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• • Standard of Living: The degree of material well being available to a person or class or community, which is necessary for sustaining and enjoying life. Requirements for a minimum standard of living are: 1. Food, clothing and shelter are things a man has to obtain for himself. 2. Security and Essential services is the responsibility of the government or the public authorities. The greater the amount of goods and services produced in any community higher is the standard of living. Increasing the employment of men and increasing the productivity of resources can increase this greater amount of production Productivity is the ratio of output ( amount produced) to input (amount of any resources used in the course of production). This holds good for any industry or enterprise or an economy as a whole. • • The resources can be anything like land, materials, plant and machinery and services of men. If a machine, which produces 100 parts per day, starts producing 150 due to better tooling then the productivity of the machine has increased by 50%. Similarly the productivity of land is increased if greater output is produced from the same amount of land due to better means of doing things or some other ways. • When there is an increase in productivity it means that more is being produced with the same expenditure of resources. We also have an increase in productivity if the percentage increase in output is more than the % increase in input. When same amount is produced with lesser cost of inputs, again we have an increase in productivity. • Why is Productivity important for better standard of living? By producing more at the same cost or lesser costs, the community saves resources and these resources can be redeployed for acquiring more and better goods and services. This in turn results in improvement of standard of living.
Countries with lower cost of labor can increase their productivity by properly utilizing their materials and machinery. The employers have to educate their workers and their trade unions upon the necessity of increasing productivity. Net Output = Total Output – Outsourcing of resources. Man Hour is the amount of labour of one man for one hour. machinery and men.) It is the responsibility of the management to balance all the input resources in such a way to get the maximum productivity. Total Productivity is the ratio of total output to all the input factors. materials. which hurts their employment prospects and hence should not become a pain in the unmentionables of the employers. Total Factor Productivity is the ratio of net output to the sum of associated labor and capital inputs. Machine Hour is the running of machine or a piece of plant for an hour.P. employees and workers. The government can come out with better employment programs for unemployed and underemployed. which is produced from them. T. • The onus to increase productivity lies with all sections of the community. Time is a very important factor in productivity as output from a given machine or worker in a given time is used to calculate productivity.government. Chapter 2 • • • • • • • • • Productivity of a certain set of resources is the amount of goods or services.• All the resources-land. The trade unions should not perceive the productivity improvement activities as something. The government can also plan for some better economic programs. . Partial Productivity is the ratio of output to one class of input.are equally important in increasing the productivity. = Total Output / ( Sum of all factors of input like land labor capital etc. Ex: Labor productivity = Total Output/ Labor input.
Bad design of product prevents use of most economic processes.1. B. Wrong Tools used. B. A. The number of rejects increases and hence wastage of material. Work Content Added by inefficient methods of manufacture or operation. Lack of standardization prevents use of high production processes. B. Bad Layout causing wasted movement. Operative’s Bad Working Methods cause wastage of time .2. movement or effort. Incorrect Quality Standards cause unnecessary work.5.1. A. The batches have to be small and hence can’t be put on special purpose high production machines and hence wastage of time. Work Content Added by defects in design or specification of the product. This makes the process inefficient. This causes wastage of time and effort. B.Design demands removal of Excess Material.Basic Work Content of product and / or operation: This is the irreducible minimum time theoretically required to produce one unit of output. A.2. faulty temperature etc.Process Not Operated Correctly or in bad conditions.4. This applies especially to the metalworking industries and most particularly where large-scale production is undertaken.3. This can be the machine operating at faulty feed rates.4.3. B. A.Wrong Machine used. . faulty speed. B. A. This increases the work content of the job and wastage of material is the result of this.
3.7. C.Carless Workmanship adds ineffective time due to scrap and rework. Lateness and Idleness add ineffective time. Accidents add ineffective time through stoppage and absence.6.5. Excessive Product Variety adds idle time due to short runs. Lack of Raw Materials due to bad planning adds to idle time of men and machines. Plant Breakdowns add idle time of men and machines.1.Design Changes add ineffective time due to stoppages and rework. The workers don’t have opportunity to acquire skills and speed in any one operation. C.2. D. Basic Work Content . C.9. C. C. This results in stoppage of work and loss of machine and man-hours. D. Wastage of materials also results. C. C. D.Absence.3. Plant in Bad Condition adds ineffective time due to scrap and rework. Bad Working Conditions add ineffective time through forcing workers to rest.2. • Total Time of Operation under Existing Conditions = (BWC)+ A + B + C + D. D. C.Lack of Standardization adds idle time due to short runs. The workers can’t work steadily in such conditions.4. Ineffective Time within the control of worker.8. C. Ineffective Time due to shortcomings of the management.Bad Planning of work and orders adds idle time of men and machines.C. Accidents and ineffective through stoppages and absence. This is detrimental to the welfare of workers.1.
4.4. This leads to increase in batch sizes so that use of high production processes can be made. Total Work Content = BWC + A+B Total Ineffective Time = C + D. If all the factors enumerated in A. Product Development and Value Analysis reduces excess work content due to design defects. B. B. This improves the working methods of the operator. The management should ensure that competent employees do the research activities. B. A. B. A.5. How do Management Techniques reduce Work Content and Ineffective Time Basic Work Content Methods that totally reduce Excess Work Content if perfectly applied. C and D can be eliminated then it will take minimum time for the production and hence the maximum productivity is achieved.1. Process Planning and Method Study ensures correct selection of tools. It also decides the correct tools.Specialization and Standardization enable high production processes to be used.3. The design and production staff can work closely from the beginning. Consumer and Product Research ensure correct quality standards. Initial testing like usage of pilot plants and trial runs should be done. A. speeds of functioning.2. Product Development and Value Analysis reduces work content due to excess material. Process Planning ensures selection of correct machines.Method Study reduces work content due to bad layout. . In general the excess work content and ineffective time is due to management shortcomings than to causes within the controls of the workers.• • • • Time of Operation within the control of management = BWC + A+ B+C. At this juncture any alterations to design can be made.2. A. B. Process Planning and Research ensures correct operation of processes. feeds and other conditions.1. They shouldn’t be either too high or too low. Chapter 3. This helps in brining out the most efficient manufacturing techniques.3. A. Market. B.Method Study and Operator Training reduces work content due to bad working methods.
3.2. This gives a longer production run and reduces time spent in changing over machines. C.8. D. C.5. Safety measures reduce ineffective time due to accidents. The loss of productivity and increase in manufacturing costs can be effectively cut down.2. This helps us in finding out how much time each job may be expected to take. C. which lead to stoppage of machines to change one type to another.9.4. The workers can be given a work climate having a job with variety and sound wage structure.Marketing and Specialization reduces idle time due to product variety. D. Safety Training reduces ineffective time due to accidents. C. The number of accidents can be reduced considerably. Maintenance reduces ineffective time due to plant in bad condition.1. . Maintenance reduces idle time of men and machines due to breakdowns. etc.6.Standardization reduces idle time due to short runs. Product Development reduces ineffective time due to changes in design. In this way the cost of handling stocks of materials is kept down. Production Control based on Work Measurement reduces idle time due to bad planning. C. C. This helps in reducing the unnecessary product varieties. Personnel Policy and Operator training reduce ineffective time due to carelessness.Ineffective Time Totally Eliminated if all Techniques Perfectly Applied. C. as economic process as possible and that the stocks maintained are not excessive.3. D. C.Material Control reduces idle time due to lack of raw materials.Improved Working Conditions enable workers to work steadily.1. help in reducing defects at the design stage itself. Sound Personnel Policy and Incentives reduce ineffective time due to absence. C. Usage of pilot project etc.7. The materials can be bought at.
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