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1, 2011 STRUCTURE OF REPORT The report should be in the style of a formal report. It should be typed and justified. The maximum number of pages is 10, not including title page, nomenclature and appendices. Font size 12 is to be used. Every page has to be numbered. Each laboratory report will contribute 5% to the overall mark. The report should contain the following: 1. Abstract  Abstract is normally written last and it is normally the first section read by any reader to decide whether or not to continue reading the report.  Briefly describe what the experiment is about, the methods used, key results that are achieved, and key conclusions.  It should not be more than 200 words.  Exceeding the word limit results in severe penalty. 2. Introduction  Introduction is used to set the context.  Briefly describe why this work is important and include examples of industrial applications of the experiment.  Aims of experiment have to be clearly stated and how these aims were achieved. 3. Experimental setup  Schematic or flow diagram of apparatus. Standard symbols of equipment are expected be used.  A paragraph to describe schematic or flow diagram in words.  Schematic or flow diagrams are to be drawn using computer-based package. For example, Microsoft Office Visio. 4. Results  This section should only include the key results. Tables or graphs can be used to illustrate the key results.  Numerous intermediate data should be placed in an appendix.  A paragraph to describe the results in the tables or graphs presented. 5. Discussion  Discussion and interpretation of results.  Suggested issues to be discussed can be found in the respective laboratory notes.  Significance of results needs to be discussed.  Trends observed should also be examined and compared with theory. Possible reasons for discrepancy should be discussed.  Major errors and how these errors could be minimized should be mentioned.  Area of future improvement should also be stated. 6. Conclusion  This section should include conclusions from experimental results and discussion.

 All variables should have units associated with them.8 1 2 3 0. 2 .200 words 0.  Symbols should be in alphabetical order with Greek letters listed separately.  Conclusion should not be too similar to abstract.5 Penalty  Zero mark will be awarded if student does not attend the practical session without a valid reason. New idea that has not been discussed should not be introduced.  1 mark (out of 20) for exceeding the page limit by less than 5 pages.  2 marks (out of 20) for exceeding the page limit by more than 5 pages.  1 mark (out of 20) for each day of late submission (weekends are also considered). 9. 7. Nomenclature  It should contain a complete list of the notations or symbols used in the report. Appendix  Divide into sections with appropriate headings. 8. References  Harvard system of referencing is preferred.  Key numerical results must be included. Suggested length Section Abstract Introduction Experimental Setup Results Discussion Conclusion Length (pages) 0.25 .