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but requests a server's content or service function. the servers can accept these requests. But this distinction has largely disappeared as mainframes and their applications have also turned to the client-server model and become part of network computing. In turn. Client-server describes the relationship between two computer programs in which one program. the server program. and return the requested information to the client. Each instance of the client software can send data requests to one or more connected servers. Sandoval CLIENT-SERVER Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between service providers (servers) and service requesters. web access and database access. SMTP. So do the Internet's main application protocols. the term has been used to distinguish distributed computing by smaller dispersed computers from the "monolithic" centralized computing of mainframe computers. That program may in turn forward the request to its own database client program that sends a request to a database server at another bank computer to retrieve your account balance. Often clients and servers operate over a computer network on separate hardware. The balance is returned to the bank database client. which in turn serves it back to the web browser client in your personal computer. Standard networked functions such as email exchange.Module in DBMS 49 Prepared by: For-Ian V. Many business applications being written today use the client-server model. . the client program. makes a service request to another. In marketing. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await (listen to) incoming requests. A server is a high-performance host that is a registering unit and shares its resources with clients. are based on the client-server model. For example. To check your bank account from your computer. a web browser is a client program at the user computer that may access information at any web server in the world. Telnet. the architecture remains fundamentally the same. DNS. A client does not share any of its resources. Although this concept can be applied for a variety of reasons to many different kinds of applications. a web browser client program in your computer forwards your request to a web server program at the bank. which displays the information for you. process them. such as HTTP. called clients. The client-server model has become one of the central ideas of network computing.
ftp servers. application servers. print servers. and terminal servers. Most web services are also types of servers. and then this other instance pulls it from database. Sandoval The most basic type of client-server architecture employs only two types of hosts: clients and servers. because each host or instance of the program can simultaneously act as both a client and a server. Client-Queue-Client allows all endpoints to be simple clients. which is much harder to implement. and online chat clients. The two tier architecture means that the client acts as one tier and application in combination with server acts as another tier. ADVANTAGES .Module in DBMS 50 Prepared by: For-Ian V. email clients. Details may be found in Comparison of Centralized (Client-Server) and Decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) Networking. Specific types of servers include web servers. database. name servers. Peer-topeer architecture was originally based on Client-Queue-Client concept. passes it to database etc. It allows devices to share files and resources. COMPARISON TO PEER-TO-PEER ARCHITECTURE Another type of network architecture is known as peer-to-peer. The interaction between client and server is often described using sequence diagrams. while the server consists of some external software. Sequence diagrams are standardized in the Unified Modeling Language. e. COMPARISON ARCHITECTURE TO CLIENT-QUEUE-CLIENT While classic client-server architecture requires one of the communication endpoints to act as a server. Both client-server and P2P architectures are in wide usage today. file servers. database servers. which also acts as passive queue (one software instance passes its query to another instance to queue. Peer-to-peer architectures are often abbreviated by P2P.). mail servers.g. makes a response. This type of architecture is sometimes referred to as two-tier. and because each has equivalent responsibilities and status. Specific types of clients include web browsers. This architecture allows greatly simplified software implementation.
resources are usually distributed among many nodes. Contrast that to a P2P network. The client-server paradigm lacks the robustness of a good P2P network. Many mature client-server technologies are already available which were designed to ensure security. It functions with multiple different clients of different capabilities. the remaining nodes should still have the data needed to complete the download OSI MODEL Computer networks can be classified into two broad categories: Local Area Network (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN). Under client-server. 2. since the P2P network's overall bandwidth can be roughly computed as the sum of the bandwidths of every node in that network. data updates may need to be distributed and applied to each peer in the network. as there can be thousands or even millions of peers. . All the data is stored on the servers. In most cases. In P2P networks. updates to that data are far easier to administer than what would be possible under a P2P paradigm. Under a P2P architecture. Sandoval 1. clients’ requests cannot be fulfilled. Since data storage is centralized. Even if one or more nodes depart and abandon a downloading file. 4. which generally have far greater security controls than most clients. This creates an additional advantage to this architecture: greater ease of maintenance. 5. As the number of simultaneous client requests to a given server increases. and ease of use. for example. friendliness of the user interface.Module in DBMS 51 Prepared by: For-Ian V. 2. DISADVANTAGES 1. where its aggregated bandwidth actually increases as nodes are added. upgrade. should a critical server fail. 3. the server can become overloaded. which is both time-consuming and error-prone. For example. a client-server architecture enables the roles and responsibilities of a computing system to be distributed among several independent computers that are known to each other only through a network. Servers can better control access and resources. or even relocate a server while its clients remain both unaware and unaffected by that change. Traffic congestion on the network has been an issue since the inception of the client-server paradigm. repair. to guarantee that only those clients with the appropriate permissions may access and change data. it is possible to replace.
are the Application. It is therefore often referred to as the OSI Seven Layer Model. and Physical Layers. Sandoval A LAN is a communications network enables data exchange between devices within a small geographic area. while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path. devices mostly refer to computers and peripheral devices such as printer. . Presentation. It was developed as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) initiative. The Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model) is an abstract description for layered communications and computer network protocol design. Conceptionally two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal protocol connection on that layer. Data-Link. On each layer an instance provides services to the instances at the layer above and requests service from the layer below. Transport. For example. Session. Network. it divides network architecture into seven layers which. from top to bottom. Here. sometimes even spanning the globe. A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it and receives service from the layer below it.Module in DBMS 52 Prepared by: For-Ian V. A WAN usually consists of a local connection of LANs and spreads over a much larger geographical area. In its most basic form. a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it.
which also influenced Internet design. A number of the protocol specifications are also available as part of the ITU-T X series.200-series of recommendations. The new design was documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda.1 . All aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the CYCLADES network. called the Basic Reference Model or seven-layer model. The equivalent ISO and ISO/IEC standards for the OSI model are available from the ISO.Module in DBMS 53 Prepared by: For-Ian V.The OSI Model the layer above it. Service definitions abstractly describe the functionality provided to an (N)-layer by an (N-1) layer. and a set of specific protocols. a networking system is divided into layers. work on a layered model of network architecture was started and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) began to develop its OSI framework architecture. OSI has two major components: an abstract model of networking. where N is one of the seven layers of protocols operating in the local host. The standard documents that describe the OSI model can be freely downloaded from the ITU-T as the X. . but only some of the ISO/IEC standards are available as cost-free downloads. Within each layer. Sandoval HISTORY OF OSI MODEL In 1977. Protocols enable an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer in another host. and provides facilities for use by Figure 4. one or more entities implement its functionality. Each entity interacts directly only with the layer immediately beneath it. In this model.
The Physical Layer provides an electrical. Within the semantics of the OSI network architecture. are specified here. the frequencies to broadcast on. which deals with wiring and pin layouts connectors. The Physical Layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical link connecting network nodes. this is perhaps the most complex layer in the OSI architecture.Module in DBMS 54 Prepared by: For-Ian V. 2. Due to the plethora of available hardware technologies with widely varying characteristics. 4. It is a fundamental layer underlying the logical data structures of the higher level functions in a network. which can be either digital or analog. which refers to whether bits of data are transmitted as electrical or optical signals. . The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a hardware transmission medium. Physical medium attachment. Sandoval DESCRIPTION OF OSI LAYERS Layer 1: Physical Layer The Physical Layer is the first and lowest layer in the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. the Physical Layer translates logical communications requests from the Data Link Layer into hardware-specific operations to effect transmission or reception of electronic signals. Data encoding. mechanical. Transmission format. which emphasizes what signal patterns represent ones and zeroes and the synchronization between sending and receiving devices. and procedural interface to the transmission medium. Physical transmission medium. the modulation scheme to use and similar low-level parameters. 3. The Physical Layer comprises the basic hardware transmission technologies of a network. The implementation of this layer is often termed PHY. The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors. This layer consists of four major components involved in the processing signals: 1.
TransferJet Physical Layer 17. . 1000BASE-T. IEEE 802. Firewire 5. ARINC 818 Avionics Digital Video Bus 19. EIA-422. Etherloop 18.11x Wi-Fi Physical Layers 16. This is a logical addressing scheme – values are chosen by the network engineer. DSL 8. G. and report delivery errors. 10BASE2.Module in DBMS 55 Prepared by: For-Ian V. 100BASE-T.11 12. Sandoval Physical Layer examples: 1. it is at this layer that protocols like Token Ring and Ethernet are implemented. Layer 3: Network Layer The Network Layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks. The data link layer forms data packets. RS-449. 1000BASE-SX and other varieties of the Ethernet physical layer 11. ISDN 9. and E1 and other E-carrier links 10. EIA RS-232. GSM Um radio interface physical layer 14. 10BASE-T. 10BASE5. SONET/SDH 13. These functions are often performed by network interface cards (NICs) installed in computers. RS-485 6.92 telephone network modems 2. and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly. Bluetooth Physical Layer 15. T1 and other T-carrier links.hn/G. ITU Recommendations: see ITU-T 7.9960 Physical Layer Layer 2: Data Link Layer Networks transfer data in “chunks” or packets. EIA-423. In PC-based LANs. of a certain size. The addressing scheme is hierarchical. USB Physical Layer 4. Varieties of 802. Routers operate at this layer— sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. IRDA Physical Layer 3. The Network Layer performs network routing functions. 100BASE-TX. 100BASE-FX. V. and adds the appropriate addresses of the source and destination nodes. while maintaining the quality of service requested by the Transport Layer. manages their movement at each node in the network.
The Transport Layer controls the reliability of a given link through flow control. A number of layer management protocols. multicast group management. similar to the Internet). ISO 7498/4. although TCP contains functions. both of which TCP is incapable. a function defined in the Management Annex. Of the actual OSI protocols. When the medium of the next hop cannot accept a packet in its current length. It manages the connectionless transfer of data one hop at a time. IP is responsible for fragmenting the packet into sufficiently small packets that the medium can accept. segmentation/desegmentation. These include routing protocols. Although not developed under the OSI Reference Model and not strictly conforming to the OSI definition of the Transport Layer. all OSI TP connection-mode protocol classes provide expedited data and preservation of record boundaries. providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers.1 .Module in DBMS 56 Prepared by: For-Ian V. there are five classes of connection-mode transport protocols ranging from class 0 (which is also known as TP0 and provides the least error recovery) to class 4 (TP4. designed for less reliable networks. Class 0 contains no error recovery. and from egress router to destination end system. and was designed for use on network layers that provide errorfree connections. such as the graceful close. but only for the detection of errored packets so they may be discarded. Some protocols are state and connection oriented. router to router.Detailed characteristics of TP0-4 classes are shown in the following table: . This means that the Transport Layer can keep track of the segments and retransmit those that fail. typical examples of Layer 4 are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It is the function of the payload that makes these belong to the Network Layer. from end system to ingress router. Network Layer information and error. Class 4 is closest to TCP. Table 4. Layer 4: Transport Layer The Transport Layer provides transparent transfer of data between end users. It is not responsible for reliable delivery to a next hop. belong to the Network Layer. not the protocol that carries them. and Network Layer address assignment. Also. and error control. Sandoval The best-known example of a Layer 3 protocol is the Internet Protocol (IP). which OSI assigns to the Session Layer.
Higher layers may have the equivalent of double envelopes. . such as cryptographic presentation services that can be read by the addressee only. GRE becomes closer to a transport protocol that uses IP headers but contains complete frames or packets to deliver to an endpoint. which deals with the dispatch and classification of mail and parcels sent. that a post office manages the outer envelope of mail.Module in DBMS 57 Prepared by: For-Ian V. While Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) might seem to be a Network Layer protocol. manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. a semipermanent dialogue. i. Do remember. The Session Layer provides the mechanism for opening. however. Roughly speaking. Communication sessions consist of requests and responses that occur between applications. It establishes. such as carrying non-IP protocols such as IBM's SNA or Novell's IPX over an IP network. L2TP carries PPP frames inside transport packet. or end-to-end encryption with IPsec. The Session Layer controls the dialogues (connections) between computers. Session Layer services are commonly used in application environments that make use of remote procedure calls (RPCs). Sandoval Perhaps an easy way to visualize the Transport Layer is to compare it with a Post Office. It provides for full-duplex. tunneling protocols operate at the Transport Layer. if the encapsulation of the payload takes place only at endpoint.e. Layer 5: Session Layer The Session Layer is Layer 5 of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. closing and managing a session between end-user application processes.
This layer deals with issues of string representation . . instead of simply sending data in form of datagrams or packets between hosts. which is not usually used in the Internet Protocol Suite.Module in DBMS 58 Prepared by: For-Ian V. The OSI model made this layer responsible for graceful close of sessions. and establishes checkpointing. and also for session checkpointing and recovery. Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture. also known as X. termination. or simplex operation. Layer 6: Presentation Layer The Presentation Layer is Layer 6 of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. Other examples of Session Layer implementations include Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) – the AppleTalk protocol that coordinates the name binding process. i. The Presentation Layer is the lowest layer at which application programmers consider data structure and presentation. The Session Layer is commonly implemented explicitly in application environments that use remote procedure calls. and Session Control Protocol (SCP) – the DECnet Phase IV Session Layer protocol. In case of a connection loss this protocol may try to recover the connection. It provides for either full duplex or half-duplex operation and provides synchronization points in the stream of exchanged messages. and restart procedures. adjournment. "thisisastring\0"). An example of a Session Layer protocol is the OSI protocol suite Session Layer Protocol.e. The Presentation Layer is responsible for the delivery and formatting of information to the application layer for further processing or display. Note: An example of a presentation service would be the conversion of an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCII-coded file. which is a property of the Transmission Control Protocol. the Session Layer Protocol may close it and re-open it. Sandoval half-duplex. If a connection is not used for a long period. The idea is that the application layer should be able to point at the data to be moved.whether they use the Pascal method (an integer length field followed by the specified amount of bytes) or the C/C++ method (null-terminated strings. the Session Layer responds to service requests from the Presentation Layer and issues service requests to the Transport Layer.225 or ISO 8327. and the Presentation Layer will deal with the rest. It relieves the application layer of concern regarding syntactical differences in data representation within the end-user systems.
often by using XML. generally regarded as an application layer protocol. Within the service layering semantics of the OSI network architecture.1). although it can be done at the Application. as long as the Presentation Service understands both and the mapping between them. This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e. with capabilities such as converting an EBCDIC-coded text file to an ASCII-coded file.g. which is normally standardized at this level. encryption) by translating from application to network format. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. Session. and moved down the stack. like strings. or serialization of objects and other data structures from and to XML.Module in DBMS 59 Prepared by: For-Ian V. For example.. Transport. Layer 7: Application Layer Application Layer is a term used in categorizing protocols and methods in architectural models of computer networking. each having its own advantages and disadvantages. no distinction is made between the presentation and application layers. providing freedom from compatibility problems. in which the higher-layer entities can use different syntax and semantics. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. and the exact way that streaming video is transmitted. Sandoval The Presentation Layer establishes a context between Application Layer entities. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. or Network Layers. has Presentation Layer aspects such as the ability to identify character encoding for proper conversion. the Presentation Layer responds to service requests from the Application Layer and issues service requests to the Session Layer. Encryption is typically done at this level too. The original presentation structure used the Basic Encoding Rules of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN. Another example is representing structure. As well as simple pieces of data. Two common examples are 'objects' in object-oriented programming. and vice versa. Both the OSI model and the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) contain an application layer. . which is then done in the Application Layer. HTTP. In many widely used applications and protocols. more complicated things are standardized in this layer. The presentation service data units are then encapsulated into Session Protocol Data Units.
When determining resource availability. and job transfer and manipulation protocols. and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). which means that both the OSI application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. Protocol examples: • • • • • • • • • 9P. Some examples of application layer implementations include Telnet. and synchronizing communication. Coherent File Distribution Protocol DDS. determining resource availability. Bootstrap Protocol CFDP. Data Distribution Service . distinguishing explicitly additional functionality above the Transport Layer at two additional levels: Session Layer and Presentation Layer. In synchronizing communication. This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. File Transfer Protocol (FTP). virtual terminal. Advanced Message Queuing Protocol BitTorrent Atom Publishing Protocol BOOTP. OSI specifies strict modular separation of functionality at these layers and provides protocol implementations for each layer. Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners. the Application Layer contains all protocols and methods that fall into the realm of process-to-process communications via an Internet Protocol (IP) network using the Transport Layer protocols to establish underlying host-to-host connections. The common application layer services provide semantic conversion between associated application processes. Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user.Module in DBMS 60 Prepared by: For-Ian V. the application layer must decide whether sufficient network resources for the requested communication exist. In the OSI model. Apple Filing Protocol APPC. Advanced Program-to-Program Communication AMQP. Plan 9 from Bell Labs distributed file system protocol AFP. the application layer determines the identity and availability of communication partners for an application with data to transmit. Sandoval In TCP/IP. the definition of its Application Layer is narrower in scope. When identifying communication partners. all communication between applications requires cooperation that is managed by the application layer. Note: Examples of common application services of general interest include the virtual file. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
Post Office Protocol (version 3) Rlogin. File Transfer Access and Management FTP. Endpoint Handlespace Redundancy Protocol FastTrack (KaZaa. Sandoval • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • DHCP. National Transportation Communications for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol NTP. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SNMP. Server Message Block SMTP. Grokster. Network News Transfer Protocol NTCIP. Network Time Protocol OSCAR. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions and Secure MIME Modbus Netconf NFS. Remote Login in UNIX Systems RTPS. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol LPD. iMesh) Finger.Module in DBMS 61 Prepared by: For-Ian V. Packet-Based Multimedia Communications System IMAP.323. POP3. HyperText Transfer Protocol H. Real Time Streaming Protocol SAP. Line Printer Daemon Protocol MIME (S-MIME). Network File System NIS. Peer Name Resolution Protocol POP. File Transfer Protocol Gopher. Real Time Publish Subscribe RTSP. Session Description Protocol SIP. Internet Relay Chat Protocol Kademlia LDAP. Simple Network Management Protocol . Health Level Seven HTTP. Service Location Protocol SMB. Session Initiation Protocol SLP. Domain Name System (Service) Protocol eDonkey ENRP. User Information Protocol Freenet FTAM. Network Information Service NNTP. IMAP4. AOL Instant Messenger Protocol PNRP. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DeviceNet DNS. Session Announcement Protocol SDP. Gopher protocol HL7. Internet Message Access Protocol (version 4) IRCP.
NDIS and ODI are interfaces between the media (Layer 2) and the network protocol (Layer 3). are approximate implementations of OSI Service Specifications. Terminal Emulation Protocol of TCP/IP TFTP. Directory Access Protocol (DAP) XMPP. For example. Message Handling Service Protocol X. Virtual Terminal Protocol Waka. Simple Network Time Protocol SSH. Interface standards. Secure SMS Messaging Protocol RDP. . an HTTP replacement protocol Whois (and RWhois).500. Protocol specifications precisely define the interfaces between different computers. and Unix's Berkeley sockets and System V Transport Layer Interface. Tabular Data Stream TELNET. Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol INTERFACES Neither the OSI Reference Model nor OSI protocols specify any programming interfaces. except for the Physical Layer to Media. Time Stamp Protocol VTP. are interfaces between applications (Layer 5 and above) and the transport (Layer 4). but the software interfaces inside computers are implementation-specific. Transaction Capabilities Application Part TDS.Module in DBMS 62 Prepared by: For-Ian V. Remote Directory Access Protocol WebDAV X. Secure Shell SSMS. Microsoft Windows' Winsock. other than as deliberately abstract service specifications.400. Remote Desktop Protocol TCAP. Sandoval • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • SNTP. Trivial File Transfer Protocol TSP.
Example of neither OSI Reference Model nor OSI protocols specify any programming interfaces. .
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