-rival Shah Rukh Khan promotes Hyundai. Shah Rukh also promotes rival cola company Pepsi, as opposed to Aamirs Coca Cola. Viewers love Ajay-Kajol ad endorsing Tata Indicom phone where he plays a dehati gaonwala and she a hep, anglicised chick. Soon theyll be seen in a Kotak Mahindra endorsement as well.

To

sum up we can say that Indian film stars are like shining gems in the crown of Celebrity Endorsements. We end up the chapter by two short profiles of Lux and Mr. Amitabh Bachchan which is like icing on the cake.

Lux

Celebrates

75

Years

Of

Stardom

with

in

India

Lux one of the most trusted brands in the country - is celebrating its 75 years of stardom in India. Lux soap was launched in India in 1929. Down the ages, every leading Bollywood star has been a Lux star. Right from its first Indian star Leela Chitnis, Lux has gone on to feature Madhubala, Madhuri Dixit, Karisma, Aishwarya Rai and now Kareena, who have all endorsed the goodness of Lux. It is probably the only brand that has had the endorsement of nearly 50 Indian film stars. 25

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This rare feat has taken a huge leap forward with the Badshah of the Indian film Industry, Shah Rukh Khan. Across India, the four new variants of Lux that are in a special 75th year commemorative celebration pack will be endorsed by Dream Girl Hema Malini, Beautiful Juhi Chawla, Stylish Kareena and Sensuous Sridevi! They all come together in the new Lux ad with the first Indian male star Shah Rukh Khan! Shah Rukh is back to a whole lot of media attention about his Lux ada first for a male celebrity. Not true, SRK corrects, Before me Paul Newman has done the Lux ad. I wanted to get into the tub and not just stand outside watching a lady get into the tub or something Even 75 years after its launch in India, Lux continues to dazzle and captivate millions.

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Of Amitabh Bachchans fame and celebrity : Hes been crowned the biggest film star in the world, but Indian movie legend Amitabh Bachchan has no illusions and no regrets about the limitations of his fame and celebrity. Bachchan, 64, enjoys a vast international fan base from South Asia to the Middle East and Africa, Europe and has endorsed about 60 products till date. The adoration of his millions of fans has, at times, verged on religious worship. In 1982, as Bachchan lay in intensive care after an accident on a film set, thousands of people gathered every day outside the hospital in Bombay to pray for his recovery. Bachchan is dismissive of the worlds greatest film star tag, which arose from a 1999 BBC online poll that saw him voted Star of the Millennium, ahead of Charlie Chaplin and Laurence Oliver. The dozen movies on offer at the Bachchan retrospective represent just a tiny fraction of his prolific output which comprises over 150 films spanning three decades. After a slump in the 1990s, Bachchans career has enjoyed a resurgence in recent years, due in part to a hugely successful move into television as host of the Indian version of the quiz show Who Wants to be a Millionaire? Kaun Banega Crorepati. Popular brands endorsed: Doordarshan, Dabur, Emami, Cadburys, Parker pens, Reid & Taylor, Nerolac Paints, Pepsi, Maruti Versa, ICICI (contract now expired) Luxor has a 15 per cent market share in the pens category. The companys market share rose by 10 per cent after it signed on Bachchan. The sales of Parker pens must have picked up by about 40 per cent due to Amitabh Bachchan Dabur Chywanprash had a market share of about 66 per cent before signing on Bachchan. The market share is now more than 70 per cent. , Airtels prepaid sales have increased by 25 per cent in the middle and lower middle class. Dairy milk volumes have started to show a clear upward trend, attributing the rise to

Bachchans campaign. So success all the way.

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MYTHOLOGICAL PERSONALITIES
Mythological personalities also have large share in the world of advertisements. In the marketplace of consumer goods and services, as you pick and chose your way through a plethora of product choices, you might begin to notice how the modern-day advertiser has reached into the mythic past to win your money. In a national television commercial, one well-known Fortune 500 company, depicts Zeus coming down from Mount Olympus to walk amongst ordinary office workers in a modern day office setting, going to a special room and using a machine to make a "perfect" copy. It's no wonder that Xeroxing" has become a common verb, universally used to describe the act of instantly copying a document photographically, and it's no coincidence that advertisers co-opt the god of gods for the expressed purpose of invoking perfection. One Mississippi lighting company has named its product line "The Vulcan Series" in order to convince you to buy handcrafted copper outdoor lampposts and lanterns. Vulcan, who was the master metal worker of the gods, is the ultimate endorsement for artistry and fine craftsmanship An internet-based book company has taken the name of Daedalus Books. Daedalus was the builder of the Cretan labyrinth, and the same guy who made wings so he and his son Icarus could escape imprisonment. Surely then, only Daedalus would sell you books to help you escape. Books that give wing to your imagination. And bargain books at up to 90 percent off! When sneaking a snack, you might unwrap a Mars bar, but you don't curse Mars the Roman god of war, although you may perhaps have lost the battle of the bulge. And when you want to go jogging, do you slip your reluctant feet into your Nike running shoes, never for a moment begging Nike the goddess of victory to help you finish the last mile, though it occurs to you that perhaps you should. Myth is alive and well in the marketplace, and in our consumer subconscious. When even ordinary everyday objects are placed in a mythic context or imbued with an archetypal association, then that lowly object or humble service takes on mythic qualities and proportions. The product becomes godlike. Maybe, without realizing it, you bought an 28

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Olympus camera to record precious memories and moments because the abode of the gods will ensure the pictures come out perfectly and beautifully. Advertisers recognize that different products and different audiences call for different rhetorics. You do not sell secondhand cars and bargain house wares the same way you advertise perfumes or cruises to the Caribbean. There are styles of persuasion, styles of rhetorical disguises.

Taking a trip towards the source of the Ganges, near the town of Rishikesh, one can see boulders near the riverside. From a distance, they appear to be painted with venerable religious inscriptions. Holy men dressed in orange robes gaze at the water and ponder about what their next incarnation will be. It is a peaceful, unworldly spot. Is it? Closer inspection reveals the boulders are painted with a well-known corporate logo. In India names of various gods and goddess have been associated with various products like Krishna for milk, butter, Dresses Radha, Meera for sarees, pooja material, beauty and fashion accessories etc. Even Ravana is used for head ache balm advertisement. Even the names of the places have also been used for different products like Dandi for salt, Gokul - for milk, ice-cream and so on. They represent certain special characteristics associated with their life and times.

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POLITICAL CELEBRITIES
Around the World :
In USA political leaders using TV to promote their parties and their own image is very old. In many ways, political commercials are like miniature movies. Political commercials express their opinion not simply through words. Just as music and editing help convey mood in movies, in ads they reinforce the impression the makers want you to have. During the past election campaign of 2004, the American citizens were bombarded by American politicians and political celebrities - political candidates, media celebrities, and Hollywood celebrities - seeking support for themselves or their political favorites. President George W. Bush - Of course, the world's biggest political celebrity won reelection relatively easily in the election of 2004. Vice-President Dick Cheney - Probably the world's second biggest political celebrity and a controversial one at that. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger - Had quite a few liberal Hollywood stars supporting him. During the same election many Hollywood and TV Celebrities Also Dabble in Politics: Barbra Streisand - Actress and singer. Moore Strong Democratic activist, Michael Film maker, Bono - Of U2 fame, Martin Sheen - Actor, Jay Leno Same way around the world similar trends

Anything for a laugh, Warren Beatty Actor, Tom Cruise - Star actor and many more were involved in the publicity campaigns. see whats happening in our India. and examples are available, which we will not go in to the details. But we will definitely

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Celebrities in Indian Politics: Mahatma Gandhi, Napoleon, Hitler, Queen


Elizabeth, W. Churchill, Bill Clinton and other leaders have greatly influenced the minds of people. The values they stood for or the causes they supported have lasting impact on the world history. These personalities have been used to build brands and also to sell ideas. Mahatma Gandhis name has been used (and misused too) by all political parties in India. Ad. From 1938
Congress Party Souvenir

From film stars to cricketers, the millionaires are chipping in for the cause of Indian democracy, heading mainly to the two leading parties, the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Congress. Though the BJP claims its star is Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, several celebrities are endorsing Brand BJP, with the party becoming a thoroughfare for VIP recruits ahead of the parliamentary elections. Age-defying actress Hema Malini, Dharmendra, Vinod Khanna, music composer Bhupen Hazarika, cricket commentator Navjot Sidhu, former cricket captain Krishanamachari Srikkanth and former Miss World Yukta Mookhey are among those who are sup porting BJP. In contrast, the Congress, which started poaching into Bollywood in the 1980s and bagged top stars like Dilip Kumar, Sunil Dutt, Rajesh Khanna and Amitabh Bachchan (now close to SJP),appeared to face a drought of contemporary stars until it managed to arrange a sprinkling of stardust with six stars joining Congress including Govinda. Celebrated crossover actor Om Puri and industrialist Naveen Jindal have also joined the party. The bubbly Moushumi Chatterjee preceded him, while former beauty queens turned actresses Zeenat Aman, Namrata Shirodkar and Celina Jaitley declared they would campaign for it. Another versatile actress, Jayaprada, has dumped the Telugu Desam Party that rules her home state of Andhra Pradesh and switched over to the Samajwadi Party in the distant north. In other states, stars have been working the crowds, too. Popular actress Hema Malani recently addressed a frenzied crowd in the city of Jaipur, in Rajasthan state, by invoking a sharptongued but good-hearted character she played in the blockbuster movie "Sholay. This is a question of Basanti's honor; you have to vote for 31

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the BJP." In Indore, in Madhya Pradesh state, film star Rajesh Khanna kicked off his endorsement of the Congress Party with a famous line from a popular Hindi film song: "No one can fool the public. It knows what is true and what is false." In the last elections BJP tried a concept India Shining, which was not successful. Former deputy PM LK Advani admitted that catchphrases "Feel Good" and "India Shining" had cost us dear and hurt the BJP. Using stars as a crowd magnet is not new in India, where entertainment forms a powerful subculture. The film industry produces more than 800 movies a year in 19 languages and employs 2.5 million people. In a country where more than 40 percent of the population is still illiterate and 36 percent lives below the poverty line, the drawing power of the glamorous world of film is enormous. In a desperate bid to woo voters, political parties are using the drawing power of celebrities to spread their message to the masses. Attention-creation due to the high exposure value of the celebrity. Trust reinforcement due to the credibility and integrity of the celebrity. The expert status of the celebrity. The parties choose a voter after concluding the kind of influence they want the celebrity to have on the voters. Basically there are 3 key areas where the voter can be influenced. Belief system Attitude Behavioral Intention. But until recently, widespread attempts to capitalize on the drawing power of stars for political gain was unusual, and something that most serious politicians would scoff at. Now it has become the norm. Political analyst Yogendra Yadav said one of the primary reasons for the phenomenon is the "weakness of political parties to organize themselves effectively. In this vacuum, media and entertainment are being used as communicators."

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Celebrity

Political Party

Voters

Medium

Message Path USING MEDIA & ENTERTAINMENT AS COMMUNICATORS

Do celebrities in politics make you want to vote?

Why

not? Although Celebrity presence may not necessarily translate into party votes but we
have seen Amitabh Bachchan, Vinod Khanna, Dharmendra, Govinda and other have defeated their rival political stalwards. In South India leading film actors have dominated political scenario more aggressively.

Siddharth Nath is convinced that the actors and models will help his party attract crowds and pull in votes. "When they go to the public, it's a known face, and Bollywood has a great fan following," he said. "So there is a section [of people], when they listen through the film stars, they get more attracted to the political system of the country and the party also." More than political conviction appears to be drawing the celebrities to the rallies. It's an open secret that many are being paid to show up. Political marketing is becoming more professional and Celebrity Political Endorsement is a very important instrument. Gone are the days when charisma of leaders like Gandhi ji, Nehru ji or Shastri ji could alone attract the voters to polling booths.

CHOICE OF RIGHT CELEBRITIES


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Yehi hai right choice baby!


A Celebrity is someone who can personalise your brand, make it in sync with the product/service. The one who puts buzz into your brand, creates opportunities for advertising promotions and events and forms a fertile ground for clutter-bursting ideas. Celebrities have done wonders for brand recall. The criterion in selecting an endorser must be the appropriateness of the match or fit between the needs of the brand and the characteristics of the endorser. The personality of the brand and the celebrity have to complement each other and the selection of the celebrity is, therefore, very important. Once a company knows the disadvantages of using a celebrity they take extra care while choosing one. Possible check list before a celebrity is chosen for endorsement is done: Match between the celebrity and the product/brand? The number of products the celebrity is endorsing? How big is the celebrity? The cost? Is the celebrity strongly identified with another product or company? Has appeared in a number of commercials or ads over his or her career? Is identified with a trend or fashion style? Is regarded as controversial? Is likely to alienate certain market segments? Has a track record of attracting attention or delivering an audience? Has potential for becoming involved in an issue or cause that could reflect negatively? But besides these factors there are a few others that the company can take into consideration. 1. The nature of the category: Today there is a literal flooding of products in a single category and hoards of categories of products. Durable such as electronics, automobiles, FMCG products, services available in every possible category use celebrities. Each of them needs to choose the right celebrity in sync with their category and kind of product. FMCG categories by themselves are amenable to impulsive buying habits of consumers. There is also a large category of consumers who may like to try out 34

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variety in a given category while being loyal to a specific brand. For instance, a consumer may be loyal to a brand of soap but may try out several other brands during the same period. Celebrity advertising, whether for a national brand or a regional brand in such a category, would need to have a clear-cut goal of initiating trials and the product would have to be superior to other offerings to ensure those who try out the brand stay with it. Hence the initial ho-hum that has to be created should be done right and there is no better way than having a good celebrity use his magnetic effect to attract consumers initially. Obviously then the company has to use the right strategies to ensure that the consumers remain loyal. 2. Equity of the brand: The equity and the heritage of the brand matters when celebrity advertising is attempted. Omega a few years ago used a campaign with Cindy Crawford in the Asian markets. The classic image of the brand may have little association with the flashy image of the celebrity. Coke uses a number of celebrities in several regions of the Indian market and it has also used many film and sports celebrities over a period of time since its launch in India. The recent one is Rajyawardhan Rathod - ace shooter. The higher the brand's equity, the more its immunity to the risks involved in using celebrities who are big. Mistakes do not damage the brand much and it gets time to correct any it may have made with regard to the celebrity route. 3. Brands position in life cycle: Celebrities can create tremendous awareness rapidly. But, a celebrity plays a limited role if the time is not right. For example pre-KBC Bachchan was no help to BPL in its mega bucks campaign. Obviously the star's personality should fit the brand. Dharmendra is good for Bagpiper but not for Coca-Cola. 4. The celebrity should know how to act: It is important also to be realistic about what the celebrity is doing in the ad i.e. can he/she emote and act (the awkward Saurav in the old Hero Honda and the Pepsi lion commercials). For endorsing a product acting talent is essential. We say Beauty with Brains and young heroines like Kareena Kapoor, Vidya Balan etc. are proving the point. 35

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5. More than one celebrity: If the company has the money to spend they should balance the risk of having only one star (for example a cricketer not knowing an a about acting) by having more than one celebrity like Samsung, LG etc. 6. New celebrity: Sometimes a company may use a new or not so famous person, who the company thinks will be famous one day. At such a time company wants to grab the opportunity to be associated with someone whos completely new, raw and whose credibility for endorsement has not been exploited. Such celebrities are safe when it comes to threats of overexposure and multiple endorsements. Perhaps the biggest example of that comes from the US where a high school student named Lebron James landed an extraordinary US $90 million endorsement deal with Nike for a greatly anticipated future basketball career.

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METHODOLOGY
The challenge for campaigns is to maintain credibility and be valuable to an increasingly skeptical consumer. This requires going beyond traditional research, focus groups and analysis. Marketers need a deeper insight to keep up with fast-changing nuances and driving influencers.

Modern tools used today includes: + Quantitative Surveys + Peer reporters/trend trackers + Mall/Street Intercepts + Video Interviews + One-on-one interviews + Observational research from message boards and BLOGS, etc... + Trend tracking and analysis + Meta-influentials/Celebrity DNA + Tracking and analysis of key brands & campaigns + Tracking and analysis of product placement + Tracking and analysis of key social arenas + Tracking and analysis of key product/service categories Celebrities can build, refresh and add new dimensions to brands by transferring their values. Although most academics have argued that celebrity endorsements work because celebrities are credible and attractive. Managers believe that celebrities save time in creating the credibility a company has to build into products. They argue that when consumers see a credible celebrity endorsing a product, consumers think that the product must be at least OK. Erdogan and Baker say that once all aspects of celebrity-oriented advertising have been evaluated and the celebrity is selected and the decision is made to proceed, the foundation of a successful endorser selection rests in four concepts, known by the acronym FRED. FRED stands for Familiarity, Relevance, Esteem and Differentiation, and was the result of a $6 million study interviewing 30,000 people around the world to find out why brands and their advertising efforts succeed and fail. 37

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1. Familiarity: It is the first essential component of an effective endorser. The target market must be aware of the celebrity, and perceive the person as friendly and likable, and trustworthy. Recognition by the intended audience is more important than being known worldwide. 2. Relevance: There should be some link between the promoter and the product, as well as between the promoter and the audience. An example outside the world of sport effectively illustrates this point. Using an international model to promote a brand in India for a product used by common mass will never be successful. It important for the audience to identify with the celebrity. 3. Esteem: Consumers must have the utmost respect for the celebrity in order for the commercial or promotion to be credible. 4. Differentiation: It is the final component of FRED. The public must see the endorser as different from all the rest. If there is no perceived difference among celebrities, then the strategy is not worthwhile. Michael Jordan is an example of a celebrity that stands apart from the normal athlete, one of the contributing factors to his success as an endorser. These FRED principles are not guarantees to success, but can serve as guidelines when selecting a spokesperson. Each organization and its objectives are different, and should be evaluated on an individual basis. There are many models which have been developed to identify and select the right celebrity.

Source Attractiveness Model


This model holds that the acceptance of a message is determined by its attractiveness of the source, i.e. the celebrity endorsing the product. A central goal of advertising is the persuasion of customers, i.e., attempt to change or modify consumers attitude towards brands. In this respect, the credibility of an advertisement plays an important role in convincing the target audience of the attractiveness of the companys brand. Pursuing a celebrity endorsement strategy enables advertisers to project a credible image in terms of expertise, persuasiveness, trustworthiness, and objectiveness. Source attractiveness refers to the endorsers: 38

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Physical appearance: How the celebrity looks. Personality: The obvious traits of the celebritys personality that can be seen. Likeability: Likeability is the affection for the source. Similarity: Similarity refers to the resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message. Familiarity: It is the knowledge of the source that the celebrity has, and also how familiar is the target audience with the celebrity (as in FRED concept) These are the various dimension under the influence of which (one, combination of few or all) the consumer buys the product. While research seems to suggest that an attractive celebrity enhances attitudes towards advertising and brands, they can also create purchase intentions. This points to the importance of matching celebrities images with product images With physically attractive communicators having proved to be more successful in influencing customers attitudes and beliefs than unattractive spokespersons, the use of attractive people is common practice in most medias. This behavior mainly leads to a halo effect, whereby persons who perform well on one dimension, e.g. physical attractiveness, are assumed to excel on others as well, e.g. happiness and coolness. Each source has different effects on consumers brand perceptions. It is better to pursue a systematic strategy of celebrity selection.

Product Match-Up Hypothesis


This hypothesis suggests that the message conveyed by the celebrity image should match with the product message. It highlights the importance of the match between celebrity endorsers and products, and focuses on the level of perceived fit between brand and celebrity image. Several research studies have examined the congruency between celebrity endorsers and brands and results show that a number of celebrity endorsements proved very successful, whereas others completely failed even though a celebrity was used. Simply assuming that a person just has to be famous to represent a successful spokesperson, however, would be incorrect, with a considerable number of failures proving the opposite.

Celebrity Endorser Company/Product Success (Yes/No)


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Successful and unsuccessful celebrity endorsements (Source: Till and Busler 1980) Attractive spokespersons are more effective in terms of attitude change when promoting brands and enhance its attractiveness. Though a popular and an attractive persons ability to create awareness and initial interest for an advertisement is more than an unattractive and a not so popular celebrity, many researches have also concluded that this may not necessarily change consumers attitude toward the endorsed brand. For celebrity to be truly effective, they should be knowledgeable, experienced, and qualified to talk about the product. However, this hypothesis does not identify and measure which dimensions are valid for a particular product, and hence there is a general dissatisfaction with its failure to explain important factors that should go in selecting a celebrity for endorsement.

Meaning Transfer Model


McCracken (1989) had given this model which explains the effectiveness of celebrity spokespersons by assessing the meanings consumers associate with the endorser and eventually transfer to the brand. It attempts to explain the endorsement process. It holds that celebrity endorsement involves a general process of meaning transfer, in which there are three stages: 1. The formation of celebrity image 2. Transfer of meaning (image formed) from celebrity to product 3. Transfer of meaning from product to consumers.

They are explained in detail below:

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Meaning Acquisition: The attributes of the celebrities which can be associated with the products are determines. In the figure role 1, role 2, and role 3 are the various roles played by the celebrity which determines the value of the celebrity i.e. the meanings that may be passed on to the product. Celebrities contain a broad range of meanings, involving demographic categories (e.g. age, gender, status), personality and lifestyle types. Madonna, for example, is perceived as tough, intense and modern women, and is associated with the lower middle class The personality of Pierce Brosnan is best characterized as the perfect gentlemen, whereas Jennifer Aniston has the image of the good girl from next door. Endorsement: The meanings attributed to the celebrity are now actually passed on to the product i.e. the celebrity starts appearing in the advertisements, promotional events etc. and becomes associated with the brand in the consumers mind.

Consumption process: Finally, in the consumption process, the

brands meaning is acquired by the customer. This stage of the model explicitly shows the importance the consumers role in the process of endorsing brands with famous persons.
MEANING ACQUISITION ENDORSEMENT CONSUMPTION

role 1 role 2 role 3


Stage 1 1111

Celebrity

Product

Consumer

Stage 2

Stage 1 1111

Stage 3 3133 1111

Path of meaning movement

MEANING TRANSFER MODEL


Celebrity spokespersons are useful in marketing because they provide a set of characteristics that supports consumers in evaluating the presented brand. In contrast to anonymous endorsers, celebrities add value to the image transfer process by offering 41

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meanings of extra depth and power, what is complemented by their lifestyles and personalities. Research suggests that this theoretical concept is replicable in real life and the transfer process can be observed. For example, symbolic meaning of being attractive, healthy and independent could be transferred from a celebrity to a health product and then to the consumer. Now, research on using celebrities may still be far from being adequate for informing the industry what exactly may be used as criteria for identifying and differentiating meanings that celebrities may pass on. At least, however, the above models may help understand and analyze the utility of celebrities. Having determined the brands symbolic features by considering consumers needs, the advertising company has to select the celebrity who contains the appropriate set of characteristics, and who will best be able to produce the most favorable response from consumers. It is better if the marketing/advertising firm first determines the symbolic properties sought for the product and then consults a list of celebrities and the meanings they make available, and taking into account budget and availability constraints, choose the celebrity who best represents, the appropriate symbolic properties.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A CELEBRITY ENDORSER

Celebrity Endorser

Successful

Attractive

Trust Worthy

Acceptable

Intelligent

These are the general characteristics of a celebrity endorser which make up his total personality. Further, the values which he\she displays in his personal as well as professional life goes a long way to build up a positive image.

THE PRICE FACTOR:


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One of the most common sayings in sports is that its a business. And when celebrities get traded, they understand that its a business. At some point in the decision to use endorsers, advertisers have to consider the cost effectiveness of their choice. In doing so they have to consider several issues First the endorsers who appear to have the most potential, are the most popular and tend to charge the highest fees.

MONEY, MONEY & MORE MONEY:

At the time of writing, Max

New York life (an insurance company having Rs. 12 Crore marketing budget) has signed Rahul Dravid as brand ambassador. For the Home Trade endorsement, it is alleged that Sachins fee zoomed up to an astronomical Rs.5 cores! As are the new kids, Virender Sehwag, Yuvraj Singh, Zaheer Khan, Mohammed Kaif and Harbhajan Singh. It seems the cricket team is all for Sahara, all for Samsung. Movie-star endorsements are a different ball game. The Big B leads the way blazing unprecedented trails in his wake with more then 60 products endorsed so far. All leading silver screen stars of today is said to have raked in over crores from advertisement endorsements alone - something that not all the big stars of the fifties and sixties even remotely dreamt of! Similar trend is visible in west too and money evolved is mind blowing. You can call her Madonna. You can call her her Kabbalah-preferred name of Esther. And now you can call her the face of Versace. No word yet on the terms of the deal. Previously, Madonna was reportedly asking a hefty $12 million to help Versace launch her spring line.

$ Life cycle of celebrity: Endorsements affect the life cycle of the celebrity in
more than one way. It may allow the celebrity to achieve recognition faster, increasing his growth. It may also prolong the life cycle of a star in his/ her maturity phase After all, choice of celebrity is a good indicator of who's in and who's not.

Endorsement breeds endorsement: Not only does the star end up

getting better offers but the avenues in related and unrelated fields also open up. Most of the cricketers for example have already been made to walk the ramp and a lot of models have already made way into the movies.

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Rise of TV Broadcasting Fees : Rise of television has attracted big screen

actors to small screen. Even serial actors of the small screen are earning Rupees 1 5 lakh as their acting fees apart from endorsement deals. In West CBS, ABC, ESPN and FOX have dished out a combined $17.6 billion for the rights to broadcast NFL games. ABC had the rights to broadcast all of the BCS bowl games, but according to the Associated Press, ABC paid $20.5 million alone to broadcast the Rose Bowl. And, as for the money networks will pay for the rights for big events, the list goes on And the networks know people will tune in to the big events and that they cannot only sell advertisements at ridiculous prices, but can also promote their own prime-time shows. Do you think the networks are crazy for spending astronomical amounts just to broadcast sporting events? Findings reveal that the most preferred medium for celebrity endorsement strategy was television although using several media was seen as an effective way to get good return on investment since celebrity fees are usually high. Nike pumps millions of dollars into stars like Jordan, Woods, Vince Carter, Marion Jones and Mia Hamm. Definitely returns are very high, that why in India broadcasting rights of cricket matches needs courts intervention. So battles are fought and why not when victory brings tons of money.

REEL HEROS PLAY ROLE OF REAL HEROS


-IN PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMMES
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When icons talk, all sit up and listen. A few key words may fly by when one listens, star struck, to a Richard Gere or an Amitabh Bachchan. Stars have that effect on people. But do people really need someone to tell them that AIDS kills? Apparently yes, not to know but to register. Thats Celebrity power. Shabana Azmi, one of the best known faces in Indian film, was the first celebrity to appear in a public information campaign promoting HIV/AIDS awareness at a time when AIDS was still a taboo subject. Her message that AIDS doesnt spread by touching was heard loud and clear by everyone. There are many celebrities around the world who have lent their voice without the effort of asking the public to lend them their ears. Hollywood stars to Bollywood actors, everyone has made efforts to endorse their voice for social cause rather than endorsing only consumer goods. If one sits to list down the celebrities who work for various social groups, the list will be an infinite one. It doesnt make sense to count how many have used their true rights as humans, but logically, it is more sensible to see the difference that these celebrities make and how effective are they.

In one recent advertisement of VISA Richard Gere has shown setting caged birds free to the pleasant surprise of a little girl. Anuradha Sawhney, chief functionary Peta (India) says, Its very simple, when a celebrity talks or sets an example, people respond. Just last year a campaign had international super model Marcus Schenkenberg freeing a bird with the tagline- Let birds fly free. A cage is a prison. We got many letters and emails from all over India, asking how they could help and asking for advice on what they could do to stop the local trade in birds. The Eye Bank Association of India has tasted success with endorsements from Aishwarya Rai, Amitabh and Jaya Bachchan. Aishwaryas advertisement with Amitabh requesting people to have their children vaccinated against Polio resulted in people flocking at hospitals and health centres to get their children vaccinated. In fact, Dr. APJ

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Abdul Kalam, the President of India felicitated Ash, along with Amitabh to recognise their noble efforts. Presently Shahrukh has also joined this noble cause.

Ash is also the ambassador of the Eye Bank Association Of India. Her advertisement on donating eyes was so effective that the veteran Bollywood actor Om Puri, was also inspired to donate his eyes. It is due to the efforts of these celebrities that such organisations get enquiries, which even turn into donations and help in some or the other way. Do boondh, zindagi ke." When it comes to power, Amitabh Bachchan has enough of it. He along with other Indian actors has seen requesting people to bring their children to polio booths and the latest being, his power to free the Indian truckers from the captivity in Iraq, he has the magic. His contribution to such causes cannot be ignored. UNICEF approached the Big B because of his enormous popularity, credibility and appeal as a genuine humanitarian. As a UNICEF ambassador he has spoken on issues critical to the lives of children, such as HIV/AIDS, polio eradication and the need for all girls to have an opportunity to go to school. Cecilio Adorna, representative, Unicef (India), was pleasantly surprised when, during his field trips in Uttar Pradesh, parents told him that they decided to take their children to pulse polio booths because "Amitabh Bachchan would be angry if they didn't". According to statistics 92 per cent cited the Bachchan ads which had an influence on their decision get their child immunised. RECENT PROJECTS: AIDS advocate and actor Richard Gere in Mumbai, India, has launched the "Heroes Project," an initiative intended to combat HIV/AIDS in India, according to the AP/Miami Herald. The Heroes Project -- which will include celebrities from Bollywood films, sports figures, business leaders and government officials as spokespeople -- aims to increase public discussion of the Indian HIV/AIDS epidemic with television, radio and print advertisements According to the 2004 UNAIDS Report of the Global AIDS Epidemic, India had 5.1 million people living with HIV, up from about four million in 2002. The Heroes Project is a partnership between Avahan -- the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Indian AIDS 46

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initiative -- the Gere Foundation India Trust, and the Kaiser Family Foundation, according to a Kaiser Family Foundation release. The project is partnering with media company Star India, which has committed about $14 million in airtime for the three-year project and will include 26,000 public service messages. The first television public service announcement included Indian cricket player Rahul Dravid. Future advertisements will be "more direct," Gere said, adding that celebrities will "pick up a condom and talk about it. They'll say, 'Please use it. You gotta protect yourself, you know about this disease. Use a condom.'" Indian advertisements rarely use words like "safe sex" or "condom". Gere said, "India urgently needs heroes to come forward at this crucial moment to contain this epidemic, which will help create a significant understanding and compassion as we concentrate on removing the stigma attached to the disease and are able to bring a message of urgency and promise to the people of India". The Mumbai event replicated A Time for Heroes (Los Angeles) which roped in stars like Tom Cruise, Penelope Cruz, Jennifer Connelly, Cindy Crawford and Jennifer Love Hewitt. The whole of Bollywood turned up at the Mumbai carnival.
Vidya Balan Film actress from Parinita, I have his hand in mine, do I have yours? Super: 'Together against AIDS. NDTV, CII & You. 'Heroes the HIV / AIDS movement. Star Care. Project. Join

Now similar awareness projects have been taken up by various organizations jointly, which has active support of TV channels like NDTV, Star and so on. "Celebrities bring instant recall," says Kanika Singh, executive director, Heroes Project (programme of the Gere Foundation India Trust). No wonder, post Big B and Ash's successful campaigns, everyone's out to sign up a celeb to endorse a noble cause. Be it Rahul Dravid in an AIDS awareness campaign (he draws a similarity between unsafe sex and the danger of batting without guards), Sachin Tendulkar (who followed up the Big B's pulse polio campaign), Lara Dutta (brand ambassador for UNFPA), Sania Mirza (talks about saving the girl child) or Virender Sehwag (AIDS awareness), celebrities as brand ambassadors spell successful social campaigns. The pulse polio campaigns are an example. An impact analysis conducted by Unicef shows 80 per cent people across rural and urban UP who came to the booths were motivated by the Big B and Sachin on TV or radio. 47

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As a gesture, Unicef has decide to make Bachchan a goodwill ambassador, an honour that will put him in the same bracket as Audrey Hepburn, Roger Moore and Angelina Jolie. Jolie as the UNHCR goodwill ambassador, in fact, recently lent her voice for Afghan refugees. But celebrities can have an impact only if the spotlight is not on them. Says Singh: "In our ads with Amitabh, the emphasis is on the message and not on him. To use a celebrity for a social campaign, there has to be a solid reason. One has to see what the celebrity stands for and whether he or she fits the brand." Agrees ad-guru Prahlad Kakkar: "Celebrities can have an impact only if how and what they say is tailored well. They can't be just talking heads." Pink October: Pink October is observed world wide breast cancer campaign month since 1985. The motto of Breast Cancer Awareness Month is "Early Detection is Your Best Protection". 80,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually in India. Nana Chudasama, well known for his "I Love Mumbai" programs aimed at cleaning and greening this great metropolis is supporter of cancer awareness programs. Designer Shaina NC, in a unique show orchestrated by Hemant Trivedi, Shaina brought together 35 women achievers from various walks of life to showcase her beautiful creations for the benefit of fund raising for cancer awareness. Actress Mahima Chowdry was in Delhi to raise awareness on breast cancer and wished that more actresses could serve to help in this awareness programs. Govt. of India has recently banned all smoking scenes in movies, the order which has created great debate. A growing concern is the tobacco advertisements on television & in movies. Tobacco use among young people continues to rise as the industry aggressively promotes its products to a new generation of potential smokers. Companies spend billions a year to promote their products. Much of this promotion takes the form of powerful advertising that influences children and adolescents in their views on tobacco Mukti an NGO headed by Smita Thackrey holds an annual AIDS show which is the biggest concert organized in India for the cause of AIDS and brings together top film stars and celebrities. There are many celebrities who contribute immensely towards making a better world without any expectations. Like, Raveena Tandon also lends her voice to Peta. She was also the ambassador of the voluntary group 48

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CRY. Fashion designer Hemant Trivedi refused to be a part of a leather fashion event as he was against the idea of using leather. Late Nafisa Joseph used to call up authorities whenever she used to see animal abuse. The list can go on and on.

Indian Celebrities Unite to Protect Wildlife:

The Asian

Conservation Awareness Programme India (ACAP) was launched on 18 February 2004, at the India habitat Centre, New Delhi, in the presence of the Chief Minister of Delhi, Mrs. Sheila Dikshit, and screen legend Shashi Kapoor. The launch marks the start of a dynamic new initiative to engage public and political support for conservation in India. The audience got a preview of exclusive multi-media messages by Indias top celebrities, including Amitabh Bachan, Saurav Ganguly, Shashi Kapoor, Naseerudin Shah and Sachin Tendulkar, who appealed for the protection of endangered wildlife, their habitats and the environment. A number of television channels have generously offered free airtime to air these messages. ACAP is specially designed to compliment anti-poaching efforts and endangered species protection laws by leveraging long-term support from decision makers, media, businesses and public.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA): The


animal rights organization is working globally for animal right and related issues like vegetarian food etc. Its India chapter is also involved in this cause. Many celebrities from India and abroad are supporting PETA. { Following pictures show Ravi & Anuksha Shankar, Anil Kumble and Yana Gupta endorsing a very noble cause }

Is It Because They Care? Now from the Celebritys point of view. Those
who do it do it because? Because they CARE for their name, fame and media attention and a social cause message is a bonus. Celebrities know that they will get a patient ear and might be able to make people see what they want them to. It is also about speaking up for those who cannot. That probably explains the popularity of childrens 49

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and animals causes. Everyone knows what a popular name can do. But the treatment that such issues get all depends on the celebrity and the media. Its a vicious cycle.

What does conscience says? Shah Rukh Khan says he won't do a movie
(like Baazigar, Darr) which could influence his tender kids to do something wrong. Celebrities who want to make it big make nave decisions in their early career years. For instance, action hero Akshay Kumar who is a fitness freak recently said how he actively believed in spreading a no-smoking message. But an old cigarette ad that the actor did when he was young stands like a dark shadow against the message. But what about mature and well-heeled celebrities who are aware of their responsibilities, who acknowledge that a word from them can change lives? Mr Shatrughan Sinha, our exhealth minister was the brand ambassador for Bagpiper Whisky for a long number of years in the past! What a brilliant endorsement to use for Bagpiper!! The Honorable Health Minister himself endorsing the dark fluid! When it comes to enacting a role it's difficult to draw a line and say where dramatics and flexibility end and where an actor's social responsibility begins. But surely if badminton champ Gopichand could say, 'No, thank you' to a lucrative cola deal because he didn't want to influence kids to drink what he himself doesn't guzzle, Sachin Tendulkar who has a much fatter bank balance could also be a more conscientious icon! Sachin has confirmed he will never endorse liquor or cigarettes. If Gopichands conscience didn't permit him to sell what he considered unsuitable for kids, surely a whole lot of other celebrities could also think before giving preference to big bucks over what's ethical as role model icons? On the brighter side of celebrities for various public awareness programmes like AIDS, Cancer, issues related to children and women, wild life, animals and vegetarians etc. the positive impact on peoples mind has been proven beyond any doubts. People like and love to watch their icons and message is delivered instantly. prefer to stay asleep and blame the world for everything. You cant just hold celebrities responsible if people dont follow or practice the same. Unfortunately, many

DEAD CELEBRITIES
For some people, the paychecks don't stop even after they are six feet under. Our fourth annual list of the top earners from the crypt features 22 celebrities whose estates continued to earn at least $5 million in the past year. An estate owner of the dead celebrity can earn millions form his famous relatives good-dooings (or bad). There are 50

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more dead celebrities working today than ever before. America, for one has been using deceased celebrities for their image and power to still influence the living. India has not yet realized the benefits of using The Dead as yet but maybe, after getting influenced by the dead we might just see Amrish Puri endorsing a product saying Mogambo Khush Huwa!.

THE TOP TEN


Elvis Presley Charles M. Schulz J.R.R. Tolkien John Lennon Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel 6. Marilyn Monroe 7. George Harrison 8. Irving Berlin 9. Bob Marley 10.Rechard Rodgers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ifs and Buts


From Marilyn Monroe to Albert Einstein, John Wayne to James Dean, a fistful of long-gone greats are beating time and achieving a kind of digital immortality through commercials. The estates of the deceased get a paycheck and they sign off on every ad see on television. Why utilize the image of a person who hasn't even been breathing for many,

many years? What's wrong with the stars of today that still live and breathe and walk the city streets? Living legends are one thing - but why would a brand choose to associate with dead ones? Nothing really! Probably using the images of these legends is just another trend in the advertising world. Or maybe dead celebrities don't argue, demand raises or give photographers a hard time. Perhaps also because their history has been recorded, and their achievements and their value set understood and packaged. They're a safe bet. There will be no surprises. The impact that maybe an Elvis has to a product, a living celebrity might not have. But care should be taken that a star shouldn't be used in any advertising that could - however remotely - remind viewers of their manner of death. Celebrities such as Princess Diana may be a lucrative option but are unlikely to be successful as ad spokespersons if they are "a little too fresh in the grave". But one cant forget their estate owners. There are many legal issues that come in the package of using a deceased celebrity to endorse a product. Protecting the endorsement rights of celebrities has become a serious business. The reason? Simple economics. Whether the characters are dead, alive or exist only on paper, in most cases, their selling power is legally recognised as a valuable asset which has to be protected. 51

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Sometimes, estates and their representatives are criticized for indiscriminately slapping a deceased celebrity's face and name on a product or service. But most of the agencies who use dead celebrities and the estate owners deny that they do all this for just earning money. For example, Coors got the license to use John Wayne in a very successful campaign where he was associated with beer. But most importantly, seven figures [went] to the John Wayne Cancer Institute at St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica. the family has no qualms about being associated with that at all. Gabbar Singh of film Sholey still endorsing products Kitne Aadmi thay? is the classic example of use of dead celebrity. Using dead celebrities is one of those things where, if it's good, it's good, and if it's bad, it's bad - it's that simple! It depends on the idea. It's a field more lively than one can imagine. We are not sure whether celebrities go to heaven or hell, but they still earn and leave a big fortune for someone lucky who are still living on planet earth.

KIDS AS CELEBRITIES
Children are being planted in television commercials not only to sell products linked to them but to also push goods like fabric whiteners and refrigerators. The latter being the product categories where 52

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kids are not traditionally expected to be a part of the decision-making process. The brand managers, perhaps, target children in the hope of building brand loyalty right from the beginning. There is an increasing realization among marketers that children play a dominant role in decision-making for products other than the ones they consume themselves especially decisions related to the purchase of high involvement categories such as durables and non-durables, Children have become the focal point of intense advertising pressure. A research in the US states that children between the ages of two and eleven spend about 25 hours per week watching television and see approximately 20,000 ads per year. So it does not come as a surprise that in India children between the age of 11 and 15 influence their parents to buy a product and succeed nearly 50 % of times. Advertisements featuring children in categories such as air conditioners, washing machines, cooking oil, home appliances and even paint is based on the acceptance of this target audience as a strong influencing and persuasive group among marketers. Consequently, categories using kids today extends to the family spending area including beverage, toothpaste or even a luxury car. Hyundai and Maruti Udyog Ltd hold painting contests for kids and distribute free T-shirts. Clearly, advertisers have been quick to cash in on the growing importance of kids within the families. Ever since the emergence of nuclear families in urban areas, all the activities in a household revolve around the young ones and parents would do anything to keep the children happy. Besides, in most product categories where there is no tangible benefit or differentiator among brands, the decisions are emotionally driven. Here, kids tend to play a bigger role. So, in case of parity among most brand offerings (features, quality, price) be it durables or fast moving consumer goods, the advertising focuses on emotional connect. We must however understand that the indiscriminate usage of children in advertising will invariably lead to brand not conveying the intended message. Using children in unrelated categories or for unrelated appeals is an indicator of not having a well-defined strategy for the brand. As far as the emotional connect goes, evoking mush and romance is the easiest way out, however, going by the flood of commercials using children available today, it seems that is far from possible.

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Kids Market: Staple, fad, craze or classic? Today, in many instances, licensing dictates that a whole range of categories are available under one umbrella, whether that be for a film, TV show or indeed a property that has been around for many years. Surely Disney, Barbie and Scrabble are brands. Shrek and Spongebob Squarepants are lines of product. But where exactly would Star Wars or even Harry Potter fit? In reality, kids do not care as to whether or not they are playing with, wearing or even eating a brand. They are playing with a product they like, have maybe asked for and in most cases wanted because of the fun attached. Of course they are comfortable with, and have an affinity for, the property associated with said item, because otherwise mum wouldnt have bought it. I put it to you that there needs to be another way. A way that allows for the market to adapt to the fickleness of youth coupled with the necessity for short-term gain against long-term asset building. A way that allows everyone to claim they have a brand, no matter its history or future. A way that finally allows brands to migrate positioning as they develop. We shall break the market into four categories (or sets), which will demonstrate a distinct point of difference, while at the same time giving enough flexibility to allow for growth and maturation. Brands, in the kids market, can essentially be categorized as staples, fads, crazes or classics, where: Fad = Short-term craze Craze = Long-term fad Staple = Can be a fad or a craze or neither Classic = One or more of the above; here to stay. Combined, the categories can be defined by a very simple Venn diagram:

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A fad is something that tends to come and go very quickly. A craze comes and goes but should last longer than the fad. A staple defines the great many products that are essential and finally, a classic is a brand that has been one or all of the first three; a brand that is here for the long term, has long term strategies, has stood and will continue to stand the test of time. Every market has its staples and the kids market is no different. These are brands that dont need to be hyped in any way such as stationery or a cuddly toy. Now every now and again a product will come along which can be defined as a staple but will develop into a fad and a craze. Pen variants such as the gel pens spring to mind. Kids love a craze; they create them after all. A fad is essentially a craze that just hasnt quite managed to take a longer-term hold on the psyche. To be a craze: At this stage the brand has withstood the first wave of cynicism and has enough going for it to have a much longer-term future. These brands will now have more confidence than when they were fads. They will be able to talk directly to kids and should be able to withstand having kids talk back. Crazes may not have any finite time span and could last for years. They may fizzle out, they may then come back again until eventually they have the mind set of A classic. All brands could aspire to fit into this category but unfortunately many, wishing to be thus considered, fail to do so. For some it is just not possible or even worthwhile. A great many classic kids brands have been around for a long time. They have the advantage of age, of being from a time when immediacy and globalization meant nothing. They had the advantage of time to mature to what they are now. Parents 55

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and kids alike are comfortable with these brands and will in turn pass them down the generations. Modern classics are few and far between in the present day kids market. What we have here is not an exact science, but if any market is an art it is the kids market. Plainly we need to expand out of the playground and into the relevant territories for each brand. We need to consider what is the foundation for the brand, whether thats a film, TV show, a stand-alone product or an extension of a classic brand name. Only a small percentage of kids brands have become classics, and based on the present market even fewer will do so in the future. With regard to the kids advertising and endorsements, various methods are being used simultaneously imaginary, cartoon, fairy tales, film and computer graphic characters. The motto is to provoke kids desires, which in turn leads to the purchase of products and high profits to the companies.

NON CELEBRITIES
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New faces, un-known impacts


Celebrities are not always necessary. Sometimes, noncelebrities serve advertisers better. Who is a noncelebrity? A person who is not as famous as a wellknown celebrity can be considered as a non-celebrity. Someone who has been appearing on TV commercials but is not considered as someone who would attract the crowd on the trust factor is a non-celebrity. The media is full of advertisements. Though most of them have a big or small celebrity but there are a huge number of products/brands which are selling like hot cake minus a celebrity endorsing it. Why would Pepsi need a Beckham if they could bend things just as well without using one? (Referring to the Pepsi commercial which used a Sumo wrestler). When companies think they can do away with the ho-hum of using a celebrity they settle for a non-celebrity. Nothing can beat a good idea. Whether or the not the image of the person being used in the ad is worth millions or not, it is the ad as a whole which makes the impact. Usually small companies prefer steering away from the celebrity clutter because they dont want their midget products getting lost in the market. There are quite a few justifies reasons for not using celebrities. Matching: Using non-celebrities, advertisers may gain a greater control over tailor-made or unique characters they create. The created characters may match well with their promoted products and target audiences and the characters are linked solely to the promoted product, rather than a diverse varieties of products with which a real celebrity may be associated.

Less worries: With non-celebrities, there is no need to worry about the


popularity of the celebrity will fade. Once an ad has caught up with the customers liking it cannot affect the product in a negative way unlike when a celebrity is used. Whether or not the model used has appeared in 20 other commercials, its never an issue. Low price: Obviously not using a celebrity means less cost and sometimes the same result. In the competitive world cost plays an important factor to get that edge and if use of a Hrithik Roshan can be done away with why not?

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The energizing lives Campaign has proved that good ideas without celebrities can click. . Whether or not a brand uses celebrity the core of the matter lies in the fact, as has been proved, is that the product should sell. But again for the launch of Speed petrol Bharat Petroleum used Narain Karthikeyan ace racer. There are times when a good celebrity and bad idea ruin the image of the product but a good idea can never let the brand down with or without a celebrity.

One brand which comes instantly in mind is of Nokia cell phones, with tagline Connecting People are successful without having celebrities in their ad campaign. Occasionally new faces gain popularity through ads and become celebrities. As we have seen in case of Lalita ji of Surf. Despite these potential advantages, it is safe to argue that celebrity endorsers are more effective than non-celebrity endorsers in generating all desirable outcomes (attitudes towards advertising, and endorsed brand, intentions to purchase, and in fact actual sales) when companies utilise celebrities whose public persona match with the products and target audiences and who have preferably not endorsed products previously. At present there is no proper research data available in India to prove the point.

EFFECTIVENESS OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS


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Advertising Effectiveness: Is celebrity advertising effective?


The term advertising effectiveness refers to the changes advertising causes in the mental or physical state or activities of the recipient of an ad. Research conducted by Katherine Eckel, (professor of economics at U.S. Virginia Tech), has revealed that celebrities or higher status agents can get people to make a better choice but cannot influence people to make a foolish choice. This phenomenon is reflected in the recent market research finding that 8 out of 10 TV commercials scoring the highest recall were those with celebrity appearances. There are several benefits of having celebrities endorse products or services. Research has indicated that customers are more likely to choose goods and services endorsed by celebrities than those without such endorsements. Another advantage to celebrity-based campaigns is that famous people hold the viewer's attention. In this era of sound-bytes and channel surfing, there is a demand for people's time and focus. For instance, a commercial with Amitabh is more likely to keep a television remote control clicker on the channel versus a commercial with a local doctor or dentist. People want to see Sachin, Shahrukh and others of such celebrity. The third benefit of using celebrity endorsers is that she can provide testimony for a product or service, particularly when the product has contributed to their celebrity. Consumers may be more likely to use petrol endorsed by Yuvraj Singh. This relationship can increase a consumer's belief and trust in the product and its benefits. The more familiar an endorser, the more likely consumers are to buy the endorsed product.

There is no doubt that celebrity advertising has its benefits -- the four Qs: Quick saliency: It gets cut through because of the star and his attention getting
value. Goodlass Nerolac has ensured high saliency for its brand with the inclusion of Amitabh Bachchan in its advertising.

Quick connect: There needs to be no insight but the communication connects


because the star connects. Sachin, Shah Rukh and their ilks ensure an easy connect for Pepsi with the youth. 59

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Quick shorthand for brand values: The right star can actually telegraph
a brand message fast without elaborate story telling. Kapil Dev and Sachin Tendulkar seem to have done that successfully for Boost in the early '90s. And helped to differentiate it in the malted beverages market.

Quick means of brand differentiation: In a category where no brand is


using a celebrity, the first that picks one up could use it to differentiate itself in the market. Boost did it in the malted beverage category. And Preity Zinta does all the above four for Perk -- connecting with the youth and reinforcing the brand's youthful, spontaneous, energetic values.

CUSTOMER IS THE KING:


Mrs Shanti Shah has been depressed because of her obesity problem. She doesnt trust the weight loss advertisements in the paper. The exercise machines look fake and the slimming teas sound like a risk. While watching TV she sees an ad for the Sanjeev Kapoor Tandoor. Her favourite bahu Tulsi and her favoruite cook show host Sanjeev Kapoor seems to trust the product. She believes them when they say Tel nikale tapak tapak tapak. She places an order right away. Thats exactly why a customer buys goods endorsed by a celebrity. To put the reasons clearly a customer buys endorsed products because: Recall: Messages delivered by well-known celebrities achieve a high degree of attention and recall for consumers. Mujhe Nirma Super denawho Deepikaji wali. This is reaction that local general stores must have gone through when the famous Sita started asking for the same on TV. A still remembered line Nimra super nili detergent tikyaDaam, phir bhi kam! Celebrities tend to linger in the heads of the customer while they are out shopping and recall the product. Celebrity Expertise: Expertise refers to the knowledge that the communicator seems to possess to support the claims made in the advertisements. A well-known face would obviously be perceived to have more expertise than an unknown face. For example a Reebok would always be better advertised by a Sachin Tendulkar than a Sachin Deshmukh who plays cricket for the Mumbai team.

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Celebrities are perceived to be Trustworthy: Trustworthiness refers to the customers confidence in the source for providing information in an objective and honest manner. People are more likely to trust the quality of a trustworthy celebrity endorsed brand over a non-endorsed one. Ambitious psyche: People ape the celebrities in their day-to-day activities and many even dream to become like a celebrity some day. Some know they wouldnt become as good as the celebrities but sharing common belongings makes them feel better. I dont look like Kareena but we share the same soap! Physical Attraction: Consumers tend to perform positive stereotypes about such people. Physically attractive people are more successful in changing beliefs than non-attractive people. This has been proved in many researches. How difficult could it be to have hair like Karisma Kapoorall that has to be done is use Dabur Aamla Kesh Tel.

Demerits of using celebrity to endorse products and services: The celebrity vampires the product: Unless the celebrity's values, the
category benefit and the brand values are closely linked, there are chances that the celebrity is remembered more than the brand he is advertising for. And in a celebrity clutter, the chances that the brand and category can be remembered become even more difficult for the average consumer. Pepsi and Lux tend to use multiple celebrities in an attempt to overcome this.

The celebrity trap: Once into a celebrity, it is hard to get out of it. If the brand
has done even moderately well after the break of a celebrity campaign, it becomes difficult to separate the role of message and the role of the celebrity in selling the brand. And hence, the celebrity becomes an addiction for the marketing team. And the task to find substitutes becomes more and more difficult. Interestingly, celebrity is a contagious phenomenon that is seen to spread across a marketing department. Once one brand manager gets into it, others tend to follow, not wanting to be left behind! Unless category and celebrity are closely linked (like Nike and sports stars), the power of a celebrity's word is questionable. The trustworthiness of public figures, which celebrities 61

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tended to bring in the past, is bound to disappear if a celebrity begins to appear and endorse a brand in every conceivable category! Celebrity clutter. With each celebrity endorsing multiple products and multi brands in a category, resorting to different celebrities, the consumer is left confused. Today, it is back to the power of an idea and an insight. No simple solutions exist any longer. Unless there is something powerful in the idea, the celebrity is just another cost. Aamir Khan and Coke is the ultimate example of the same. As long as the brand depended on his star value and wove interesting stories around him, it just didn't cut ice with the consumer -- until 'Thanda Matlab Coca-Cola' happened. Now Coke has also taken multiple celebrities to endorse its latest ad Piyo sar utha ke

Multiple Brand and Celebrity Endorsement


Is it better to have different celebrities who appeal to different people within the target audience? Is one celebrity enough? How long is the campaign supposed to run? How 62

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much money is going to be spent? What media it is going to be run in? It was argued that answers to the above questions would help agencies in deciding how many celebrities to utilise for a campaign. Studying TV and print advertisements, one will realize that either some celebrities are endorsing several brands or a specific brand is endorsed by different spokespersons. These concepts are called multiple brand endorsement and multiple celebrity endorsement respectively. More satisfying results have been achieved on the concept of multiple celebrity endorsement. Endorsing a product with multiple celebrities can be beneficial for appealing to various audiences to which the product is aimed. The watch manufacturer Omega, for example, promotes its brand by matching selected celebrities with the companys product lines. With celebrity spokespersons representing a diverse mix of type, gender, and age, they can effectively be used to endorse specific brand lines of a company as shown by the cosmetic manufacturer LOral, which matches its diverse product lines in accordance with the celebritys meanings.

Merits:
Using multiple celebrities or a single celebrity partially depends on the time scale a campaign is using to have impact. If the campaign has a long-term strategy, agencies would be more careful because potential downsides are much more than potential upsides. The longer the time scale, the more substantial the brand, and thus, the less likely a campaign would stay with a particular celebrity.

In the case of using multiple personalities, none of the celebrities may be specifically associated with the endorsed brand or vice versa. An interviewee claimed that if a campaign has a large advertising and media budget, multiple celebrities would be introduced in order not to bore target audience. According to the same manager, people change and the way they relate to brands also changes. Therefore, the sort of personality used to endorse a product should be different for different age groups. For example, two celebrities may be used to give slightly different attitudes to brands. In a lot of cases a brand has a wide range of consumers and sometimes the use of multiple celebrities is needed to cover the whole target audience, though it must 63

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be made sure that each celebritys values reflects core brand values. What this interviewee seems to be implying is that the audience/market segments that exists in the target audience/market. More specifically, following Bakers (1996) footsteps, the manager accepts differences in the target audience/market and tries to adjust promotion strategy accordingly Demerits On the contrary, another manager believed that a celebrity is the mouthpiece for a brand in communicating messages to target audiences rather more effectively than any other voice. The personalities of celebrities are very strong and they can rapidly change perceptions of a brand. If a campaign has two or three celebrities, then whose personality is the brand trying to take? In this case, there is a great chance of confusing consumers about the brands identity.

The trust and credibility of the endorsers decline. Consumer may not be able to correctly recollect which brand the celebrity stands for. The image of the brand may get blurred. Unique qualities of celebrity image may be lost. Personalities can rapidly change the perception of the brand. Therefore, endorsers should strive to develop long term reactions with one celebrity to ensure a single, clear, consistent brand strategy over time. Multiple celebrities are difficult to manage Endorsers dont use all the products they endorse. Thereby also reducing credibility.

LEGALITY, SCANDALS & MORALITY


Legal traps in celebrity endorsements are an unwanted by the celebrity and the company using them. As lucrative as the deal may look, its possible for such issues to creep in because of the idiocy of the company or the celebrity leading to unwanted losses in terms of money and image for either of the party. The problem is that the truth of the befores and afters of such issue are not known. The media does talk about them but how

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magnified the issue being presented is from the original, cannot be really known. And worse still the parties involved too usually are hush about it. And what does the law have to say about it? There are some countries that have laid down laws regarding endorsements like Australia but in India there is no statutory law expressly directed towards the legality of celebrity endorsements. But the contracts that the parties get into are the major determinants of the dos and donts of the deal. In India hence laws of The Contract Act (1872) apply to celebrity endorsements but otherwise its up to the company and celebrity involved to put down the rules. Validity of the contract and amount are the major factors which lead to many legal issues. A breach of contract can also take place when the stars image is used for purposes other than mentioned in the contract. In the past there was a case where Coca-Cola was accused of using ads that were shot with Sunil Shetty after the contract had ended. Ms. Shilpa Shettys parents accused of using the underworld to get the dues (2 crores) that she was supposed to receive from Prafful Sarees for the ads she did for them. There are cases of such disputes but all ends up causing damage to the celebrity as well as the Company. It is better to convey to the celebrity what is expected out of him\her as per the contract and what will be the consequences if the contract is breached by either party. Laws are meant to be brokenbut only if you wish to risk your future earnings. Given the huge dollar value attached to well-known personalities the question arises, what happens when a marketer uses a name or image without the owner's consent? Interesting legal issues arise. Can Mona Singh sue a company using her image of Jassi without her consent? Can Sachin sue a company because his look alike has been used? Can a celebrity sue a company because his/her name is attached with the product just because they use the product? One thing celebrities will not endorse FBT : With celebrity endorsements falling in the purview of fringe benefit tax (FBT), India Inc. is likely to pay Rs. 12-15 crore in current fiscal as FBT on celebrity endorsement along. Film stars, cricketers and other celebrities put together take away as much as Rs. 150 crore in brand endorsements,

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industry sources said.

With FBT being charged on such endorsements, celebrity

management companies anticipate changes in negotiations for brand endorsements.

Scandals Could Affect Endorsement Deals


Yes! Scandals affect endorsements deals and can put a break on your future track. Cricket all over the world has been reeling in the face of mounting evidence linking bookies to cricketers ever since the Hansie Cronje scandal broke out in April. The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has shown at last that it does not have feet of clay by taking the bold decision to ban former captain Mohd Azharuddin and ex-India player Ajay Sharma for life besides imposing five-year bans on Ajay Jadeja, Manoj Prabhakar and ex-physio Ali Irani in the wake of the match-fixing report indicting them of having dabbled with the bookies by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).Though it's true to a large extent that the Board had no alternative except to punish the players and Physio Irani found guilty of having indulged in corrupt practices by the CBI who reportedly had unearthed mountains of evidence to prove the players' connivance. , it still needed enormous courage to go ahead and impose bans on the disgraced stars, including Jadeja who reportedly has a strong political clout. All may not be in agreement with the degree of punishment awarded to these disgraced players but not many will dispute the fact that those found guilty deserved to be punished. Here one should apply only one logic. Which is to be protected, the great game of cricket which is followed with passionate zeal by millions of Indians and non-Indians or a few greedy players who were earning a king's ransom for representing the country and yet chose to fall prey to avarice. If one follows the diktat that the game is more important than any individual player, then one will appreciate and hail the decision of the Indian Board.

Clockwise from top Mohd Azaruddin, Ajay Sharma, Ajay

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The Indian Board has, thankfully, not followed the despicable examples of its counterparts in Australia and England of letting the guilty players escape with a mild reprimand or even go scot free and has indicated to the other cricket boards that it means business henceforth. Celebrity endorsement deals could be on the rocks due to drug, sex or any scandals which link celebrities and in turn the products. Super model Kate Moss used to make Rs. 31 crore annually through endorsements. But after H&M, Coke snorting supermodel is dumped by Chanel, Burberry and Rimme too. Sports marketers predict the steroids scandal involving such athletes as Jason Giambi, Barry Bonds and Marion Jones could overshadow all athletes up for endorsement deals. MasterCard pulled out of talks for a promotion centering on Barry Bonds' career home run record after the steroid scandal hit the news. Nike, Pepsi and Arm & Hammer all have Jason Giambi inked to endorsement deals. Giambi's agent says none of those deals have been affected. But sports marketing experts say events like Kobe Bryant's rape trial, the steroid scandal and the NBA basketball brawl damage the chances of all athletes. With any endorsement deal, the company has to make sure their endorser won't harm the company's image. If the endorser does get into trouble, the company has to take every precaution to ensure its own image isn't affected. Many times, this means the company must distance itself from the endorser. Moral clauses are also being written into more and more contracts so the company can get itself out of a deal should the celebrity get into trouble. From adultery to accusations of rape, the morals clause is becoming an industry standard for endorsements. Some marketing experts say fans usually forgive and forget in time. Just how much time is a key question companies face when making the leap back into the celebrity endorsement game.

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I have deliberately not gone into the detailed deliberation of legal, moral, ethical and religious issues only because that is another topic of research by itself. Also when moral value are fast disappearing and every day a new scandal is reported much more is needed to be done at all levels than just reading stories about them.

To avoid the pitfalls of Celebrity endorsements the following recommendations are given:
Never let the celebrity become your brand. In doing so, one runs the risk of killing the brand no sooner has the hype and hoopla around the celebrity faded. A classic example of the above is Dinesh Suitings, where Sunil Gavaskar, the brand spokesperson, was allowed to rule the brand, thus becoming bigger than it. No sooner had the association ceased than the brand lost its identity, thereby creating confusion in peoples minds. Therefore, the use of a celebrity must be proportionate to the objective. It is also important for one to be completely clear about why a brand should use a celebrity. Is it to boost sales or to boost image? Or is it just to keep the brand alive? If the objective is increase of sales, the celebrity should be used for short-term promotions and brand activities. (A classic example is the Rani Mukherjee campaign for Bata which is believed to have helped boost sales for the ladies footwear brand, Sundrop, by a whopping 500 per cent.) In the event of an image-building exercise, the celebrity can be used for a longer period of time, so that the brand can derive the benefit of the celebritys image on its own. The association of Sushmita Sen, ex-Miss Universe, helped the brand Epson achieve instant recognition in the computer printer category, even with established giants like Hewlett Packard and Wipro in the running. A recent study by the Indian arm of ad agency Bates revealed that celebrities endorsing your product just might not work all the time. The study showed that some celebrities actually overshadowed the brand-building efforts of companies. Celebrities can catalyze brand acceptance and provide the enormous momentum that brands require. But it is seen that endorsements often do not focus single-mindedly on the characteristics the chosen celebrity possesses. Many times there is a greater temptation to be carried away by the short-term exposure and interest that an endorsement can generate.

To conclude, there is little doubt that using celebrities is a good strategy. Yet, the
success of using celebrities has a lot to do with the design of the commercials, and 68

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depend on how the strategy is integrated with audience characteristics and other elements in the marketing mix. Like presently Kareena kapoor is doing excellent promotional campaign for Himani Boro Plus cream.

A brief assessment of the current market situation indicates, that celebrity endorsement advertising strategies can under the right circumstances indeed justify the high costs associated with this form of advertising. However, as some failures show, it is essential for advertisers to be aware of the complex processes underlying celebrity endorsement, by gaining an understanding of the described concepts of source credibility and attractiveness, match-up hypothesis, meaning transfer model, multiple product and celebrity endorsement.

In the end it has to be understood that the question about whether celebrity endorsements work is not so much a question about celebrities, but about the advertisements themselves. Today the public is constantly assaulted by the endless flow of the sales pitch: and yet, in those multitudes of messages crowding their thought waves, there is information that manages to get across, there are lifestyle imprints that manage to stick, and products that manage to get sold. The point, therefore, about celebrities in advertisements, is that everyone does it, and done right it works wonders.

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NATIONAL EGG CO-ORDINATION COMMITTEE Fighting bird flu


In the process of learning and understanding celebrity endorsements, we have taken into account several examples and discussed many cases accompanied with the theoretical information in order to understand its practical application. We shall now briefly look into the Ad campaigns of National Egg Coordination Committee (NECC) a case of using celebrity endorsements to bolster an industry that succumbs to the fear factor. Many still remember ad campaign Sunday ho ya Monday Roz Khao Ande, which became popular amoung kids and young alike. Now NECC has come out with new tag line Anda nahin khaoge, to anda banaoge featuring cricketers and a kid. These ads are instrumental not only in retaining the sales of the eggs but also to keep the demand at rise. Here we are not taking sides of Vegetarians or Nonvegetarians, but simply looking the ads from damage control and sales promotion point of view of eggs & Chickens. January 2004, the poultry industry pressed the panic button. The reason: outbreak of Bird Flu in some Asian countries. Consumption of chicken here dropped by 30-40 per cent. The industry lost more than Rs 1,000 crore. All this happened when not a single case of bird flu was reported in India. However, though sales came back to normal levels later, the National Egg Coordination Committee (NECC) decided to proceed with the campaign to promote the consumption of chicken. Anuradha Desai, Chairperson, NECC, said, "Still, as a matter of promotion, we decided to take up the campaign. The brief was to project the Indian chicken in its true form, i.e. healthy, hygienic and absolutely safe to eat." 70

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Ogilvy & Mather Advertising was roped in to revive the brand equity that Indian chicken once commanded. The creatives, including print and television commercials, were executed by Pushpinder Singh, Sagar Mahabaleshwarkar and Abhijit Karandikar. The 40-second TV commercial was shot by Sumantro Ghoshal of Equinox films. Pushpinder Singh, Senior Creative Director, O&M, said, "It is not so much about the quality of chicken as it was about the long-term vision of the chicken and poultry industry. Hence the baseline `Indian chicken fitam fit' - the Hinglish interpretation to `Indian chicken is healthy.' Continuing on the same lines, we will further study the advertisement featuring Sunjay Dutt along with an animated Chicken. The storyline for the TV commercial around flummoxed a revolves visibly animated

rooster being charged with spreading the disease, and actor Sanjay Dutt posing as the argues chicken's for the advocate Indian coming to its rescue. He chicken, interspersing mention of its virtues with popular lines from Munnabhai MBBS, his recent hit movie. The move again ends with the tagline Indian chicken fitam fit. The big idea emerged from the fact that though not even a single case of bird flu was reported in India, the damage was done. It was like being branded guilty without a trial. So when the team was discussing the brief, the courtroom idea popped up. Munnabhai was doing very well and Sanjay Dutt is a very popular star. It was felt that it would be a good combination to promote chicken, keeping in mind the strong and healthy image of Sanjay Dutt and that of a humorous and an easy going but a genuine man which he had created after his recent block buster.

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Animagic India created the 2D chicken animation. It was a two-day shoot. The film was shot partly at Famous Studios and partly at Excel Studios, then shots from both were superimposed in the background to get the required effect. Unlike trite ads, which address an issue point blank, introducing humour as a part of the communication strategy could bring about attention in terms of eyeballs registered and longevity of recall in terms of plain comic relief. As Pushpinder Singh sums up, the most important creative element in this campaign was this animated chicken along with the celebrity. "It allowed us to convey a light-hearted message without losing focus on the seriousness of the issue." Here as we notice that the strategy was to draw the attention of TV viewers. To create distinct mind space against the clutter of ads that TV channels relay, and to communicate the message in an appealing manner, celebrity endorsement is one of the most effective ways to get the message across. The result was of course success as every one knows but some magic is required again, as in recent days we have seen emergence of the bird flu again across the globe.

CONCLUSION
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The plethora of Celebrity endorsements today is not a sudden or a novel idea. It has been in the global scenario since the time competition was being faced by companies in marketing their goods and services and it is still going to stay till the time there are products and ideas of reaching to the consumers. With creativity at its apex, admen are experimenting with new tools of technology and electronic media. So finally, its time to answer the simple yet important question, Is celebrity endorsement worth the investment? The obvious yet logical answer is YES. Celebrities can add value to an idea provided you have one, says adman Piyush Pandey. Aligning the product features with the characteristics and values the celebrity symbolizes calls for a careful selection and use of celebrity to get that winning formula for a stunning success. The celebrity is a means, while the real power to lure the people lies in how well has the star been used in congruence with the idea. Think of a seed. It is like a point: tiny and compact, it holds all potential. A thought is a seed, a seed that can be positive, negative, general or waste. Our thoughts create our feelings and attitudes, our consciousness. Human consciousness has the capacity to think, to reason, to feel and to express. All of these begin with just one thought. Good ideas are like good seeds which when planted right produce success and wealth. If good ideas are seeds, celebrities are like water and air, media exposure is the sunlight and the ad agencies play the role of a skilled Gardner. These, when combined in a positive climate, the tree blossoms. A beautiful tree marketing strategy is loved and liked by one and all. Just as beautiful tree attracts attention, love and appreciation of the onlookers a successful strategic campaign attracts money from the pockets of buyers. The result wonderful flowers and fruits which symbolize the mutual benefits reaped by the business in terms of profits, the products and services received by the consumers and society as a whole, thats simply stunning success!

REFERENCES
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Books : Advertising Management by Aaker, Batra and Myers Marketing Management Millennium Edition: By Philip Kotler Newspapers: 1. Times of India 2. Mid-day 3. Business Satndard 4. Economic Times Websites: 1. www.agencyfaqs.com 2. www.magindia.com 3. www.hinduonnet.com 4. www.google.com 5. www.indiatimes.com 6. www.yahoo.com Articles:
Celebrity endorsements are a thing of

the past and present


Do Celebrities Create Brands?

Steve Ketcham Ramesh J. Thomas Achal R. Prabhala K. C. Li B Zafer Erdogan and Michael J Baker

When celebrities sell

Celebrity Endorsement Celebrity Endorsements: Advertising

Managers Perspective

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