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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Basic Restaurant Training Manual

To be perfect is normal at Hotel Food and Beverage Department

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

F&B TRAINING
1. How does a good waiter / waitress look?

How does a good waiter look? What are the working tools of a waiter?
well groomed hair neatly styled (in the locker room, never in the restaurant) no long hair (the neck has to be visible) well shaved, no moustaches or beard clean white shirt, pressed neatly not transparent black tie or as stipulated by the Restaurant no rings or bracelet use mild smelling deodorant after bathing always use clean service cloth wash your hands often always wear clean keep your fingers nails short and clean pressed trousers or uniform The chewing of gum and standing around with hands in the pockets are two absolutely forbidden practices. wear dark socks, clean black shoes wear comfortable shoes for the good health of your feet theses should be with you all the time: - order pad - pen - wine-opener -

Always be friendly and smile The guest will be very grateful

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

DEPORTMENT AND POSTURE


By now you should have the appearance of a Professional Service person. Now you are ready to go about your work. This is referred to as your style or deportment.

The Running Waiter:


Running waiters give the guests the impression that cannot cope with their work and that they are not in control. Dont be a running waiter. A sense of urgency: yes. An impression of panic: no.

The Slouching Waiter:


When things are slow in your dining area you must never lean or slouch. This body language tells your guests you are not really interested in them. There is an old Food Service saying when work is lean its time to clean. There are always things to be cleaned in a service area.

The Confident Waiter:


This is you. You know what you are doing; you have a job to do and you know how to do it. Your movement is purposeful: if you go to the kitchen you are going for a reason. Not just appear busy

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

POSTURE AND BODY LANGUAGE


A good posture is critical to building guest confidence, always be conscious of how you look to the guest. If you are unsure of your posture, look in the mirror or ask your workmates, walk tells guest a lot about you. Walking in the restaurant is important. It is done at a brisk pace giving guests the impression of confidence and purpose.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual This ability to understand, control and send messages through body language is a must. The message you want to send is one of confident, efficiency, knowledge, caring and generally wishing to help. To send the right message, it is important to move quickly and with purpose, look at the face of the guests who is speaking to you, smile and never slouch, lean or move slowly. Your table might be OK at the moment but is everyone s else. Guests in other parts of the restaurants will be very upset seeing you moving around slowly when they are waiting for another waiter to serve them. Remember, body language can be one of the strongest ways of gaining guest confidence, so be aware of how to use it in a positive way and then do it.

Language
When addressing guests in the restaurant, always be aware of how you are sounding to them. As well as, remember good manners, if you need to attract your guests attention or interrupt always say excuse me please. Remember, the way you sound to your guests is part of the way the guest will react to you, if your guest reacts positively to you, the more you will enjoy giving good service, and the more rewarding your profession will be. Please speak clearly and if necessary repeat what you have said. In Thai culture speaking softly is very polite and is what we want you to do. However when dealing with a foreigner please do not forget and speak up. This means not shouting but speaking noticeably louder as you would to a Thai guest. Do not be afraid a louder voice will not disturb the foreign guest but actually enhance his/her dining experience. If you do not understand the guest do not be shy and ask Excuse me could you please repeat that? The second time around you better be prepared and listen and understand. If you really have difficulty understanding the guest, inform your Head Waiter or MaitreD.

Team work
work together communicate well help each other be friendly be ready for service

Team work is necessary to give the guest a comfortable and enjoyable visit to your restaurant. Also it helps to make your work easier and more fun.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Never!!!
be unfriendly to your guests and co-workers talk too much with your co-workers at the bar-counter or restaurant area talk too long with well know customers, forgetting your other work dont get involved in discussion with your guests speak badly about guests or other staff chew in the restaurant or eat or drink anything in the public area drink at the bar counter run in the restaurant dont shout or call loudly in the restaurant dont say to a guest: This is not my station refuse to accept an order from a guest who is sitting at another station point with your finger clean your nose in the public area scratch your hair or other areas

Attributes of the Service Staff


To make the guest satisfied the restaurant staff must have some attributes which are absolutely fundamental to good service. The first attribute is cleanliness ! The second attribute is conscientiousness ! That means to be conscientious in your work and to always know what has to be done without having to get a special order from your superior. The third attribute is a methodical mind ! In situations where you will meet problems, you need this attribute. Its a kind of fast thinking to help you to solve a problem quickly to the satisfaction of your guest. Your personal bearing is very important and the staff should show always a certain dignity without being haughty. Despite the burden of work, despite heavy exertions sometimes, it s desirable that the facial expression always shows friendliness.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual A strict discipline of course is indispensable. For this it needs inner and outer at tributes. The inner attribute : a good memory conscientiousness always in the same good mood Service mind and genuine pleasure in serving others personal bearing well-groomed appearance technical skill Approachable and friendly facial expression and body language

The outer attribute :

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual PERSONAL RULES

The most important rules of restaurant service: Pay attention to these service rules
Every profession has its rules, restaurant service more than others. There are personal rules, rules for carrying plates in the right way, other rules for working in front of the guests. However, these rules are logical and make your work easier. O.K., lets start with the first, our personal rules:

The personal rules : Chewing chewing-gum and smoking during working hours are not allowed.

(Explanation unnecessary!!!) Noises are the sign that the service staff member has forgotten one of his main duties: to allow the guests a relaxed and pleasant dining experience. So its important, that we carry china and silver ware smoothly and quietly.

Prevent collisions with your co-workers, simple, if you follow these rules.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Remains standing quietly Walk in the right-lane system Never walk backward Never turn abruptly Do not walk or stand directly behind a co-worker

Walk forward, only forward You will discover very soon that the service flow goes more easily if you walk always forward. Another advantage is : you will show your customers a picture of quiet and elegant movement. Idling is a waste of energy and a sign of lack of concentration. Always think first to see if you can do two things at one time.

The rules for carrying plates, glasses, cutlery and other items
The left and the right hand have two different functions: The left hand is the hand of carrying. The right hand is for serving. Cutlery, glasses, cups and other small items are to be carried always on a tray-not just in your hand. To prevent noise and to prevent sliding always use a tray cloth.

Platters will be always carried in both hands to the guest table. The service cloth will be
laid over the cloth to make sure that you can touch the platter on the two points.

Legumiers, bowls and saucier will be put on an under liner with a doily.
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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual TABLE CLOTH SET-UP Molton : The molton is exactly the same size as the table. Table cloth : Its the visible, most important part of the table laundry items, and should always be set up with care. Napperon : Mostly the napperon will be placed diagonally to the table cloth. Its important that the four edges of the napperon hang down on each side equally. First put the folded table cloth on the table, with the middle edge above and the two open edges below. Hold the table cloth with the middle edge between your thumb and forefinger and the middle finger.Now lift the table cloth and swing the open part over the opposite table edge. to free the spread it Then open the thumb and forefinger middle edge, release the cloth and evenly across the table. The table cloth must hang down on each Side equally. When covering a round table ensure edges of the cloth hang evenly and fold of the cloth is aligned with a room.To make a proper set-u you thats why you have to practice a lot. But later you will find it easy after practiced it.

that the four that the middle corner of the need experience,

you have

So, try, try and once more try!!!

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

LAYING A BANQUET CLOTH

table

A Work in pairs, as a team Open out cloth up center of

acceptable standard. laundered, down the cente

Lay cloth over table B Check that the cloth is of an C Check that the drop is even. D If the cloth has been accurately the middle crease should run of the table.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

5.NAPKIN FOLDING Fold #1 Bishops Mitre 1. Fold napkin bringing top to bottom. 2. Fold corners to center line. 3. Turn napkin over and rotate turn. 4. Fold bottom edge up to top edge and flip point out from under top fold. 5. Turn left end into pleat at left forming a point on left side. 6. Turn napkin over and turn right end into pleat forming a point on right side. 7. Open base and stand upright.

Fold #2 Rosebud 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fold napkin in half diagonally. Fold corners to meet at top point. Turn napkin over and fold bottom 2/3 way up. Turn napkin around and bring corners together; tucking one into the other. Turn napkin around and stand on base.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Fold #3 Pyramid 1. 2. 3. 4. Fold napkin in half diagonally. Fold corners to meet top point. Turn napkin over and fold in half. Pick up at center and stand on base of triangle.

Fold #4 The Crown 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fold napkin half diagonally. Fold corners to meet at top point. Fold bottom point 2/3 way to top and fold back onto itself. Turn napkin over bringing corners together, tucking one into the other. Peel two top corners to make crown. Open base of fold and stand upright.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Fold #5 The Rose 1. 2. 3. 4. petals. Fold all 4 corners of open napkin to center. Fold new corners to center. Turn napkin over and fold all 4 corners to center. Holding center firmly, reach under each corner and pull up flaps to form Reach between petals and pull flaps from underneath.

Lady Windermeres Fan 1. 2. 3. 4. Fold napkin in half. Make accordion pleats, starting at bottom. Fold in half with pleating on the outside. Fold upper right corner diagonally down to folded base of pleats and turn under edge. 5. Place on table and release pleats to form fan.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

The Clowns Hat 1. Fold napkin in half bringing bottom to top. 2. Holding center of bottom with finger, take lower right corner and loosely roll around center, matching corners, until cone is formed. 3. Turn napkin upside down, then turn hem all around. 4. Turn and stand on base.

Arum Lily 1. Fold napkin bringing bottom up to top. 2. Fold corners to top. 3. Fold bottom point up to 1below top. 4. Fold point back onto itself. 5. Fold down each of points at top and tuck under edge of folded up bottom. Fold down one layer of top point and tuck under base fold. 6. Turn napkin over and tuck left and right sides into each other. 7. Open base and stand. r

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Cardinals Hat 1. Fold napkin in half diagonally. 2. Fold corners to meet at top point. 3. Turn napkin over with points to the top, fold lower corner 2/3 way up. 4. Fold back onto itself. 5. Bring corners together tucking one into the other. 6. Open base of fold and stand upright.

Bird of Paradise 1. Fold napkin in half, and then half again horizontally. 2. Then fold in half diagonally with points on the top and facing up. 3. Fold left and right sides down along center line, turning their extended points under. 4. Fold points of bottom corners underneath and fold in half on long end. 5. Pull up points and arrange fabric on a surface.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 6.RULES FOR CARRYING AND CLEARING OF PLATES A stack of plates A stack of plates will be carried always with both hands. For this, place the service cloth around the plates. The plates may not be touched by our hands or our body. One plate One plate will be held between thumb and forefinger and the other fingers. But take care that you only touch the rim of the plate with your thumb. Two plates (1st method) The first plate will be held as above. The second plate will be pushed under the first plate to the fore finger. The other fingers will support the second plate. Two plates (2nd method) The first plate will be held again as above on picture 2. Afterwards, slightly turn your hand inwards. Now take the second plate so that it will be supported by the ball of the hand, the forearm and the little finger.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Clearing of the plates plates (2 method) handle of the fork around) 90? Under the fork. same procedure
nd

The basic position is the same as Two Pick-up the first plate and touch the (to prevent other cutlery from slipping and then put the knife at an angle of Pick up the second plate and follow the as above and on and on.

Notes When clearing plates from in front of customers the following points are well worth remembering. A Wait until the head waiter gives the signal to clear. B Start clearing at the correct customer so that you move forward all the time. C Clear from the right hand side of each customer and remember to step back. keeping plates well clear of customers. D Remove debris quickly and quietly, taking care to put knives under fork bridges at right angles to forks. E Do not try to carry more plates than you can safely manage. F Practice clearing soup plates on under liners at home if possible, to get used to the sequence of stacking the soup plates and liners. Transfer plate from right to left hand and position cutlery. Place 2nd plate on Left Hand Bridge. Remove debris to plate to 1, positioning cutlery. Clear of customer. Repeat 1, 2, and 3 actions stacking cleared plates on left hand bridge.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 7. TABLE SET-UP

1 2 3 4

=Napkin = Appetizer knife = Appetizer Fork = Soup Spoon

5 = Main Course Knife 6 = Main Course Fork 7 = Bread Plate 8 = Bread Knife 9 = Dessert Spoon

10 = Dessert For 11 = Salt and Pepper 12 = Water Glass 13 = Red Wine Glass 14 = White Wine Glass

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Basic a la carte place setting An a la carte place setting or cover is set on the table before the customer arrives. As the customers choose the dishes they would like from the a la carte menu, the place setting will be changed or expanded according to the dishes ordered by each guest. Before starting the setting, check if the table cloth setting has been performed correctly and that the chairs are in their correct position. How to prepare the set up The napkin is to be placed approximately cm from the edge of the table. It should be in the center of the basic a la carte place setting. The main course knife place on the right hand side of the napkin with the knife edge facing to the center. The main course fork place on the left hand side of the napkin. The space between the knife and the fork should be sufficient for a main course plate to be placed between them. The glass normally a red wine glass is placed approximately 1 cm above the knife. If the setting includes a second glass such as a white wine glass it is to be placed on the right of the first glass. The cruet sets salt and pepper must be on every table. Other condiments will be with the waiters mise en place on his/her service table. Place one ashtray on table in a smoking section of the restaurant. Have enough clean ashtrays on the serving table for the replacement of dirty ones. The bread plate with bread knife will be placed on the left side of the fork, with the knifes edge on the left side.

A carefully made set-up is the important thing which makes the whole service flow easily.
Never set more than four sets of cutlery and three glasses

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual The range of cutlery used is according to the number of courses and the sequence of cutlery is according to the sequence of courses. But never set more then four sets of cutlery and three glasses. If more cutlery and glasses are necessary they will be set up between the courses. A second knife, for example a fish knife, will be placed on the right side of the first knife. A second fork will be placed on the left side of the first fork and a little higher. Spoons will always be placed on the right side. For soup in a cup use a small soup spoon, soup served in a soup plate requires a large soup spoon. To suit the sequence of courses, the spoon may also be in second position if there is a cold appetizer served before the soup. The dessert cutlery is only set up if there is a dessert ordered in advance. The dessert spoon and fork are set up above the napkins. The fork should be above the spoon until the handle on the left and the spoon with its handle to the right. Before serving dessert the waiter will move these to the ready position on the left and right of the plate. For ice creams, mousses or parfaits the set up is a coffee spoon. For fresh fruits use a dessert knife and dessert fork. They are placed above the plate with the knifes handle on the right with its edge towards the guest. The forks handle goes on the left below the knife. Before serving dessert, place a finger bowl of cold water (no lemon) on the table. For cheese use the same set up without the finger bowl. Several glasses will be set-up as follows; if there are three glasses, the red wine glass will be above the knife, the water glass obliquely be used for various appetizers above on the left side and the white wine glass obliquely, below on the right side.

Cutlery to

The guest may order an appetizer to be served before the main course. The basic a la carte setting is then expanded by the addition of the correct appetizer cutlery. If no main course is required then the a la carte setting is removed and replaced by the correct appetizer setting. The following shows the correct setting for each appetizer. Special course Smoked Salmon,eel,goose liver, raw ham, dried meat Lobster, shrimp or crab cocktail Oysters Cutlery Appetizer knife Appetizer fork Appetizer fork coffee spoon Oyster fork Other Toast and butter

Toast and butter Finger bowl 20

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Asparagus Artichokes Main course fork and eventually a main course knife Dessert spoon Snail fork Snail tong Coffee spoon Snail fork Served on an under liner (dessert plate) with doilies. Finger bowl, small plate for mussel shells (additionally a dessert spoon for pasta if the guest requires one) Finger bowl, and eventually a small plate for leftovers

Snails in the shell

Snails without shell

Mussels

Fish fork Fish knife Soup spoon Main course Knife Main course fork

Omelet Scrambled egg Pasta Farinaceous dishes

If there is special cutlery for the main course, the basic a la carte setting will be removed. Special course Cutlery Other

Special cutlery for special main courses

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Fish Fish fork Fish knife When serving whole fish, set a small plate for fish bones Toast and butter Finger bowl Small plate for shells

Lobster or Crayfish

Lobster fork Lobster Cracker Appetizer Fork Appetizer Knife Fondue fork for meat fondue Main course fork Main course Knife

Meat fondue

Cheese fondue

Fondue fork for cheese fondue

Bread cut in cubes

8. SAUCES, CONDIMENTS AND ACCOMPANIMENTS Salt and Pepper (1) Check and fill everyday. Check that the holes are not obstructed. Sugar Bowl (2) Clean and fill every day. Check that the sugar doesnt stick to the bowl or has become lumpy. Mustard Bowl (3) Clean every day. Take the mustard out of the pot, clean the pot properly, refill with mustard. This is done to prevent a black edge on the pot.Two drops of oil can be added on the top to prevent oxidation if not used. Liquid Condiments (4) Worcester, ketchup, Tabasco and Soya sauces have to be filled up before service, and the stopper and the neck of the bottle cleaned.

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Vinegar and Oil Bottles (5) Must be kept full all the time. Clean the outside of the bottles. If the contents are not clear any more, empty the bottle, wash it out, just with water, no soap and refill it. Parmesan Cheese (6) The cheese must look loose and appetizing and must be filled up all the time. The same procedure has to be done with jam-and honey pots. Tooth Pick Box Has to be filled up all the time with best quality hygienically packed tooth picks.

Bread Baskets Check for cleanliness.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Accompaniments as part of the set-up Every basic table set-up needs salt and pepper, which will be removed before serving desserts. Just as we have to extend the basic table set-up, sometimes we have to extend the condiments. Have are some examples:

Course
Half grapefruit, melon, berries, fruit cakes, fresh fruit juices. Air-dried beef, raw ham, smoked meat, salmon, pizza, cheese cake, cheese fondue, onion cake, green and mixed salads. Tomato juice Oysters Risotto, minestrone, pasta, farinaceous dishes. Grilled beef, when it is not served with herb butter. Hamburgers Sausages Curry dishes Cheese Sugar

Accompaniments

Pepper mill

Tabasco, Worcestershire sauce, Pepper mill,Celery salt Tabasco, pepper mill, Worcestershire sauce, shallots vinegar (or a half lemon) Parmesan cheese

Mustard,Worcestershire sauce

Ketchup Mustard Mango chutney, sambal, Soya sauce Mustard, Cumin

A well prepared table, spotless clean china ware and silver ware, good preparation of salt, pepper and other condiments make a good impression our customers and enables us to concentrate us on our main duty which is fulfilling the wishes of our guests.
Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 24

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 9. CUSTOMER SERVICE Complain are not good or bad, right or wrong. They are opportunities to serve customers in different ways. Our relationship with customers is everything. In effect, building the relationship is the sale. When the relationship goes away, so does the customer. Only 4% of dissatisfied customers will tell you they are unhappy. The other 96% vote with their feet, and 91% never come back. Even worse, dissatisfied customers typically tell eight to ten of their friends and / or business associates your service is bad. Serve your customers better by encouraging them to give their feedback. Look on complaints as constructive comments that help you to correct a problem. Instead of asking a customer Is everything OK? you should ask, Did you enjoy your experience with us today

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual You and your Guest/Customers Who is your Customer? Working within the Hospitality Industry you will come into contact with a wide variety of guests/customers In an ideal situation they will all receive the same standard of service and attention. What you should know about your customer: The customer is the most important person in any business. The customer is not dependent on us for their food and drinks : we are dependent on them. The customer does us a favor when they walk into our service area: we are not doing them a favor by serving them. The customer is not just another cover to be served: she/he is another person with the same emotions as you or I. The customer is a person who brings us their wants. It is our job to fulfill those wants. The customer is always deserving of the best possible service we can offer. A customer is not someone to argue or match wits with. A customer ultimately is the one who pays yours and my wage.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

THE CUSTOMER IS ALWAYS RIGHT.

1. When ashtrays have more than 2 butts in them. 2. When water glasses are not automatically refilled. 3. When hot food and beverage is served on cold plates or in cold cups. 4. When hot food is not hot and when cold food is room temperature. 5. When plates or glasses are chipped. 6. When cutlery on tables are spotted or tarnished. 7. When glasses are streaked. (Hold them up to the light and check) 8. When menus are ripped, stained or smudged. 9. When there are not enough menus for the customers. 10. When a guest waits for more than two minutes without having a drink order taken. 11. When cutlery and glassware are crooked on tables. 12. When the table top is not picture perfect. 13. When cruet sets are greasy to touch, half empty 14. When you dont have an item on the menu. 15. When the waiting staff have the Im doing you a favor attitude. 16. When bits of paper, and food are not immediately picked up from carpets or floors in restaurants and bars. 17. When restaurants and bars open late or close early. 18. When a guest gets sold on a menu item and gets something else. 19. When guests dont get greeted and seated as soon as they arrive. 20. When a guest sees service staff talking or standing idle whilst they require service. the

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual TEN RULES FOR GOOD SERVICE-OR NO TIP When I get bad service in a restaurant, I dont leave a tip, and I dont feel guilty about it. Theres no reason to tip a server (the modern word for a waiter or waitress that solves the gender problem) just because he or she has managed to get the food to the table. As diners we have the right to expect and receive good service. Unfortunately, most servers dont know what good service is. So lets see if we can help them. Here are the 10 Commandments of Good Service. 1. Always be prompt. There is no better way to lose a tip than to leave me sitting at the table for 10 minutes waiting for my drink, or to make wait 15 minutes to get my check when Im ready to leave. 2. Be pleasant. Never be surly or arrogant. 3. Be neat and clean. Dirty or unpressed uniforms are a sure sign of an uncaring, unprofessional server. Even worse are servers who need a bath or ones with hands that look like those of an auto mechanic. 4. Fill requests immediately. There is no such thing as a delayable request from a diner. A request for some mayonnaise to go with a hamburger cannot wait for minutes while another table is served. By that time the burger is cold and everyone else at the table is halfway through their meal. 5. Be attentive. Servers should frequently be within sight of their tables so that guests can catch their eye if they need anything. Having to shout, Waiter half way across a dining room should never be necessary. 6. Be knowledgeable about the menu specials and wine list. Be able to explain items accurately and to make recommendation can easily increase the tip. 7. Deliver the food to the person who ordered it and be vigilant enough to pace the meal so that the entre doesnt arrive before the soup is eaten. 8. Be attentive to condiment bread and water, as well as flatware. To me, running out of water isnt nearly as bad as not having ketchup when the French fries arrive. Worse yet is not having a spoon to stir the coffee, which was ordered with cream and sugar Know how to open and serve a bottle of wine properly. I promise never to stare at the serve while he or she opens the bottle, an unwitting behavior that can unnerve even the best of servers. 10. Be able to handle unusual major disasters. Servers should not look disgusted when a table of eight requests separate checks, even if they forget to tell the server until the end of the meal. And the server shouldnt panic when he or she walks to the table and sees that most of a 4-year-olds lunch has landed on the floor. Everything doesnt have to be perfect for me to feel that the service was good, but the meal does have to flow smoothly as a result of the servers attention and guidance. If the service is just OK. I usually leave a 10-per-cent tip. If the service is good. I Leave 15 percent. But if the server has gone out of his or her way or I think the service was excellent, I leave 20 percent. On the other hand, when the service is bad. I dont tip and I dont complain to restaurant hostesses maitred or managers. I express my Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 28 9.

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual dissatisfaction directly, by not leaving the tip. Next time, if I return to that restaurant, I will just ask for a different server. That is, if I return to that restaurant. Restaurateurs argue that they cant be everywhere all the time and they need to be told when service is bad. I do not feel that is my responsibilities, but I never object if someone else at the table wants to complain.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 10. CHINAWARE, GLASSWARE AND SILVERWARE Soup Plate 20-23 cm For soups, mussels, snails, hot-pots and Italian pasta specialties Main Course Plate 20-23 cm For main course, different appetizers and flamb desserts such crepes etc. As underline with paper napkin, for gratinated dishes such as cannelloni and for dishes which are served in a soup plate such as hot-pots, pasta specialties, etc. Dessert-or Salad Plate 18-20 cm For breakfast, salad , desserts, and different appetizers. As underliner with paper napkin for fruits and seafood cocktails, legumiers, saucieres, ice-cream cups and ice pots. Bread Plate 15 cm For bread and as an underliner for jam portions, butter and sugar bowls, condiments, saucieres, finger bowls and to present ordered cigarette packages with matches. Soup Cup For consomms. Coffee Cup For coffee, tea and hot milk drinks. Espresso Cup For espresso and ristretto.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Glassware Water Glass For ice water and soft drinks

Red Wine Glass

For light red wines

White Wine Glass

For white wines

Gobelet (Tumbler)

For Swiss wines from the French part of Switzerland (Vaudoise)

Bordeaux Glass

For Bordeaux wines

Burgundy Glass

For old burgundy wines and old Italian wines

Champagne Glass or For champagne and Flute champagne cocktails

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Sparkling Wine Glass For sparkling wines

Asti Glass

For asti spumente (Italian sparkling wine) For Rhine and Mosel wines (German and Alsace wines)

Rhine Wine Glass

Cognac Glass

Typical glass to seve cognac

Large Digestif Glass

Small Digestif Glass Digestif Glass

Cocktail Glass

For cognac and brandy, which have been stored in wood casks. For calvados, marc, vielle prune and different liqours For all clear digestifs, such as kirsch, marc brandy. Rye whisky, etc. For cocktails (Short drinks)

Port Wine Glass

For port and sherry

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Aperitif Glass For long drinks and aperitifs, such as campari orange, etc.

Tumbler Glass

For whisky

Trish Coffee Glass

For Irish coffee and other coffee specialities.

Tea Glass

For tea and grog

Ice Cream cup

For desserts and ice cream specialities.

Carafe

To serve house wines and ice-water for pernod, pastis or ricard.

Decanter

To decant very old wines which have a sediment

Beer Tumbler

For draught beer and bottled beer 33

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Beer Glass For draught beer

Pilsener Beer Glass Beer Tulip Glass

For Pilsener beer For draught and bottled beer

Beer Mug

For draught and bottled beer

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Silverware and special equipment


Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Main Course Fork

For main course, vegetable dishes, spaghetti

Appetizer or Dessert Fork

For appetizers, desserts, cheese, fruits, smoked salmon

Fish Fork

For fish dishes

For cakes and pies Cake Fork

Large Spoon

For soups which will be served on plates. Spaghetti to serve sauces

Small Spoon

For soups, Which will Be served in cups, snail dessert , half melon

Gourmet Spoon

For fish dishes, which will be served in a sauce

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Coffee Spoon

For coffee, tea, ovaltine, fruitand seafood cocktails, hal grapefruit, ice-cream

Espresso spoon

For espresso and ristretto

Sundae Spoon

For ice-cream in tall glass

Snail Tongs

To hold the snail shell

Snail Fork

To take out the nail from its shell

Lobster Cracker

To break the claw to extract the flesh

Lobster Fork

To extract the flesh from the shell, claws, legs etc.

Main Course Knife

For main course

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Appetizer Knife For breakfast, appetizer, fruits, cheese, smoked salmon, bread and toast, caviar For fish dishes

Fish Knife

Oyster Fork

To take the oyster out of the shell

Fondue Fork

For cheese fondue

Fondue Fork

For meat fondue, also fondue chinoise or fondue bourguignonne

Cake Tongs

For serving petits fours

Cake Server

For the service of pieces of cake

The service table

Intermediate station between the kitchen and the table.


The service table assists in creating a smooth service flow because It shortens the distance between the material and the guest. The combination of materials available will be adapted to the daily menu. In bigger restaurants, each service station has its own service table, thus avoiding confusion between different sections. The service table contains: Reserve 37

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Table cloths Napperons Napkins Service clothes Chinaware Plates for cold dishes (big, small and bread plates) Plates for hot dishes and cups which are kept in warmers Glassware Water glasses Red wine glasses White wine glasses Silverware Serving spoons and serving forks which should be available at all times Condiments etc Salt Pepper, pepper mill Sugar, sweeteners Mustard Oil and vinegar Parmesan cheese Tooth picks Liquid condiments Menus Drink and wine lists Ashtrays There must always be enough ashtrays to exchange for dirty ones. Service trays A selection of different sizes service trays. Others Water pitchers Finger bowls Matches Order books Wet cloth to clean tables

A good mise en place saves time and stress

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 11. SERVICE STYLES Food service can be classified into different levels ascending from the basic to the classic or top level, according to the service style or method used. Gastronomique restaurants offer their guests the highest level of service. Most restaurant use a combination of service styles to serve their guests. The service styles can be classified into two major groups:

Self service and Table service.


1. Self Service Styles:

Cafeteria Service and Counter Service


The basic service level is self-service. Self service became popular in the Western world because of a shortage of labour during the Second World War. It is now the most widely used method because it is used by most institutional and industrial foodservice operations where large number of people need to be served in a short time. It is also a popular service style used in commercial food service operations due to the rising labour costs. All fast food outlets and commercial cafeterias are self service outlets: cafeteria service and counter service . Special services of most fast food outlets are take away and drive through. They now also offer home delivery as an added service. A special type of counter service is where the customer sits on a high stool at the serving counter and is handed the plate of food by the food server who may also have cooked it. This form of service is used in snackbars and supermarkets; it may also be used in clubs and hotels. This type of counter service is a special feature of many Japanese restaurants. Here the guest can choose to sit at a table or to eat at the counter.

Buffet Service
A more refined or elaborate form of self service used in the hotel is buffet service. Buffet service is mainly used in the following outlets of the hotel: coffee shop and banquet department.

2. Table Service Styles

Family Service or English Service


The most basic level of table service is called family service or English service. It originated in the home and is used mainly in family restaurants or coffee shops. All the food is put in dishes and bowls in the kitchen by the food production staff and placed in the center of the dining table by the service staff. The guests serve themselves from dishes and bowls of food placed in the center of the table by the service staff. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 39

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Plate Service or American Service


The second level of table service is called plate service or American service. American service is characterized by portioning all the food on the dinner plate in the kitchen. Plate service became popular in the USA more then sixty years ago. This was because it is less formal than other forms of table service. American or plate service is now the most widely used table service style because it is fastest of all table services and it keeps the labour costs down. Because of this it is used in most inexpensive and average priced restaurants, such as family restaurants, pub restaurants and coffee shops. Plate service became so popular that is now sometimes used in gastronomique restaurants for certain dishes. Here the food is put on the dinner plate by the chefs in a decorative and artistic fashion so as to look like a still-life painting; it is then covered by a silver cloche and serviced at the table by the service staff.

Silver Service or Russian Service


Russian service is characterized by food being cooked and proportioned in the kitchen, and presented to the guests on silver platters by the service staff. The food is served from the platter onto the guests plate, which is already placed in front of the guest. This service style originated in Russia and was used in the households of the rich aristocrats. To make the food look attractive as possible, it was served from silver platters which were the best serving pieces. Russian service, also sometimes called platter service is well suited for banquet service, because the food stays hotter longer when served from silver platters.

Gueridon Service or French Service


The highest level is gueridon service or French service. This is the style traditionally used in gastronomique restaurants, the words gueridon means a side table or mobile table such as a trolley which is brought close to the guests dinner table. Any carving, or finishing of the food is done in front of the guest. Only skilled or well-trained are allowed to do this form of service as a good knowledge of food preparation is required in addition to the service style.

Butler Service
This is a very personal type of room service provided by highly trained waiters. It is only offered in more exclusive hotels and resorts. A butler is on standby and assigned to only a specific number of room. Besides the service of food & beverages, they will assist the guest with small tasks, such as packing and unpacking their suitcase or pressing clothes.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 12. THE IMPORTANCE OF SERVICE Guest service is the most important part of the food service industry. Many businesses use computers as part of their guest services (for ex. ATM banking service) but in the food service industry the human element is essential and cannot be replaced by machines except for food and drink vending machines. In the food service industry guests want to be treated in the proper manner. They want to be served by people who are interested in them and give good service. The higher the standards of the outlet the more the guests will expect or demand from the style of service and the service staff.

What is Service?
In the food service industry service is defined by two words: 1. Competency and 2. Friendliness 1. Competency Competency, can be defined as serving food and drinks in the correct manner to the guest. AS competent service person has the ability, knowledge and skills to serve guests efficiently and pays attention to details. Examples: -the service person knows who gets each order without asking the guests. -the service person removes one course before serving the next.

Competent service happens in a restaurant when guests never have to ask for anything. Many times guests do not realize they have received competent service until they left the outlet. The service person does everything correctly without the guests realize it. When guest reach for the coffee cup, the handle is right there where the fingers and thumbs naturally go. The water and wine glasses are always filled. It is never necessary to ask for condiments, butter or more bread. During breakfast, the second cup of tea or coffee is poured before the guests requests it. The correctly added bill is promptly presented to the guests when requested.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Service standards
Each food service operation should have written policies (guidelines) and procedure that say how things are to be done so that they meet the standards set by the management. A standard is a statement of a specific, observable expectation about a performance. Standards are either expressed in measurable terms ( for example, all guest bills are priced and totaled correctly) or in yes-no terms (the lobby is free from litter). A procedure states how to perform a specific task. For example: Serve fruit pie, 1/8 cut, on a dessert plate. Place in front of the guest with the point of the pie facing the guest. Place a dessert fork on the left and a dessert spoon on the right side of the plate. A standard related to this procedure might be worded: Fruit pies are served according to the stated procedure. Procedures, like recipes, should be written with action verbs: Serve the plate, use tongs to serve the roll, suggest to the guest, place the fork. In any outlet, the standards of service should include the following: The steps of service Procedures for taking orders, delivering food and drinks, clearing tables, preparing and presenting the bill and collection of payment. The proper table setting For each serving period and outlet. Selling procedures Use of suggestive selling The details of service How each item is to be served (including the accompanying table ware, sauces and/or condiments) Staff behavior and appearance Interaction with guests and a dress code

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 2. Friendliness In addition to being competent, service staff must also be friendly. Friendliness is as important as competency. Service staff should be able to make the guests feel welcome in the restaurant. However, service staff must not be: overfriendly or too familiar with guests be obtrusive (noticeable in an unpleasant way)

What is excellent service?


To provide excellent service to their guests, serving staff should combine competency with friendliness in order to satisfy their guests and make them happy.

Friendly & Competency = Excellent Service


How can we give excellent service? personal attention showing interest (inquire how they feel) Addressing the guests names Remembering their favourite dishes, drinks, tables, etc. Remember their birthday By doing something special for special occasions (play special music, offer flowers or fruit, for birthdays, anniversaries, weddings, etc.) Observe all situations, solve problems before they happen Thank the guests for patronizing the outlet Go beyond guests expectations Anticipate the guests needs Keep an eye contact It is the little extra attention the management and service staff gives to their guests that make the difference.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Reasons to provide good service


Guests enjoy talking about their experiences at a restaurant. They like to talk to their friends about good service, and they love to tell their friends about poor service. Ninety-six percent of unhappy guests never complained about impolite or unfriendly service. Ninety percent or more of those dissatisfied with the service will not come back. Each of those dissatisfied guests will tell their stories to at least nine other people. Thirteen percent of those former guests will tell more than 20 other people. This is called word of mouth. Word of mouth has more effect on business at a food service outlet than any other factor. This is because people like to ask other people where to find a good place for eating. They trust recommendations from a friend rather than trusing advertising. Recommendations are the best type of promotion for a business and negative reports are the worst. As dissatisfied guests tell their friends about their negative experience it will affect the restaurants business considerably.

100 guests served poorly 96 never complain about poor service 10 may return 90 never return

Each tell 9 friends about poor service 990=810 13 people tell the story to 20 of their friends 1320=260 90 dissatisfied guests create 1070 negative word-of-mouth publicity
Guests that patronize restaurants love to tell their friends about service they received from the outlet. Therefore, it is necessary that restaurant managers provide excellent service and make word of mouth work positively for them in order to make their business successful.

Who is responsible for great service?

The success of the restaurant depends on the manager and the team!!!
Although the guest will blame or praise service staff for good or poor service, it is the manager who is responsible for the service and they should take the blame or praise.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual That is why the Manager will take extra care and train the team and continue to train the team to build competency. Strict application of rules is a must for the Manager as otherwise success might not be obtainable. The key to excellent service: Training of staff and follow up Regular training and follow-up will result in competent and excellent service. All staff should be given a manual with the policies and procedures for the service. Good supervision during service hours Mangers should constantly observe and correct their staff.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual GUEST WANTS AND NEEDS The main goal of food and beverage operations is to achieve guest satisfaction, in other words to meet guest wants and needs. In order to satisfy guests needs restaurant managers should know and understand the various needs of their guests. Physiological: Economic: the need to satisfy ones appetite and thirst. the need for good value; fast service.

Social: the need for enjoyable company ; going out with friends or business colleagues; attending functions to meet others. Psychological: the need for fulfilling life style status; the need for variety; the need created by advertising and promotion Convenience: this is the desire for someone else to do the work (cooking, service and cleaning) because of being unable to get home (shoppers, workers, students) or having to attend an event (cinema, sports event); the physical impossibility of catering at home (weddings and other special functions). Business: the guests may have the need to discuss business or celebrate an important business deal. Therefore they wish to have a congenial meal at a fine restaurant receiving good unobtrusive service. Guests may want to satisfy some or all of these needs. It is important to recognize that the specific reasons behind a guests choice determine a guests satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) rather than the food and beverage service by itself. A good example is the social need to go out with friends: if our person fails to turn up or behaves in disagreeale way, the guest may be dissatisfied with the meal. The guest who is not able to satisfy their needs will be a dissatisfied guest. The guest may, for example, be dissatisfied with unfriendly staff, unpleasant conditions, or the lack of choice available. These aspects are the responsibility of the food and beverage operation. However, sometime the reasons for the guest being dissatisfied might beyond the operations control, for example, location, the weather, other guests or transport problems. Guests may choose a food service operation based upon the certain needs they may wish to satisfy. Whilst it is true that certain types of food service operations might attract certain types of customers, this is by no means true all the time. The same customers may go to a variety of different operations depending on the needs they have at the time, for example, a romantic night out, a quick office lunch, or a wedding function. These needs will all involve different outlets.

The dining experience


Guests visit a food service operation to obtain food and beverage in order to satisfy their hunger and thirst. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 46

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual However, depending upon the situation, the guest is also seeking service, cleanliness, atmosphere, and prestige-all elements of a total dining experience. The professional restaurant manager knows that no single component-food, service or atmosphere-can be emphasized alone. Rather the combined effect of all these components will the end influence guest satisfaction.

Dining experience factors


Food & Drink: range of food and drink offered; type and variety; availability or special items, quality Level of service: service style; speed of service; reliability; booking facility, acceptance of non-cash payment Staff: attitude; friendliness, helpfulness, courtesy, competency, personal hygiene and grooming Level of hygiene: equipment cleanliness of the premises, dining area and res rooms,

Value for price: perceptions in the guests mind of the value of the product (not just the food and drink) related to the price the guest is prepared to pay at that time. Atmosphere: this concept includes various aspects such as de cor, furnishing, lighting, temperature, acoustics, entertainment and othr guests.

Guest expectations
The food service operations manager is responsible for the guests satisfaction. The way in which guests are satisfied with the establishment will affect how much they order and, in the end, if they return and recommend the outlet to others (word of mouth). In order to satisfy guests expectations is to think from the guests point of view. Ask yourself, if I was the guest, what would I expect? All guests will expect From the outlet: - cleanliness and hygiene - proper lighting - decoration friendliness good service, personal attention personal hygiene neat appearance, well-groomed

From the staff:

From good service: - acknowledging guests - greeting and welcoming Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 47

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual good table location escorting to table assisting guests to seat clean table and proper equipment prompt service of ice water presentation of an attractive menu explanation and suggestions about menu items timing of ordering nice presentation and correct serving temperature of food and beverages - attentive service during the meal but not obtrusive - prompt bill and payment processing - farewell and invited to return

Special guests need and wants


Type of guest: *The hurried guest Expectation: Fast service Action: order should be taken immediately; suggestion of items which can be prepared quickly; inform kitchen; dont waste time talking Expectation: dishes that are low in calories Action: suggestion of items which contain little fat or sugar; but only if guests asks. Expectation: correct preparations Action: advice ingredients and cooking methods; if requested give kitchen special instructions Examples:

*The Weight Watcher

*The guest with dietary needs

Diabetes-no sugar High blood pressure-no fat, no salt or low salt Allergy-no dairy products or shellfish Vegetarian-no meat dishes Muslims-no pork Hindus-no beef

*The senior guest

Expectation: service not too fast; extra table assistance, food that is easy to digest Action: slower service, conversation Expectation: fast service, entertainment Action: seat at higher chair or use cushion, remove sharp utensils and long stemmed glassware, provide extra napkins, offer simple, familiar finds which are price competitive; keep entertained while food is being prepared; serve before parents, if delay in preparing, serve breadsticks or crackers; 48

*Children

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual bend down to childrens level when talking to them and ask their names *The foreign guest Expectation: local dishes Action: translation, explanation and suggestions of local dishes

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TEST Generic comprehensivethe food below with the according guest Try to match F & B Training Manual

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual MAIN DISH: 1.___ Cocktail sausages served with tomato ketchup and French fries. TYPE OF GUEST: A. Senior Guest 2.___ Grilled Pepper steak served with French fries and fried mushrooms. 3.___Steamed vegetables in banana leaves. 4. ___Deep fried Plakapong in sweet and sour sauce. 5. ___ Steamed Seabass served with asparagus and a light lemon sauce. 6. ___ Poached Chicken breast served with herb butter and vegetables. MAIN DISH: 7. Cheese, Omelette served with French fries. 8. Poached fish served with a herb sauce. 9. Fried Chicken leg and French fries. 10.___Green Curry with chicken. 11.___ Grilled Sirloin Steak served with French fries and mixed salad from the salad bar. 12. ___ Pan fried Veal served with noodles. SANDWICHES: 13. ___Grilled Minute Steak Sand wich 14. ___ Asian Club Sandwich 15. ___ Hot Dog with tomato ketchup and french.fries 16.___ Smoked Salmon and Cottage Cheese 17.___ Beef Burger 18.___ Chicken Burger 19.___ Grilled Cheese and Pineapple Sandwich

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual B. Weight Watcher C. Children D. Vegetarian E. Foreign Guest F. Businessmen TYPE OF GUEST G. Weight Watcher H. Foreign Guest I. Vegetarian J. Senior Guest K. Children L. Businessmen TYPE OF GUEST: M. Foreign Guest N. Children O. Vegetarian P. Muslim Q. Businessmen R. Hindhu S. Weight Watcher

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 14. HANDLING OF COMPLAINTS A customer complaint is: 1. A valuable source of market information 2. A good sales lead 3. Far more valuable than your customers complaining to other or potential customers. VALUE, TREASURE and be GRATEFUL for complaints!!! Dealing with angry customers If you are in a public contact position, chances are that you will from time to time encounter angry customers. If angry customers are not handled effectively, they may remain angry, refusing to do business with your company and they will also probably have made you angry and upset as well. Learning to deal effectively with angry customers will help you feel better about yourself, it will increase your job satisfaction, it will help your organization keep customers satisfied and get their repeat business and finally it will help you succeed in your job.

Recognizing angry customers


Basically there are two kinds of angry customers: those who aggressively express their anger, and those who passively express their anger. It is not hard to recognize aggressively angry customers, they express their feeling immediately and their anger and hostility is obvious. Recognizing the passively angry customer is a little more difficult. The passively angry customer keeps his or her anger on the inside. The passively angry customer reveals his/her anger non-verbal and verbal actions. Some of the non-verbal actions may be: impatient tapping of fingers or feet a flushed jaw clenched jaw rigid posture the avoidance of eye contact

Dealing with the angry customer


Once you have recognized an angry customer, the two major steps are: 1. Deal with the persons feelings a. Empathize b. Ask questions c. Give feedback d. Summarize Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 53

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 2. Deal with the persons problem a. find out what person wants b. suggest alternatives c. share information d. agree on solution e. follow up Deal with the persons problem

Find out what the customer wants


The first step in dealing with the persons problem is to find out what the person wants you to do. How do you do that? By asking.

Suggest alternatives
Sometimes you wont be able to do exactly what your customers wants you to do. If you cant explain why you cant and tell them what you can do that is closest to what their asking for. Suggest alternatives, allow your customer some choice and help them save face and feel that theyve participated in the outcome.

Share information
Share information about your companys policies and procedures. This will help your customer understand what you are authorized to do. When you share information with the customer, dont give them too much. Be brief and tell them only what is relevant to their situation.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual If you cant resolve the problem, refer it upwards to the manager or supervisor. Never refer the customer sideways to someone at your own level. That would only make the customer feel that they are being shuffled around

Agree on a solution
After discussing the problem and the different alternatives for solving it, you and your customer should agree on a course of action. Recommending a course of action shows your concern and will help the customer make a decision.

Follow up
Follow up allows to check that the solution to your customers problem has worked and that the customer is in fact satisfied. During the follow up you should try to make the customer feel important. FIVE STEPS FOR HANDLING COMPLAINTS 1. LISTEN and be OPEN MINDED. 2. RESPOND with CONCERN. 3. DECIDE on ACTION based on your AUTHORITY. If the complaint is out of your area of responsibility call your supervisor or manager for help. 4. TAKE ACTION PROMPTLY. 5. FOLLOW UP-is the CUSTOMER HAPPY? -is the PROBLEM CORRECTED?

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Guests preference Guests should be seated in the area they request: 2 section: smoking and no smoking Good areas: near the window, near entertainment, in a quiet corner, etc. Bad areas: close to the kitchen doors, entrances and exits, toilet, sideboards and service counters and in high traffic aisles. Guests should be seated at the table they prefer: Rectangular, round, in a booth or at a corner The number of guests The right size of table for the number of guests in the same party Equal occupancy Since the speed of service is important, the host/hostess should attempt to seat guests in sections which are the least busy. A good help is to use seating chart; so it is easy to see which tables are occupied and which tables are still vacant. Availability Less desirable seat should be used only after all other seat are occupied. If none seats are available, guests should be referred to a waiting area and be informed about the waiting time.

Offering the menu


In many coffee shops it is often the duty of the hostess to offer the guest the menus. This will help to speed up the service; guest may decide that to order before the food server approaches them. At that time she may as well pour water or serve hot beverages, especially at breakfast time as the guests are often in a hurry. However, if the hostess is too quick to offer coffee or tea at lunch or dinner, the outlet may be losing sales on the higher priced alcoholic beverages. When offering the menu, the hostess should inform the guests of any specials of the day or make other suggestions.

Acknowledging guests
The food server should approach the table as soon as possible. If he/she is busy, such words of acknowledgement as, good morning, Ill be at your service in just a moment are in order.

Taking orders

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual As soon as the food server is able to serve the guests, he/she should ask if they wish to order. Food servers should be able to answer any of the guests questions about menu items, daily specials or foods that can be prepared quickly. If a guest orders items, which take a long time to prepare, the food server should tell the guest about the wait. A restaurant marketing rule is, Always give the guest something to do.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Some suggestions for following this rule include: serving water immediately after guests are seated serving beverage as soon as order is taken serving crackers, breadsticks or dinner rolls to guest waiting for their first course at lunch or dinner serving salads to guests waiting for their main course at lunch or dinner offering newspaper or magazines to guests offering coloring books and pens or using placemats with games or puzzles that children or the whole family can enjoy

Presenting the check


When guests have finished their meal, they often want to settle their bill promptly. For example, office workers eating during their lunch break may be in a hurry. It is important for the service employee to have the guest check ready as soon as the guest requests it. Although service must be fast, but elegant

MaitreD
Is in total charge of the service team ensuring that the guests have a wonderful and memorable dining experience. Scheduling, planning controlling, cooking table side, teaching staff, greeting and welcoming guests, recommending food and wine, assisting the service team during peak time. As you can see this person is a true specialist and is the person who controls the entire service team.

Host/Hostess
At least during busy times, restaurant use a host or hostess to welcome and seat guests, provide menus and perform other guest services. The host/hostess stand must be located in an area where he/she can properly meet and greet the guests as they enter. Because the host/hostess is usually the first person the guest comes in contact with in a coffee shop, he/she must be aware of the impression he/she makes. The main service responsibilities of the hostess are: friendly greeting and recognizing guests as soon as they approach, confirming the number of guests in a part and offering seats in the appropriate section of the coffee shop. During slow business periods, a sign may invite guests to seat themselves in open areas of the coffee shop. During the service time a good Host or Hostess will check upon their customers if they are well taken care of and enjoying their experience.

The Captain or Head Waiter


This person will be in charge of a station or a larger section of the dining area. His main responsibilities are the service and the supervision of a small number of service staff working within the station or section. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 58

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

The Waiter
The role of the waiter is to greet the guests, provide menu information, take orders, deliver food, provide other assistance during the meal and offer the guest check for payment at the appropriate time. Special requirements for the food services in the restaurant. ability to work quickly, but careful: quality service ability to plan and prioritize the service by combining steps to work more efficiently: to do several things during one trip through the dining area good knowledge of the menu and ability to provide information and make suggestions ability to determine special guests needs: good relation with children and recognition of parental needs for assistance with baby seats, high chairs or cushions. to show consideration for guests in a hurry

The Busboy or Trainee


Many restaurants use busboys or trainees. They are new persons in the department, who want to take up food service as a career. Clearing and resetting tables pouring water and other beverages and assisting with the service of food during busy periods are typical tasks of busboys.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 15. SUGGESTIVE SELLING What is suggestive selling: All techniques and procedures designed to influence the purchase decision of the guest.

WHY?

To make more profit To increase the check average of the guests. To increase the sales of profitable menu items. To offer better service To assist the guests to make their choice

Passive behavior: the service person hands the menus and wine lists to the guests

and then takes the order: Only the guests are actively involved in selecting the meal. in conversation with the guests. -

Active behavior: the service person does not simply hand out the menus but engages HOW? :
by making suggestions or recommendations to mention F&B items so the guests will think of them; propose items; to give the guests additional choices to advise the guest with F&B items are very good, special or suitable for a particular or guest.

When to use:

When you present the menu: Draw the attention of the guest to specials and items which may not be listed on the menu (house-, chefs-, daily-). Or When you take the order: Assist the guest with their selection (advise, recommend) to suggest additional items; appetizers, side dishes, aperitifs, wine, desserts, etc. Always offer alternatives If you add to your recommendation a second choice, the chances for a successful sale are much better.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Rules of offering alternatives: never offer more than two, or at the most three alternative suggestions always stay in the same group, always separately offer different appetizers, different main courses, different wines, etc. the alternative should always differ in taste, and if it is a main course also in method or preparation always offer a popular item as an alternative to a specialty item. Some types of food are commonly enjoyed by many people, whereas others are considered less appealing specialties. NEVER FORGET: Taking an order is one of the most important aspects of the job of service staff!!! What service staff must know: Know your product: what is on the menu what is available at the moment what are the daily specials what are the house or chefs specialties how is each item prepared what are the ingredients how large are the portions what garnishes are used what side dishes are included what is the taste are substitutions allowed what is the preparation time Know how to describe your products correctly, honestly in a positive way (lively, with enthusiasm)

To describe food appetizing is extremely important. Guests cannot taste what they order in advance; therefore, they order by imagining the food. The stronger and more positive their imaginations, the better the appetites. To describe food appetizingly is extremely important. Guests cannot taste what they order in advance; therefore, they order by imagining the food. The stronger and more positive their imaginations, the better the appetites. Ask yourself how would you react to the following recommendations:

We have beef with potatoes Today I can recommend our tender; juicy roast prime rib of beef and our oven-baked potatoes.
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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Know your guests Read your guests; try to identify them, what kind of persons are they; type of guests Anticipate (foresee) and be alert (pay full attention) to the wants and needs of your guests Use social skills SMILE!!! Use the guests name if possible Know how to communicate with people Be tactful, be considerate with the feelings of your guests Have a sense of humor Have a sense of timing

Other methods ways of suggestive selling: The menu list itself the design, layout the location of items on the menu list: focal point items which head a list or section of menu items items which are highlighted items which have lively written descriptions items which have more information pictures, photographs and drawings

Table tent cards Place mats with menu items

Menu boards Outside the outlet: near the entrance Inside: on the wall or above the counter The way in which items are presented to the guests Guests are influenced by what they see being served at other tables: Very nice looking dishes and cocktails Tableside food preparation (flambe dishes) Display With complete meals and beverages in the window, counter or a special box. For ex. Japanese restaurants and coffee shops and family restaurants in department stores and shopping malls Display trolleys Mobile gueridons with a display of various food and beverage items. These are usually used in gastronomique restaurants. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 62

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SANITATION AND SAFETY All staff must pay attention to the sanitation and safety. Incorrect procedures will not only affect the reputation of a particular outlet but of the whole establishment and might result in heavy losses and costs.

Sanitation

Sanitation is the practice of keeping the outlet clean by removing dirt and waste. Germs can easily be transferred to food or utensils by the service staff, which can result in a guest becoming ill. Sanitation has an important influence on the guests opinion about an outlet. The way the outlet appears to the guests will influence in determining if the outlet is clean. Guests perceive that all of an outlet is dirty, if any part is not clean. For example, if restrooms are dirty they will presume all of the outlet is dirty. If the front of the house appears to be dirty, the guests will believe the kitchen is also dirty. Hotel have to be concerned with the way their lobby and other public areas appear as these are seen by many people. The outlet manager is responsible for the cleanliness in their outlet. They must have schedule for cleaning the whole outlet and enforce the highest standard in sanitation. The Appearance and Personal hygiene of Service staff: Personal cleanliness is very important. Each outlet should set grooming guidelines for their employees. These grooming guidelines should be explained to the employees when hired.

Sanitation practice during service: dont smoke in working areas dont chew gum or eat when working dont touch your hair, nose or ears dont undertake personal grooming in public areas (brushing hair or applying make-up) wash hands often dont cough over F&B products keep wounds and cuts covered with clean bandage never touch food with yours bare hands. Use a service spoon and fork or tongue keep your service cloth spotless. Do not muse for cleaning. Carry equipment correctly, to prevent your hands coming into contact with surfaces conveying food and drink. Use a clean service cloth or tray. Handle equipment correctly: cutlery by handles, cups by handles, glasses b the stems or bases Discard and damaged cutlery or chinaware (cracked or chipped): these cannot be completely cleaned and the crack or chip will harbor bacteria.
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Safety

The outlet manager must be concerned with the safety of both employees and guests. The best way to practice safety is to practice prevention (to stop something from happening) All service employees should be trained to follow the outlets safety rules. Service areas and equipment should be inspected before service. Any repairs and maintenance should be reported immediately.

Most of the accidents occurring in the outlet arise from falls. This is why the manager will always make sure that floors are dry and cleaned, the lighting is correct and there are no obstructions in gangpaths and aisles. Following simple safety rules can prevent many accidents.

Safety rules during service:


To prevent falls: Walk, do not run! Follow an established pattern as you move through the outlet Use proper entrances and exits Give guests the right of way Watch for others as you move around tables When you are behind a co-worker let him know where you are to prevent collisions Watch for any items such as briefcases on the floor that may cause you to trip Make sure there arent any loose mats, frayed carpets, electric cords or any other items lying around that may cause a person to trip Pick up any items that are dropped immediately Clean up spills immediately! If you need to leave the area to get a mop make sure the spill is indicated to others (warn!): use signs or put something solid over the spill so as people have to walk around it.

To prevent breakages: proper loading of tray: balance the items on a tray so it remains stable; place heavier items on the part of the tray which is closet to you; place spouts of tea and coffee pots in wards. Never carry too many items: when you have a large amount to carry, ask for help or make 2 trips. Remember breakage costs money and breakage may be deducted from your service charge.

To prevent injuries: when lifting bend your knees, not your back! Be careful when carving meat or filleting fish: use sharp knives; there is more likelihood of cutting yourself when trying to use a Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 64

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual blunt (nor sharp) knife because you exert more pressure: wipe all knife handles before use to make sure they are not slippery/greasy; store knives correctly and ready for the next user Do not use chipped table ware Do not use glasses as an ice scoop

To prevent burns: always warn guest if plates are hot be aware of the dangers of steam: when using the carving trolley or the steam outlet of a cappuccino coffee machine or when near a bain marie To prevent fire: position flamb trolley a sufficient distance from the guests table be careful for the naked flame when using the flamb trolley never place bottles of spirits near an open flame and keep lids on themregularly check gas bottles and fittings to detect potential faults or leakage empty ashtrays in a metal container

Managers are very concerned about guests safety. Injuries to guests not only have a negative impact on the reputation of the outlet but can result in important insurance problems. All staff should know the location of: First Aid box Fire fighting equipment Emergency exits supervisors should know the emergency telephone numbers: Hospital, Ambulance, Doctor, Fire Brigade and Police. These numbers should be posted near the telephone When making an emergency call: Tell operator what you need Where it has happened: location Condition of the casualty

All staff should be trained in First Aid. First aid is the emergency care of the sick and injured. A knowledge of first aid is important for food and beverage staff so small accidents or injuries can be treated immediately and medical attention can be sought later if necessary. It is thoroughly recommend that all staff complete a first aid course through a recognized provider, for ex. The Red Cross. To apply first aid you need to be qualified to correctly deal with each situation.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual What to do in case of injury: remain calm at all times. This will help you to assess the situation and to reassure the injured person. Report all injuries to the supervisor immediately. What to do in case of a major emergency (for ex. Fire!): remain calm at all times contact the supervisor follow the outlets procedures (guidelines) By following these simple safety precautions you can make the outlet a safe and comfortable place for all!

Hostess, Guest Relation.


Position requirements. Good communication skills, A good memory, A correct appreciation of guests expectations. Flexibility and ability to work in a team.

Example:
A couple comes into a restaurant without a reservation. Hostess: Good evening Madam, good evening Sir, welcome to Cyrano. May I help you? Guest: Good evening, yes thank you. We'd like a quiet table for two, please. Hostess: Yes Sir. Do you have a reservation?

(If yes) What is your name Sir? Take the guest name, check number of guest match with the actual reservation, and tick off the booking list.
Guest: No, I'm sorry, we don't. Hostess: Let, me see. We do have a cancellation. Ill arrange a table right away for you. Guest: Thank you. Hostess: Very good, we have a nice table overlooking the garden. Guest: Thank you. That would be lovely. Hostess: Let me escort you to the lounge. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 66

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Hostess: Would you like something to drink before you order, Sir? Guest: A martini and a glass of Champagne, please. Hostess: Right, thank you. She orders the drinks, comes to inform me about arrival, pick up menus and bring them back to the guests, giving wine list to the host.

Customer Complaints Complaints may vary from the restaurant being dirty, poor maintenance, poor temperature control, too noisy, placement of the table, high restaurant prices, to an unfriendly, discourteous staff or waiting too long for the order. Customer requirements It is easy for customers to form a negative impression of the outlet. If they see a dirty kitchen, they might then wonder how clean the staff is and whether the food is hygienically handled. It is up to you who serve them to give a favorable impression by:

Paying attention to detail Being friendly, caring and courteous Dealing efficiently with requests for information, physically helping if needed Solving problems quickly Being aware of cleanliness.

Chef de rang .
Position requirements. Communication skills (Expression and understanding) Service-minded Initiative Manual dexterity (Correct handling of glassware, crockery, and silverware) Good knowledge of food and its preparation Attitude Memory (guests eating habit) Carving, flamb and Silverservice.
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He will remain in his station at all time making sure nothings missing. He will rhythm the pace of the meal, knowing exactly the right moment to ask the main course, keep constantly an eye on his tables

Customer Complaints Complaints may vary from the restaurant being dirty, poor maintenance, poor temperature control, too noisy, placement of the table, high restaurant prices, to an unfriendly, discourteous staff or waiting too long for the order. Customer requirements It is easy for customers to form a negative impression of the outlet. If they see a dirty kitchen, they might then wonder how clean the staff is and whether the food is hygienically handled. It is up to you who serve them to give a favorable impression by:

Paying attention to detail Being friendly, caring and courteous Dealing efficiently with requests for information, physically helping if needed Solving problems quickly Being aware of cleanliness.

Commis de rang, the assistant.


Position requirements. Willingness to work hard Teamwork Stamina Good reflexes He is filling the water jugs with ice and water. He is assigned to all mise en place; he will help to clear the tables after decision of chef de rang. Hes under his supervision and will have little contact or none with the guests. He will do cutlery set-up on the table upon arrival of the guests plus butter dish. He is the link between the kitchen and the dining room. The Commis clears the base plates, and go to get the warm bread rolls. The commis will go to pick starters.

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Customer Complaints Complaints may vary from the restaurant being dirty, poor maintenance, poor temperature control, too noisy, placement of the table, high restaurant prices, to an unfriendly, discourteous staff or waiting too long for the order. Customer requirements It is easy for customers to form a negative impression of the outlet. If they see a dirty kitchen, they might then wonder how clean the staff is and whether the food is hygienically handled. It is up to you who serve them to give a favorable impression by:

Paying attention to detail Being friendly, caring and courteous Dealing efficiently with requests for information, physically helping if needed Solving problems quickly Being aware of cleanliness.

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Serving Techniques
General Rules:
1. Place and remove all food from the right of the guest. 2. Place and remove all beverages, including water, from the right of the guest. 3. Use the left hand to place and remove dishes when working at the left side of the guest and the right hand when working at the right side of the guest. This will provide free arm action for the server and avoids the danger of bumping against the guest's arm. 4. Place each dish on the table with the four fingers of the hand under the lower edge and the thumb on the upper edge. 5. Never Reach in front of a guest, or across one person in order to serve another. 6. Present Serving dishes from the left side, in a position so that the guest can serve himself. Place serving silver on the right side of the dish, with the handles turned toward the guest so that he may reach and handle them easily. 7. Do not place soiled, chipped, or cracked glassware and china or bent or tarnished silverware before a guest. 8. Handle tumblers by their bases and goblets by their stems. 9. Do not lift water glasses from the table to fill or refill; when they cannot be reached conveniently, draw them to a more convenient position. 10. Place the cup and saucer at the right of the spoons, about 2 inches from the edge of the table. Turn the handle of the cup to the right, either parallel to the edge of the table or at a slight angle toward the guest. 11. Set tea and coffee pots on small plates and place above and slightly to the right of the beverage cup. Set iced beverage glasses on coasters or small plates to protect tabletops and linen cloth. 12. Place individual creamers, syrup pitchers, and small lemon plates about and a little to the right of the cup and sauce. 13. Place a milk glass at the right of and below the water glass. 14. Serve butter, cheese, and cut lemon with a fork, serve relishes, pickles, and olives with a fork or spoon, not with the fingers.

Dinner - Order of Service:


Dinner customers are seldom in a hurry. The server should be able to give leisurely service without making the guest feel rushed. Although the guest should be allowed plenty of time to complete each course, long waits between courses should be avoided (especially when small children are present.) An efficient server should observe the guests during the meal in order to serve the next course promptly, and to comply with any requests made by guests for special needs. This is a generally accepted guide, but does not apply to all situations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Place appetizer or hors d'oeuvre service from the right in the center of the cover. Remove the first-course dishes. Place the soup service in the center of the cover. Remove the soup service. When the entree is served on a platter, place it directly above the cover. Lay the serving silver at the right of the platter. Place the warm dinner plate in the center of the cover. 70

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 6. Place the beverage to the right of the teaspoons. 7. Offer warmed bread rolls. 8. Remove the main-course dishes when the guest has finished. 9. Crumb the table if the guests are not having any cheese, and remove cruets. 10. Place silver for dessert course. 11. Place the dessert service in the center of the cover.

Special Observing:
There are many things a server must attend to become fully efficient. Here are a few things you can use to your advantage. 1. Serve hot food hot, on heated dishes. 2. Serve cold food chilled, on cold dishes. 3. Inquire how food is to be cooked: a. Eggs - fried or boiled, OM, OE, scrambled etc. b. Steak - rare, medium, or well done etc. 4. Refill water glasses whenever necessary during the meal. 5. Place silver necessary for a course just prior to serving: a. Soupspoon on extreme right of teaspoons. b. Cocktail fork to right of soupspoon. 6. Offer crackers, bread, and other accompaniments with appetizers or soups. 7. Provide iced teaspoons for ice drinks, straws with appropriate beverages.

Clearing the Table:


1. After the course, dishes should be removed from the right side. 2. Platter and other serving dishes should be removed first when clearing the table or may be removed as soon as they are empty. 3. The main-course plate should be removed first, then the bread and butter plate. 4. Using a small plate and a clean, folded napkin or a bread cumber should crumb the table. 5. Hot tea, water, and coffee should be left on the table until the customers have left.

Presenting The Check:


The guest should never be kept waiting for his check. It should be presented either immediately after the last course has been served or as soon as he has finished eating. A check cover should be used to transport the bill to and from the table. The cover should be placed to the right of the host. If the host is not known, the check should be placed at the center of the table. It is always a courteous practice to ask if any other services are desired. It is very discourteous to indicate in any way that a tip is expected or that any certain amount is anticipated even if the customer asks (This happens to me a lot.) Never show any disappointment because the tip is less than what is customarily received. Always thank the customer for any gratuity with sincerity. Guests should be shown small courtesies when departing; for example, a server may draw out the chair for a female guest and assist her with her coat etc... The server should express his good-bye sincerely and welcome the guest to return. The idea is to make the guest feel completely welcome. Try to change up your good-bye from Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 71

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual time to time as well. Other customers in the room will get sick of hearing you repeat the same thing to all departing customers, and when it comes there time to leave, they will leave with the feeling, that they were just part of another process.

Rapport
The standard dictionary definition of rapport means to have a relationship especially one of mutual trust or emotional affinity. This is the very first thing that comes to my mind whenever I need critique in this industry. Here it is in a nutshell.....Hi how are you? That's it. Just wait.. and listen. Not "Hi how are you?, what do you want? Or, simply, "how can I help you today? Care for a cocktail?, or, perhaps an Ice Tea??" Excellent sales techniques, but no rapport. This is incredibly important, and should be done right away, from the front of the house. Usually, in a busy restaurant, it will begin with the hostess, or even the valet. Think about it, you take these people on a ride. Right from the start, they join your premises, and begin to feel welcome, not by the environment, but by the people. Hello, welcome to the *************, How are you today?" wait.... "Were fine, thanks, there will be three of us, and we would like non-smoking" That gives them a sense of control, even though you are controlling them, and then, the hostess can seat them perhaps wherever they like, or preferably at the next servers station, pulling out a chair, and simply motioning them in. Give out the menus, and say with a Smile, "(server's name) will be with you in just a moment, enjoy your meal." Now enters the server and asks "How are you today?", and waits.........(there will be a reply, and if not, well, you know you have to win them over, or simply be polite, and somewhat formal.) Usually, there will be a reply such as "We're fine, thanks. We will be going to the (*destination*), and will need to make it out of here by 8:00, will that be a problem??" "No, says the server, we can have you out quite quickly.

Five Diamond Service


1. Hostess or Maitre d seats and welcomes guests 2. Front waiter lights the candle and offers mineral or served water. If mineral water is sold, silver coaster is placed on table under water bottle. 3. Captain asks for cocktails and gives the wine list. He will serve cocktails and leave the list on the table, if the guest are a couple, the Captain will point out wine by the glass or half bottles wine selections. 4. Back server delivers and explains the amuse. After cocktails are served. 5. Front server clears Amuse and Maitre d or Captain presents the menu and explains the specials. 6. Sommelier or Captain takes the wine order, pours and explains each selection. Captain waiter continues to offer cocktails 7. Maitre d takes order and gives service copy the Front waiter, who proceeds to remove base plates and give proper mise en place for up to two 2 courses. Front waiter is to keep service copy slips on his person at all times. 8. Brioche and butter service is done by the Back waiter will maintaining the clearing and replacing of napkins. 9. The Runner delivers first course and brioche refills to the Front server on the floor, who then serves them. Pepper is to be offered on all salad dishes. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 72

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 10. The back waiter clears first course, and front waiter rechecks mise en place. 11. Runner is to correctly number the domes, and entrees are to be served with assistance of the Back waiter. Back waiter is to know position # 1 on all the tables in his section. **** Entree delivery procedures: Two entrees, two waiters will deliver, one plate each; Three entrees, three waiters; Four entrees, two waiters with a plate in each, served simultaneously; Know one is to be served last. Look to the head Ranked waiter to see that everyone is in position and the guests are ready to receive there entrees. One nod to drop, one nod to lift domes. 12. Back waiter clears table after main course and crumbs the table. Coffee order is taken, cheese selection is explained and the desert, cognac, port, sherry menu is presented. 13. Front waiter takes dessert order and gives proper mise en place. 14. Back waiter delivers desserts and coffee. 15. Captain brings over cart and offers cognacs, ports, or Sherries. 16. When guests ask for check, Captains should inquire as to the satisfaction of the guests. Mignardises and check are then delivered to table.

Service Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Hostess or Manager to greet the guest within 30 seconds upon arrival at restaurant Hostess to escort the guest to his/her preferable table Hostess to pull chair gently for the guests Hostess to unfold napkin to triangle shape and to place napkin on the guests lap from right hand side of the guest, ladies and elderly first Hostess to present drink/wine list, menu from right hand side of the guest Hostess to recommend special set menu to the guest Hostess to wish the guest an enjoyable meal and to leave the table Chief station or Server to greet the guest at table (within 1 minute after hostess has left the table) and to introduce himself/herself to the guest Chief station or Server to offer cold scented towel to the guest, ladies and elderly first Chief station or Server to take beverage order and to key the order in Micros machine Chief station or Server to remove cold towel as soon as the guest has finished using it Drink Runner to serve drink to right person from right hand side of the guest, ladies and elderly first and to inform the guest what he/she is serving Drink Runner to wish guest an enjoyable drink after all guest at the table have received their drinks Chief station or Server to take food order when the guest is ready and to key the order in Micros machine Chief station or Server to inquire to the guest how spicy he/she would like to have their dishes cooked; Mild, Medium or Regular spicy Chief station or Server to repeat guests order back to the guest after all orders are being taken Chief station or Server to inquire how the guest would like to have the dishes served; course by course or Thai family style 73

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 18. Chief Station or Server to thank the guest before he/she leaves the table 19. Chief Station or Server to bring complimentary amuse-bouche to guests table 20. Chief Station or Server to inform the guest what he/she is serving 21. Chief Station or Server to remove amuse-bouche as soon as the guest has finished eating it 22. Food Runner to double-check all dishes against the order prior to leaving the kitchen to make sure that correct food is being prepared according to the order taken 23. Food Runner to bring food from kitchen to guests table 24. Food Runner to serve food to right person from right hand side of the guest, ladies and elderly first 25. Food Runner to inform the guest what he/she is serving and to wish the guest an enjoyable meal prior to leaving the table 26. Chief Station or Server to serve steamed jasmine rice from left hand side of the guest whenever is possible, ladies and elderly first 27. Chief Station or Server to offer additional services to the guest. If not required, to wish the guest an enjoyable meal prior to leaving the table 28. Manager or Assistant to ensure guests satisfaction (8-10 minutes after main dishes being served) 29. Chief Station or Server to offer second/next round of drink whenever the glass is onequarter () full and to key the order in Micros machine

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

Chief Station or Server to remove soiled dishes from right hand side of the guest when the guest has finished his/her meal Chief Station or Server to ensure tables cleanliness Chief Station or Server to offer cold scented towel to the guest The remaining set-up on the table should only be guests drink and tables centerpiece, e.g. flower vase, clean ashtray, matchbox Chief Station or Server to offer dessert menu to the guest, ladies and elderly first Chief Station or Server to offer coffee/tea service to the guest Chief Station or Server to inquire whether the guest would like to have coffee/tea with his/her dessert or after Chief Station or Server to take coffee/tea order and to key the order in Micros machine Food Runner to serve dessert items, coffee/tea Food Runner to wish the guest an enjoyable dessert Chief Station or Server to inquire whether the guest would like anything else Chief Station or Server to prepare the bill and to leave it discreetly at service station Chief Station or Server to present the bill to whom is required (within 1 minute after being asked) then to step back and leave the table Chief Station or Server to thank the guest and to assist guest in pulling the chair Chief Station or Server to bid the guest farewell Hostess to bid the guest farewell and to wish him/her a good night Chief Station or Server to remove soiled dishes, cutlery, table centerpiece and placemat/table cloth then to wipe tables surface with damp cloth

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual 47. Chief Station or Server to reset the table within 3 minutes after the guest has left the table

Note: The staff should always address the guests name whenever is possible.

FRENCH RESTAURANT

Sequence Service
JOB HOW TO DO IT?

1. Greeting the guest

- All guests will be greeted upon their arrival at the outlet by manager, supervisor, hostess or server; - Welcome to XXY restaurant Madam and Sir - Always use eye contact and smile, make them feel welcome. It is the standard that all guests are to be greeted with 30 seconds. - Ask number of guests; - (number of person) persons?

2. Escorting the guest

- All guests will be escorted to table set for appropriate number of guests by saying; - This way please. We have a lovely table for you. - The hostess/server will escort the guests to the best available table. He/ she will ensure that the guests like the table, otherwise move them to a more desirable location. - The hostess will seat the guests with the assistance of her colleagues by pulling the chairs for elderly and ladies first, making them comfortable, placing the napkins on the guests laps from the left side (if possible). - The hostess may ask; - Does this table suit you? or - Will this table be fine? - Approaching the guests when the chance is permitted; - smiling face, - keep body erect, - with nice manner/personality, - make eye contact.

3. Seating the guest

4. Approaching the guest

JOB

HOW TO DO IT?

4. Approaching the guest

- Greet or excuse for interruption; - Excuse me for a moment, sir/madam. - Put yourself in the correct position; - not too close, not too far from the guests.

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5. Placing a napkin on a Guests lap

- Pick up napkin on the table, when the guests are properly seated; - always pick up napkin from left hand side of the guests (if possible). - Open the napkin; - open it from the left side of the guests, - open it to be original shape (square), - fold the napkin to a triangle shape. - Place the napkin on top of the guests lap ; - slowly and carefully, - from the left side of the guest, - the triangle shape must face away from the guest. - Offer beverage by using specific up-selling techniques. The server may say: - May I offer you a drink, sir/madam? or - Would you care for some drink, sir/madam? or - May I offer you the refreshment from the bar? or - Would you like to have something to drink? - When the guests are hesitating, in this case the recommendation can be done or inform them that we have a more extensive list available if they would like to look at that as well.

6. Offering beverages

JOB

HOW TO DO IT?

7. Presenting the menu

- All menus should be handed to each individual, not laid on the table.

8. Giving menus explanation

Give the main ingredients of certain dish(es), How it is prepared/cooked, What it is served with, Positive statement to create desire.

9. Obtaining beverages from bar 10. Carrying a service tray 11. Serving beverages

- Beverages are to be delivered to the guests as soon as they are ready. - It is a must to use the service tray when carrying beverages. - Carry on left hand balancing in the center of waist height in front of the body - Make sure we serve right beverage to the right guest. - Wish the guests to have a pleasant drink; - Please enjoy your drink. or more specific, - Please enjoy your beer/Pina Colada/Gin Tonic.

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12. Taking food order - Food order will be taken beginning with elderly and lady first, continuing in a clockwise movement around table. - While taking order, it is important to be absolute conversant with what is available. Be sure to check up with kitchen staff prior the service and if servers are in doubt, recheck with the Chef/Sous Chef before you confirm the order with the guests. - While taking the order, it is very important that servers do not act as a Clerk who writes down what is dictated to him/her but a salesman who is trying to sell his/her wares. Do not be too obstructive, but always be ready with suggestions. Try and gauge what the guests want and then sell them what they want.
HOW TO DO IT?

JOB

13. Repeating the guests order

- Good server should always repeat the order back to the guests in order to check whether you jotted the items correctly as well as to avoid the unnecessary mistakes. - The server may say; - May I repeat your order, sir/madam? - You have name of dish(es), would that be alright?

14. Up-selling

- Up selling is an advantage. It gives the guests the perception of your skill & knowledge of the menu. - When a guest orders the main course, ask the guest if he/she might like to start with appetizer, soup or salad. - Offer a second or third round of drink when the glass less than one quarter full (). - If the guests want something that we do not have on the menu, give them other alternative/choice which is even better than what they are looking for. - The following rules have to be strictly observed while writing down the order on captains pad; - write legibly and nicely, - avoid corrections, scratching and over-writing, - writing down in the columns indicated as the table number, number of persons, date, time and the order taker initial, - separate between first, second and third course. - Change cutlery according to what the guests ordered by retrieving the previous ones and replacing them with the right ones.

15. Writing a captains order

16. Pre-setting cutlery

17. Serving bakery

- Bakery tray must be accompanied with a butter rose. - Bakery basket should be delivered to the guests between initial approach and appetizers. All guests will receive bread unless order beverages or desserts only.

JOB

HOW TO DO IT?

18. Picking-up food from the kitchen

- Never take partial orders of food. All condiments must be ready and available for service staff prior any food leaves the kitchen. - Use service tray when carrying multiple food items and condiments.

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- Never deliver for two separate tables on one service tray. 19. Carrying plates - Carry maximum three plates at a time. - Two plates on the left hand, another one on the right. - Try as much as possible to carry plates by hand. - Serve food from the right hand side of the guests, starting with elderly and lady first. - Place food directly in front of the guest and correct person; - study table plan prior to serve the food.

20. Serving food

21. Informing the guests what you are serving

- Mention the name of the dish while serving to ensure the correct dish has been served to the right person; - This is the Sole de petit bateau Dieppoise, please enjoy your dinner. or - Please enjoy your Brittany Lobster. - Always offer when first round glass(es) less than one quarter full (). - Glass(es) must never be empty prior to offer additional round. - The server may ask; - May I offer you another glass of Chablis? or - Would you like to have some more Burgundy? or - Would you care for another glass of Meursault? - Ashtray with 2 butts to be replaced. Serving cigarette - Cigarette are presented on the guests right on Silver plate with the cellophane removed from the packet. - The matchbox should be placed beside the packet on Silver plate.

22. Offering a second round of drink

23. Changing an ashtray

JOB

HOW TO DO IT?

24. Detailing the guests table

- Unacceptable inquiries of satisfaction are; - How is your meal? - Is everything okay? - Acceptable inquiries of satisfaction are; - Is everything up to your satisfaction, sir/madam? or - Are you enjoying your Lamb? - Can I get anything else for you, sir/madam? - Check that all guests have finished; - knife and fork are parallel to each other, - ask politely; - May I remove your plate, sir/madam? - Do not clear if other guests are eating unless indicated by guests. - The remaining items on the table should be; - table center piece, - Cruets, - unfinished beverages, - drinking water.

25. Clearing plates

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26. Presenting Cheeses -After the table is cleared, Chef de Rang will bring the Cheese trolley to the Table and may say: - the selection of Cheeses for this evening A quick description of cheeses, at this time you will notice if guests are interested or not. If theyre having some : - Would you care for a glass of Port Wine to accompany? - After the table is cleared including the cruets, the server presents opened dessert menu to each individual. At this time, any special desserts are offered and explained. The server may say; - May I offer you dessert menu? - Would you care for any dessert? - Would you like to have any dessert? - Special dessert(s) today is/are (name of dessert). It is freshly made from our Pastry Chef. Would you like to try some, sir/madam? - Upon clearing the table, inquire if guest would like to have any desserts, otherwise offer them coffee or tea. - Coffee and tea can be served before/with or after the dessert, depending on the guests preference; - Would you like to have your coffee/tea served with your dessert or just after?

27. Offering dessert menu

28. Offering coffee or tea service

JOB

HOW TO DO IT?

28. Preparing the guests check 29. Presenting the guests check

- The cashier at the cashier area prepares the check. - The total cost of the meal will be noted on the check. Under no circumstances will the server add the gratuity. - The guests check will only be presented within 2 minutes upon request. - The check must only be presented to the host who ask for the bill. - The server closes the check with cashier and ensures the check is correct prior to leave the cashier area. - The server presents the check in a bill folder with a pen and places on the guest table (just in front of the guest). Always remove the soiled napkin first, Do not touch the rim of cups or glasses with your fingers, Do not stick fingers into cups or glasses, Never pour/empty ashtrays into dishes, cups or glasses, Never wipe out ashtray with linen, Never put flower, salt & pepper shakers on the floor or chair seat, Check floor underneath table for cleanliness and also wipe out all chairs, Do not scrape the plates in front of the guests.

30. Bussing the table

31. Resetting the table

- Check all linen/placemats are clean, without holes or stain and that laid squarely and evenly on the table, - Take appropriate number of place setting to the table and reset that table, - Never hold cutlery with your hands, - Bring clean cups/saucers/coffee spoons to the table on service tray, - Wipe out the table and clean salt & pepper shakers, - Be sure to wipe off the chairs. - Carry on left hand balancing in the center of waist height in front of the

32. Carrying the service

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tray body.

JOB

HOW TO DO IT?

33. Taking reservation by phone or in-person

- Greeting; - Good afternoon/evening Cyrano restaurant, Jenny speaking how can I help you? - Finding out the information required: - number of person, - date/day/time, - location/occasion, - contact/telephone number, - special request. Sample; - May I have your name please? - May I have your contact number please? - Any special occasion? - What time will you be there, sir/madam? - Giving information about Cyrano; - opening/closing time, - location, - type of food providing, - last order time. Sample; - We open/close at (time). - We are located at (location). - Last order will be at (time).

34. Just a reminder

- All guests seated only at fully set tables. - Table reset always with clean linen, equipment, etc. within 2 minutes of Guests leaving. - Hostess has always to stand-by at the restaurants entrance unless assigned for another thing by manager or/and supervisor.

JOB

HOW TO DO IT?

34. Just a reminder

- All the guests must automatically be greeted by all staff upon their arrival at the outlet. - Ensure enough equipment and linen is provided to the guests at all times. - Coffee and tea must be offered to the guests upon their seating at tables. - The handle of coffee cup must be placed at 3:00 position on the saucer and the spoon will rest at 45 to the handle of the cup, on the saucer. - Service station to be neatly arranged and constantly clean. - All guests receive closing pleasantry;

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- Please have an enjoyable meal. - Floor around tables to be checked for cleanliness. - Service to be upbeated, friendly but not overly casual ; - Staff always use complete sentences ; - Certainly sir/madam. It is my pleasure. to be used in place of ; - Yeah, Okay etc. - Always use service tray whenever carrying cutlery, glassware, equipment, linen, etc. - Buffet counter to be checked for cleanliness at all times - Ensure enough tables & chairs to be available for the guests, especially during high season. - Ensure the tables and chairs must always be steadily and nicely arranged, otherwise adjust it only with cork cut. - Wipe thoroughly the surface of the table with clean cloth (half dry) each time prior to have the tables set-up. - Ensure the cleanliness of flatware, glassware, and cutlery at all times. - The staff must stack up plates in correct size each time when he/she arrives at the stewarding area so as we can avoid the unnecessary breakage. - Build-in buffet counter must also be taken care of, prior and after the service hours.

CATERING
Ale Aperitif

TERMS AND VOCABULARY.

Beer with a fruity characteristics yet more bitter than most. It is fermented at a very high temperature causing the yeast to rise to the top. A drink served before the meal to stimulate the appetite such as a fortified or aromatized wine in a vermouth style. The term now refers more to the time the drink is served than what it consists of. A small course dish usually served before the main entree. This includes vermouth, and the quinined or other aperitif wines of various countries, whose alcohol content is 15 to 20 percent. Usually means the kitchen and storage area, and all those who work in that area. (Chefs, Prep-cooks, dishwashers etc.) Bronze or Red colored Beer, usually more acidic than most. The cause of this is the extra hops in the fermentation process. A flavor enhancer made from berries, roots, and herbs, usually used to provide smoothness to biting whiskey. A spirit aged in wood, obtained from a fermented mash of fruit or the 81

Appetizer Aromatized Wine Back-of-TheHouse Bitter Bitters Brandy

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual distillation of wine. Bring Back Runner An entree that is taken back to the kitchen because it is unsatisfactory to the customer. (Overdone steaks etc.) Person in charge of cleaning and resetting the tables. Other duties sometimes include bringing in stock from the kitchen, emptying the garbage, and unfortunately cleaning up after the wait staff. A book used to store the check and payment of the check to and from the table. The person usually in charge of Food Creation, Ordering, and Back-ofthe-house management. A tall drink served in a Collins or highball glass, filled with crushed ice, wine or liquor, and garnished with fresh fruit and mint sprigs. The traditional cobbler is made with sherry, pineapple syrup, and fresh fruit garnishes.

Check Cover Chef Cobbler

Collins A tall glass filled with ice, sugar, a spirit, citrus juice, and club soda or seltzer.

Cooler

Usually served in a tall glass such as a Collins or highball, consisting of a carbonated beverage such as ginger ale or club soda, a wine or spirit, and a lime or orange rind cut in a continuous spiral, hooking over the rim of the glass. An oversize cocktail such as a Margarita, made with proportionally more alcohol, sweetened with fruit syrup, and served over crushed ice. A term used for wine, liquor, or a cocktail to indicate a lack of sweetness. For example, a dry Martini is one without very little vermouth, which is the fortified wine that adds sweetness to the spirit. Because it is cold filtered, it supposedly leaves no aftertaste. Syrup from the Caribbean made of mixed fruits, sugar cane, and spices, used to sweeten mixed drinks. A drink named for the siphon bottle that added, "fizz" to a recipe of sugar, citrus juice, and, traditionally, gin. A cold, creamy drink made with eggs, sugar, citrus juice, and a spirit. It got its name in Colonial times, when a hot flip iron was used to mull the ingredients in the drink. Any area the guest will see, and the staff that works it. (Wait staff, Busser, Host/Hostess, Bartender) It includes Sherry, Port, Madeira, Marsala, etc. The alcohol content is between 14 and 24 percent. A rum based drink originally served to sailors. The contemporary 82

Daisy Dry

Dry Beer Falernum Fizz Flip

Front-of-theHouse Fortified Wine Grog

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual version consists of rum, fruit, and sugar. Julep Lager Made with crushed ice, usually Kentucky bourbon, sugar, and mint leaves. Beer brewed from malt, hops, water, and in some cases cereals such as cracked rice or corn grits. It is fermented and stored for aging, and carbonated. A beverage naturally processed or manufactured by adding a flavoring to a distilled spirit. The flavor accents include, but are not limited to, almond, strawberry, orange, coffee, hazelnut, mint, and chocolate. This is a malt beverage that is brewed like beer but contains a higher percentage of alcohol. It is usually pale and light in color. Spirits added to a full glass of crushed ice. Drinks where the ingredients are heated for thorough blending. Term for serving a spirit straight, in a glass without any ice or mixers. A hot, sweet wine drink traditionally made with Sherry or Port. A command usually barked at the Line Cook when a food item is needed in emergency. Used in Bring-Back situations, and when the server forgets to put in an order. Term denoting spirits poured over ice cubes. Used to describe beers that are light in color. Variation of Stout, usually lower in alcohol, with bittersweet taste and a dark color. Made from several liqueurs and cordials, each having a different weight and color so when poured one on top of another, they layer and "float." A drink consisting of lime or lemon juice, mixed with gin or some other spirit and club soda, usually with no added sweetener. Silver that is wrapped in a napkin and tied off with either sticky paper or string. A mixed drink or shot of some kind of spirit, swallowed in one gulp. A tall drink usually served cold, made with spirits, lemon juice, and sugar, and topped off with club soda.. A short drink made with lime or lemon juice, sugar, and sprits. A beverage made from the distillation of a liquid containing alcohol. The alcohol content of the original liquid matters very little, as the distillation process separates all the alcohol out from the liquid. Congeners, flavor compounds, may also be separated from the original liquid along with the alcohol. The congeners provide the spirit with its 83

Liqueur

Malt Liquor Mist Mull Neat Negus

On the Fly

On The Rocks Pilsner Porter Pousse-Cafe Rickey Rolling Silverware Shooter Sling Sour Spirit

Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual distinct characteristics. Stout Swizzle Very dark ale that is slightly bitter and malty. Roasted barley is added to flavor a color the brew. This was originally a tall rum beverage filled with cracked ice and stirred with a long spoon, twig, or stirring instrument until the glass was frosty. These days, any tall drink made with spirits and crushed ice and stirred with a rod until frosty is called a "swizzle." Originally this was a hot mixture of spirits, sugar, and spices like cloves and cinnamon, lemon peel, and water, served in a tall glass. Today it may be served cold, with any combination of spirits, spices, and ice. A spirit aged in wood, produced from the distillation of a fermented mash of grain. Examples are Canadian whisky, Irish whiskey, Scotch whisky, Rye whisky, and Bourbon whiskey.

Toddy

Whisky

COOKING TERMS
Saut (French) Sear Garnish Gratin (French) a la Broche (French) a la Carte (French) a la King a la Mode (French) to cook food in an open pan in hot shallow fat, tossing the food to prevent it from sticking. to seal the surface of meat by cooking over a strong heat-. an edible decoration added to a savoury dish to improve the appearance. a dish cooked in the oven or under a grill so that it develops a brown crust. French) Cooked on a skewer over a flame. See Brochette. French) Each menu item is priced separately: Foods prepared to order. French, A Bechemel sauce containing mushrooms, green peppers, and red peppers or pimentos. a la Mode(French) Refers to ice cream on top of pie. (French) Refers to ice cream on top of pie.

Al dente (al-Den- al dente (al-Den-tay) In Italian the phrase means "to the tooth"and is a term used to describe the correct degree of doneness when cooking tay) pasta and vegetables. The food should have a slight resistance when biting into it, but should not be soft or overdone or have a hard center. Au Gratin (French) To top food with cheese or bread crumbs, then baked. 84

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Au Jus (French) Au Naturel (French) Bearnaise Sauce (French) Bchamel (French) Balsamic vinegar Served with natural juices Food that are plainly cooked. A sauce made with a reduction of vinegar, wine, tarragon and shallots and finished with egg yolks and butter. Add milk or cream to a white roux and voila! It becomes a bchamel.

Balsamic vinegar is a centuries-old specialty of Modena, Italy, is made from reduced grape juice and is aged and blended for many years in a succession of casks made of different woods and gradually diminishing in size. The result is a thick, tart-sweet, intensely aromatic vinegar.

Chasseur (French)

French for "hunter" this American-French term refers to food prepared "hunter-style," with mushrooms, onions, tomatoes, various herbs and sometimes wine. Used on such items as poulet chasseur. A seasoned liquid in which foods such as meat, fish and vegetables are soaked (marinated) in order to absorb flavor and, in some instances, to be tenderized. Most marinades contain an acid (lemon juice, vinegar or wine) and herbs or spices. The acid ingredient is especially important for tough cuts of meat because it serves as a tenderizer. Because most marinades contain acid ingredients, the marinating should be done in a glass, ceramic or stainless steel container-never in aluminum. To immerse food for varying lengths of time in a liquid so that the flavors develop; a marinade also tenderizes, flavors, softens and preserves ingredients. Imported from Sicily and made from local grapes, Marsala is Italy's most famous Fortified Wine. It has a rich, smoky flavor that can range from sweet to dry. Sweet Marsala is used as a Dessert Wine, as well as to flavor such desserts as the famous Zabaglione. Marsala wine is used to create such items as, chicken marsala. a classic French sauce made by combining homemade mayonnaise, mustard, capers, cornichons, roasted peppers, bermuda onion, herbs and assorted seasonings.

Marinade (French)

Marinate

Marsala

remoulade [raymuhLAHD](French)

rilletes [rihmeat, usually pork, slowly cooked in seasoned fat and pulverized into LEHTS](French) paste, served as an appetizer spread rissole [rihSOHL](French) soubise [sooBEEZ] tapenade [TAsmall partially cooked potatoes browned in butter a rich, velvety sauce of cream and pureed onions a full flavor condiment of capers, anchovies, olives, garlic, lemon juice 85

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual puhnahd](French) Hors doeuvres (French) a la minute (French) Amuse-gueule (French) Brule (French) literally "burned": such as with caramelized sugar on crme brulee. Canaps (French) en croute (French) French Ham French Ham Barding Blanche(French) Blanching Bratt pan Brawn Brine Carcass Char grill Chine Dissection Flare Grill Griddle Jacket Boiler Larding and olive oil. Appetizers or "finger food" served usually with cocktails. It is often the first course of either lunch or dinner service. Style of preparation where the food is cooked to order fresh, often right before the guests. Food done a la minute is a perfect suggestion for a food station. "To amuse the stomach" - a tasty small snack compliments of the chef to endear him to the patrons. Sometimes known as an "amuse-bouche", or "to amuse the palate".

Class of hors d'oeuvre that are always served on small pieces of bread. Encrusted in puff pastry. A great way to prepare soup when the desire is maintain a high temperature through a long waiting period. Bayonne: Dry cured and smoked. Eaten raw Campagne: Sweet cured and well smoked. Eaten raw Fat wrapped around lean joints to improve flavour and texture Place in cold water, boil refresh ( to whiten ) To plunge meat into boiling water to remove impurities A large tilting pan with lid A jellied meat dish made from pigs head and feet Solution of water, salt and saltpetre Slaughtered, dressed animal A semi solid topped grill Removal of back-bone Division of carcass into joints A bottom fired grill usually with a bed of bricks This involves the cooking of prime food on a greased metal plate A double skinned boiling kettle witch may be tilted Strips of fat inserted into lean joints to improve flavour

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Offal Pane (French) Pickled Plat Sauter Poele (French) Refreshing Salamander Salpetre (French) Sauter (French) Sauteuse (French) Score Sealing Side Skimming Steel Stir Fry The edible internal organs of an animal The coat, flour, eggwash and breadcrumb Steeped in brine A shallow copper pan with straight sides A black frying pan with curved sides To wash meat under running water after blanching to clear impurities A top fired grill Nitrate of potash to colour and preserve Sauter is a term used to describe the process of shallow frying of butchers meat and poultry A shallow copper pan with sloping sides Shallow cuts in skin to facilitate heat penetration To fry joints to be roasted in hot dripping to seal the outer surfaces Half of a carcass split lengthways To remove fat and scum from surface of cooking liquor A hand held sharpening tool This term is applied to small pieces of butchers meat and other foods when they are tossed together in a wok. This popular method of cookery originates from oriental cuisine A wire frame to keep roasting meat out of fat during cooking

Trivet

Terms to sort out.

Absinthe A bitter liqueur distilled from wormwood and flavored with a variety of herbs. Often disolved with water that produces a milky-white appearance. The flavor is that of anise. Acetic Acid Acetic acid is formed when common airborne bacteria interact with the alcohol present in fermented solutions such as wine, beer or vinegar. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 87

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Adobo sauce This dark-red, piquant sauce (or paste) is made from ground chiles, herbs and vinegar, common to Mexico. Chipotle chiles are often found packed in adobo sauce. Agar-agar Agar-agar is an extract of seaweed from the Indian and Pacific oceans. When disolved it sets to a jelly and can be used as an emulsifier in ice cream, desserts and soups. Agave A large plant from Mexico, with fleshy leaves. The baked and fermented pina (center core) from the blue agave is used to make fermented drinks such as pulque, mescal, and tequila. Ahi The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna. Allspice The pea-sized berry of an evergreen tree native to the West Indies, Africa and Jamaica. It tastes like a combination of a number of aromatic spices. Often used with Middle Eastern cuisine. Almond Paste A blend of ground almonds, sugar, and glucose. Used in a variety of confections. Amaretti A crisp airy Italian cookie similar to a macaroon with an intense sweet almond flavor. Amaretto An almond flavored liqueur, often made from apricot pits. This original Italian liqueur if also made in the US. Anaheim Chiles This mild, long green chile is named for the area where it was originally grown. These are often sold canned, whole or chopped. Ancho Chiles A dried poblano chile with a smoky flavor and medium heat. They range in color from dark red to almost black. Anchovy A small sea fish, common to the Mediterranean, and also harvested in the Black Sea, the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. These filleted, salt-cured fish are canned in oil. Common to French and Italian cuisine and used in the famous Caesar Salad along with a number of sauces, tapenades, and pizzas. Anise A spice whose flavor is reminiscent of licorice, usually bought ground. Used for centuries and now found in cookies, cakes and liqueurs. Arborio Rice The high-starch kernels of this Italian-grown grain are shorter and fatter than any other short-grain rice. Arborio is traditionally used for risotto due to its creamy texture. Arrowroot From a dried rootstalk, this white, powdery thickener is preferable to cornstarch because it provides a clear finish. Artichoke The globe artichoke is cultivated mainly in California's midcoastal region. It's the bud of a large plant from the thistle family and has tough, petal-shaped leaves. Usually steamed and the pulp of the leaves eaten with drawn butter or mayonaise. Arugula Arugula has a pepper and mustard flavor used in salads, soups and sauted vegetable dishes. Asiago

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual A semifirm Italian cheese with a rich, nutty flavor is mainly used for grating as a substitute for Parmesan. It was traditionally made with sheep's milk, today it is often made with cow's milk. Baking Powder A leavening agent composed of baking soda an acid, such as cream of tartar, and cornstarch. When mixed with a liquid, it realeses carbon dioxide gas bubbles that cause a bread or cake to rise. Baking Soda Bicarbonate of soda. Acidic liquid ingredients like sour milk, sour cream, buttermilk, yogurt, molasses, and lemon juice help baking soda produce the gases which make a batter rise. Basil A member of the mint family, this ancient herb has a pungent flavor. A popular herb in Mediterranean cooking and a primary ingredient in Italian pesto. Used both fresh and dried. Baste To spoon or brush food as it cooks with melted butter or other fat, meat drippings or liquid such as stock. In addition to adding flavor and color, basting keeps meats and other foods from drying out. Bavarian cream A dessert made from an egg custard stiffened with gelatine, mixed with whipped cream and sometimes fruit puree or other flavors, then set in a mold and served chilled. Bay Leaf An aromatic leaf that comes from bay laurel. Used whole, halved, or ground. One of the primary ingredients in a bouquet garni, it lends a slightly bitter, pungent seasoning to soups, stews, and stocks. Bechamel One of the "Mother" sauces, this white sauce is made by adding milk to a roux. Bisque A seasoned shellfish puree flavored with white wine, cognac, and fresh cream, used as the basis of a soup. Blanch To place foods in boiling water briefly either to partially cook them or to aid in the removal of the skin (i.e. nuts, peaches, tomatoes). Blanching also removes the bitterness from citrus zests. Blini A small thick savory pancake made with a leavened batter that contains both wheat flour and buckwheat flour. Blue Cheese A cow's milk, semisoft, blue-veined cheese with a very strong aroma. Similar cheeses include France's Roquefort and Italy's Gorgonzola. Bouquet Garni Traditionally composed of parsley, thyme, and bay leaf, this herb bundle gives stew, soup or stock an aromatic seasoning. The bouquet garni needs to be removed before serving. Braising A cooking method where food (usually meat) is first browned in oil, then cooked slowly in a liquid (wine, stock, or water). Brioche A sweet French yeast bread that is composed of flour, sugar, yeast, milk, butter, and egg yolk. Brioche has a unique lightness, flavor and aroma. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 89

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Bulgur Whole wheat which has been boiled until tender and the husk is about to crack open, then dried. It is a common ingredient in Arabic (burghul), Turkish (bulgur), and Cypriot (pourgouri) cooking. The primary ingredient for Tabouleh. Calvados An apple brandy from Normandy, France made from cider that has been aged for up to two years and distilled. Canadian Bacon The large rib-eye muscle of the pork loin, cured and smoked. It is boneless and usually lean, and not at all like the American cured bacon. Cannellini Beans A large, white kidney bean used often in Italian cooking. They are available canned or dried. Capers The small buds of a Mediterranean shrub. They are usually pickled in vinegar or dried and salted. Carambola Known as star fruit, this golden yellow fruit is grown in the West Indies, Indonesia, and Brazil. When sliced, the fruit has a star shaped. The flesh of the carambola is juicy and highly acidic. Its taste is reminiscent of plums, grapes, and apples. Caramelized Sugar Sugar that has been cooked until it reaches a caramel color. Caraway Seed Caraway is a member of the parsley family. The seeds are used as topping on breads and savory pastries, and as accompaniments to a number of German, Hungarian and Austrian cuisine. Cardamom The pods of an aromatic Indian plant is a member of the ginger family. The seeds of the pods are dried and used as a spice. It is a very expensive spice. cardamom is used mostly in Indian and Scandinavian cooking. Carpaccio Originally, paper thin slices of raw beef with a creamy sauce, invented at Harry's Bar in Venice. The term also describes very thinly sliced vegeatables, raw or smoked meats, and fish. Chayote A crisp, delicate, light green squash that was a staple crop of the ancient Aztecs. It is ideal for stuffing, popular as a salad in Mexico and found in France as "christophene." Chipotle Smoked dried jalapeno chiles. The distinctive smokey flavor and unique heat is used to flavor Southwestern and Mexican dishes. They are sold both dried and in cans, in a vinegary sauce called adobo. Chorizo This highly seasoned hog link sausage flavored with garlic, chili powder and other spices, is widely used in Mexico and Spanish cooking. Cilantro Also known as Chinese Parsley, this herb is often used in Chinese and Mexican cooking. It resembles and is often used like parsley. The seeds of this aromatic plant are known as Coriander, when dried, used as spices (whole or ground). Cioppino A dish, created in San Francisco, consists of a stew of white fish, large shrimps, clams, and mussels, with a garlic, tomato, and white wine base.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Cloves The brown, hard dried flower buds of an aromatic Southeast Asian evergreen. Ground, they are used in cakes and soups. Whole, they add flavor to mulled wines and ciders, as well as used in cooking whole hams. Cocoa The pods of the cocao tree which are processed to remove the cocoa butter and ground into powder. There are two types of powder, American and Dutch. Concasse A mixture that is coarsely chopped or ground, such as a tomato concasse. Confectioners Sugar Powdered sugar, often used in baking and in frostings. Confit Meat, usually goose, duck, or pork cooked in its own fat. Cornmeal Dried corn kernels that have been ground in one of three textures fine, medium or coarse. Also known as polenta, it is similar to semolina in texture. Cornmeal is available as yellow, white or blue, depending on the type of corn used. Cornstarch A dense, powdery "flour" obtained from the endosperm portion of the corn kernel. Cornstarch is most commonly used as a thickening agent for puddings, sauces, soups, etc. Coulis A thick puree of vegetables or fruit Couscous Pellets of wheat semolina that has been ground, moistened, and rolled in flour. It is a staple dish in the Middle East. Crab Louie A cold salad in which lump crabmeat on a bed of shredded lettuce is topped with a dressing of mayonnaise, chili sauce, cream, scallions, green pepper, lemon juice and seasonings. Cream of Tartar The common name for potassium bitartare, the white powdery crystalline acid formed inside wine casks. It is used in many baking powders, baking dishes and to stabilize beaten egg whites. Crme anglaise The French term for a rich custard sauce that can be served hot or cold with cake, fruit or other dessert. Crme brle The French term for a rich custard topped with sugar and carmelized under a broiler or torch before service. Crme de Casis A sweet cordial from black currants. Popular as 'kir' when mixed with white wine. Crme frache This matured, thickened cream has a slightly tangy, nutty flavor and velvety rich texture. Crme ptissire The French term for "pastry cream," a thick, flour-based egg custard used for tarts, cakes and to fill cream puffs, clairs and napoleons. Cremini Mushrooms A wild mushroom, similar to the common white mushroom, but dark-brown and firmer in texture.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Cumin An Indian spice with an earthy flavor, also known as comino. Used either ground or whole as cumin seed. Cumin is featured in Middle Eastern and Latin American cuisines. Curry Powder A spice mixture common to India. It usually consists of coriander, turmeric, fenugreek, cumin, ginger, garlic, clove, cayenne and other chilies. Daikon Radish This vegetable is in fact a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavor. The daikon's flesh is crisp, juicy and white, while the skin can be either creamy white or black. Demiglace A thick, intensely flavored, glossy brown sauce that is made by thickening a rich veal or other brown stock, reduced until concentrated. Double Boiler A bain-marie, a double broiler is a method of cooking without using direct heat. It consists of two saucepans that fit together. The bottom sauce pan is filled with water and the top one with the mixture. Duxelles Traditionally, this French paste is composed of a mixture of mushrooms, shallots and herbs which are slowly cooked in butter until forming a paste. It is often used to flavor sauces, soups and other mixtures, or as a garnish. Enchilada Rolled or flat corn tortillas topped or stuffed with meat, cheese, onions, and red or green chile sauce. Espagnole sauce Spanish sauce. A brown sauce made from brown stock, caramelized mirepoix and tomato puree, and seasonings. Evaporated Milk A canned and unsweetened milk that has much of the water content removed via evaporation. It is similar to condensed milk, although not as sweet. Extracts Concentrated flavorings derived from various foods or plants, usually through evaporation or distillation. They deliver a powerful flavor impact to foods without adding excess volume or changing the consistency. Fish sauce A pungent, salty liquid made from fresh anchovies that is extensively used in Asian cuisine. Fondant An icing created from cooked sugar, water and glucose. It is used often as a filling for chocolates, frosting for cakes, or fine pastries. Framboise A raspberry liqueur. Frappe (from the French frappe) A simple sugar syrup mixed with fruit, liqueur, or other flavorings and frozen, then processed to a slightly slushy consistency. Ganache A rich chocolate icing made of semisweet chocolate and whipping cream and or other flavorings that are heated and stirred together until the chocolate has melted.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Garde manger A French term for the cool, well-ventilated pantry area (usually in hotels and large restaurants) where cold buffet dishes are prepared and other foods are stored in refrigerated units. Some of the items prepared in a garde manger are salads, cold appetizers and other decorative dishes. Also the term for intricate vegetable carving. Gazpacho A cold vegetable soup with a tomato base containing a variety of raw vegetables. Gelato An Italian ice cream made with a base of egg yolks and milk. It is denser and smoother in texture than American ice creams, with much less air incorporated into the frozen mix. Ginger A Southeastern Asian plant cultivated for its spicy aromatic rhizomes. It is most commonly used in Asian cooking, showing up in savory curries, marinades, rice, tea, or just eaten as a sweetmeat in its crystallized form. Goat Cheese Also known as Chevre. A soft fresh goat's milk cheese with a tart flavor. Often fresh herbs are incorporated into the finished form. Gorgonzola An Italian cow's milk cheese with a white or yellow and streaked with blue. It has a distinct aroma and can have a mellow, strong, or sharp flavor, similar to the American blue cheese and the French roquefort. Gouda Cheese A cow's milk, firm, smooth cheese similar to cheddar. This Dutch cheese comes in both young and aged forms. Grand Marnier Orange flavored, cognac based liqueur from France. Granita A mixture of water, sugar, and liquid flavorings (i.e. fruit juice or coffee) that is stirred during the frozing process to create a granular texture. Granulated Sugar Regular sugar for everyday use. Gratin A sweet or savory dish baked or broiled so its topping forms a golden crust. Guacamole A mixture of fresh avacado lime or lemon juice, other seasonings and frequently made with diced onion, tomatoes and cilantro. Haricot vert The French term for "green string bean," haricot meaning "bean" and vert translating as "green." Haute cuisine Food that is prepared in an elegant or elaborate manner. The French word haute translates as "high" or "superior," cuisine as "cooking." Herbes de Provence An assortment of dried herbs said to reflect those most commonly used in southern France.The mixture commonly contains basil, fennel seed, lavender, marjoram, rosemary, sage, summer savory and thyme. Hoisin sauce A reddish-brown sweet and spicy Chinese sauce reminiscent of barbecue sauce. It is made from soybeans and peppers.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Hollandaise Sauce A classic emulsion sauce made with a vinegar reduction, egg yolks, and melted butter flavored with lemon juice. Another of the "mother" sauces. Ice Cream Made with a combination of milk products (usually cream combined with fresh, condensed or dry milk), a sweetening agent (sugar, honey, corn syrup or artificial sweetener) and sometimes solid additions such as pieces of chocolate, nuts, and/or fruit. Infusion Steeping in a hot liquid producing a flavor that's extracted from an ingredient such as tea leaves, herbs or fruit. In today's culinary parlance, sauces that have been variously flavored (as with herbs) are also called infusions. Jarlsberg Cheese A Norwegian cow's milk cheese that is firm in texture and nutty in flavor, similar to Swiss cheese. Jalapeno Named after Jalapa, the capital of Veracruz, Mexico, this small green chile pepperis mildly hot. Jicima A bulbous, brown root with a crunchy white interior is often called the Mexican potato. The sweet and nutty interior is great for crudite platters and salads. Kalamata Olives Also spelled Calamata. These purple-black Greek olives are cured in vinegar. Kibbeh; kibbi Particularly popular in Lebanon and Syria, this Middle Eastern dish combines ground meat (usually lamb), bulghur wheat and various flavorings. The meat may be served raw or cooked. Lemongrass An aromatic, dry looking grass used to add a pungent, lemony flavor to Asian dishes and popular in smoothie drinks. Liqueur A spirit flavored with fruit, spices, nuts, herbs, and/or seeds, usually sweetened. Macadamia Nut A native to Australia, the macadamia is a fleshy white nut with a coconut-like flavor. Macerate To soak a food in a liquid to infuse it with flavor. Mandoline A compact, hand-operated machine with various adjustable blades for thin to thick slicing and cutting. Mandolines have folding legs and come in both wood- or stainless steel-frame models. They're used to cut firm vegetables and fruits (such as potatoes and apples) with uniformity and precision. Marinate To let food stand in a mixture called a marinade (such as a liquid, dry rub, or a paste) before cooking. Liquid marinades are usually based on a acidic ingredient, such as wine or vinegar; dry marinades are usually salt-based. Marzipan A thick almond, sugar and egg white paste used in confectioneries. Marzipan is mainly used in cakes and pastries of the European tradition. Masa Harina Corn dough used mainly for tortillas and tamales.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Mesclun Found in specialty produce markets and many supermarkets, mesclun (also called salad mix and gourmet salad mix ) is simply a potpourri of young, small salad greens. The mix varies depending on the source, but among those greens commonly included are arugula, dandelion, frise, mizuma, oak leaf, mche, radicchio and sorrel. Mirepoix A mixture of diced carrots, onions, celery and herbs sauted in butter. Sometimes ham or bacon is added to the mix. Mirepoix is used to season sauces, soups and stews, as well as for a bed on which to braise foods, usually meats or fish. Mise en place Literally "put in place" in French. Refers to the preparations for cooking, setting out bowls, pots, and pans and measuring, washing, peeling, and chopping and mincing ingredients. Molcajete y tejolete The Mexican term for "mortar and pestle" molcajete being the mortar, tejolete the pestle. The black basalt (volcanic rock), produces a rough texture on both pieces. They are used in the traditional manner for grinding spices and herbs and other mixtures. Mole Mole is a spicy, rich Mexican sauce consisting of nuts, seeds, spices, chilies and occassionally chocolate. Mousse A frozen dessert consisting of either a flavored custard or a fruit puree lightened with beaten egg whites and/or whipped cream. Nicoise Literally "in the style of Nice (France)". The term refers to the region's cuisine which is characterized by the use of tomatoes, garlic, olive oil, and the local brown-black olives. Nonpareil A French term meaning "without equal," most often used in reference to small pickled capers from the region of Provence in France. Nutmeg The oval, brown, wrinkly seed of the nutmeg tree. It is used grated as a spice for both sweet and savory dishes. Oporto Portugal's sweet dessert wines (ports). They are named after Oporto, Portugal's second largest city, on the Douro river. Oyster Sauce A bottled all-purpose Chinese seasoning made from oysters, water, salt, cornstarch, and caramel coloring. Paella A classic Spanish dish which combines rice and a variety of both meat and seafood. Pancetta An Italian cured meat made from the belly of the pig. It is salted but lightly spiced, but not smoked. Paprika A spicy seasoning ground from a sweet variety of red pepper. It is used to flavor ragouts, stuffings, sauces, and garnish. Parchment Paper A silicon based paper that can withstand high heat, thus its use for lining baking sheets. Parfait Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 95

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual A dessert consisting of ice cream, layered with a dessert sauce, fruit, or liquer. In France, a parfait is a frozen dessert containing either whipped cream and Italian meringue or just whipped cream. Parfaits are traditionally served in tall, narrow, footed glasses. Parmesan Cheese A hard cow's milk cheese whose taste ranges from sweet to sharp is regularly used for grating. Officially, only Parmigiano Reggiano from the Italian area of EmiliaRomagna may be called Parmesan. Asiago and Romano cheeses are good substitutes for Parmesan. Pecorino Romano Another Italian cheese, this is made from sheep's milk with a slightly different flavor. Parmesan is a good Romano substitute. Pesto Pesto is an Italian basil sauce made with fresh basil leaves, pinenuts, garlic and olive oil. Many variations of this sauce exist including different nut based pestos, different herb based pestos, sun dried tomato pesto, and black olive pesto. Pico de Gallo Mexican for "Rooster's beak," a coarse uncooked tomato salsa. In Jalisco, Mexico it is a relish of oranges and jicama. Pine Nuts Also known as pignolias and pinon. The pine nut is the seed of the stone pine. They are used often in Italian, Spanish, and Middle Eastern cooking. Pizzelles Thin decoratively patterned Italian wafer cookies that are made in an iron similar to a waffle iron. Plantains A green skinned, pink fleshed banana which is usually flatter and longer than a regular banana. It also contains more starch and less sugar. It is usually eaten fried, mashed, or in stews in South American, African, and West Indian cuisine. Polenta A coarse yellow cornmeal mush that is a staple of Northern Italy. It can be molded, then cut into squares and fried or grilled. Porcini Mushrooms Dried Cepes mushrooms found in most Italian markets. Re-hydrated before cooking by soaking in boiling water. Portobello Mushroom Also Portobella. A full grown cremini mushroom, similar to button mushrooms. Prosciutto The Italian word for ham, used in the names of raw hams coming from Italy. Prosciutto di Parma hams are only from the Parma region of Italy. Quenelle A light, delicate dumpling made of seasoned, minced or ground fish, meat or vegetables bound with eggs. This mixture is formed into small ovals and gently poached in stock. Ragout A stew made from poultry, game, fish, or vegetables cut into pieces and cooked in a thickened liquid, generally flavored with herbs and seasonings.  Ramekins Porcelain cups, often used to make souffles and other small dishes requiring baking. Raw Sugar Sugar that hasn't been refined fully.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Ricotta Ricotta is a soft, unripened Italian curd cheese. Sweet in flavor and grainy in texture, Ricotta is used often in Italian sweets (such as cannoli) and in savory dishes as stuffed pasta and lasagne. Rock Salt A crystalline form of salt. Royale, a la A consumme garnish made of unsweetened custard. Also a poached fish or poultry in a veloute sauce (a white sauce of stock and cream thickened with butter and flour) with truffles. Sabayon A frothy wine custard of egg yolk, sugar, and wine. Served warm as a dessert or sauce. Scotch Bonnet Chiles One of the world's hottest peppers, about 30-50 times as hot as a jalapeno. They range in color from green to orange and are about the size of a walnut. Serrano Chiles A hot chile pepper, smaller and thinner than the jalapeno. Shallots An onion variety that produces clusters of bulbs. Their flavor is slightly less intense than that of onions with a hint of garlic. Shitake Also called Chinese, black or oriental mushroom (in its dried form). Shitake is a strongly flavored mushroom used in both its fresh and dried form. Sorrel leaves Bright green leaves with a lemony flavor that soften when cooked. Soy Sauce A salty sauce composed mainly of soybeans, salt, yeast, wheat, and sugar. Also made from the fremented soy product called miso. Squab Young, usually 3-4 weeks old, domesticated pigeon with dark meat and weighs one pound or less. Star Anise A star-shaped, dark brown pod that contains a pea-sized seed in each of its eight segments. Native to China, star anise comes from a small evergreen tree. Its flavor is slightly more bitter than that of regular anise seed. Tabasco Sauce A hot sauce comprised solely of vinegar, red pepper, and salt. Tahini A nut-butter-style paste made from ground sesame seeds. Tamarind Paste A vitamin-rich, tangy, prune like pulp from the pods of a tropical Asian tree. It is used as a seasoning in curries and chutneys as well as for drinks, jams, or sorbets. Tomatillos Small, green, firm, tomatoes. They are covered with a paper like husk that's removed before cooking. Their acid flavor add a great flavor for sauces. Tortillas Mexican staple that are either made of flour or masa harina and cooked on a flat griddle called a comal. Turmeric From a rhizome plant that is often dried and ground. It is used to spice and color Indian and Southeast Asian cooking. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 97

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Univalve A single-shelled mollusc, such as abalone and sea urchin. Vichyssoise A rich-creamy cold potato and leek soup thickened with cream and garnished with chives Walnut These nuts are native to Asia and grow on walnut trees inside green pods which turn brown and wood like when they dry. Walnut Oil The oil extracted from the walnut. It gives most foods a wonderful nutty flavor. Wasabi A pungent green paste made from a rhizome of the watercress family. Also called Japanese horseradish. Worcestershire Sauce A spicy sauce composed mainly of water, vinegar, molasses, corn syrup, anchovies, spices and flavorings. Xanthan gum Produced from the fermentation of corn sugar, xanthan gum is used as a thickener, emulsifier and stabilizer in foods such as dairy products, ice cream, and salad dressings. Yeast A leavening agent used in doughs and batters. It usually comes in a dry, bead like form and in a fresh form. Zabaglione An Italian custard dessert made solely of egg yolks, sugar, and Marsala wine. Zest The rind of citrus fruit, usually orange, grapefruit, lime, and lemon. Abaisse C'est une pte gteau tale, aplatie l'aide d'un rouleau ptisserie. Allg Ce dit d'un corps gras (ex : beurre, crme) duquel un certain pourcentage de sa graisse a t retir. Il faudra noter cependant qu'il est plus difficile de lier une sauce avec une crme allge qu'avec une crme "entire". Appareil C'est le nom donn en cuisine une prparation, un mlange d'ingrdients semiliquide (pte, quiche, souff etc.) Baeckeoffe Plat complet alsacien base de trois viandes (porc, boeuf, agneau) d'oignons, de carottes, de pommes de terre et herbes, le tout mouill de vin blanc (Sylvaner) cuisant dans une grande terrine lute pendant de longues heures feu doux au four. A l'origine, c'est dans le four du boulanger (bcker = boulanger en alsacien) que cuisait ("offe"= cuire en alsacien) ce plat. Le Baeckeoffe est le nom de la terrine et du plat comme un "tajine" nomme le repas ainsi que l'ustensile ou encore "paella". Plusieurs orthographes sont possibles pour ce nom : entre autres "backofen" ou "backenofen" qui serait plutt d'origine allemande ... Prononciation : "bqeu-oofeu" en alsacien du nord et bqua-ofa en alsacien du sud.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Bain-Marie Nom masculin. Eau bouillante dans laquelle on plonge un rcipient contenant des substances faire chauffer lentement, sans contact direct avec le feu. Un "Bain-Marie" des "BainsMarie". [Dfinition tire du dictionnaire Hachette d. 1990] Barigoule Nom fminin. Nom provenal (Barigoulo) du lactaire, champignon comestible. Artichauts la barigoule : farcis la viande ou d'oeuf hach et cuits l'huile d'olive. [Dfinition tire du dictionnaire Hachette d. 1990] Par extension, artichauts cuits l'huile d'olive avec un mlange d'ingrdients . Beurre Blanc Sauce base d'chalotes, de vin blanc, de vinaigre et beurre mulsionn. Souvent utilise pour les sauces de poissons. Voir aussi Beurre Rouge. Beurre Clarifi Partie du beurre restant en suspension une fois celui-ci fondu; les impurets et le petitlait restant au fond. C'est ces derniers qui font que le beurre noircit la cuisson. Le beurre clarifi tient donc mieux la cuisson mais aussi se conserve plus longtemps. Beurre Pommade Beurre laiss temprature ambiante, ventuellement travaill la fourchette, pour le rendre mou jusqu' la consistance d'une pommade. Ne surtout pas faire chauffer dans une casserole en pensant acclrer le processus ! Beurre Rouge Sauce base d'chalotes, de vin rouge et beurre mulsionn. Voir aussi Beurre Blanc. Blanchir Donner une premire cuisson dans l'eau bouillante avant d'apprter des fruits lgumes ou des viandes. Cette opration permet de mieux peler les lgumes ou fruits ou de leur ter un got non dsir ou encore retirer certaines impurets. Brider Opration consistant ficeler une viande (volaille, rosbif, paupiette) pour que celle-ci garde la forme compacte souhaite la cuisson. Voir aussi Dbrider. Brunch BRUNCH est la contraction de 2 mots anglo-saxons "BREAKFAST" (petit-jeuner) et "LUNCH" (djeuner, repas du midi). C'est donc, comme son nom l'indique, un repas qui sert la fois de petit-djeuner et de repas du midi. Il se prend gnralement d'une manire informelle en milieu de matine et s'tire jusqu'aprs-midi. Voir aussi le mot Slunch. Chemiser Recouvrir les parois intrieures d'un moule d'une substance ou de papier (du papier sulfuris par exemple). Chiffonnade Feuilles de salade ou tranches de jambon ciseles en lanires. Chinois Passoire mtallique en forme de cne ayant un maillage plus ou moins fin. Le chinois sert filtrer entre autres toutes sortes de jus. Ciseler Opration consistant couper en fines lanires ou en fins morceaux des lgumes ou des herbes.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Clavelin Bouteille en verre d'une contenance de 62 centilitres. Elle a t spcialement conue pour recevoir le clbre "Vin Jaune" du Jura. A l'poque o toutes les bouteilles de vin faisait 100 cl (et non 75 cl comme actuellement), sa contenance rappellait ainsi que sur le litre de vin du dpart il ne restait que 62 centilitres de Vin Jaune. En effet, le long veillissement en ft de 6 ans et 3 mois (temps minimum) cre une vaporation d'un bon tiers du volume. Ce vin vapor s'appelle la "part des anges". Crozet Ptes plates de 5 mm sur 5 mm environ, originaires des Alpes souvent base de farine de Sarrasin. Leur temps de cuisson est gnralement long (20 mn) pour obtenir une cuisson malgr tout "al dente". Cul-de-poule Rcipient au fond sphrique permettant de monter des prparations ncessitant un mouvement circulaire. par exemple la crme Chantilly , les oeufs en Neige, la Mousse au chocolat, la Mayonnaise etc. Darne Tranche de gros poisson (entier mais vid) coupe perpendiculairement l'arte principale (darne de saumon, darne de lieu), alors qu'un filet est coup paralllement l'arte principale et qu'un pav est souvent un morceau "carr" d'un filet coup pais. Dbrider Opration consistant retirer la ficelle ayant permis une viande pralablement ficele et cuite de garder sa forme. Voir aussi Brider. Dcoction Opration consistant laisser une plante dans de l'eau juste bouillante sur le feu afin que celle-ci se charge des saveurs de la plante. Ne pas confondre avec Infusion. Dglacer Opration consistant rcuprer les sucs des jus de cuisson par ajout d'un liquide. Celui-ci peut-tre aussi bien de l'eau que du vin ou encore du vinaigre. Le rsultat en sera une sauce ou un jus enrichi des saveurs des sucs et du liquide ajout puis rduit. Dgraisser Opration consistant retirer le gras d'un bouillon d'une sauce ou d'un jus. Une mthode trs pratique consiste laisser prendre au rfrigrateur le liquide dgraisser. Il suffit ensuite de retirer la graisse fige en surface. cumer Opration consistant retirer la mousse se formant lors de la cuisson d'un bouillon. Cette mousse est toujours cumer car elle contient une grande partie des impurets des viandes et lgumes cuisant dans le bouillon. D'une manire gnrale, cette opration doit devenir un rflexe mme si la recette de cuisine ne le stipule pas formellement. Pour cette opration une cumoire est indispensable. cumoire Nom fminin. Ustensile de cuisine form d'un disque mince lgrement incurv , perc de trous et muni d'un long manche , servant cumer. [Dfinition dictionnaire Hachette d. 1990] Elle est aussi souvent utilise pour extraire des ingrdients d'un bouillon. Emincer Opration consistant couper en fines tranches un fruit, un lgume ou encore une viande.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Epigramme Nom Masculin ou fminin en cuisine. Exclusivement fminin en littrature. En cuisine, poitrine grille. En littrature : Petit pome termin par un trait satirique ou mordant. tuver Faire cuire feu doux avec un minimum de matire grasse. L'aliment cuit pratiquement dans sa propre vapeur d'eau. Flamber Recouvrir une prparation d'un alcool fort pralablement enflamm. Cette action permet de dposer sur la prparation culinaire en question tout l'arme de l'alcool. Fond de sauce Sauce rduite son maximum pour obtenir une substance trs forte en got. Les fonds de sauce sont souvent rincorpors dans des bouillons ou jus un peu plus fades afin qu'ils y apportent leur force. Il existe aussi des fonds de sauces en poudre rhydrater. Fleurer Saupoudrer un plan de travail avec de la farine de manire viter que la pte travailler ne colle dessus. Grenadin (de veau) C'est une tranche paisse prise dans le "filet" du veau. Gribiche Sauce froide dont la base est une mayonnaise confectionne avec un jaune d'oeuf dur au lieu d'un jaune d'oeuf cru. Cette mayonnaise est ensuite enrichie d'un hachis comprenant herbes armatiques, cpres et blanc d'oeuf. C'est la sauce idale pour la la recommande aussi avec des bulots cuits. tte de veau. Hacher Opration consistant rduire en tous petits morceaux ou en farce des lgumes, de la viande ou des herbes. Selon le rsultat escompt diffrents ustensiles peuvent tre utiliss : couteau, robot (qui a une tendance hacher tellement fin que le rsultat est souvent trop en bouilli) ou hachoir main. Inciser Entailler une viande, un poisson un lgume avant une cuisson. Infusion Opration consistant laisser une plante dans de l'eau juste bouillante (mais hors du feu) afin que celle-ci se charge des saveurs de la plante. Ne pas confondre avec dcoction. Julienne Dcoupe de lgumes en btonnets de 1 2 mm d'paisseur sur une longueur de 3 6 cm environ. Lactoserum Synonyme de petit-lait. Lier C'est une opration qui consiste donner du corps une prparation trop liquide. cette consistance est obtenue par l'apport de crme, de beurre, de farine, de mazena (farine de mas), de fcule (farine de Pomme de terre - souvent utiliser dans la fondue savoyarde), d'oeuf. Cette opration quoique simple dans son principe est dlicate dans sa ralisation en ce sens que c'est le dosage et le temps de cuisson supplmentaire qui feront que la sauce ne sera pas assez ou alors trop lie.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Luter Opration consistant faire un pton avec de la farine et de l'eau. Ce pton est ensuite coll entre le couvercle et la terrine et la cocotte de manire obtenir une fermeture absolument hermtique. Cette technique est utilise pour la confection de certains pts et plats en sauce (par exemple le Baeckeoffe). Macrer Faire sjourner plus ou moins longtemps dans un liquide un mlange de viandes et/ou de lgumes. Le rsulat obtenir tant un mlange des saveurs. Matre Queux Voir "Queux". Mariner Faire sjourner plus ou moins longtemps dans un liquide un mlange de viandes et/ou de lgumes. Le rsulat obtenir tant souvent d'attendir la viande, et l'armatiser grce aux lgumes ajouts et la saveur du liquide employ. Marinire Faon de cuisiner les fruits de mer base d'un jus compos de vin blanc de persil, d'ail et d'oignons et chalotes revenus pralablement dans du beurre ou de l'huile. Mijoter Faire cuire toute petite bullition. Mirepoix Nom fminin. Carottes, oignons poireaux coups en petits ds. Monder Opration consistant peler (et par extension ppiner) des fruits (tomates, amandes, etc.) Mouiller Opration consistant ajouter un liquide des aliments de manire obtenir une sauce. Napper Opration consistant recouvrir d'une sauce suffisamment lie des lgumes ou plus souvent des morceaux de viande ou encore un dessert. Paner Recouvrir un morceau de viande avec de la chapelure. Il est souvent conseill de tremper la viande dans du jaune d'oeuf au pralable de manire ce que la chapelure adhre bien. Parer Opration consistant prparer une viande pour la rendre prsentable par le retrait du surplus de gras, de nerf et d'os. Petit-lait Liquide qui se spare du lait caill. Le lait caill est une phase intermdaire du produit laitier dans la fabrication fromage. Synonyme de lactoserum. Au pluriel , "des petits-laits". Pluche Feuilles d'herbes aromatiques telles que le persil, le cerfeuil. Par dfinition elles ne sont donc pas haches. Quasi Morceau de veau situ entre la queue et le rognon de veau. Ce morceau est galement connu sous le nom de "cul de veau". [Dfinition tire de "Recettes Classiques de plats et mets traditionnels" d. 1971]

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Queux Ou Keu, rle de chef de cuisine au "Moyen ge". Taillevent fut "Grand Queux de France". Matre queux , chef de cuisine. La Renaissance les dsigna : "Officier de bouche", titre militaire, ou "chef de bouche" dans les maisons princires. Rduire Opration consistant faire vaporer une sauce un bouillon afin d'obtenir une sauce plus consistante mais surtout pour obtenir des saveurs plus concentres. Il faut se mfier lorsqu'il est procd une telle rduction de n'avoir pas trop saler intialement sa prparation.... la concentration en sel augmentant au fur et mesure de la rduction de la sauce ! Revenir (faire) Faire cuire des lgumes ou des viandes dans un corps gras (beurre, huile, saindoux etc.) jusqu' l'obtention d'une coloration. Cette opration permet de crer des saveurs nouvelles grce la raction de Maillard. Cette opration prliminaire de nombreuses recettes n'est jamais ngliger pour que le rsultat gustatif final soit la hauteur. Si aucune coloration n'est demande, on ne dit plus faire "revenir" mais faire "suer". Roquette Petite salade aux feuilles allonges comme celles des pisselits mais ayant la tendret de la laitue avec un lger got amer et de noisette la fois apportant une note frache. Roux Farine cuite dans un corps gras et destine faire des sauces blanches, brunes ou blondes selon que la cuisson de la farine est plus ou moins prolonge. Roux blanc pour les sauces base de lait ou de fond blanc, roux blond pour les sauces tomates ou similaires, roux brun pour les sauces demi-glace, venaison etc. [Dfinition tire de "Recettes Classiques de plats et mets traditionnels" d. 1971] Saisir Faire cuire feu trs vif un aliment. Cette opration, suivant l'aliment peu se faire avec ou sans apport de graisse (beurre, huile etc.). Singer Saupoudrer de farine une viande pralablement revenue dans un corps gras et qui cuira encore quelques temps une fois la farine ajoute. Cette opration permet de lier la sauce souvent ajoute suite cette opration. Cette technique est principalement utilise pour les plats en sauce. Slunch SLUNCH est la contraction de 2 mots anglo-saxons "SUPPER" (Le souper, le repas du soir) et "LUNCH" (repas du midi). C'est gnralement un repas qui sert la fois de gouter et de repas du soir. Il se prend gnralement d'une manire informelle vers 17h00 pour s'tirer jusqu'au soir. Voir aussi le mot Brunch. Suer (faire) Faire cuire un aliment dans un rcipient feu doux, pour vacuer l'humidit et lui faire rendre ses sucs. Logiquement si une coloration est demande on ne dit plus faire "suer" mais faire "revenir".

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Tajine Nom masculin. Ragot d'Afrique du Nord (et plus particulirement originaire du Maroc). C'est avant tout le nom de l'ustensile en terre cuite : un rcipient rond dot d'un couvercle cnique. Il est l'quivalent de la cocotte en fonte europenne. Par extension le tajine dsigne le ragot en lui-mme. Il existe plusieurs sortes de tajines : aux olives, aux artichauts, aux pois chiches, aux pruneaux aux citrons confits qui accompagnent essentiellement de l'agneau mais aussi du boeuf, du poulet ou encore du pigeon. Le tout est cuit l'touffe. Tour Terme employ en patisserie lors de la fabrication de la pte feuillete correspondant au pliage de la pte, un tour = un pliage, deux tours = deux pliages etc. Vanner Action de donner de l'air une sauce ou un liquide soit en le remuant l'aide d'une spatule, soit en le transvasant plusieurs fois d'un rcipient dans un autre pour le refroidir sans qu'il se forme de peau. [Dfinition tire de "Recettes Classiques de plats et mets traditionnels" d. 1971] Venaison Se dit de la chair de tous les gros gibiers poil. Livres et lapins de garenne constituent la basse venaison. Waterzoi Plat "Gantois" entre la poule au pot et la Blanquette. Cette volaille la crme et aux lgumes a t adopte par la cuisine flamande franaise. Le waterzoi (signifiant littralement "eau qui bout") dsigne aussi un plat de poissons de la mer du Nord, cuits dans un court-bouillon enrichi de beurre et de crme. Wok Appareil de cuisson en mtal en forme de saladier trs vas fond mince qui permet de saisir les aliments. Il est d'origine chinoise mais son emploi est devenu universel.

Zeste Partie extrieure de la peau d'un agrume (orange, citron, pamplemousse etc.). Il est conseill lorsqu'on en prlve de le faire sur des agrumes non traits voire "bio". Il faut aussi viter de prendre trop de la couche infrieure de la peau (la partie blanche) qui ajoute beaucoup d'amertume. Caviar Beluga : Name for the largest of the Sturgeon fishes. Latin name Huso huso. Native of the Caspian and Black Sea water sheds, it is also still native to the Adriatic, but very rare. Beluga caviar has the largest egg size of any caviar, one of the reasons for its top prize. It also has a unique colour grading system- 000 guarantees a light grey colour, which is the most expensive. 00 - codes for "medium grey" Malossol : Widely used Russian term meaning lightly salted. It is sometimes seen written as Malo's sol. In practice this means in the region of 3-5% salt. It is a term that is not indicative of quality, merely describing the process. If the salt content exceeds 5%, it should then be termed salted caviar. The low salt level means that even if the caviar is kept appropriately cool it has a restricted shelf life of only 2-3 months.

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Oscietre : This is a term that is more a description of a type of caviar rather than being limited to the caviar of one single species. Although more often than not it tends to mean the caviar of the Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii), several other sturgeon produce similar small grained nutty flavoured eggs which are also categorised and sold as osetra caviar. This is the reason why osetra caviar has a reputation for being somewhat variable in colour, flavour and size. There are a range of alternative spellings still in use such as oscietre and osscietre. Sevruga : This is the name reserved for the caviar produced by the sturgeon species, Acipenser stellatus. The English name for this species is the Starry Sturgeon. It is native to the river networks leading into the Caspian and Black Seas.

The 1855 Classification


In 1855, Napoleon III, emperor of France, decided to throw a Universal Exposition in Paris, a kind of world's fair, and wanted all the country's wines represented. He invited Bordeaux's Chamber of Commerce to arrange an exhibit. The members of the chamber knew a hornet's nest when they saw one, so they passed the buck. They agreed, according to their records, to present "all our crus classs, up to the fifth growths," but asked the Syndicat of Courtiers, an organization of wine merchants, to draw up "an exact and complete list of all the red wines of the Gironde that specifies in which class they belong." The courtiers hardly even paused to think; two weeks later, they turned in the famous list. It included 58 chateaux: four firsts, 12 seconds, 14 thirds, 11 fourths and 17 fifths. They expected controversy. "You know as well as we do, Sirs, that this classification is a delicate task and bound to raise questions; remember that we have not tried to create an official ranking, but only to offer you a sketch drawn from the very best sources." Curiously, all of the courtiers' selections came from the Mdoc, with the single exception of Haut-Brion (they also ranked the sweet white wines of Sauternes and Barsac). It's not that other wine regions weren't active; the Graves boasted a much longer history, and Cheval Blanc in St.-Emilion and Canon in Fronsac were highly regarded by the early 19th century. But the 18th century revolution in wine quality took hold first and most firmly in the M?doc. Reaction to the classification was heated. The courtiers' original list ranked the chateaux by quality within each class, so, for example, Mouton-Rothschild appeared at the head of the seconds. But undoubtedly responding to criticism, they wrote the chamber in early September insisting that no such hierarchy had been intended, so the chamber rearranged the list of each class into alphabetical order. Since 1855, many changes have occurred in the chateaux's names, owners, vineyards and wine quality, and because of divisions in the original estates, there are now 61 chateaux on the list. But if an estate can trace its lineage to the classification, it retains its claim to cru class status. The only formal revision came in 1973, when after half a century of unceasing effort Baron Philippe de Rothschild succeeded in having Mouton elevated to first growth.

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The Official 1855 Classification


(Modern names are in parentheses)

First Growths
Premiers Crus Chateau:Lafite-Rothschild Pauillac Chateau Latour Pauillac Chateau Margaux Margaux Chateau Haut-Brion Pessac, Graves (since 1986, Pessac-Leognan)

Second Growths
Deuxiemes Crus Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (became a first growth in 1973) Pauillac Chateau Rausan-Segla (Rauzan-Segla) Margaux Chateau Rauzan-Gassies Margaux Chateau Leoville Las Cases St.-Julien Chateau Leoville Poyferre St.-Julien Chateau Leoville Barton St.-Julien Chateau Durfort-Vivens Margaux Chateau Gruaud-Larose St.-Julien Chateau Lascombes Margaux Chateau Brane-Cantenac Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux) Chateau Pichon-Longueville-Baron Pauillac Chateau Pichon Longueville Comtesse de Lalande (Pichon-Longueville-Lalande) Pauillac Chateau Ducru-Beaucaillou St.-Julien Chateau Cos d'Estournel St.-Estephe Chateau Montrose St.-Estephe

Third Growths
Troisiemes Crus Chateau Kirwan Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux) Chateau d'Issan Cantenac.Margaux (Margaux) Chateau Lagrange St.-Julien Chateau Langoa Barton St.-Julien Chateau Giscours Labarde-Margaux (Margaux) Chateau Malescot St. Exupery Margaux Chateau Cantenac-Brown Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux) Chateau Boyd-Cantenac Margaux Chateau Palmer Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux) Chateau La Lagune Ludon (Haut-Medoc) Chateau Desmirail Margaux Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 106

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Chateau Calon-Segur St.-Estephe Chateau Ferriere Margaux Chateau Marquis d'Alesme Becker Margaux

Fourth Growths
Quatriemes Crus Chateau St.-Pierre St.-Julien Chateau Talbot St.-Julien Chateau Branaire-Ducru St.-Julien Chateau Duhart-Milon-Rothschild Pauillac Chateau Pouget Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux) Chateau La Tour Carnet St.-Laurent (Haut-Medoc) Chateau Lafon-Rochet St.-Estephe Chateau Beychevelle St.-Julien Chateau Prieure-Lichine Cantenac-Margaux (Margaux) Chateau Marquis de Terme Margaux

Fifth Growths
Cinquiemes Crus Chateau Pontet-Canet Pauillac Chateau Batailley Pauillac Chateau Haut-Batailley Pauillac Chateau Grand-Puy-Lacoste Pauillac Chateau Grand-Puy-Ducasse Pauillac Chateau Lynch-Bages Pauillac Chateau Lynch-Moussas Pauillac Chateau Dauzac Labarde (Margaux) Chateau Mouton-Baronne-Philippe (Chateau d'Armailhac after 1989) Pauillac Chateau du Tertre Arsac (Margaux) Chateau Haut-Bages Liberal Pauillac Chateau Pedesclaux Pauillac Chateau Belgrave St.-Laurent (Haut-Medoc) Chateau Camensac (Chateau de Camensac) St.-Laurent (Haut-Medoc) Chateau Cos Labory St.-Estephe Chateau Clerc-Milon Pauillac Chateau Croizet Bages Pauillac Chateau Cantemerle Macau (Haut-Medoc)

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Sauternes and Barsac: The Classification of 1855


(Modern names are in parentheses)

Great First Growth


Grand Premier Cru Chateau d'Yquem Sauternes

First Growths
Premiers Crus Chateau La Tour Blanche Bommes (Sauternes) Chateau Lafaurie-Peyraguey Bommes (Sauternes) Clos Haut-Peyraguey (Chateau Clos Haut-Peyraguey) Bommes (Sauternes) Chateau de Rayne-Vigneau Bommes (Sauternes) Chateau Suduiraut Preignac (Sauternes) Chateau Coutet Barsac Chateau Climens Barsac Chateau Guiraud Sauternes Chateau Rieussec Fargues (Sauternes) Chateau Rabaud-Promis Bommes (Sauternes) Chateau Sigalas-Rabaud Bommes (Sauternes)

Second Growths
Deuxiemes Crus Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Chateau Myrat (Chateau de Myrat) Barsac Doisy Daene Barsac Doisy-Dubroca Barsac Doisy-Vedrines Barsac D'Arche Sauternes Filhot Sauternes Broustet Barsac Nairac Barsac Caillou Barsac Suau Barsac de Malle Preignac (Sauternes) Romer (Chateau Romer du Hayot) Fargues (Sauternes) Lamothe Sauternes

The ABC's of Wine Tasting


Skillful tasting unlocks wine's treasures. This step-by-step guide gives you the keys. Drinking wine is easy: tilt glass and swallow. Tasting wine is more of a challenge. You need special tools, the proper environment, keen concentration, a good memory and a vivid imagination. But after three or four glasses, the basic effect is the same either way. So why bother? I'm a baseball fan. When I take a friend who knows nothing about the sport to the ballpark, he may enjoy the crowd, down a hot dog, cheer if someone hits a home run. The rest of the time he's asking me, What's the big deal? One guy throws a ball, the other guy misses it. But for me, every pitch is a Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 108

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual small drama: what the pitcher chooses to throw, how the defense sets up, where the batter tries to hit it, how the strategies play out. When nine innings are over, we both know the score. But while my friend may have passed a pleasant afternoon, I've been totally absorbed in the game. Life can be lived in a casual way, or plumbed to the depths. We all choose how and where to spend our energy and attention. You may play music, cook seriously, tend a lovely garden. Maybe the things you love aren't vital, but they make life richer. Passion is never wasted effort. That's why wine lovers learn to taste. We know that the effort we put into understanding and appreciating wine--as opposed to simply enjoying it (or its psychotropic effects)--pays big dividends. Really tasting wine adds an extra dimension to the basic daily routines of eating and drinking. It turns obligation into pleasure, a daily necessity into a celebration of life.

The Components Of Tasting:

Set and Setting


So what is wine tasting all about? Like any skill, serious tasting requires a combination of technique and experience. The more you do it, the better you become. Given an unidentified wine, an expert taster, using only his senses and his memory, can pick out the grape variety, the wine's vintage, its region of origin, even the specific winery that produced it. That's the myth. In fact, if the wine is served at room temperature and the taster is blindfolded, most can't even tell whether it's red or white. Harry Waugh, an English wine expert who has been tasting for nearly 80 years, was once asked if he had ever mistaken Burgundy for Bordeaux. "Not since lunch," he replied. Blind tasting is a great parlor game. But the real goal is to understand a wine, not to unmask it. Through a concentrated application of all the senses, and by comparison of the immediate sense data with memories of other wines tasted, the serious taster can decipher a wine's biography to an amazing extent, including the growing season that produced it, the approach of the winemaker who created it and its relation to other wines of similar type or origin. Every bottle of wine is a message, the physical embodiment of a specific place and time captured and transmitted for the pleasure of the taster. Open a bottle of 1961 red Bordeaux and even a generation later the dusty warmth of that long, hot summer floods the dining room. Even more, though, wine is a catalyst. The effort to understand it through tasting, and to share that understanding with other tasters, creates a common experience that builds bonds between people. The great French enologist Emile Peynaud emphasized this aspect of tasting in his landmark book, The Taste of Wine: "Great wine has that marvelous quality of immediately establishing communication between those who are drinking it. Tasting it at table should not be a solitary activity and fine wine should not be drunk without comment. There are few pleasures which loosen the tongue as much as that of sharing wine, glass in hand. In essence it is Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 109

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual easy to describe what one senses provided one has made a sufficient effort to notice it. What is clearly perceived can be clearly expressed." The techniques of tasting enhance the ability to perceive wine clearly. They're actually pretty simple and follow logically through a well-defined series of steps. Some of the procedures may seem unnatural or pretentious to the uninitiated, but they've been developed over centuries to achieve specific ends. After a while, they become automatic. Swirling wine in the glass to release the aromas may feel clumsy at first, but now I often find myself at the table swirling my glass of water. At Wine Spectator, the editors taste nearly 8,000 wines a year. Here's how we do it. First of all, consider the circumstances. Not all wines deserve or repay close analysis. If you're drinking white Zinfandel out of paper cups at a picnic, any attempt to taste seriously will be wasted effort and probably perceived as snobbery. Professional tasters prefer a day-lit, odor-free room with white walls and tabletops, in order to throw the wine into the clearest possible relief, but in the end it's a sterile environment that improves analysis at the cost of pleasure. To maximize both enjoyment and understanding, serve your wine at a dinner party with friends; comfortable chairs, warm light and good food create an ambience where the wines-and the guests--can express themselves without constraint or reproach. Remember that tasting is not a test--your subjective response is more important than any "right answers." The bottom line is: Wine that tastes good to you is good wine. And no matter how advanced your technique, tasting is not an exact science. Sensitivities vary widely when it comes to flavor and aroma. These differences are both physiological and cultural. When test groups of French and Germans were given wine with 8 grams of sugar per liter, 92 percent of the Germans called the wine "dry" while only 7 percent of the French did. Their reference points were different: German whites are more often frankly sweet than French ones, so the German tasters were less sensitive to sugar in their wines. The goal in tasting wine is not to "find" the same aromas and flavors some other taster is describing. If you hone your own perceptual abilities and develop your own vocabulary to articulate them, you'll not only derive more pleasure from the wine itself, but also stimulate better communication between you and the friends who are sharing the bottle.

The Components Of Tasting:

Looking at Wine
The first step in your examination is visual. Fill the glass about one-third full, never more than half-full. Pick it up by the stem. This may feel awkward at first, or affected, but there are good reasons: Holding the glass by its bowl hides the liquid from view; fingerprints blur its color; the heat of your hand alters the wine's temperature. Peynaud says, "Offer someone a wine glass and you can tell immediately by the way they hold it whether or not they are connoisseurs."

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Focus in turn on hue, intensity and clarity. Each requires a different way of looking. The true color, or hue, of the wine is best judged by tilting the glass and looking at the wine through the rim, to see the variation from the deepest part of the liquid to its edges. Intensity can best be gauged looking straight down through the wine from above. Clarity--whether the wine is brilliant, or cloudy with particles--is most evident when light is shining sideways through the glass. Each of these elements reveals different aspects of a wine's character and quality; I'll detail these later. But don't forget simply to enjoy the wine's color. No other liquid is as vivid and variegated, or reflects light with such joy and finesse. There's good reason wine's appearance is often compared to ruby and garnet, topaz and gold. Next comes the swirling. This too can feel unnatural, even dangerous if your glass is too full and your clothing brand-new. But besides stirring up the full range of colors, it prepares the wine for the next step, the olfactory examination. The easiest way to swirl is to rest the base of the glass on a table, hold the stem between thumb and forefinger, and gently rotate the wrist. Right-handers will find a counter-clockwise motion easiest, left-handers the reverse. Move the glass until the wine is dancing, climbing nearly to the rim. Then stop. As the liquid settles back into the bottom of the glass, a transparent film will appear on the inside of the bowl, falling slowly and irregularly down the sides in the wine's "tears" or "legs." "Experts" derive meanings from them as various and profound as fortune-tellers do from looking at tea leaves, but in truth they're simply an indication of the amount of alcohol in the wine: the more alcohol, the more tears. Remember that when you're considering whether to open another bottle.

The Components Of Tasting:

Smelling Wine
When you stop swirling, and the tears are falling, it's time to take the next step: smelling. Agitating the wine vaporizes it, and the thin sheet of liquid on the sides of the glass evaporates rapidly; the result is an intensification of the aromas. If the glass narrows at the top, the aromas are further concentrated. Stick your nose right into the bowl and inhale. There's no consensus about the proper sniffing technique. Some advocate two or three quick inhalations; others prefer one deep, sharp sniff. I've seen tasters close one nostril, sniff, then close the other and sniff again. The goal is to draw the aromas deep into the nose, to bring them into contact with the olfactory mucosa and thence to the olfactory bulb, where the sensations are registered and deciphered. It's a remote and protected place, and a head cold or allergies will effectively block it off from even the strongest aromas. But with practice, and keen attention, you'll learn how to maximize your perception of aromas, and then how to decipher them. The world of smell is vast and bewildering. First of all, our olfactory equipment is incredibly sensitive; we can distinguish aromas in quantities so small that laboratory equipment can scarcely measure them. Second, our analytic capacity is extraordinary; estimates of the number of different smells humans can identify range Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 111

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual up to 10,000! Finally, wine has a staggering number of smellable elements. In their exhaustive study Wines: Their Sensory Evaluation, Maynard Amerine and Edward Roessler, both professors at the University of California, write that "Identified in wine aromas are at least 181 esters, 52 alcohols, 75 aldehydes and ketones, 22 acetals, 18 lactones, six secondary acetamides, 29 nitrogen-containing compounds, 18 sulfurcontaining compounds, two ethers, 11 furans and 18 epoxides, as well as 30 miscellaneous compounds. Many of these are modified in various ways by aging and cellar treatment, and they can and do react with each other or have additive, masking or synergistic properties." Serious wine tasters love to identify smells. "Chocolate!" cries one. "Burnt matches!" insists another. "Tea, tobacco, mushrooms and a bit of the old barnyard," intones a third. Are they just playing word games? Let's face it: Contemporary American culture turns up its nose at strong smells. We deodorize our bodies, our homes and our cars; everything from hand lotion to dishwashing detergent comes "lemony fresh," to give the impression of cleanliness and neutrality. It's no wonder we lack the language to describe the complex, fleeting sensations that evanesce from a half-filled glass of wine. But in fact, wine does smell of more than grapes. Analysis of its volatile components has identified the same molecules that give many familiar objects their distinctive scents. Here are just a few: rose, iris, cherry, peach, honey and vanilla. Who's to say that some of the more imaginative descriptors--from road tar to cat's pee, sweaty socks to smoked bacon--aren't grounded in some basic chemical affinity? As with color, wine's aromas offer insights into character, origin and history. Because our actual sense of taste is limited to four simple categories (the well-known sweet, sour, bitter and salt), aroma is the most revealing aspect of our examination. But don't simply sniff for clues. Revel in the sensation. Scientists say smells have direct access to the brain, connecting immediately to memory and emotion. Like a lover's perfume, or the scent of cookies from childhood, wine's aromas can evoke a specific place and time with uncanny power.

The Components Of Tasting:

Tasting Wine
Now comes the best part. You can be mesmerized by wine's flashing colors and hypnotized into dreamy reverie by its evocative aromas, but actually drinking the wine is what loosens the tongue, opens the arms and consummates the liquid's true purpose. You might think it's the easiest part, too. After all, you learned to drink from a cup when you were 2 years old and have been practicing diligently ever since. But there's a huge distinction between swallowing and tasting, the same gulf that yawns between simply hearing and truly listening. Once again, correct technique is essential to full appreciation.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual With the aromas still reverberating through your senses, put the glass to your lips and take some liquid in. How much? That depends on the size of your mouth. But too little is as ineffective as too much. I find that one-third to one-half an ounce is just about right. You need to have enough volume to work it all around your tasting apparatus, but not so much that you're forced to swallow right away. Because you don't want to swallow, not just yet. It takes time and effort to force the wine to divulge its secrets. I keep a pleasant wine in my mouth for 10 to 15 seconds, sometimes more. Roll the wine all around your mouth, bringing it into contact with every part, because each decodes a different aspect of the liquid. Wine provokes sensations, too: The astringency of tannins is most perceptible on the inner cheeks; the heat of the alcohol burns in the back of the throat. The strength of these taste sensations can be amplified through specialized techniques that, frankly, are more appropriate to the tasting lab than the dining room. But if the wine is seductive enough, you may not be able to resist. First, as you hold the wine in your mouth, purse your lips and inhale gently through them. This creates a bubbling noise children find immensely amusing. It also accelerates vaporization, intensifying the aromas. Second, chew the wine vigorously, sloshing it around in your mouth, to draw every last nuance of flavor from the wine. Don't forget the finish. After you swallow, exhale gently and slowly through both your nose and mouth. The retronasal passage, which connects the throat and the nose, is another avenue for aromas, which can linger long after the wine is finally swallowed. You'll find that the better the wine, the more complex, profound and long-lasting these residual aromas can be. With great wines, sensitive tasters and minimal distractions, the finish can last a minute or more. It's a moment of meditation and communion that no other beverage can create.

What Tasting Tells:

What Wine Is
Wine tasting offers us the best route to understanding the messages hidden in the bottle. You can think of them as poetic, or autobiographical. Poetry comes easily to sensitive palates confronted with great wines. It's harder work to tease out the facts that create these feelings. After all,as Peynaud puts it so bluntly, "Considered from a chemical point of view, wine is a hydro-alcoholic solution containing 20 to 30 grams of substances in solution, which constitute the extract and give it flavor, and several hundred milligrams of volatile substances, which constitute its odor." By deciphering these diverse substances, an attentive taster can learn a great deal about the wine they compose. Every wine is a complex web made up of natural and man-made components. The final taste is determined by forces as non-negotiable as the number of hours of sunlight during the grapes' growing season, and decisions as personal as whether the grape juice should macerate on its skins for 10 days or two weeks or a month. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 113

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual While no introductory guide can even attempt to link all the ways flavor reflects the particular history of a wine, the more of them tasters can identify, the more complete their appreciation will be. Here are a few of the most important links between the real world and the liquid. I'll use a hypothetical Cabernet Sauvignon as an example.

The Components Of Tasting:

Clues From Color


A wine's color gives many clues to its character. First, color reflects the specific variety of grape (or grapes) the wine is made from. Take two common red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. Cabernet berries are typically smaller, with thicker, darker skins, than Pinot Noir. As a result, wines based on Cabernet tend to show darker colors, leaning toward purple and black, instead of the ruby tones associated with Pinot. Second, color is influenced by growing conditions in the vineyard. A warm summer and dry autumn produce grapes that are fully ripe, with a high ratio of skin to juice, resulting in dark colors. A cool summer or a rainy harvest can result in unripe or diluted grapes, which will show up in colors with lighter hues and less intensity. Vinification techniques can also affect color. When red wines ferment, the grape skins are left to macerate in the juice, like a tea bag steeping in warm water. The elements that create color, the anthocyanins, are found in the skins, not the juice itself (most grapes, even red varieties, have clear juice), so the longer the skins steep, the darker the color will be. Even after fermentation is over and the skins are discarded, some solid material remains in suspension in the wine. Some winemakers choose to remove this material, through fining or filtering; others believe the wine benefits from a little residual deposit. Time in bottle--the inevitable process of aging--also has an impact. Young red wines are full of anthocyanins, and so their colors are deeper; with maturity, these coloring elements evolve, lightening through red to colors described as "brick" or "amber," slowly combining and falling out of suspension in the wine, creating a sediment in the bottom of the bottle. So if you pour a glass of red wine and look at it closely, you may find a deep garnet color, with good intensity but not brilliantly clear. You might reasonably infer that the wine is made from Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a warm climate, that the winemaker chose to extend maceration and to filter only lightly, and that it's from a recent good vintage. If the tasting's not blind and you already know what the wine is, you can compare its color with what you might expect: Perhaps it's exceptionally dark for a weak vintage, indicating good grape-growing or winemaking abilities, or maybe it's already faded for its age, suggesting that the grapes lacked concentration, or the winemaker was unable to extract the intensity that allows wines to mature with grace and complexity

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What Tasting Tells:

Clues From Aroma


Every step of the tasting will add more information to the equation, modifying the conclusions you're drawing about the wine. Aroma is the most complex element, and the most revealing to the experienced taster. Some commentators divide the aromatic components into several classes: those produced by the grapes themselves, those introduced by the chemical processes of winemaking and, finally, those that result from the evolution of the wine over time in the bottle. Sometimes the first two classes, which are most distinctive when the wine is young, are called the "aroma," while the third, which emerges only in maturity, is called the "bouquet." As with color, grape variety and growing season are powerful determinants of aroma. Pinot Noir typically smells of red fruits like cherries and strawberries. Cabernet Sauvignon, like its color, tends to have darker aromas, typically black cherries or plums. Winemaking techniques dramatically affect aromas. The yeasts that cause fermentation are sometimes chosen by the winemakers and added to the juice specifically because of the aromatic and flavor nuances they create. Cool fermentations yield vibrant, fruity aromas; warmer ones give more spicy and earthy notes. The biggest aromatic impact comes after fermentation, when the wine is racked off the skins and held for clarification and maturation before bottling. Some Cabs are simply pumped into large vats, generally made of stainless steel, epoxied concrete or old wood. The large volume of the liquid and the neutral character of the container emphasize the fruit character inherent in the wine. Other (generally more ambitious and expensive) wines are racked into small (60-gallon) oak barrels. If the barrels are old, they too will be basically neutral, adding little in the way of flavor or aroma. If they are new, however, the wine absorbs elements from the wood that can add aromas (and flavors) of vanilla, smoke, toast, coffee, even chocolate. These aromas will vary in character and intensity depending on whether the oak is French or American in origin, how much the inside of the barrels have been charred, or "toasted," and what percentage of the barrels are new. Time in bottle also influences aromas. Young red wines smell of fruit; as they age, their bouquet evolves into complex perfumes that mingle cedar, tobacco, tea, mushrooms and spices. Different cultures prefer one stage over the other; the French drink their reds vigorous and fruity, while the English favor the softer, more earthy aromas of mature wines. Young wines can be delicious, but a great wine aged to perfect maturity is a glorious experience, and once sniffed will never be forgotten. So when you smell our hypothetical Cabernet and find scents that remind you of plums or blackberries, joined by aromas of vanilla and toast, you can reasonably assume the wine is young, made from ripe grapes and aged in a high percentage of new barrels--the "formula" that most often results in concentrated, age-worthy wines. If there are herbal, vegetal or other "green" notes, you may suspect the growing season was cool or short, preventing the grapes from achieving complete Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 115

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual maturity. If the fruit smells "cooked," ripe and sweet like jam or even raisins, overripe fruit from a long, hot summer is a likely cause.

What Tasting Tells:

Clues From Taste


Finally you taste the wine, and the last evidence falls into place. Our taste buds are blunt instruments--most of what we "taste" is actually perceived by our sense of smell--but they do add basic information, particularly about sweetness and acidity. Just as important are other physical sensations perceived in the mouth, such as a wine's body, astringency and level of alcohol. A wine's alcohol level results primarily from the ripeness of the grapes at harvest (more sugar in the grapes equals more strength in the wine) plus, where it's permitted, from additional sugar added during fermentation (a process called chaptalization). Most table wines contain from 7 to 14 percent alcohol naturally, and winemakers generally chaptalize where necessary to reach levels of 12 to 13 percent (though it's almost always illegal to boost a wine more than two degrees, or percent, through added sugar). Higher alcohol levels give wines richer textures and fuller bodies. Alcohol also provides a subliminal sweetness that's necessary to balance acid and bitter components inevitably present in wine. Acidity is also inherent in the grapes, though in hot climates (and where it's legal) winemakers may add some tartaric or citric acid to balance the sugar in ultraripe fruit. Acidity can also be manipulated through a process called malolactic fermentation (this is actually a bacterial activity, not a true fermentation). The process takes place after alcoholic fermentation, almost always in red wines and selectively in whites, according to the winemaker's vision of the wine. It transforms rather harsh malic acid (the kind found in green apples) to softer, rounder lactic acid (the kind found in milk), yielding softer wines that, especially in whites, often show marked buttery or creamy flavors. Tannins are elements extracted primarily from grape skins (and so found mostly in red wines), but which can derive from stems or seeds, and also from oak, especially new oak barrels. They're perceived as an astringent feeling. Young red wines meant for long aging are pumped full of tannins, by extending the maceration period or otherwise enhancing their extraction, because tannins act as a preservative and their chemical evolution toward softer, silkier textures is part of the maturation of great wines. Back to our Cab. In the mouth, you may note a marked astringency, plenty of fruit and very little tartness. When you swallow, there's a warm feeling in the back of your throat followed by a long aftertaste. You can reasonably assume that the wine is made from ripe grapes, possibly grown in a warm climate, and that the winemaker emphasized extraction to produce a long-lived wine. If the wine is too alcoholic and lacking in acidity, the grapes may have gotten too ripe before they were picked; if the tannins are too harsh, the winemaker may have left the juice on the skins for too long, aiming to make a super-wine but winding up with a bodybuilder, impressive in youth but unlikely to maintain its form. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 116

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Don't stop concentrating when you swallow, though. The finish--the taste that lingers for seconds, even minutes, when the wine is gone--is the wine's farewell. If it's short, the wine is simple and probably meant for early drinking. The longer it is, no matter what its age, the better the chances you have a winner. With age the tannins soften and the wine, which may be a collection of impressive but disparate impressions in its youth, will become more harmonious and complex. One of the most important and least certain judgments a wine taster makes is when a wine will reach its peak, achieve a point when all its elements come into alignment, creating a seamless web of color, aroma and flavor. One reason to invest in a wine by the case is to follow its evolution through the years. This maximizes your chances of catching the wine at its best. So our hypothetical tasting is over. Given an unknown red wine, we've determined that it has a deep garnet color, offers vibrant aromas and flavors of blackberries and toast, and is full-bodied and firmly tannic on the palate, with a long, clean finish. We can make a good guess that it's a young California Cab from a good vintage that's been made to develop with age and that, while it's attractive to drink now, it will be smoother and more complex after two or three years in the bottle. (Of course, we won't be surprised if it's from Bordeaux or Australia or even from some completely different grape!) If we know that the wine we're drinking is, say, Beringer Cabernet Sauvignon Napa Valley Private Reserve 1992 ($45, rated 95 points or "classic" by Wine Spectator editors), we can agree that it delivers on its promises and happily put our other bottles safely in the cellar for a special dinner down the road.

Understanding Wine
Most of the time, most of us drink young, simple wines. What you taste is what you get--they may be flavorful and refreshing, but they don't repay extended analysis. Even so, it can be amusing to taste them blind, to try to reach back through the wine to its components: grape variety, vintage quality, winemaking techniques. Sometimes we splurge, drinking a bottle from a topflight producer in a great vintage. Then, good tasting technique is essential to full appreciation. If the setting or the company is distracting, or we can't be bothered to concentrate on the data our senses are providing, then we've wasted our money and insulted the winemaker and the wine. Recently a Wine Spectator editor dined with a wealthy collector who opened 17 bottles for eight guests, serving them almost completely at random, pairing, for example, 1985 Krug Champagne and 1929 Chteau Mouton-Rothschild as apritifs. Appreciation is impossible when conspicuous consumption is filling the glass. But when you put senses and imagination to work, tasting a great wine can be more than a great pleasure; its memory can illuminate all the other wines we drink, majestic and modest, from then on. And once in a while we get lucky. Every passionate wine lover tells the same story: a special night, close companions, an extraordinary bottle of wine. Maybe it's an old Burgundy, fragile and recalcitrant at first, blossoming into magical complexity. Maybe it's a honeyed Chteau d'Yquem drunk with an unctuous terrine of foie gras, proving Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 117

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual that a sophisticated disdain for "sweet wines" was utterly mistaken. Suddenly we have the impression that rather than analyzing the wine we're practically worshiping it, and what began as superficial sensory pleasure becomes as profound as a religious conversion. Eating and drinking will never be quite the same again. Life goes on. Corks are pulled, glasses broken, wine racks fill and empty and fill again. If we're paying attention along the way, though, our memory's cellar grows and grows, and every addition adds meaning and value to each wine we drink. Here's Peynaud again, nearly 70 now, reflecting on a lifetime of wine drinking: "The world of wine is infinite," he writes. "How could I possibly commit to memory the thousands of wines that I have tasted from all over the world? The rate at which I taste now has gone beyond the limits of memory, it is wasteful in effect. Nonetheless, I still have the notes of all my tastings and every now and again I leaf through them; the experience is like looking at the pictures in a travel album which can take me back in time and space." Wine tasting is a technique that can enhance our everyday experience of eating and drinking. But it can also be a way of life that enriches our perceptions and deepens our connections with every aspect of the sensory world. That's a large claim for a common activity, but those who know wine well know it to be true.

Getting the Most From Wine


Accurate and complete wine tasting depends primarily on the concentration and perspicacity of the taster. But the right tools and an efficient approach can make a big difference, too. Technical details include the serving temperature of the wine, proper opening and pouring methods, the decision whether or not to decant the bottle and appropriate stemware. The "correct" temperature, like so many details in wine tasting, is ultimately a matter of personal preference. I know Southerners who simply cannot drink a beverage without ice, and that includes Montrachet and Yquem. But wine temperature influences wine flavor and there are good reasons to follow time-tested practices. Cold temperatures enhance the perception of bitterness; warm ones increase the impact of sweetness and alcohol. According to French enologist Emile Peynaud, "the same red wine will seem thin and hot at 72 F, supple and fluid at 64, full and astringent at 50." So a powerful, tannic red should be poured warm enough to minimize its astringency, but not so warm as to emphasize its alcohol. We drink sweet white wines well chilled to keep their sweetness in balance. We recommend serving full-bodied and mature red wines at 60 to 65F, lightbodied young reds at 55 to 60, dry whites at 45 to 50 and sweet whites at 40 to 50. Remember that the wine will warm up in the glass, since most dining rooms are heated to 70 or more, so it's better to serve them a couple of degrees too cold than too warm.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual The way you open the bottle won't normally affect its flavors, but as part of the ceremony of wine it helps put the tasters in a receptive mood. If a capsule covers the neck of the bottle, cut it cleanly below the protruding lip and remove the top portion (or simply take the whole thing off). Wipe the neck of the bottle to remove any mold or mineral salts that may have accumulated. Using a corkscrew that feels comfortable in your hand (we prefer the Screwpull or a simple waiter's corkscrew), pull the cork slowly, trying not to disturb any sediment in the wine, and clean the inside of the bottle neck before pouring. Should you decant the wine--that is, pour it from the bottle into a different container for serving? Yes, if the wine has thrown a heavy deposit; vintage Port and fullbodied, mature reds are the usual culprits here. (But decanting is useless if the sediment is floating throughout the wine; be sure to stand the bottle upright for a day or two before opening.) Yes, if you want to show off an heirloom crystal decanter or hide the identity of the wine. In all other cases, decanting is useless at best, harmful at worst. This advice flouts some conventional wisdom, which argues that young reds (and occasionally other wines as well) benefit from "breathing" and need the vigorous contact with oxygen that decanting provides in order to "open up" and show their best. No scientific evidence supports this point of view. It is true that wines change with exposure to air, but mostly for the worse--old wines, for example, may deteriorate rapidly after opening. I enjoy following the whole arc of a wine's evolution, from the first taste until the last sip, which may come hours later. Don't forget the glasses. Any container that will hold water can serve wine, but appropriate stemware not only adds beauty to the table, it also enables the fullest communication between wine and taster. Austrian glassmaker Georg Riedel offers special glasses specifically made for dozens of particular wine types, and investigation has convinced me that glass shape and size can affect wine taste significantly. If cost is no object, it pays to tailor your stemware to your wines. On the other hand, even Riedel offers an "all-purpose" goblet. In our experience, the best wine glass is a slender goblet of thin, clear crystal with a long stem on a sturdy base. Heavy cut glass may take light beautifully, but it blunts the contact between wine and tongue, and examining wine through colored glass is like gazing at a beautiful friend who's wearing wraparound sunglasses. The glass should hold 10 to 18 ounces and the bowl should be biggest at the bottom, tapering to a small opening in order to concentrate the wine's aromas. Once you've got the mechanics in place, two more subjective questions arise: When is the wine ready to drink? What foods make the best match with the wine you want to serve? These are long discussions without clear answers. English wine authority and Wine Spectator columnist Jancis Robinson once wrote a book, Vintage Timecharts, exploring the maturation curves of great wines. She plotted arcs on graphs showing time on one axis and wine evolution on the other; the colored lines curving sinuously across the pages are impressively scientific but hopelessly confusing. The truth is that different people prefer wines at different stages of maturity, and different Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 119

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual bottles of the same wine may mature at different rates. Trying to find the "perfect" match between taste and development is like trying to hit two moving targets with one shot. Wine and food matching is even more complicated, and fine books have been written on the topic. However, before you submit to the many complex and dogmatic rules offered by seemingly authoritative experts, remember that in the 1890s the best restaurants in America routinely served sweet white Bordeaux, such as Barsac and Sauternes, with oysters and other shellfish--exactly the opposite of today's taste. The best advice is: Eat what you like and drink what you like. You'll find combinations that work, and they will suggest general rules that will increase your chances of creating other magical matches. And one day, when everything comes together--the food, the wine, the company--to create a whole that far surpasses any single element, you'll be glad you took the time and the effort to get the details right.

Judging a Wine By Its Label


More people choose wines by their labels than are comfortable admitting it. Novices reach for pretty pictures; snobs demand famous names. But in fact, a wine label reveals a great deal about the flavors in the bottle. You can begin your tasting even before you've pulled the cork. There are basically three kinds of labels: varietal-based, terroir-based and sheer fantasy. The information they offer--much of it required by law--overlaps to a large extent, but each one reflects a different approach to winemaking. Have you ever bought a Chardonnay? Then you're already familiar with the varietal approach: wines named for the grape variety that makes up all (or some legally defined minimum) of the juice in the bottle. California pioneered this method, and most of the New World producers have adopted it. However, some European wine regions--Alsace in France, Friuli in Italy, for example--have traditionally followed this approach. Most European wines, however, use terroir-based labeling. Terroir is a French word that comprehends all the physical factors which distinguish a given vineyard or wine region: its soil, exposure, microclimate, etc. These wines may be made from a single grape variety (such as Pinot Noir for red wines in Burgundy) or a blend that may vary by vintage (such as Bordeaux's judicious mix of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc). Some winemakers have found themselves so frustrated by local wine regulations-which may dictate certain grape blends or vinification techniques as prerequisites to obtaining labels, whether based on varietal or terroir--that they abandon traditional approaches and use labels based simply on fantasy. In Tuscany, producers determined to make new-style wines abandoned the terroir-based Chianti labels for the humble designation vino da tavola (table wine). In California, winemakers working with the grapes and flexible blending approach of Bordeaux have given up some varietal-based labels to bottle "Meritage" wines. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 120

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Each kind of label gives different clues to the wine inside the bottle, but all labels include a few basics. For example, the producer's name is always prominent. Most wineries develop consistent signatures, based on their location, winemaking skills and marketing goals; once you're familiar with a winery's profile, the producer's name is perhaps the most reliable indicator of wine style and quality. The wine's vintage is almost always shown, too. If you're familiar with the vintages of a given region, this can be a telling indicator--red Bordeaux were mostly light and diluted in 1992, but rich and concentrated in 1990. However, even if you don't know whether a specific vintage was good or bad, knowing how old a wine is indicates something about its current style: young, fresh and fruity, or older, smoother and more complex. Most whites, and very many reds, are best within three years of the vintage; wines that age well increase in price over time. Beware of old, inexpensive wines. Most labels indicate the region where the grapes were grown and the wine made. On terroir-based labels, this is emphasized: The Burgundian appellations of Nuits-St.Georges and Vosne-Romane, for example, are more or less homogenous and distinctive vineyard areas that, at least in theory, impart recognizable character to their wines, especially since appellation laws generally regulate many aspects of grape growing and wine making. Varietal-based labels also generally indicate appellations (though often in small type), sometimes right down to the name of the vineyard. But in these production areas regulation tends to be much looser, and so wines from the same appellation tend to have less in common. Fantasy labels often avoid any mention of origin at all (some-times the laws won't permit their indication). But since fantasy wines deliberately break with the traditions of their regions, origin doesn't mean that much, anyway. Finally, don't forget the price tag, stuck right there next to the label. Yes, there may be wide disparities between a wine's cost and its quality. Wine Spectator takes pains to point these out, whether it's a great wine for little money or an overpriced bottle to avoid. But more often than not, there is a rough correlation. If you're spending under $5 per bottle, the wine is likely to be simple, offering alcohol as its principal virtue. From $5 to $12, most wines offer fresh fruit, enough structure to marry well with food and some individual personality. From $12 to, say, $50, you can expect complex flavors of ripe fruit and new oak, enough concentration to develop with aging and a distinctive character stamped with the wine's creator and origin. Pay any more, and you enter into a rarefied world inhabited by passionate and deep-pocketed collectors; the rest of us usually pass by with a shake of the head. Wineries put a lot of effort into their labels. Savvy wine lovers can decipher what the law says they must say, what the producers want to say and sometimes more than they intend to say. Spend some time studying labels before you buy and you'll increase your chances of finding a wine to suit your tastes.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual

Decoding the Language of Wine Tasting


Understanding the wine you taste is only half the battle; communicating your impressions to others in words is just as big a challenge. And since the wine itself disappears as you drink it, verbal descriptions are the only way to preserve the pleasure wine provides. It's easy to ridicule our feeble attempts to put wine into words. Perhaps the most famous satire on tasting notes is a James Thurber cartoon: Three people at a dinner table look quizzically at their host, who's got a glass in his hand and a manic look in his eye, saying, "It's merely a naive domestic Burgundy, but I think you'll be amused by its presumption." In fact, the struggle to develop a lucid and coherent vocabulary for wine tasting has been going on for centuries. In his landmark study, The Taste of Wine, Bordeaux enologist Emile Peynaud traces the slow accretion of terms commonly used to describe fine wines. Ancient Greeks and Romans wrote about wine, and even in the 15th century there are references to wines called "good, clean, honest and commercial." But the true taster's vocabulary really began in the 18th century, when Bordeaux wines such as Haut-Brion and Lafite began to be sold at four to five times the price of ordinary claret, and it became necessary to find words to describe and justify the difference. Based on extensive research in the literature of wine, Peynaud culled about 40 terms used in the late 18th century, ranging from "acrid," "sour" and "hot," to "lively," "fine" and "strong." More specific flavor descriptors appear in the 19th century, such as "balsamic," "herbal" and "woody." A manual for wine merchants published in 1896 used nearly 200 different descriptors, and today Peynaud recognizes over a thousand terms commonly used to describe wines. In fact, the vocabulary has gotten a bit out of hand; in Wines: Their Sensory Evaluation, Maynard Amerine and Edward Roessler list over 300 terms to avoid in wine description, including the innocuous "charming" and "intense" and even the antique "lively." Wine Spectator attempts to use commonsense words to describe wines in our tasting reports. Our goal is to characterize the wine in general terms, give several distinctive taste descriptors, compare it to other wines of its specific type and indicate when it may be drinking at its best. Though writing tasting notes is more of an art than a science, the descriptions give a fuller idea of a wine's character than the accompanying score, which locates the wine on a comparative quality ranking. Here are recent tasting notes for three wines, all Chardonnays, that differ widely in quality and character. By "deconstructing" them, I hope to make all our notes more accessible to readers, and to assist you in developing your own vocabulary for describing the wines you taste.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Chardonnay Carneros Reserve 1994 (95, $25) Bold, ripe, smooth and creamy. A real mouthful of Chardonnay. Its tiers of ripe pear, fig, honey flavors are framed by smokey, toasty oak. An altogether complex and beautifully crafted wine with a rich butterscotch aftertaste that still has all those delicious flavors chiming in. On Wine Spectator's 100-point scale, a wine rating 95 points or higher is considered "classic, a great wine." This level of quality generates real enthusiasm in the note, with such positive words as "bold," "beautifully crafted" and "delicious." The wine is clearly full-bodied, and all the fruit descriptors indicate it was made from very ripe grapes: Unripe Chardonnay tends to taste of green apples or citrus fruits. The "smoky, toasty" flavors are typical results of fermentation and aging in new French oak, an expensive technique generally reserved for top wines, usually reflected in higher price tags. Despite the opulent flavors, skillful winemaking has achieved a harmonious whole, and this Chardonnay shows the ultimate badge of high quality, a long, complex finish. The note doesn't indicate when to drink the wine, but it sounds irresistible now.

Chardonnay South Australia 1995 (87, $11) Bright with fruit and supple in texture, this harmonious white has a generous dose of peach and pear flavors and a hint of honey on the finish. An 87-point wine is "very good, a wine with special qualities," and this Chardonnay offers virtues without flaws. Australia is known for a full-bodied, ripe style of winemaking, and that heritage is reflected in this wine's "supple" texture, "generous" fruit flavors and "hint of honey," which all imply fully ripe grapes. Yet the adjectives "bright" and "peach" suggest some refreshing tartness, so it avoids fatness or dullness. Since there are no typically oaky descriptors, it may be that new oak wasn't used during vinification; at least, it doesn't make a strong impression, so wine drinkers who look for those flavors may want to pass. Overall, the note is positive without being insistent; you'll enjoy this wine, especially given the reasonable price, but you probably won't remember it for the rest of your life

Chablis Grand Cru Vaudsir 1994 (75, $45) Fat, rich, quite heavy, overdone. Full-bodied and quite mature, as evidenced by its yellow color. Chablis is located in the northern Burgundy region of France; it makes white wines from Chardonnay grapes. The vineyards are divided into three quality levels, with grand cru the best. The 1994 vintage was quite successful in Chablis, which makes this wine especially disappointing. A wine scoring 70-79 points is "average, a drinkable wine that may have minor flaws." This may be acceptable in an inexpensive quaffing wine, but not one selling for $45. The tasting note makes this Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 123

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Vaudesir sound almost like a parody of a great wine: Instead of being complex, it's "fat"; rather than being well crafted, it's "overdone." Even the color is off--Chablis is generally a keen green-gold, but this one is a dull "yellow." And though not even 2 years old, it's already "quite mature," lacking life and acidity, a danger sign to wine drinkers who expect top white Burgundies to improve for years in the cellar. Even the short, choppy style of the note is a warning to readers who may be impressed by the prestigious label.

The best way to develop your own wine vocabulary is to write your own tasting notes. You'll find that certain words recur as descriptors of similar wines and soon you'll be fluently describing your organoleptic sensations. Of course, the bottom line of tasting is your own pleasure; your description should reflect your judgment. It has always been thus. There's something disconcertingly familiar in one of the earliest known tasting notes, found in a third century document from Roman Egypt: "The wine taster has declared the Euboean wine to be unsuitable." We hope few of your wine-tasting experiences fall into the same dismal category.

Grape

Varieties

In order to appreciate wine, it's essential to understand the characteristics different grapes offer and how those characteristics should be expressed in wines. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Zinfandel are all red grapes, but as wines their personalities are quite different. Even when grown in different appellations and vinified using different techniques, a varietal wine always displays certain qualities, which are inherent in the grape's personality. Muscat should always be spicy, Sauvignon Blanc a touch herbal. Zinfandel is zesty, with pepper and wild berry flavors. Cabernet Sauvignon is marked by plum, currant and black cherry flavors and firm tannins. Understanding what a grape should be as a wine is fundamental, and knowing what a grape can achieve at its greatest is the essence of fine-wine appreciation. In Europe, the finest wines are known primarily by geographic appellation (although this is changing; witness the occasional French and Italian varietals). Elsewhere, however--as in America, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand--most wines are labeled by their varietal names; even, sometimes, by grape combinations (CabernetShiraz, for example). To a large extent, this is because in the United States, the process of sorting out which grapes grow best in which appellations is ongoing and Americans were first introduced to fine wine by varietal name. In Europe, with a longer history for matching grape types to soil and climate, the research is more conclusive: Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, for instance, are the major grapes of Burgundy. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petite Verdot are the red grapes of Bordeaux. Syrah dominates northern Rhne reds. Barolo and Barbaresco are both made of Nebbiolo, but the different appellations produce different styles of wine. In Tuscany, Sangiovese provides the backbone of Chianti. A different clone of Sangiovese is used for Brunello di Montalcino.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual As a result, Europeans are used to wines with regional names. In time, the New World's appellation system may well evolve into one more like Europe's. Already California appellations such as Carneros and Santa Maria Valley are becoming synonymous with Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, Oregon's Willamette Valley is known for Pinot Noir and Australia's Hunter Valley for Shiraz; back in California, Rutherford, Oakville and the Stags Leap District are all associated with Cabernetbased red table wines. Wineries with vested financial interests in these appellations and the marketing clout to emphasize the distinctive features of the wines grown in these areas will determine how the appellation system evolves and whether specific wine styles emerge. The appellations themselves will also determine which grapes excel and deserve special recognition. Following are descriptions of the most commonly used Vitis vinifera grapes. American wine is also made from native Vitis labrusca, especially the Concord grape. For definitions of wine-making terms mentioned, please see the glossary. For information about wine growing regions mentioned, please see the country descriptions. BARBERA (Red) [bar-BEHR-uh] Most successful in Italy's Piedmont region, where it makes such wines as Barbera d'Asti, Barbera di Monferato and Barbera di Alba. Its wines are characterized by a high level of acidity (meaning brightness and crispness), deep ruby color and full body, with low tannin levels; flavors are berrylike. However, plantings have declined sharply in the United States. A few wineries still produce it as a varietal wine, but those numbers too are dwindling. Its main attribute as a blending wine is its ability to maintain a naturally high acidity even in hot climates. The wine has more potential than is currently realized and may stage a modest comeback as Italian-style wines gain popularity. BRUNELLO (Red) [broo-NEHL-oh] This strain of Sangiovese is the only grape permitted for Brunello di Montalcino, the rare, costly Tuscan red that at its best is loaded with luscious black and red fruits and chewy tannins. CABERNET FRANC (Red) [cab-er-NAY FRANK] Increasingly popular as both stand-alone varietal and blending grape, Cabernet Franc is used primarily for blending in Bordeaux, although it can rise to great heights in quality, as seen in the grand wine Cheval-Blanc. In France's Loire Valley it's also made into a lighter wine called Chinon. It is well established in Italy, particularly the northeast, where it is sometimes called Cabernet Frank or Bordo. California has grown it for more than 30 years, and Argentina, Long Island, Washington state and New Zealand are picking it up. As a varietal wine, it usually benefits from small amounts of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and can be as intense and full-bodied as either of those wines. But it often strays away from currant and berry notes into stalky green flavors that become more

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual pronounced with age. Given its newness in the United States, Cabernet Franc may just need time to get more attention and rise in quality. Much blended with Cabernet Sauvignon, it may be a Cabernet Sauvignon mutation adapted to cooler, damper conditions. Typically light- to medium-bodied wine with more immediate fruit than Cabernet Sauvignon and some of the herbaceous odors evident in unripe Cabernet Sauvignon. CABERNET SAUVIGNON (Red) [cab-er-NAY SO-vin-yon] The undisputed king of red wines, Cabernet is a remarkably steady and consistent performer throughout much of the state. While it grows well in many appellations, in specific appellations it is capable of rendering wines of uncommon depth, richness, concentration and longevity. Bordeaux has used the grape since the 18th century, always blending it with Cabernet Franc, Merlot and sometimes a soupon of Petite Verdot. The Bordeaux model is built around not only the desire to craft complex wines, but also the need to ensure that different grape varieties ripen at different intervals or to give a wine color, tannin or backbone. Elsewhere in the world--and it is found almost everywhere in the world--Cabernet Sauvignon is as likely to be bottled on its own as in a blend. It mixes with Sangiovese in Tuscany, Syrah in Australia and Provence, and Merlot and Cabernet Franc in South Africa, but flies solo in some of Italy's super-Tuscans. In the United States., it's unlikely any region will surpass Napa Valley's high-quality Cabernets and Cabernet blends. Through most of the grape's history in California (which dates to the 1800s), the best Cabernets have been 100 percent Cabernet. Since the late 1970s, many vintners have turned to the Bordeaux model and blended smaller portions of Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petite Verdot into their Cabernets. The case for blending is still under review, but clearly there are successes. On the other hand, many U.S. producers are shifting back to higher percentages of Cabernet, having found that blending doesn't add complexity and that Cabernet on its own has a stronger character. At its best, unblended Cabernet produces wines of great intensity and depth of flavor. Its classic flavors are currant, plum, black cherry and spice. It can also be marked by herb, olive, mint, tobacco, cedar and anise, and ripe, jammy notes. In warmer areas, it can be supple and elegant; in cooler areas, it can be marked by pronounced vegetal, bell pepper, oregano and tar flavors (a late ripener, it can't always be relied on in cool areas, which is why Germany, for example, has never succumbed to the lure). It can also be very tannic if that is a feature of the desired style. The best Cabernets start out dark purple-ruby in color, with firm acidity, a full body, great intensity, concentrated flavors and firm tannins. Cabernet has an affinity for oak and usually spends 15 to 30 months in new or used French or American barrels, a process that, when properly executed imparts a woody, toasty cedar or vanilla flavor to the wine while slowly oxidizing it and softening the tannins. Microclimates are a major factor in the weight and intensity of the Cabernets. Winemakers also influence the style as they can extract high levels of tannin and heavily oak their wines.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual CARIGNAN (Red) [karin-YAN] Also known as Carignane (California), Cirnano (Italy). Once a major blending grape for jug wines, Carignan's popularity has diminished, and plantings have dropped from 25,111 acres in 1980 to 8,883 in 1994. It still appears in some blends, and old vineyards are sought after for the intensity of their grapes. But the likelihood is that other grapes with even more intensity and flavor will replace it in the future. CARMENERE (Red) [car-men-YEHR] Also known as Grande Vidure, this grape was once widely planted in Bordeaux, but is now associated primarily with Chile. Carmenere, along with Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, was imported to Chile around 1850. According to Chilean vintners, Carmenere has been mislabeled for so long that many growers and the Chilean government now consider it Merlot. CHARBONO (Red) [SHAR-bono] Found mainly in California (and possibly actually Dolcetto), this grape has dwindled in acreage. Its stature as a wine was supported mainly by Inglenook-Napa Valley, which bottled a Charbono on a regular basis. Occasionally it made for interesting drinking and it aged well. But more often it was lean and tannic, a better story than bottle of wine. A few wineries still produce it, but none with any success. CHARDONNAY (White) [shar-dun-NAY] As Cabernet Sauvignon is the king of reds, so is Chardonnay the king of white wines, for it makes consistently excellent, rich and complex whites. This is an amazingly versatile grape that grows well in a variety of locations throughout the world. In Burgundy, it is used for the exquisite whites, such as Montrachet, Meursault and Pouilly-Fuiss, and true Chablis; in Champagne it turns into Blanc de Blancs. Among the many other countries that have caught Chardonnay fever, Australia is especially strong. Chardonnay was introduced to California in the 1930s but didn't become popular until the 1970s. Areas such as Anderson Valley, Carneros, Monterey, Russian River, Santa Barbara and Santa Maria Valley, all closer to cooler maritime influences, are now producing wines far superior to those made a decade ago. Though there is a Mconnais village called Chardonnay, no one agrees on the grape's origin--it may even be Middle Eastern. When well made, Chardonnay offers bold, ripe, rich and intense fruit flavors of apple, fig, melon, pear, peach, pineapple, lemon and grapefruit, along with spice, honey, butter, butterscotch and hazelnut flavors. Winemakers build more complexity into this easy-to-manipulate wine using common vinification techniques: barrel fermentation, sur lie aging during which the wine is left on its natural sediment, and malolactic fermentation (a process which converts tart malic acid to softer lactic acid). No other white table wine benefits as much from oak aging or barrel fermentation. Chardonnay grapes have a fairly neutral flavor, and because they are Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 127

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual usually crushed or pressed and not fermented with their skins the way red wines are, whatever flavors emerge from the grape are extracted almost instantly after crushing. Red wines that soak with their skins for days or weeks through fermentation extract their flavors quite differently. Because Chardonnay is also a prolific producer that can easily yield 4 to 5 tons of high-quality grapes per acre, it is a cash cow for producers in every country where it's grown. Many American and Australian Chardonnays are very showy, well oaked and appealing on release, but they lack the richness, depth and concentration to age and have in fact evolved rather quickly, often losing their intensity and concentration within a year or two. Many vintners, having studied and recognized this, are now sharply reducing crop yields, holding tonnage down to 2 to 3 tons per acre in the belief that this will lead to greater concentration. The only downside to this strategy is that lower crop loads lead to significantly less wine to sell, therefore higher prices as well. Chardonnay's popularity has also led to a huge market of ordinary wines, so there's a broad range of quality to choose from in this varietal. There are a substantial number of domestic Chardonnays, which can range from simple and off-dry to more complex and sophisticated. The producer's name on the wine, and often its price, are indicators of the level of quality. CHENIN BLANC (White) [SHEN'N BLAHNK] This native of the Loire valley has two personalities: at home it's the basis of such famous, long-lived whites as Vouvray and Anjou, Quarts de Chaume and Saumer, but on other soils it becomes just a very good blending grape. It is South Africa's mostplanted grape, though there is called Steen, and both there and in California it is currently used primarily as a blending grape for generic table wines. Chenin Blanc should perform better in California, and someday it may. It can yield a pleasant enough wine, with subtle melon, peach, spice and citrus notes. The great Loire whites vary from dry and fresh to sweet, depending on the vintage and the producer. In South Africa, Chenin Blanc is even used for fortified wines and spirits. DOLCETTO (Red) [dole-CHET-to] Almost exclusive to northwest Piedmont, this produces soft, round, fruity wines fragrant with licorice and almonds that should be drunk within about three years. It's used as a safety net for producers of Nebbiolo and Barbera wines, which take much longer to age. There are seven DOCs: Acqui, Alba, Asti, Dinao d'Alba, Dogliani, Langhe Monregalesi and Ovada. FUME BLANC (White) [FOO-may BLAHNK] see Sauvignon Blanc

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GAMAY (Red) [ga-MAY] Beaujolais makes its famous, fruity reds exclusively from one of the many Gamays available, the Gamay Noir Jus Blanc. Low in alcohol and relatively high in acidity, the wines are meant to be drunk soon after bottling; the ultimate example of this is Beaujolais Nouveau, whipped onto shelves everywhere almost overnight. It is also grown in the Loire, but makes no remarkable wines. The Swiss grow it widely, for blending with Pinot Noir; they often chaptalize the wines. California, meanwhile, grows a variety called Gamay Beaujolais, a high-yield clone of Pinot Noir that makes undistinguished wines in most places where it's grown. In the United States the grape is used primarily for blending, and acreage is declining, as those serious about Pinot Noir are using superior clones and planting in cooler areas. GEWURZTRAMINER (White) [geh-VERTS-trah-mee-ner] Gewrztraminer can yield magnificent wines, as is best demonstrated in Alsace, France, where it is made in to a variety of styles from dry to off-dry to sweet. The grape needs a cool climate that allows it to get ripe. It's a temperamental grape to grow and vinify, as its potent spiciness can be overbearing when unchecked. At its best, it produces a floral and refreshing wine with crisp acidity that pairs well with spicy dishes. When left for late harvest, it's uncommonly rich and complex, a tremendous dessert wine. It is also popular in eastern Europe, New Zealand and the Pacific Northwest. GRENACHE (Red) [greh-NAHSH] Drought- and heat-resistant, it yields a fruity, spicy, medium-bodied wine with supple tannins. The second most widely planted grape in the world, Grenache is widespread in the southern Rhne. It is blended to produce Chteauneuf-du-Pape (although there are some pure varietals) and used on its own for the ross of Tavel and Lirac; it is also used in France's sweet Banyuls wine. Important in Spain, where it's known as Garnacha Tinta, it is especially noteworthy in Rioja and Priorato. Grenache used to be popular in Australia, but has now been surpassed by Syrah; a few Barossa Valley producers are making wines similar to Chteauneuf-du-Pape. In California it's a workhorse blending grape, though occasionally an old vineyard is found and its grapes made into a varietal wine, which at its best can be good. It may make a comeback as enthusiasts of Rhne style seek cooler areas and an appropriate blending grape. Also,Grenache Blanc, known in Spain as Garnacha Blanca, which is bottled in the Southern Rhne. It's used for blending in France's Rousillon and the Languedoc, and

in various Spanish whites, including Rioja. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 129

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual GRUNER VELTLINER (White) [GROO-ner VELT-linner] The most widely planted grape in Austria, it can be found to a lesser extent in some other parts of eastern Europe. It achieves its qualitative pinnacle in the Wachau, Kremstal and Kamptal regions along the Danube River west of Vienna. Gruner, as it's called for short, shows distinct white pepper, tobacco, lentil and citrus flavors and aromas, along with high acidity, making it an excellent partner for food. Gruner is singularly unique in its flavor profile, and though it rarely has the finesse and breeding of the best Austrian Rieslings (though it can come close when grown on granite soils), it is similar in body and texture. MALBEC (Red) [MAHL-beck] Once important in Bordeaux and the Loire in various blends, this not-very-hardy grape has been steadily replaced by Merlot and the two Cabernets. However, Argentina is markedly successful with this varietal. In the United States Malbec is a blending grape only, and an insignificant one at that, but a few wineries use it, the most obvious reason being that it's considered part of the Bordeaux-blend recipe. MARSANNE (White) [mahr-SANN] Popular in the Rhne (along with Grenache Blanc, Roussanne and Viognier). Australia, especially in Victoria, has some of the world's oldest vineyards. At its best, Marsanne can be a full-bodied, moderately intense wine with spice, pear and citrus notes. MERLOT (Red) [mur-LO] Merlot is the red-wine success of the 1990s: its popularity has soared along with its acreage, and it seems wine lovers can't drink enough of it. It dominates Bordeaux, except for the Mdoc and Graves. Though it is mainly used for the Bordeaux blend, it can stand alone. In St.-Emilion and Pomerol, especially, it produces noteworthy wines, culminating in Chteau Ptrus. In Italy it's everywhere, though most of the Merlot is light, unremarkable stuff. But Ornellaia and Fattoria de Ama are strong exceptions to that rule. Despite its popularity, its quality ranges only from good to very good most of the time, though there are a few stellar producers found around the world. Several styles have emerged. One is a Cabernet-style Merlot, which includes a high percentage (up to 25 percent) of Cabernet, similar currant and cherry flavors and firm tannins. A second style is less reliant on Cabernet, softer, more supple, mediumweight, less tannic and features more herb, cherry and chocolate flavors. A third style is a very light and simple wine; this type's sales are fueling Merlot's overall growth. Like Cabernet, Merlot can benefit from some blending, as Cabernet can give it backbone, color and tannic strength. It also marries well with oak. Merlot is relatively new in California, dating to the early 1970s, and is a difficult grape to grow, as it sets and ripens unevenly. Many critics believe Washington State has a slight quality edge with this wine. By the year 2000, vintners should have a better idea of which areas Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 130

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual are best suited to this grape variety. As a wine, Merlot's aging potential is fair to good. It may be softer with age, but often the fruit flavors fade and the herbal flavors dominate. There is also an unrelated Merlot Blanc. MOURVEDRE (Red) [more-VAY-druh] As long as the weather is warm, Mourvdre likes a wide variety of soils. It's popular across the south of France, especially in Provence and the Ctes-du-Rhne, and is often used in Chteauneuf-du-Pape; Languedoc makes it as a varietal. Spain uses it in many areas, including Valencia. In the United States it's a minor factor now, pursued by a few wineries that specialize in Rhne-style wines. The wine can be pleasing, with medium-weight, spicy cherry and berry flavors and moderate tannins. It ages well. MUSCAT (White) [MUSS-kat] Known as Muscat, Muscat Blanc and Muscat Canelli, it is marked by strong spice and floral notes and can be used in blending, its primary function in California. Moscato in Italy, Moscatel in Iberia: This grape can turn into anything from the low-alcohol, sweet and frothy Asti Spumante and Muscat de Canelli to bone-dry wines like Muscat d'Alsace. It also produces fortified wine such as Beaumes de Venise. NEBBIOLO (Red) [NEH-bee-oh-low] The great grape of Northern Italy, which excels there in Barolo and Barbaresco, strong, ageable wines. Mainly unsuccessful elsewhere, Nebbiolo also now has a small foothold in California. So far the wines are light and uncomplicated, bearing no resemblance to the Italian types. PETITE SIRAH (Red) [peh-TEET sih-RAH]] Known for its dark hue and firm tannins, Petite Sirah has often been used as a blending wine to provide color and structure, particularly to Zinfandel. On its own, Petite Sirah can also make intense, peppery, ageworthy wines, but few experts consider it as complex as Syrah itself. There has been much confusion over the years about Petite Sirah's origins. For a long time, the grape was thought to be completely unrelated to Syrah, despite its name. Petite Sirah was believed to actually be Durif, a minor red grape variety first grown in southern France in the late 1800s. However, recent DNA research shows Petite Sirah and Syrah are related after all. A study done at the University of California at Davis determined not only that 90 percent of the Petite Sirah found in California is indeed Durif, but also that Durif is a cross between Peloursin and Syrah. Just to make things more confusing, in France, growers refer to different variants of Syrah as Petite and Grosse, which has to do with the yield of the vines.

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PINOT BLANC (White) [PEE-no BLAHNK] Often referred to as a poor man's Chardonnay because of its similar flavor and texture profile, Pinot Blanc is used in Champagne, Burgundy, Alsace, Germany, Italy and California and can make a terrific wine. When well made, it is intense, concentrated and complex, with ripe pear, spice, citrus and honey notes. Can age, but is best early on while its fruit shines through. PINOT GRIS or PINOT GRIGIO (White) [PEE-no GREE or GREE-zho] Known as Pinot Grigio in Italy, where it is mainly found in the northeast, producing quite a lot of undistinguished dry white wine and Collio's excellent whites. As Pinot Gris, it used to be grown in Burgundy and the Loire, though it has been supplanted, but it comes into its own in Alsace--where it's known as Tokay. Southern Germany plants it as Rulnder. When good, this varietal is soft, gently perfumed and has more color than most whites. PINOT NOIR (Red) [PEE-no NWA] Pinot Noir, the great grape of Burgundy, is a touchy variety. The best examples offer the classic black cherry, spice, raspberry and currant flavors, and an aroma that can resemble wilted roses, along with earth, tar, herb and cola notes. It can also be rather ordinary, light, simple, herbal, vegetal and occasionally weedy. It can even be downright funky, with pungent barnyard aromas. In fact, Pinot Noir is the most fickle of all grapes to grow: It reacts strongly to environmental changes such as heat and cold spells, and is notoriously fussy to work with once picked, since its thin skins are easily bruised and broken, setting the juice free. Even after fermentation, Pinot Noir can hide its weaknesses and strengths, making it a most difficult wine to evaluate out of barrel. In the bottle, too, it is often a chameleon, showing poorly one day, brilliantly the next. The emphasis on cooler climates coincides with more rigorous clonal selection, eliminating those clones suited for sparkling wine, which have even thinner skins. These days there is also a greater understanding of and appreciation for different styles of Pinot Noir wine, even if there is less agreement about those styles--should it be rich, concentrated and loaded with flavor, or a wine of elegance, finesse and delicacy? Or can it, in classic Pinot Noir sense, be both? Even varietal character remains subject to debate. Pinot Noir can certainly be tannic, especially when it is fermented with some of its stems, a practice that many vintners around the world believe contributes to the wine's backbone and longevity. Pinot Noir can also be long-lived, but predicting with any precision which wines or vintages will age is often the ultimate challenge in forecasting. Pinot Noir is the classic grape of Burgundy and also of Champagne, where it is pressed immediately after picking in order to yield white juice. It is just about the only red grown in Alsace. In California, it excelled in the late 1980s and early 1990s and seems poised for further progress. Once producers stopped vinifying it as if it were Cabernet, planted vineyards in cooler climates and paid closer attention to Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 132

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual tonnage, quality increased substantially. It's fair to say that California and Oregon have a legitimate claim to producing world-class Pinot Noir. RIESLING (White) [REES-ling] One of the world's greatest white wine grapes, the Riesling vine's hardy wood makes it extremely resistant to frost. The variety excels in cooler climates, where its tendency to ripen slowly makes it an excellent source for sweet wines made from grapes attacked by the noble rot Botrytis cinerea, which withers the grapes' skin and concentrates their natural sugar levels. Riesling is best known for producing the wines of Germany's Mosel-Saar-Ruwer, Pfalz, Rheinhessen and Rheingau wines, but it also achieves brilliance in Alsace and Austria. While the sweet German Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese wines, along with Alsace's famed Selection de Grains Nobles, are often celebrated for their high sugar levels and ability to age almost endlessly, they are rare and expensive. More commonly, Riesling produces dry or just off-dry versions. Its high acidity and distinctive floral, citrus, peach and mineral accents have won dry Riesling many fans. The variety pairs well with food and has an uncanny knack for transmitting the elements of its vineyard source (what the French call terroir). The wines from Germany's Mosel region are perhaps the purest expression of the grape, offering lime, pie crust, apple, slate and honeysuckle characteristics on a light-bodied and racy frame. Germany's Rheinhessen, Rheingau and Pfalz regions produces wines of similar characteristics, but with increasing body and spice. In Alsace, Riesling is most often made in a dry style, full-bodied, with a distinct petrol aroma. In Austria, Riesling plays second fiddle to Gruner Veltliner in terms of quantity, but when grown on favored sites it offers wines with great focus and clarity allied to the grape's typically racy frame. In other regions, Riesling struggles to maintain its share of vineyard plantings, but it can be found (often under synonyms such as White Riesling, Rhine Riesling or Johannisberg Riesling) in California, Oregon, Washington, New York's Finger Lakes region, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, South America and Canada. SANGIOVESE (Red) [san-geeo-VEHS-eh] Sangiovese is best known for providing the backbone for many superb Italian red wines from Chianti and Brunello di Montalcino, as well as the so-called super-Tuscan blends. Sangiovese is distinctive for its supple texture and medium-to full-bodied spice, raspberry, cherry and anise flavors. When blended with a grape such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Sangiovese gives the resulting wine a smoother texture and lightens up the tannins. It is somewhat surprising that Sangiovese wasn't more popular in California given the strong role Italian immigrants have played in the state's winemaking heritage, but now the grape appears to have a bright future in the state, both as a stand-alone varietal wine and for use in blends with Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and maybe even Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 133

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Zinfandel. Expect sweeping stylistic changes as winemakers learn more about how the grape performs in different locales as well as how it marries with different grapes. Worth watching. SAUVIGNON BLANC (White) [SO-vin-yon BLAHNK] Another white with a notable aroma, this one "grassy" or "musky." The pure varietal is found mainly in the Loire, at Sancerre and Pouilly-Fum, As part of a blend, the grape is all over Bordeaux, in Pessac-Lognan, Graves and the Mdoc whites; it also shows up in Sauternes. New Zealand has had striking success with Sauvignon Blanc, producing its own perfumed, fruity style that spread across North America and then back to France. In the United States, Robert Mondavi rescued the varietal in the 1970s by labeling it Fum Blanc, and he and others have enjoyed success with it. The key to success seems to be in taming its overt varietal intensity, which at its extreme leads to pungent grassy, vegetal and herbaceous flavors. Many winemakers treat it like in a sort of poor man's Chardonnay, employing barrel fermentation, sur lie aging and malolactic fermentation. But its popularity comes as well from the fact that it is a prodigious producer and a highly profitable wine to make. It can be crisp and refreshing, matches well with foods, costs less to produce and grow than Chardonnay and sells for less. It also gets less respect from vintners than perhaps it should. Its popularity ebbs and flows, at times appearing to challenge Chardonnay and at other times appearing to be a cash-flow afterthought. But even at its best, it does not achieve the kind of richness, depth or complexity Chardonnay does and in the end that alone may be the defining difference. Sauvignon Blanc grows well in a variety of appellations. It marries well with oak and Smillon, and many vintners are adding a touch of Chardonnay for extra body. The wine drinks best in its youth, but sometimes will benefit from short-term cellaring. As a late-harvest wine, it's often fantastic, capable of yielding amazingly complex and richly flavored wines. SEMILLON (White) [SEM-ih-yon] On its own or in a blend, this white can age. With Sauvignon Blanc, its traditional partner, this is the foundation of Sauternes and most of the great dry whites found in Graves and Pessac-Lognan; these are rich, honeyed wines,. Smillon is one of the grapes susceptible to Botrytis cinerea. Australia's Hunter Valley uses it solo to make a full-bodied white that used to be known as Hunger Riesling, Chablis or White Burgundy. In South Africa it used to be so prevalent that it was just called "wine grape," but it has declined drastically in importance there. In the United States, Smillon enjoys modest success as a varietal wine in California and Washington, but it continues to lose ground in acreage in California. It can make a wonderful late-harvest wine, and those wineries that focus on it can make well balanced wines with complex fig, pear, tobacco and honey notes. When blended into Sauvignon Blanc, it adds body, flavor and texture. When Sauvignon Blanc is added to Smillon, the latter gains grassy herbal notes.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual It can also be found blended with Chardonnay, more to fill out the volume of wine than to add anything to the package. SYRAH or SHIRAZ (Red) [sih-RAH or shih-RAHZ] Hermitage and Cte-Rtie in France, Penfolds Grange in Australia--the epitome of Syrah is a majestic red that can age for half a century. The grape seems to grow well in a number of areas and is capable of rendering rich, complex and distinctive wines, with pronounced pepper, spice, black cherry, tar, leather and roasted nut flavors, a smooth, supple texture and smooth tannins. In southern France it finds its way into various blends, as in Chteauneuf-du-Pape and Languedoc-Roussillon. Known as Shiraz in Australia, it was long used for bread-and-butter blends, but an increasing number of high-quality bottlings are being made, especially from old vines in the Barossa Valley. In the United States., Syrah's rise in quality is most impressive. It appears to have the early-drinking appeal of Pinot Noir and Zinfandel and few of the eccentricities of Merlot, and may well prove far easier to grow and vinify than any other red wines aside from Cabernet. TEMPRANILLO (Red) [temp-rah-NEE-yo] Spain's major contribution to red wine, Tempranillo is indigenous to the country and is rarely grown elsewhere. It is the dominant grape in the red wines from Rioja and Ribera del Duero, two of Spain's most important wine regions. In Rioja, Tempranillo is often blended with Garnacha, Mazuelo and a few other minor grapes. When made in a traditional style, Tempranillo can be garnet-hued, with flavors of tea, brown sugar and vanilla. When made in a more modern style, it can display aromas and flavors redolent of plums, tobacco and cassis, along with very dark color and substantial tannins. Whatever the style, Riojas tend to be mediumbodied wines, offering more acidity than tannin. In Ribera del Duero, wines are also divided along traditional and modern styles, and show similarities to Rioja. The more modern styled Riberas, however, can be quite powerful, offering a density and tannic structure similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon. Tempranillo is known variously throughout Spain as Cencibel, Tinto del Pais, Tinto Fino, Ull de Llebre and Ojo. It's also grown along the Douro River in Portugal under the monikers Tinta Roriz (used in the making of Port) and Tinta Aragonez. TREBBIANO or UGNI BLANC (White) [treh-bee-AH-no or OO-nee BLAHNK] This is Trebbiano in Italy and Ugni Blanc in France. It is tremendously prolific; low in alcohol but high in acidity, it is found in almost any basic white Italian wine. It is so ingrained in Italian winemaking that it is actually a sanctioned ingredient of the blend used for (red) Chianti and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. Most current Tuscan producers do not add it to their wines, however.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual The French, who also often call this grape St.-milion, used it for Cognac and Armagnac brandy; Ugni Blanc grapevines outnumbered Chardonnay by five to one in France during the '80s. VIOGNIER (White) [vee-oh-NYAY] Viognier, the rare white grape of France's Rhone Valley, is one of the most difficult grapes to grow, But fans of the floral, spicy white wine are thrilled by its prospects in the south of France and the new world. So far most of the Viogners produced in the United States are rather one-dimensional, with an abundance of spiciness but less complexity than they should have. Still, there are a few bright spots. It is used in Condrieu's rare whites and sometimes blended with reds in the Northern Rhone. There are also a variety of bottlings available from southern France, most of them somewhat light. ZINFANDEL (Red) [ZIHN-fan-dell] The origins of this tremendously versatile and popular grape are not known for certain, although it is thought to have come from Southern Italy as a cousin of Primitivo. It is the most widely planted red grape in California (though Australia has also played around with the grape). Much of it is vinified into white Zinfandel, a blush-colored, slightly sweet wine. Real Zinfandel, the red wine, is the quintessential California wine. It has been used for blending with other grapes, including Cabernet Sauvignon and Petite Sirah. It has been made in a claret style, with berry and cherry flavors, mild tannins and pretty oak shadings. It has been made into a full-bodied, ultraripe, intensely flavored and firmly tannic wine designed to age. And it has been made into late-harvest and Port-style wines that feature very ripe, raisiny flavors, alcohol above 15 percent and chewy tannins. Zinfandel's popularity among consumers fluctuates. In the 1990s Zinfandel is enjoying another groundswell of popularity, as winemakers took renewed interest, focusing on higher-quality vineyards in areas well suited to Zinfandel. Styles aimed more for the mainstream and less for extremes, emphasizing the grape's zesty, spicy pepper, raspberry, cherry, wild berry and plum flavors, and its complex range of tar, earth and leather notes. Zinfandel lends itself to blending. Zinfandel is a challenging grape to grow: its berry size varies significantly within a bunch, which leads to uneven ripening. Because of that, Zinfandel often needs to hang on the vine longer to ripen as many berries as possible. Closer attention to viticulture and an appreciation for older vines, which tend to produce smaller crops of uniformly higher quality, account for better balanced wines.

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CHEESE
The History of Cheese Most authorities consider that cheese was first made in the Middle East. The earliest type was a form of sour milk which came into being when it was discovered that domesticated animals could be milked. A legendary story has it that cheese was 'discovered' by an unknown Arab nomad. He is said to have filled a saddlebag with milk to sustain him on a journey across the desert by horse. After several hours riding he stopped to quench his thirst, only to find that the milk had separated into a pale watery liquid and solid white lumps. Because the saddlebag, which was made from the stomach of a young animal, contained a coagulating enzyme known as rennin, the milk had been effectively separated into curds and whey by the combination of the rennin, the hot sun and the galloping motions of the horse. The nomad, unconcerned with technical details, found the whey drinkable and the curds edible. Cheese was known to the ancient Sumerians four thousand years before the birth of Christ. The ancient Greeks credited Aristaeus, a son of Apollo and Cyrene, with its discovery; it is mentioned in the Old Testament. In the Roman era cheese really came into its own. Cheesemaking was done with skill and knowledge and reached a high standard. By this time the ripening process had been developed and it was known that various treatments and conditions under storage resulted in different flavours and characteristics. The larger Roman houses had a separate cheese kitchen, the caseale, and also special areas where cheese could be matured. In large towns home-made cheese could be taken to a special centre to be smoked. Cheese was served on the tables of the nobility and travelled to the far corners of the Roman Empire as a regular part of the rations of the legions. During the Middle Ages, monks became innovators and developers and it is to them we owe many of the classic varieties of cheese marketed today. During the Renaissance period cheese suffered a drop in popularity, being considered unhealthy, but it regained favour by the nineteenth century, the period that saw the start of the move from farm to factory production. Acid A term used to describe a cheese with a lightly sourish flavour. Ammoniated When certain cheeses are past their prime and overripe they will smell and often taste of ammonia. This particularly applies to soft cheeses such as Brie and Camembert. For those unfamiliar with this smell, it can possibly best be described by imagining a cheese that has been sprayed by a particularly vm catQa thing to be avoided at all costs!

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Annatto A colouring agent used to colour a great variety of cheeses ranging from English Cheddar to the French Maroilles. Annatto is a dye obtained from a South American plant. Aroma A cheese's smell or odour which can vary from lightly aromatic to ferociously overpowering. Note that while most strong smelling cheese will also be strong tasting, this does not apply to all. Limburger is a case in point. The American cheeses Brick and Liederkranz both have distinctive aromas but are not overly strong tasting cheeses unless well aged.

Barnyardy A descriptive term often used to describe a cheese's aroma and sometimes its taste as well. Many people find goat's milk cheeses barnyardy, particularly aged ones. Bleu French name for blue veined cheeses. Bloomy rind Cheeses that develop a light white down on their surfaces are known as bloomy or flowery rind cheeses. Such a rind develops as a result of the cheese's surface being sprayed with the Penicillium candidate spore. The best known cheeses of this type are Camembert and Brie. Brushed Certain types of natural rind cheeses, cooked and uncooked varieties, have their rinds brushed during the period they spend ripening. This brushing, done by hand or machine, helps the interior of the cheese to keep moist during the ripening period; it also has an effect on the final flavour of the cheese. Casein the element of milk which solidifies when coagulation takes place. Cellar The room, usually underground, where cheeses are left to ripen. Some cheeses, Roquefort is the most famous, are ripened in caves. Cheddaring A cheese that is 'cheddared' has its curd cut into blocks which are turned and stacked at the bottom of the cheese vat at intervals of ten to fifteen minutes for about one-and-a-half hours.

Close Used to describe a cheese's texture. A close textured cheese is one which is smooth, unblemished and devoid of holes or cracks. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 138

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Cooked A step in the cheesemaking process when the cheese curd is heated, sometimes in the surplus whey. Cooked cheeses are all hard cheeses such as Emmentaler and other Swiss types. Cream The fatty element of milk. Creamy Used to describe both the taste and sometimes the texture of certain cheeses. Curdling An early stage in cheesemaking when milk coagulates due to the introduction of rennet. Curing Also known as maturing or ageing - the stage in the cheesemaking process when a cheese is left to ripen. Crumbly The condition of a cheese that breaks away when cut often applicable to blue veins. Dry matter The part of the cheese that remains after all moisture is removed. Soft cheeses, such as Brie and Camembert, will, on average, contain about 50 per cent dry matter and 50 per cent water. Earthy A descriptive term often used to describe the nature of monastery cheeses. Fat content The fat content of cheese refers to the fat content in the dry matter of the cheese. It is usually indicated on the cheese's packaging. The average is 45 per cent but it can be as low as 4 per cent and as high as 75 per cent. Fresh cheese Cheese that does not undergo a ripening period e.g. Cottage Cheese, Cream Cheese, Ricotta. Gruyere Not only the name of one of the best known Swiss cheeses in the world but also a general name for large cheeses made in France e.g. Gruyere de Comte, Beaufort, Emmentaler. Hard Descriptive term for cooked cheeses.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Holes Also called 'eyes', basically openings in the body of cheese such as Emmentaler, Gruyere and other Swiss types. Such holes are spherical, equally spaced and about the size of cherry stones. The holes are caused by bacterial activity which generates prioponic acid causing gas to expand within the curd. Lactic Milk aroma, sometimes flavour, of certain cheeses. Micro-organisms Yeasts and ferments present in milk and milk curd. Monastery Certain cheeses are linked historically in that they were originally developed by monks. They are known as monastery cheeses although they range in flavour and aroma considerably. Moulds Moulds can be on the surface of cheese or be developed internally. Surface moulds are the result of cheese being treated with the Penicillium candidate spore; internal moulds are created by the introduction of Penicillium glaucum or Penicillium roqueforti spores both to create blue veined cheeses. Certain French goat milk cheeses develop a natural bluish surface mould and some of the newer double creme cheeses have both a surface mould and an internal mould e.g. Blue Castello, Bavarian Blue, Duet. Mushroomy Flavour and aroma description of certain soft and semi-soft cheeses, particularly members of the Brie/ Camembert family. Nutty A flavour description of certain cheeses, often refers to a hazelnut flavour. Open Texture description referring to a cheese which contains openings and holes in its body. The opposite of close. Paraffin Many cheeses are coated with a paraffin wax, particularly those destined for export markets. Edam is probably the best known. The wax protects the cheese. Pasteurisation The treatment given to partially sterilised milk.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Paste The interior of a cheese. Pronounced Descriptive term for a cheese's aroma or flavour. Penicillium Moulds that are developed on the surface of bloomy rind cheeses (Camembert, Brie) and internally in blue veins (see moulds). Persille A French term for a blue vein cheese used in reference to Roquefort because it is the only bleu from sheep's milk. Piquant Descriptive term for a sharp tasting cheese. Rennet A substance obtained from the stomach linings of young calves which contains a coagulating enzyme. Rind The protective external surface of a cheese. Rinds can be natural or artificially created, thick or thin, hard or soft, washed, oiled, brushed or paraffined. Their prime role is to protect the cheese's interior and allow it to ripen and develop harmoniously. Their presence affects the final flavour of the interior of the cheese. Skimmed milk When part or all of the cream has been removed from milk, the milk is referred to as skimmed. Cheeses made from such milk generally have a lower fat content than average; some (but not all) are quite pronounced in taste. Starter A bacterial culture which produces lactic acid. Supple Descriptive term used to describe a cheese's texture - firm but not hard, pliable and resilient. Tangy Descriptive term used to denote a cheese's flavour usually meaning sharp, distinctive, flavoursome. Texture A cheese's texture can be soft, firm, supple, waxy, open, close and so on. Texture is largely dependent on its moisture content - the softer the cheese the higher its moisture content.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Washed rind cheese The rinds of certain cheeses are regularly washed while they are being ripened. The purpose of this is to keep the cheese moist, supple and to ensure it does not dry out. Such washings can be done with elements as varied as salt water or brandy - thus the washing plays a part in the cheese's final flavour. Some of the strongest smelling and tasting cheeses in the world are washed rind varieties.
blanch To dip into boiling water to cook for less than a minute & then transfer into cold water to prevent discoloring or loosen skin, e.g. tomatoes are blanched so that the skin is loosen & thus easier to remove. boil Liquid produces bubbles over high fire. braise To cook food, usually meat or vegetables over a long period of time. Food undergoes searing (see sear) before it's braised. chill Keep cool in the fridge. chop Cut into non-uniform pieces. deep-fry Oil is heated up to a high temperature. Food floats on top of the hot oil while getting cooked. dice Cut into small even pieces. dry-fry No oil is used when frying, e.g. chili or curry paste. grill To cook food usually over hot coals. Popular cooking method for steaks, chicken wings, hamburgers & salmon. julienne It's a French word that simply means to cut food into very thin strips. marinade Seasonings are rubbed onto meat, fish & vegetables to create better taste. Marinaded food is often set aside for 15 minutes or a couple of hours or even left overnight. minced Chopped till very fine. poach To cook in liquid heated over a low fire. roast To cook meat in an oven.

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saut A French word that refers to cooking food quickly over medium to high fire with little oil. Tossing is needed to prevent over-browning. sear Where meat is subjected to high fire for browning to take place in order to seal in the meat juices. It causes meat to be soft & tender. However meat at this point may not be fully cooked. simmer Liquid has reached below it's boiling point, i.e. just when the bubbles begin to break. stock A strained solution obtained after boiling water with added ingredients such as pork, chicken or fish bones, shells from shellfish (eg. shrimps, clams & abalone) or other seasonings. steam To cook using steam from boiling water. Make sure the water in the steamer/wok is boiling before cooking the food. stew To cook either by boiling or simmering in a tightly covered pot over a long period of time. stir-fry To fry small pieces (such as garlic & onions) over high fire. sweat To sweat food, particularly vegetables, is to cook with a small amount of oil or fat over a low fire. The pot is covered & vegetables will gradually soften without turning brown.

Baking - Cook in a dry heat in an oven. Baking can be done uncovered as in bread that results in a crust, or covered to seal in the moisture as in a casserole. Basting - is the spooning of liquid over food while cooking. Batter - is the uncooked mixture of ingredients, including flour and eggs that is thin enough to be poured or spooned. Blanching - plunging food into water for a short period of time usually to remove the skin more easily or to preserve the texture and nutritional value of the vegetable while killing germs on the skin. Boiling - is heating liquid until it continuos bubbles break the surface. Broiling - is cooking directly under a very hot heating unit. Caramelizing - is melting of sugar over a low heat until it becomes golden brown. Chopping - is cutting into coarse or fine irregular pieces. Coating - is the even covering of food with wet or dry ingredients. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 143

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Cooling - is when you allow cooked food to stand at room temperature. Coring - is the removal of the center of a piece of fruit. Crisp - is a state of cooking that yields an vegetable that is not corked through. Crushing - is used to release as much of the flavor as possible. It is the process of pressing the item into very fine particles. Cubing - is usually the cutting of food into equally sided, three dimensional squares approximately 1/2 inch or larger. Cut up - is the cutting of a food item into irregular pieces or the separating of parts such as a chicken by using a knife. Dash - is less than 1/8 teaspoon. Deep Frying - is cooking in hot fat deep enough to submerge the food. Dicing - is the cutting of food into cubes of less than 1/2 inch. Dissolving - is the stirring of dry ingredients into a liquid until the solid disappears. Draining - is the removal of water from a the food being cooked. Drizzle - is the pouring of thin lines of a liquid over food for the purpose of glazing, directing or flavoring a dish. Dusting - the light sprinkling of such items as flour, cocoa, or sugar over the subject food. Flaking - is the pulling apart of small pieces of the food using a fork. Fillets - are boneless pieces of meat or fish of varying size according to the size of the animal and where it was taken from. Fluting - is the squeezing together of a pastry with your fingers to produce a decorative seal. Frying - is generally the cooking of a food in fat over a medium or high heat in a pan with edges perpendicular to the stove. Glazing - is accomplished by brushing , drizzling or otherwise spreading ingredients onto food to yield a glossy or hard finish. Grating - is the rubbing of a hard food such as cheese against a rough, sharp edged surface to produce tiny particles. Greasing a Pan - is rubbing the inside of a pan with a fat such as butter or shorting to prevent food from sticking. Copyright: Mr. Beat Amacker and Professor Daniel G. Fuchs 144

Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Greasing and Flouring a Pan - is the same as above but dusting the greased pan with flour after greasing. Grilling - is the cooking of food over an open flame of charcoal. Most grilling of meat is done over a very high heat that produces a sealing in of the juices of the meat. Julienne - is the cutting of (usually) a fruit or vegetable into match sized strip. This is done to control cooking time and / or the intensity of flavor and texture within a dish. Kneading - is the working of dough on a floured surface to produce a smooth elastic mass. Marinating - is the soaking of food for an extended period so that the flavor of the marinade penetrates the food and also chemically tenderizes it with the use of an acid such as lemon juice or vinegar. Minced - is using a knife to cut food into smaller pieces than chopped. Pan Frying - is frying, starting with a cold pan in very little or no fat. It is also normal to pour off any of the liquid produced by the food in the pan. Peaks - is a term that pertains to whipping. When whipping egg whites , for example, they are whipped until they form light peeks within the bowl. Poaching - is the cooking in water that is just bellow a boil. Reducing - is the boiling of any flavored liquid to reduce the volume thereby increasing the flavor. Roasting - is the cooking in the oven in a shallow uncovered pan. Sauting - is usually done in a pan with angled sides. It differs in frying because it uses less oil, usually at lower temperature as well as frequent tossing and stirring. Scoring - is the cutting of the surface of food about 1/4 of an inch deep with a knife. This serves to aid in the cooking and seasoning of the scored food. Shellfish - are broken into two categories. Crustaceans are long bodies with jointed legs such as crabs or lobsters. Mollusks are soft bodied with no spinal column they can be covered in a shell such as clams or oysters or have no shell such as squid or octopus. Shredding - is the cutting of anything into long thin pieces. Simmering - is cooking in a liquid, just below the boiling point. Slicing - pertains to a uniform cutting thickness.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Softening - is letting the product, such as butter, stand at room temperature to make it easier to work with. Steaming - is a healthy way of cooking without letting the food touch the water. This is done by suspending the food over boiling water. There are many products made to steam food, the Chinese are experts in the use of material such as bamboo. Stewing -is slow cooking with a small amount of liquid over a long period of time. Stir frying - made popular by the Chinese, this is a method of frying uniform sized pieces of food, quickly, with a small amount of fat over a very high heat. Straining - is the removal of large particles suspended in a liquid. Tearing - is the breaking into small pieces using your fingers. Tossing - is the use of a lifting motion to mix. Most often it is used in relation to salad or greens in a dish. Exercise: Take a look at the picture and make a list of what went wrong at the restaurant.

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WORKING AS A TEAM
Dont wait to be asked to do things.

Teamwork is about making a positive contribution to your colleagues, being self-motivated and keeping yourself busy.
Whatever your personal feelings are about your fellow work associates, clients must never sense a bad atmosphere within the salon caused by a friction between staff. You will spend a lot of time in the company of people you work with, but you will not always like everyone you meet. People are different: at work, in order to work as a team, a mutual respect for others is more important than close friendships. So remember:

Treat others with respect Be sensitive and responsive to others feelings Show concern and care for others.

Good staff communication Many clients return to a salon because it has a good atmosphere and the staff are always happy and cheerful. Tension or bad atmosphere in the salon can result in lost clients and poor working relationships.

If someone asks you to help them always respond with a smile. Look and see who needs help in the salon and try to offer support without being asked first.

If you need help yourself, ask for it as politely as you can, even if the pressure is on! Dont offer to take on work without checking with your supervisor first (you may think you can attempt a new haircut, but does your supervisor think you can do it).

Body Language As well as using words, we express our interest and attitudes by non-verbal communication - our eye contact, posture and general body positioning. So it is very important that we convey the right message, particularly when dealing with clients and potential customers.

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Generic comprehensive F & B Training Manual Eye contact. Maintain eye contact with the client when talking to her. Where possible, maintain the same eye level as the client; for example, when you carry put a consultation with a client and she is seated, sit beside or opposite her. Standing or above her and looking down will convey a feeling of authority, or as if you are trying to assert control. This is intimidating and definitely the wrong signal to send to a customer. Distances. People have a comfort zone , a space around the body within which they feel at ease. Within a close, intimate relationship shared proximity may be welcome, but uninvited invasion of this space is at least uncomfortable, at its worst menacing or threatening. Posture/body positioning/gestures. Volumes have been written on this subject alone and the psychology of body language is far too complex to address in a few paragraphs. But following certain obvious rules can help us convey the right message and impression: Slouching in the salon looks really unprofessional. Folded arms - crossing the arms on the chest are a protective gesture and suggest a closed mind or a show of defensiveness. Open palms - as a gesture supporting explanation or information, with hands at waist height, palms upward, this indicates that the person has nothing to hide. This is interpreted as openness or honesty. Never point a direction with your finger! Scratching behind the ear or rubbing the back of the neck while listening indicates that the listener is uncertain or doesnt understand. Talking with your hand in front of your mouth may lead the listener to believe that you are not being honest. You are hiding yourself by your gestures. These forms of communication are only indications of feelings and emotions. In isolation, they may not mean anything at all. Taken together, however, they can convey a very clear message. Make sure that you show the appropriate signals; be- and look- interested, keen, ready to help and positive. Above all, show that you can listen.

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