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CHAIN OF

MESORAH

HALACHA: FROM SINAI TO THE PRESENT

WITH VISUAL PRESENTATIONS AND


EXPLANATIONS
BY RABBI BENYOMIN & LEAH HOFFMAN

Halacha@heimishhouse.com

Other presentations available:

Thanksgiving – A Lesson Plan

Parsha Pages

Lekutei Sichos - Abstract

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The purpose of this presentation is to provide readers with a brief visual
history of Halacha and understanding of the format of basic texts.
Included with each visual presentation is an explanation of each
historical period.

The presentation is divided into two parts:

Part I: Periods of our Mesorah

Part II: Samples of basic Halachic texts

As readers review Part I, they would recognize the stages that Jewish
law has progressed from Moshe Rabeinu at Har Sinai to its present form
today. The readers will hopefully gain a clear understanding of who was
involved in the various stages of Halachic development. The readers will
also increase their appreciation of the accomplishment of each stage.

In Part II, the reader will be presented with samples of basic Halachic
texts with identification of key authors.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I: MESORAH
OVERVIEW – ERAS (TEKUFOS) PAGE 5
FROM HAR SINAI TO THE GREAT
PAGES 6, 7
ASSEMBLY
ZUGOS TO THE TALMUD PAGES 8, 9
SAVORAIM TO THE GOANIM PAGES 10, 11
FIRST CODIFIERS PAGES 12, 13
SHULCHAN ARUCH - KOVIM PAGES 14, 15
LATER CODIFIERS PAGES 16, 17

PART II: TEXTS


MISHNEH TORAH PAGES 20, 21
TUR PAGES 22, 23
SHULCHAN ARUCH – ORACH
PAGES 24, 25
CHAIM
SHULCHAN ARUCH – YOREH
PAGES 26, 27
DEAH
SHULCHAN ARUCH – EVEN
PAGES 28, 29
HAEZER
SHULCHAN ARUCH – CHOSHEN
PAGE 30, 31
MISHPATH

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CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION
HALACHA – GUIDANCE OF LIFE
ERAS (TEKUFOS)
Secular
Jewish
Year Year
1312 TORAH FROM HAR SINAI 2448
BCE

1272 TO THE NEVIIM 2488

400 TO ANSHEI KENNESSES HAGADOLAH 3360

210 TO THE ZUGOS 3500

CE
10 TO THE TANAIM 3720

220 TO THE AMORAIM 3980

500 TO THE SAVORAIM 4260

590 TO THE GOANIM 4350

1030 TO THE FIRST CODIFIERS 4790

1490 TO SHULCHAN ARUCH 5250

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1650 TO LATER CODIFIERS 5410

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MESORAH

FROM HAR SINAI


The Written Torah can not be understood without the Oral Torah. The two Toros complement each
other.
The written Torah we share with other faiths. However, the Oral Torah makes the Jewish faith unique,
as the authentic key to understanding G-d’s Will in this world.
The Oral Torah exemplifies the covenant with the Jews since it is flexible and dynamic. Thus, our
Sages (Gittin 60b) “The Holy One, Blessed be he, did not make His covenant with Israel except by
virtue of the Oral Law.”
It is G-d's will that there exist a certain degree of uniformity in Jewish practices, as well as in the
interpretation of the Law. It is thus written, "There shall be one Torah and one law for you"
(Bemidbar 15, 16).
Therefore, even when no formal central authority, such as the Sanhedrin, exists, G-d has provided
guidelines to insure the continuance of Judaism as a unified way of life. These guidelines provide
the basis for the system of Torah law known as Halacha (literally, "the way").
Moreover, it was impossible to include every possible case in the Oral Torah. It would also be
impossible for the Sanhedrin to decide in every possible case. Therefore, G-d gave each qualified
Torah scholar the right to decide questions of Torah law. Then, even if laws were forgotten, they
could be restored through the halachic process.
It is a positive commandment for a duly qualified Torah scholar to render decisions in questions of
Torah law when asked. It is thus written, "You shall teach the children of Israel all the decrees
which G-d told them through Moses" (VaYikra 10, 11).
The unique relationship between G-d and Israel guarantees that we will always be able to ascertain His
will. It is thus written, "You will seek G-d your Lord, and you will find Him, as long as you search
after Him with all your heart and with all your soul" (Devarim 4, 29).
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Rambam (introduction to the Mishneh Torah) lists 40 individuals involved in the Chain of
Transmission from Moshe to Rav Ashi (close of the Talmud), which we have listed.
Moshe Rebeinu personally taught the Oral Law, which he received at Sinai, to all of the Jews. As
Rambam relates in his Introduction to the Mishneh, “Know that the entire Law which the Almighty
gave to Moshe Rabeinu was given to him with its explanation. The Almighty told him a specific
mitzvah, and then told Moshe its explanation”.
The Kenssess HaGedolah (The Great Assembly) contained 120 leaders including the last of the
phophets, Ezra, and Mordechai. The composed the Shemohan Esreh, prayer structures, decided
which books to be within the Tanach, etc.
Sedar Olam lists the year of 3,442 (318 BCE) as the date of cessation of prophecy, almost 1000 years
after the Revelation.
The Gemara says that if Moshe Rabeinu had not lived prior to Ezra, the Torah could have been
transmitted through Ezra (Sanhedrin 21b). However, Ezra transmitted the Torah in his era - the
Torah shebe'al peh. During this era of the first Exile and the end of prophecy, Ezra restored the
purity of Am Yisrael, and strengthened them in the new era of the second Beis Hamikdash.

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CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION
HALACHA – GUIDANCE OF LIFE

1312 TORAH FROM HAR SINAI 2448


Revelation at Mt. Sinai – (1312 BCE)
1. Moshe (1392-1272 BCE)

1272 TO THE NEVIIM (Prophets) 2488


2. Yehoshua (1354-1244 BCE)
3. Pinchus
4. Eli (929 BCE)
5. Shmuel (889 BCE)
6. Dovid (876 BCE)
7. Achiah (800 BCE)
8. Eliyahu (870-726 BCE)
9. Elishah (717 BCE)
10. Yehoyada (695 BCE)
11. Zechariah (680 BCE)
12. Hoshea (575 BCE)
13. Amos (560 BCE)
14. Isaiah (548 BCE)
15. Michah (560 BCE)
16. Yoel (510 BCE)
17. Nachum (510 BCE)
18. Chavakuk (510 BCE)
19. Tzafaniah (460 BCE)
20. Jeremiah (462 BCE)
21. Baruch (347 BCE)
22. Ezra (348 BCE)

400 TO THE GREAT ASSEMBLY 3360


(Anshei Kenneset HaGedolah) 3360
23. Shimon Hatzadik (400-300 BCE)
24. Antignus of Socho (305 BCE)

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THE TALMUD
Binding Customs
G-d therefore granted the Jewish people as a whole a sort of collective Divine Inspiration so that they
would be able to recognize the correct opinion in questions of Torah law. Therefore, when there
is any question, it is ultimately decided on the basis of what becomes common practice. Hence,
when a decision is accepted as a general custom, it becomes universally binding.

Therefore, any practice, decision or code that is universally accepted by the Jewish people is assumed
to represent G-d's will and is binding as such. Even when a decision is initially disputed, the
commonly accepted opinion becomes binding as law.

Since the Talmud was accepted by all Israel, it is the final authority in all questions of Torah law.
Since such universal acceptance is a manifestation of G-d's will, one who opposes the teachings
of the Talmud is like one who opposes G-d and His Torah. All later codes and decisions are
binding only insofar as they are derived from the Talmud.

Other works, written prior or contemporary to the Babylonian Talmud are likewise very important for
the understanding of laws, beliefs and history. However, since they were all known to the
compilers of the Talmud, it is assumed that when the Talmud disputes these works, it does so
for a reason. Therefore, whenever they disagree with the Talmud, decisions found in the
Jerusalem Talmud, Midrash and Tosefta are ignored. There are, however, certain special cases,
where, because of long established custom, the opinions of other early works are accepted,
even when they disagree with the Talmud.

All the opinions found in the Talmud are equally sacred. Still, there is always one binding opinion
whenever questions of actual practice are concerned. This is known either from the Talmudic
discussions itself, or from later tradition.

However, when a dispute involves questions of opinion or history, and has no special consequences
any opinion found in the Talmud is equally acceptable. Similarly, no final decision is normally
rendered between conflicting Talmudical opinions in the case of laws that are no longer applicable.

Shmaya and Avtalyon were one of the Zugos (Pairs), leading Sages of the Nation at the end of the
Chashmonaim era. The Gemara (Pesachim 70b) states they were “great, wise men and public
speakers.” Hillel haZakein was among their students. His thirst to hear their teachings lead him to
climb to the snowy roof of the Beis Medrash to hear their teachings (when he could not afford the
entrance fees (Yoma 35b). What is interesting to note is that Shmaya and Avtalyon, leaders of the
generation, were from families of converts. In fact they were descendants of the wicked Sancheiriv.
The Nesius of Hillel (and the era of the Zugos) ends with his death in 3768 (58 CE).
Redaction of the Mishneh by Rabbi Yehuda haNasi occurred in 3948 (188 CE), 1500 years after the
Revelation.
Rav Ashi in 4260 (500 CE) closed the Babylonian Talmud.
The Talmud Bavli contains 2711 blatt (5422 pages).

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CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION
HALACHA – GUIDANCE OF LIFE

260 TO THE ZUGOS (Pairs) 3500


25. Yosi ben Yoezer and Yosef ben Yochanon (280 BCE)
26. Yehoshua ben Prachya and Nitai of Arbel (243 BCE)
27. Yehuda ben Tabai and Shimon ben Shetach (198 BCE)
28. Shmaya and Avtalyon (140 BCE)
29. Hillel and Shammai (40 BCE)

10 ce TO THE TANAIM
(Mishnaic Rabbis-literally the “repeaters”) 3720
30. Rabban Shimon (10 BCE)
31. Rabban Gamliel Hazaken (20 CE)
32. Rav Shimon ben Gamliel (50)
33. Rabban Gamliel (90)
34. Rabban Shimon (140)
35. Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi (135-219)

220 TO THE AMORAIM 3950


1. (Talmudic Rabbis-literally the “sayers”) 3980
36. Rav (160-248), Shmuel, and Rabbi Yochanon (230)
37. Rav Huna (270)
38. Rabbah (310)
39. Rava (270-350)
40. Rav Ashi (420)

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CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION CONTINUES

The main work of the Talmud came to an end with the death of Ravina in 4259 (499 CE). This initiated
the period of the Savoraim, who made some additions to the Talmud and placed it in its final form.
The period of the Savoraim lasted for 90 years until 4349 (589 CE). They reached final decisions in all
questions that had not been decided in the Talmud. Since the Savoraim headed academies including all
the sages of the time, their decisions are as binding as those of the Talmud.

Following the Savoraim came the period of the Geonim, which lasted until the death of Rav Hai Gaon
in 4798 (1038 CE). They headed the great academies of Sura and Pumbedita in Babylonia, which
had been founded in Talmudic times, and were accepted as centers of authority in all matters of
Torah law. The decisions of the Geonim were based on traditions from the masters of the Talmud,
and were almost universally accepted. Therefore, they cannot be disputed by any later authority
without uncontestable proof.

Subsequent to the Mishneh and the Talmud, the first code written was that of Achai Gaon, who
authored the Shailtos, elaborating on 190 mitzvos. This was followed by Halachos Pesukos by
Yehuda Gaon, which, in turn, was followed by the Halachos Gedolos by Shimon Kayyaro, in the
early 800's. The Halachos Gedolos (known as the BaHaG) presented the halachic material of the
Gemara in a codified form, according to the order of the Talmud.

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CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION
HALACHA – GUIDANCE OF LIFE

500 TO THE SAVORAIM ("Thinkers") 4260


Rafram (443)
Rav Sama B'rei d'Rava (476)
Rav Yosi (514)
Rav Simonia
Rav Ravoi Me-Rov (589)
Mar Chanan Me-Ashkaya (608)
Rav Mari

590 TO THE GOANIM 4350


(Leaders of the Babylonian Academies; literally "Geniuses")

Rav Chana Gaon Mar Rav Ibomai Gaon (814)


Mar Rav Rava Mar Rav Yosef
Rav Busai (689) Mar Rav Avrohom
Mar Rav Huna Mari Mar Rav Yosef (834)
Mar Rav Chiyah Me-Mishan Mar Rav Yitzchak (839)
Mar Ravyah Mar Rav Yosef (841)
Mar Rav Natronai Mar Rav Poltoi (858)
Mar Rav Yebuda (739) Mar Rav Achai Kahana
Mar Rav Yosef (748) Mar Rav Menachem (860)
Mar Rav Shmuel Mar Rav Matisyahu (869)
Mar Rav Natroi Kahana Rav Mar Abba
Mar Rav Avrohom Kahana (761) Mar Rav Tzemach Gaon (891)
Mar Rav Dodai Mar Rav Hai Gaon (897)
Rav Chananya (771) Mar Rav Kimoi Gaon (905)
Rav Malka (773) Mar Rav Yehuda (917)
Mar Rav Rava Mar Rav Mevasser Kahana (926)
Mar Rav Shinoi (782) Rav Kohen Tzedek (935)
Mar Rav Chaninah Gaon (785) Mar Rav Tzemach Gaon (937)
Mar Rav Huna Mar Halevi (788) Rav Chaninah Gaon (943)
Mar Rav Menasheh (796) Mar Rav Aharon Hacohen (959)
Mar Rav Yeshaya Halevi (804) Mar Rav Nechemiah (968)
Mar Rav Kahanah Gaon (797) Rav Sherirah Gaon (1006)
Mar Rav Yosef Rav Hai Gaon (939-1038)

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FIRST CODIFIERS
Numerous codes, based on the Talmud and the decisions of the Geonim were compiled by leading
rabbis, and they achieved almost universal recognition. The rabbis of this period are known as
Rishonim or "first [codifiers]."
Most noteworthy among these were the codes of Rabbi Yitzchak Al-Fasi (Rif) and Rabbi Asher ben
Yechiel (Rosh), which structured after the order of the Talmud.
Rabbi Moses Maimonides (Rambam) was the first codifier to establish a system of ordering by subject
matter in his Sefer Mishneh Torah or Yad (14 groups) HaChazaka. See Illustration I.

Yaacov ben Asher (son of the Rosh). His sefer was known as Arbaah Turim ('Four Rows'). The name
is based on the four rows of precious stones in the breastplate of the High Priest (Exodus 28:17),
usually abbreviated to Tur, so that in Halakhic literature both Yaacov himself and his Code are
called 'the Tur'. See Ilustration II
Uniquely organized by topic, became the standard organization pattern for all major codes that
followed.
The work consists of four sections, hence the 'four rows'. These are:

‫אורח חיים‬ ‫יורה דעה‬


on morePath of Life
complex matters Teaching Knowledge

Yoreh Deah, 'Teaching Knowledge'


Orah Hayyim; 'Path of Life' (after (after Isaiah 28,9), dealing with the
Psalms 16,11), dealing with dietary laws and other topics
prayer, the Sabbath and festivals, required chiefly for Rabbinic
and with general religious duties decisions

‫אבן העזר‬ ‫חושן משפט‬


Stone of Help Breastplate of Judgment

Even Ha-Ezer, 'Stone of Help' (after Hoshen Mishpat, 'Breastplate of Judgment'


Shmuel I 5,1 and Bereshis 2,20, (after Shmos 28,15), dealing with civil
where woman is the 'help' mate for law and jurisprudence in general
man), dealing with the laws of
marriage and divorce

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CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION
HALACHA – GUIDANCE OF LIFE

1030 TO THE FIRST CODIFIERS 4790


Rabeinu Gershon “ME’OR HAGOLAH” (965-1040)
Rabbi Yitzchak Alfasi “RIF” (1013-1103)
Rabbi Moshe Maimonides “RAMBAM” (1135-1328)
Rabbi Yitzchak ben Moshe “OR ZURA” (1180-1250)
Rabbi Shlomo ben Aderet “RASHBA” (1235-1310)
Mordachai ben Hillel “MORDECHAI”
Rabbi Asher ben Yechiel “ROSH” (1250-1328)
Rabbi Yaacov ben Asher “TUR” (1275-1349)
Rabbi Yisrael Isserlin “TERUMAS HADESHEN” (1390-1460)

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CODE OF JEWISH LAW
Period of the Kovim (Consolidation and Setting) 1490-1648

The work that was most widely accepted, however, was the Shulchan Aruch (Prepared Table) written
by Rabbi Yosef Karo, which took into account almost all of the earlier codes. Since the Shulchan
Aruch followed the practices of the Sephardic practices, a gloss was added to it by Rabbi Moshe
Isserles, Mapah (Table Cloth) including all the Ashkenazic customs. To this very day, the
Shulchan Aruch serves as the primary halachic guide for Jewish life.

With the publication of the Shulchan Aruch, the period of the Rishonim came to an end, and the period
of the Acharonim or "later [codifiers]" began. The opinions of the Rishonim gained almost
universal acceptance through the Shulchan Aruch, and therefore, the Acharonim usually do not
oppose them. While the Acharonim may decide among opinions found in the Rishonim they do not
dispute them without conclusive evidence.

The Shulchan Aruch was not the individual opinion of its authors, but a compilation of opinions found
in the works of the Rishonim which had gained the widest acceptance. Because of the near
universal acceptance of the Shulchan Aruch, its decisions are considered binding, unless otherwise
indicated by the leading authorities of succeeding generations.

Since the Shulchan Aruch was the standard of Torah law, it became the subject of many commentaries
which expounded, and occasionally disputes its opinions. Many of those which were printed
alongside the Shulchan Aruch were almost universally accepted. . See Illustration III-VI.

Rabbi Yosef Karo's magnum opus is his Beit Yosef ("House of Joseph"), an
encyclopedic commentary on Rabbi Jacob ben Asher's Tur, a halachic code. Bet
Yosef presents an extensive survey of relevant halachic literature, from the
Talmud down to works of Karo's contemporaries.

Rabbi Karo's halachic decisions were codified in his Shulchan Aruch (which was actually a digest of
Bet Yosef). This work quickly became accepted throughout the Jewish world as halachically
authoritative. Likewise, his commentary on Maimonides' code, the Kesef Mishneh, is one of the
standard commentaries on the Yad HaChazaka.

Rabbi Moshe Isserles otherwise known as RAMA; in his short but incredibly
productive life, Rabbi Moshe put an indelible stamp on the world of Torah
scholarship. His MAPA, Tablecloth, representing the Ashkenazic Torah world,
integrated with the Shulchan Aruch, and enabled it to represent the entire
Jewish Torah spectrum.

Rav Yehoshua Falk Katz served as the Rosh Yeshiva in Lemberg. He was the author of the twin
commentaries Perisha and Derisha on the Tur, and Sefer Me’iras Einayim on Choshen Mishpat.

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Rav Yoel Sirkis served as the Rav of Belz, Brest-Litovsk, and Cracow. His Bayit Chadash (Bach) is a
major commentary on the Tur (second only to the Beit Yosef). He was the father in law of the Taz
(who frequently refers to him)
.

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CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION
HALACHA – GUIDANCE OF LIFE

1490 TO SHULCHAN ARUCH - KOVIM 5250


Rav Yosef Karo (1488-1575)
Rav Moshe Isserles (1520-1572)
Rabbi Avrohom Boton “Lechem Mishneh” ( -1588)
Rabbi Mordechai Yafe “Levush” (1530-1612)
Rabbi Yehoshua Falk “Sema” (1550-1614)
Rabbi Yoel Sirkis, “Bach” (1561-1640)
Rabbi David ben Shmuel Ha Levi “Taz” (1586-1667)
Rabbi Moshe Lim “Chelkas Mechokek” (1605-1658)
Rabbi Shabse ben Meir HaCohen “Shach” (1622-1663)
Rabbi Moshe Rivkes “Be’er ha Golah” ( - 1672)
Rabbi Avrohom Gombiner “Magen Avrohom” (1637-1683)
Rabbi Shmuel Phoebus “Bais Shmuel” (1650-1700)
Rabbi Yehudah Rosannes “Mishneh LaMelech” (1657-1727)

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LATER CODIFIERS

These codes were followed by works that have become very well known and are our current classical
reference books. the Shulchan Aruch HaRav by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi,; the Kitzur
Shulchan Aruch by Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried; the Mishnah Berurah by the Chofetz Chaim, Rabbi
Yisroel Meir Kagan; and the Aruch HaShulchan by Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein.

There were a great many accepted authorities, both among the commentators to the Shulchan Aruch,
and among the writers of responsa (Sheilos v’Teshuvos). These applied Torah law to individual
cases, and often set binding precedents. Over the years, various compilations of these later opinions
were published

Reb Shneur Zalman was the founder of Chabad Chassidus, and learned about Hasidism from Rabbi
Dov Baer HaMaggid, leader of the Hasidic movement. Under The Maggid, Reb Shneur Zalman
wrote updated and profound commentaries about the Shulchan Aruch.
Rabbi Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, also known as the Gra, was the foremost scholar-sage of
Lithuanian Jewry in the eighteenth-century, and has become the spiritual forefather for much of the
non-Chassidic yeshiva world. Known for his greatness in Talmudic and Kabbalistic study, he
likewise mastered astronomy, mathematics and music. His system of Talmudic study focused on
trying to find the true meaning intended by the sages in the text.
Rabbi Avraham Danzig was the author of the Chayei Adam and the Chochmas Adam. Chayei Adam
deals with the laws of daily conduct, prayer, Sabbath, and holidays, the laws discussed in the Orech
Chaim section of the Shulchan Aruch. Together with the Chayei Adam he published Nishmas
Adam, in which he discusses the halachic issues in greater depth. Chochmas Adam discusses the
laws of kashrus and other issues discussed in the Yoreh Deah section of the Shulchan Aruch.
Together with Chochmas Adam he published Binas Adam, which parallels the Nishmas Adam
published with the Chayei Adam.
Rav Yisrael Meir HaCohen was known most commonly as the Chafetz Chaim. Born in Vilna, his
prolific output includes the twin works Chafetz Chaim and Shemirat HaLashon, which focused on
lashon ha-ra (slanderous or false speech), Avahas Chesed (laws between man and man), Lekutei
Halachos (on Kodshim). His halachic works were the triad of Mishne Berura, Bi'ur Halacha, and
Sha'ar HaTzion, with the first being the main commentary, the second one elaborating on various
points, and the third providing references to other commentaries.
The “Chazon Ish” devoted his life to the study of Torah, although he also learned sciences such as
astronomy, anatomy, and mathematics, since he felt that a knowledge of these subjects were
necessary for a full understanding of Jewish law and practice.
Rav Moshe Feinstein - In the towering apartment complexes on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in
the second half of the twentieth century, lived hundreds, perhaps thousands, of Jews. Among them
was a distinguished and elderly gentleman, diminutive in physical stature, but a giant in intellect.
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein ZT”L became the leading halachic authority of his generation, and his
p’sakim (halachic rulings) were accepted worldwide.

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CHAIN OF TRANSMISSION
HALACHA – GUIDANCE OF LIFE

1650 TO LATER CODIFIERS 5410


Rabbi Scneur Zalman “The Alter Rebbe” (1745-1812)
Rabbi Avraham Danzig (1748-1820)
Rabbi Elijah ben Solomon Zalman “Vilna Gaon” (1720-1797)
Rav Yehuda ben Shimon Ashkenazi “Be’er HeiTiv” (1730-1770)
Rabbi Akiva Eiger “Chidishi Raka” (1761-1837)
Rav Ephraim Zalman “Yad Ephraim” (1762-1628)
Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried “Kitzur Shulchan Aruch” (1804-1886)
Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein “Aruch haShulchan” (1829-1888)
Rabbi Yisroel Meir Kagan “Chofetz Chaim” (1838-1933)
Rabbi Yaacov Chaim HaSofer “Kaf Hachaim” (1870-1939)
Rabbi Avrohom Kareliz “Chazon Ish” (1878-1953)
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein (1895-1986)
Rav Ovadiah Yoseif (1920- )
Rabbi Yosef Sholom Elyashiv (1910- )

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Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, 20th century Posek Rabbi Shlomo Ganzfried author of the
Kitzer Shulchan Aruch

Rav Avrohom Yeshayahu Karelitz, The Chazon Ish Rav Yisroel Meir Hakohen Kagan, The
Chofetz Chaim, author of Mishna Berura

Rav Meir Simcha HaKohen from Dvinsk, Rav Yechiel Michel Epstein, The Aruch Hashulachan
The Ohr Sameach

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