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Quality Issues In Engineering Project

Company: GIS Consortium India Ltd

Submitted By: Sahil Goel (08503905) Nitesh Kumar Singh (08503906) Varun Sharma (08503909) Parag Mahajan (08503910) Karan Bagga (08503911) Kajal Agrawal (08503991)


We take great privilege to avail this opportunity to express our deep gratitude to all those who helped us and guided us throughout the project .The experience that we have gained during the project will help us in our future professional life. We extend our thanks to Ms. Kanupriya Misra Bakhru and Mr. Manas Ranjan Behera our mentor for inspiration, constructive suggestions and affectionate guidance in our work without which it would have been very difficult for us to complete the project. We are deeply thankful to her for acting as project guides and for giving us the guidance and opportunity to learn different aspects of designing & implementing the software. We express our deep sense of gratitude to her for giving her precious time in solving our problems.

We also extend our sincere thanks to all the staff members of JIIT for providing us different facilities such as computer support and library infrastructure support etc. required for our project work. Last but not the least, our sincere thanks to GIS Consortium India Ltd for allowing us to visit their company and special thanks to Mr. R.C.Mathur and Mr. Dheeraj Sharma for taking out their precious time talking to us.

Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. Executive Summary Introduction Findings and Analysis Conclusion

Page No.
3 7 10 18


Executive Summary

GIS Consortium (India) Pvt. Ltd. is an emerging GIS services and spatial data provider for creative solutions in the areas of Natural Resources Management, land information systems , urban development & planning and geographical information systems applications.

With the GIS industry moving towards greater integrations with interactive applications, it offers technical expertise that enables project authorities, designers and consultants to enhance communications with consumers and increase information flow between various hierarchy level and user for evaluating and taking correct decision on the feasibility of the project .They have rich experience in digital mapping technology and customized applications has enabled them to serve various industries using GIS platform for future planning and decision making.

Their endeavor to provide world-class services to the various industries is adequately supported by their state-of-the art production and development center. They have established state-of-the art GIS , Remote Sensing , Photogrammetric , Ground Survey and digital mapping capabilities through adoption of latest digital cartographic techniques. The strength of their organization lies in creation of digital land base maps from paper maps, aerial photographs, satellite imageries , land surveys and legal description using one of the several technologies such as map digitizing , cadastral mapping , photogrammetric mapping , digital orthophotography , remote sensing depending on the needs of the customer.

SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE State-of-the-art / scalable infrastructure and communication facilities to provide 24X7 support to its development team. Dedicated local telephone lines during and after office hours .


Record of completion of all the projects in time and with success with various clients both in the private and the govt. sector. It has executed projects of eminent companies like BSNL, Nokia, Ericsson, LG India etc.

Large number of off-the-shelf Geodatabase for various cities nation-wide as well as overseas

Quality Management Standards:

The company follows ISO 9000 standard procedures & processes in executing their project. Strong Project Management Orientation Well defined process of Requirements, Analysis & Design We enforce industry development standards Rigorous Quality Assurnce procedures

ISO9000 Standards

The ISO 9000 family addresses "Quality management".

The customer's quality requirements Applicable regulatory requirements Enhance customer satisfaction, Achieve continual improvement of its performance in pursuit of these objectives

The ISO 9000 reference standards, published in 1987 and revised in 1994, constitute a normative outline for the definition of the QMS. They have a basic concept that is the constant improvement and the verification of such improvement according to the satisfactory answer of the consumer. The ISO 9000 standards have been thought mainly for industrial products and for their application on geographical information systems.

In a bid to improve performance, the organization has been charged with the responsibility of collecting, managing and disseminating geo-information. Customer focus has been the overarching principle underlying its pervasive reengineering programs as providers strive to meet growing demand for a broad range of services and information products. It develops GIS applications based on distributed services which prompt the concept of a geographical services infrastructure comprising interoperable services that can be combined with each other or with other specialized services (e.g simulation tools) to offer advanced services and execute complex tasks as may be required by some end-user.

Quality is a state of mind, a perception about anything to everything Quality assurance (QA) refers to the planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled. It is the systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, monitoring of processes and an associated feedback loop that confers error prevention. This can be contrasted with Quality "Control" which is focused on process outputs. Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects. Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records. Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications. Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships. Controls include product inspection, where every product is examined visually, and often using a stereo microscope for fine detail before the product is sold into the external market. Inspectors will be provided with lists and descriptions of unacceptable product defects such as cracks or surface blemishes for example. The quality of the outputs is at risk if any of these three aspects is deficient in any way. Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny product release, whereas quality assurance attempts to improve and stabilize production (and associated processes) to avoid, or at least minimize, issues which led to the defect(s) in the first place.[citation needed] For contract work, particularly work awarded by government agencies, quality control issues are among the top reasons for not renewing a contract.

Quality Standards
In many products and services, quality standards are set by Health & Safety legislation and enforced by Trading Standards officers. This is especially important in areas such as catering, food, health and electrical products and for any product that might pose risks to users if the quality was poor. Other relevant legislation would include food labeling and weights and measures, which aim to ensure that the product is as described, contains the correct quantity, and to include correct information about ingredients. Some examination specifications may require a more detailed understanding of relevant legislation, as part of the study of external influences on business. British Standards and ISO The British Standards Institute (BSI, and the International Equivalent, ISO) publishes standards for many kinds of product and services, known as the Kitemark, which can be seen as a badge of quality. BS5750/ISO 9000 BS5750 is a British Standard for quality assurance and ISO 9000 is the international equivalent. This approach requires that firms set out clear procedures for all business processes usually these are set out in manuals and reinforced through staff training. Regular audits are carried out to ensure that processes are being carried out consistently according to standards. This approach was very common in the 1980s and 1990s and many major organizations would only buy products and services from firms that possessed BS5750 accreditation. In general, accreditation was achieved by engaging external consultants to help with documenting processes and setting and monitoring targets. Many firms achieved substantial benefits from this process, by reduction in waste and an improved reputation for quality.

Importance Of Standards Encapsulation of best practice- avoids repetition of past mistakes. They are a framework for quality assurance processes - they involve checking compliance to standards. They provide continuity - new staff can understand the organisation by understanding the standards that are used.

Quality Issues In GIS Industry There are certain quality related issues in GIS industry, some of them are listed below:

Cost and difficulty of database creation. Higher accuracy, higher costs Dependency on the data possessed rather than data required Integration of data from diverse sources/scales can result in poor overall accuracy if not managed

Data Quality

Higher quality data costs more to develop or to purchase Think about what the users of the information need to do their work. Obtain/create data that meets those needs. Do not create data that is of higher accuracy or resolution than what the purposes require.

(GIS Projects Cost versus Accuracy)


Findings and Analysis

An interview with Mr. R.C.Mathur

(Director of Business Development),

And Mr. Dheeraj Sharma.

(the head Of Quality Maintenance Department)


What is the main work of your industry?

Ans: The work of GIS Consortium is to provide direct information to the customers. We provide any kind of information. Eg information of all the banks in Ghaziabad. Q. Ans: How do customers contact you? They contact us through telephone lines and mails. Ph. no-0120 4640034 Website- Q. Ans: Q. Ans: Q. Ans: Q. Ans: How do you receive information? We have got the latest technology and receive information through satellites. Which software do you use to store customer information? The main software used by us is AutoCAD. How do you maintain the safety of the information? Internet is not provided to every employee due to safety reasons. How do you maintain the quality checks? We follow CAD standards. We are also ISO 9000 certified company. It is done in three stages: o o Production stage Team stage

o Q

Quality Department does it then report to MD What is CAD?

Ans: CAD Standards have been created to improve productivity and interchange of Computeraided design documents between different offices and CAD programs.


What is your greatest achievement?

Ans.: Our greatest achievement is customer satisfaction. Customers gives us repeated jobs which make us feel proud of ourselves.


GIS consortium India pvt ltd. Follows CAD Standards. CAD Standards have been created to improve productivity and interchange of Computer-aided design documents between different offices and CAD programs. In an effort to define plan quality GIS consortium India pvt ltd. has concluded that the following characteristics (The 5 Cs) should provide an indication of the quality of the plans: 1. Complete The plans will be an accurate and thorough representation of the existing projects. The plans will be supported by a thorough and detailed documented development process. The plans will be developed with the active involvement of all affected parties and developmental stage owners throughout all stages of development. 2. Consistent The plans will be consistent with other plans developed and will comply with all standards and guidelines set by the GIS consortium India Pvt ltd. 3. Clear The plans will not contain any errors or omissions which will require more than one addendum during the project advertisement period. 4. Correct The plans will not contain any design errors or omissions which will cause the delay, postponement, or cancellation of the project letting. 5. Constructible The plans will not contain design errors or omissions that require more than two change orders which individually causes an increase or decrease of more than 3% of the original contract bid award amount or causes an increase or decrease in the contract time by more than one day. It is recognized that good communication and significant effort by all employees is necessary to meet the 5 Cs and achieve the desired result of a quality set of plans.

The main objective of the Quality Control process for design projects is to provide a mechanism by which all project plans can be subject to a systematic and consistent review. The outcome of the review should create a set of quality project plans, which should be substantially error free. A secondary objective of the Quality Control process is to provide for a well-documented trail of the design process. A properly documented project file should be a by-product of the quality control process. The Department, as a whole, should be able to substantiate its position from properly documented project files if any legal, social or procedural issues arise regarding the project. Another secondary objective of the Quality Control process is to provide information feedback from reviews to the designers. The designers improved expertise and general increase in

knowledge from feedback should result in product improvement at early stages even before a project review is started. The Quality Control process thus serves as a parallel training program.

Requirements for Quality Control

The Quality Control process includes quality planning, training, providing clear decisions and directions, constant supervision, immediate review of completed activities for accuracy and completeness, and documenting all decisions, assumptions and recommendations. In the project plan development process, it is the clear responsibility of the designer to ensure all project elements are economical, accurate, properly prepared, coordinated, checked, and completed. In order for the GIS consortium india pvt ltd. to consistently meet the needs and expectations of our citizens, quality must be as important as the schedule and budget. All designers and reviewers must recognize that quality is the result of several processes. It requires many individuals performing many appropriate activities at the right time during the plans development process. Quality Control does not solely consist of a review after a product is completed. It is an approach and a realization that quality is something that occurs throughout the design process. Quality requires performing all activities in conformance with valid requirements, no matter how large or small their overall contribution to the design process. Good CAD techniques, attention to detail and ensuring the plans are correct and useful to the user are also essential to quality. Design personnel shall follow established design policies, procedures, standards and guidelines in the preparation and review of all design products. Design consultants are agents for the GIS consortium India pvt ltd. with the primary responsibility for preparation of project plans. Consultants must ensure quality and adhere to established design policies, procedures, standards and guidelines in the preparation and review of all design products for compliance and good engineering practice as directed by a Project Quality Control Plan. The Department will review plans for compliance with policies, standards and procedures that does not limit the responsibility or liability of the information provider. The GIS consortium India pvt ltd. Project Manager monitors the Quality Control efforts used by in-house staff and by consultants.


Project Quality Control Requirements

Every set of plans prepared by or for GIS consortium India pvt ltd. are required to follow this process: The Project Quality Control Plan details the proposed methods or processes of providing quality control for all work products. This plan will be kept current with the work requirements. The plan shall include, but is not limited to, the following areas: Organization Quality Control Reviews Proposed method of documentation of comments, coordination responses and quality assurance records Quality Assurance Certification

Plans prepared by consultants for GIS consortium india pvt ltd. must, at a minimum, follow the procedures set forth. Consultants may prepare their own Project Quality Control Plan to be submitted to the PM for approval. Plans Development Requirements for Review All phase submittals will be checked prior to presentation to the Department for review. Properly completed QA Checklists for all applicable disciplines, signed and dated by the checker, will be submitted with the review prints to demonstrate that all items were checked.

Conformance to CAD Standards All plans must meet the CAD/Drafting standards. GIS consortium india pvt ltd. is in the process of developing a formalized CAD standardization process which will ultimately require that all project plans developed be prepared utilizing standardized design software. All plans will have to be certified through a CAD standardization package.


Plans Reviews In addition to plans checking, the designer will conduct a design review of all documents prior to submitting the documents to the Department. This review shall include, as a minimum, the following activities: 1. 2. 3. 4. Compliance with project requirements. Technical accuracy and adequacy. Compatibility with other associated project documents. Compliance with previous review comments.

The designer will prepare a memorandum documenting the basis of the review, the specific items that were reviewed, the findings of the review, and the follow-up, if any, that was accomplished.

Design Documentation Requirements To facilitate QC reviews of each project, the designer will prepare a written "Project Design Criteria Report" at the onset of the work. A copy of this document will be submitted at the onset of work for the project and will serve as the basis for reports, design analyses, and plans preparation. Quality Control Reviews Design Review Requirements During the entire design period the Department will monitor the designer's implementation of the QC plan and require compliance and documentation. The Quality assurance Checklists contained in the "Documentation Manual for Project Delivery provide a list of elements which should be considered and addressed by the information provider during each phase of project development. The checklists should not be considered as including all items necessary for a review by discipline, but should be considered as a guide to be expanded or reduced as necessary for each individual project. Design review checklists included in this guideline are intended to assist the designer in preparing an adequate submittal. The sufficiency checklists included in the guideline establishes the submittal requirements which must be met to satisfy the documentation requirements for each project. The designer's attention is directed to the documentation items required for a complete submittal. Missing items can delay or halt a review.

The plans reviewers will check each plan element. If an error is found in a plan element, additional elements will be checked to determine if the procedural error was repeated. On subsequent submittals, the reviewer will review the disposition of comments from the previous submittal. It is important for the designer to recognize that a review comment is not a directive to make changes to the plans. Comments are frequently made to ensure the designer has considered an option. Every project will undergo a quality control review. The reviewer will be an experienced manager who was not actively involved in the preparation of the project. Checking procedures for these quality control reviews are discussed in Sections below. Also, note that there is an overlap among reports, calculations and plans. Most reports and calculations are incorporated into the plans. Checks should be made to ensure that calculations/reports are correctly incorporated into the plans.

Phase reviews
Review process The guidelines and checklists contained in the "Documentation Manual for Project Delivery" define those tasks which should be completed by each submittal and those items that will be reviewed. The Plans Distribution list clearly outlines who is to receive and review prints at each phase review. At each submittal stage, the Project Manager will review the submittal for the degree of completeness required by that phase. Plans will be returned to the designer if they are incomplete, which could cause delays to the projects schedule. Plans will be distributed by the Project Manager as detailed on the Plans Distribution list. The Project Manager will provide a date by which all comments are to be received by the PM. It is the responsibility of each reviewer to review the plans in accordance with their area of expertise and return their comments to the PM by the date specified. Any breakdown in the review process or untimely comments can result in plan errors, delays and increased project costs.

Review Reports Comments from phase reviews can be in the form of marked-up plans, meeting minutes (as in a plan-in-hand review meeting) or review memoranda. It is the responsibility of each reviewer to insure that their comments are submitted to and recorded with the Project Manager. It is the Project Managers responsibility to compile comments, document the comments and distribute

the comments to the designer and others if necessary. It is then the designers responsibility, in consultation with the Project Manager, to review the comments and to determine how each comment will be addressed. The designer will prepare a formal response to the PM stating how the comment will be addressed. The Project Manager will forward these responses to the appropriate reviewer and will insure that all comments and responses have been documented in the project files. It is the designers responsibility to insure that comments are incorporated into the construction plans as appropriate.

Method of Documentation of Comments, Coordination and Responses

Documentation of Comments and Responses All comments made by phase reviewers shall be recorded either by copy of memos, e-mail, letters and/or marked plans received from the reviewers. In the event that comments are received through meetings with reviewers, there shall be minutes prepared that summarize the comments received. All comments shall be addressed by the designer responsible for the discipline that prepared the document being reviewed. The response shall be in writing and shall be formatted in a manner that identifies the document review date, reviewers comments and responses to the comments. All comments received shall be copied to the designer if not first received by the designer. The designer will be responsible for submittal of comment responses to the reviewing entity. Where it is necessary and prudent to discuss the comments with the reviewer(s) prior to making a response, the designer shall arrange for the meeting. Copies of all comments and responses shall be kept in the project files. Requests for Changes to the Scope The PM and the designer shall evaluate comments or requests that are not covered in the Final Project Scope. Additions to the scope usually increase the project costs (Scope Creep). These requests should be evaluated on a case by case basis. The PM may recommend changes to the scope of a project to the Program Manager.


Despite the numerous efforts carried out to standardize geographical information, standards are not always able to guarantee or to improve quality, since they do not consider all the possible applications and can be valued only in specific contexts. The standards content regards the guide lines or the requisites needed to establish the documentation and the last procedures but, without the context, they are not able to define quality. A useful information regarding quality asks for the final use to be known. If data with different scale are present in a GIS, then the respective different positional accuracies can preclude an accurate analysis. The fulfillment of a standard does not assure the quality and in decisional contexts it does not allow the accessibility to metadata. Associating standards content to particular conformity values is one way to understand quality. Developed in the manufacturing industry, the use of control to achieve quality leaves users out of the whole process. The knowledge of quality in satisfactory characteristics is a misleading concept because it makes implicit the objectiveness of quality assessment, and it does not include the requirements of the users in the determination of the quality. Practical purposes ask for a more pragmatic understanding of the concept of quality. This is recognized in the GIS as "fitness to use". This widely accepted expression affirms that spatial data quality is recognized only in terms of its specific use. Isolated metadata do not determine satisfactory geographical information quality. If data for quality valuation are not available, metadata do not satisfy the primary purpose. This is perhaps the most serious defect of standards. They contain the knowledge of the data producer, other information that concern quality determination has to be added by users. The efforts to standardize metadata content and data quality are taking important steps toward the overcoming of closed metadata. Since these efforts are focused on least requisites, interchange requisites and documentation guide lines their results at present open small rooms in order to put metadata sources in a new greater rooms. By following these standards, producers can require metadata availability, but these last will be incomprehensible to geographical Information users. Moreover, the metadata achievement is not enough to help quality decisions, if barriers to access remain .Inside the subject of accessibility, the contentious standards nature is also important. It is the result of discussions and negotiations that expressly or implicitly highlight institutions and dominant disciplines contributions. A look to other disciplines, such as software engineering, can offer impulses for an wider knowledge of geographical information quality. This is necessary with the increasing role of the GIS user and the information producers, not exclusively for the users of data provided by national cartography agencies, etc. Standards will always be essential, but the intrinsic quality conformity is only a part of geographical information quality. Moreover, procedures of quality evaluation need to include users applications. It is be important to find the way to distinguish different typologies of quality demands by dealing with the market.