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Kiln Shell Corrosion

Cement
ICTM R. Krischanitz May 2008
29 Kiln Shell Corrosion
PC kiln, 4.15 x 58 m, 2450 tpd, <20% alternative fuels:
Fracture of kiln shell at rm 38.5 - despite phosphating it during
previous kiln stops
Kiln shell thickness:
Original thickness 20mm
Thickness within fracture area (groove) 8mm
Average thickness in brick joints 14mm
Thickness below bricks 17mm
Ref: DAVILA, J.C. et al., 1995, Influencia del Refractario en la Corrosion de la Coraza del Horno Rotatorio para
Cemento, ALAFAR XXIV Congreso, Cartagena, pp 157-183
Fracture of kiln shell due to corrosion
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Preferred
corrosion below
joints,
condensation of
moisture during
kiln stops
Corrosion of kiln shell (rm. 65, calcining zone)
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wet cardboards
Corroded kiln shell within the calcining zone
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Loss of shell
thickness 6 mm/a
Fuels: Coal + pet
coke, tyres,
palletised sewage
sludge
Kiln shell corrosion (rm. 29, second tyre)
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Thickness
15 mm
Scales from the kiln shell
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RHI Technical Centre Leoben, Austria
Dense layer of magnetite and hematite
mag
hem
Porous layer of hematite and KCl
hem
KCl
Microscopical appearances of scales
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Composition of scales
<@W A B C D E F G
Fe
2
O
3
44 90 88 17 56 n.a. 81
SO
3
11 7 5 1 1 -
K
2
O 24 - 2 43 16 6
Na
2
O 4 - - - 2 1
Cl
-
6 1 4 36 11 6
F
-
7 - - - - -
PbO - - 1 - - -
Fe
3
O
4
777 777 7 77 777 77
Fe
2
O
3
777 7 77 777
FeS 77 77 7 7 77
FeS
2
77
Fe(OH)
2
7
FeSO
4
.H
2
O 7
K
2
SO
4
77
KCl 77 7 777 77 77 77
Na
2
SO
4
7 7
NaCl 7
NaF 7
Pb
2
(SO
4
)O 7
W (wt.%)
WW W g7
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Kiln Feed / Coating
Kiln gas
KCl, K
2
SO
4
KCl, K
2
SO
4
KCl, K
2
SO
4
KCl, K
2
SO
4
Preheater

Evaporation of volatiles in preheating zone


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Lower melting points of
chlorides in comparison to
sulphates. Eutectic melts
have even lower melting
points. The lower the
melting point the higher
the infiltration depth.
Phase diagram:
acc. to O.S.Dombrovskaya 1933
Phase diagram KCl K
2
SO
4
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Spalling of basic bricks
caused by KCl after 3 months
operation
Infiltrated refractory bricks
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Reduce chlorine input to the kiln (selection of appropriate raw materials /
substitute fuels, install a by-pass)
Keep evaporation rate of volatile components as low as possible (avoid
reducing operation conditions, use of mineralizers, other process measures)
Reduce permeability of lining (e.g. reduction of joints by use of ISO shapes in
the basic zone, use of mortar lining)
Extension of the basic lining area
Install refractories with low (zero) permeability
Apply gas-tight coatings on the kiln shell (paints, flame / plasma sprayed
metallic or ceramic layers etc.)
Select corrosion resistant steel type for kiln shell
Sacrifice layer
cf also: Jns, E.S. & stergrd, 1999, Investigation into kiln shell corrosion of rotary cement kilns, ZKG International,
vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 68-79
Measures to prevent kiln shell corrosion
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Heat resistant up to 400C
Chemical resistance against alkaline salts
Chemical resistance against corrosive gases (H
2
S, HCl, SO
2
, CO
2
and O
2
)
Resistance against acids
Abrasion resistant (movement of the lining)
Coating must be applicable on sight
Requirements for coatings
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Materials tested by University of Leoben / RHI
D. Jellen: Verringerung der Ofenmantelkorrosion von Drehrohrfen in der
Zementindustrie durch Beschichtungen
: - polyamide resin with graphite pigments
- silicon resin with FeO pigments and inhibitors
- silicon-modified alkyd resin
- zinc ethyl silicate
- phosphoric acid
WW , flame sprayed: - Al
- NiCr 50/50
- Ni based Cr-B
- Zn, Zn/Al 85/15
W , plasma sprayed: - Al
2
O
3
Studied types of coating
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Ignition test at 400C:
kiln atmosphere: CO
2
20%
H
2
O 10%
SO
2
2%
HCl 2%
O
2
13%
N
2
53%
additionally the specimens were
coated with alkaline-salts
Low temperature corrosion:
at 40C in an exsiccator which
base has been covered with HCl (21%)
Weight differences were measured over a longer period of time (up to1000 h)
Performed tests
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Paintings: embrittlement occurs at moderate temperatures (e.g. 200C),
loss of adhesion on substrate
Phosphate treatment guarantees no protection against corrosion at high
temperatures. After the ignition tests no phosphate detectable anymore.
Metallic coating: protective effect is good / very good (e.g. Al) but
adhesion on substrate is difficult to maintain
Ceramic coating: high porosity of the ceramic layer leads to corrosion of
the substrate and finally spalling of coating
Spray procedure expensive and time consuming (14 days one layer 5rm,
3,8m ), rough surface difficult to clean from mortar
Results of investigation
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Fused cast refractories
Zero permeability
Very expensive
Very brittle / low thermal shock resistance
Silica-impregnated alumina bricks (RESISTAL IS)
Reduced open porosity (15-20% less porosity)
Greatly reduced permeability (80-90% less permeability)
Formation of protective reaction layer of alkali silicates at hot face
(reaction sealing)
Refractories with low (zero) permeability
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What is a sacrifice layer?
Method developed in Mexican cement plants (lamina de
sacrificio)
A sheet of stainless steel between refractory lining and kiln shell
Steel type: 1.4301 (AISI 304), 1.4571 (AISI 316)
Dimension:
(A) 900 mm wide endless coil, 0.38 mm thickness, or
(B) 1.220 x 2.440 mm, 0.79 mm thickness, point welded
Sacrifice layer against kiln shell corrosion
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900 mm wide
endless coil,
0.38 mm
thickness
Sacrifice layer (A)
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Type of
steel
used for
sacrifice
layer
Sacrifice layer (A)
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Cutting pieces
of 2-3 m length
Sacrifice layer (A)
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Four sheets
ready for
installation
Sacrifice layer (A)
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SL installed
between
ANKRAL
bricks and the
cleaned kiln
shell
Sacrifice layer (A)
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Sacrifice layer (A)
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Plates of
0.79 mm
thickness
are point
welded to
the kiln
shell
Sacrifice layer (B)
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Sacrifice layer (C)
vertical overlap: 2 5cm
horizontal overlap: 5 20cm
magnets
wooden bar
refractory
bricks
stainless steel sheets
1.4301 / AISI 304
0,40 x 1000mm
lining rig
Stage 1
Stage 2
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Steel shell with sacrifice layer
(rm 30-35): very light corrosion
Steel shell without sacrifice
layer (rm 52): strong corrosion
Fuel: Combustleo + alternative fuels (PET, tyres, industrial waste)
Effect of sacrifice layer in a PREPOL kiln
4.8 x 75m, 4.800 tpd
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Davila, J.C. et al., 1995, Influencia del Refractario en la Corrosion de la Coraza del
Horno Rotatorio para Cemento, ALAFAR XXIV Congreso, Cartagena, pp 157-183
Jns, E.S. & stergrd, 1999, Investigation into kiln shell corrosion of rotary cement
kilns, ZKG International, vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 68-79
Jellen, D., 1999, Verringerung der Ofenmantelkorrosion von Drehrohrfen in der
Zementindustrie durch Beschichtungen. Thesis, Montanuniversitt Leoben.
References
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NNN.*.
Thank you for your attention!