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# Space Truss Design

Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 15 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
SPACE TRUSS DESIGN
1. DESIGN SPECIFICATION
1.1. Design Standard
1) The design basis of the tower applied is EIA Standard EIA-222-E Structural Standards for Steel
Antenna Tower and Antenna Supporting Structure. The fabrication and materials of the tower will
be according to the relevant Indonesian Standard.
2) The self supporting tower has square cross sections.
3) All the legs and bracings are made of equals legs angles steel.
4) All the connections in the field are made with Steel Bolts, each fitted with one spring washer and
nut.
1.2. Tower Structure Design Condition
1) Tower height : 42.0 meter ( location : Limboto, North Sulawesi )
2) Maximum wind velocity (V) : V = 120 km/hour = 33.33 m/sec.
- 2 (two) Planar type antennas at 42.0 m
- 1 (one) Planar type antennas at 38.0 m
- 1 (one) Paraboloid grid antennas 1.20 diameter at 35.0 m
- 1 (one) Paraboloid grid antennas 1.20 diameter at 42.0 m
- 1 (one) Paraboloid solid antenna 1.2 diameter at 38.0 m
2) Wind load on tower structure
Wind load calculation method on the tower and appurtenances are as follows
F = qz . GH . CF . AE and not to exceed 2 . qz . GH. AG
qz = 0.613 . KZ . V
2
Kz = ( z / 10 )
2/7
GH = 0.65 + 0.60 / ( h / 10 )
1/7
CF = 4.0 e
2
5.9 e + 4.0 ( square cross section )
CF = 3.4 e
2
4.7 e + 3.4 ( triangular cross section )
e = AF / AG
AE = DF . AF
Where :
F = Horizontal wind force ( N )
qz = Velocity pressure ( Pa )
GH = Gust response factor ( 1.00 s Kz s 1.25 )
CF = Structure force coefficient
AE = Effective projected area of structural component in one face ( m
2
)
AG = Gross area of one tower face ( m
2
)
Kz = Exposure coefficient ( 1.00 s Kz s 2.58 )
V = Basic wind speed for the structure location ( m/s )
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 16 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
z = Height above average ground level to midpoint of the section ( m )
h = Ttotal height of structure ( m )
e = Solidity ratio
AF = Projected area of flat structural component in one face of the section (m
2
)
DF = Wind direction factor
1.00 for square cross section and normal wind direction
1.00 + 0.75e for square cross section and 45
0
wind direction
Wind load calculation method on the parabolic antenna is as follow :
Fa = Ca x A x Kz x GH x V
2
Fs = Cs x A x Kz x GH x V
2
Kz = ( z /10 )
2/7
GH = 0.65 + 0.60 / (h/10)
1/7
Where :
Fa = Axial Force (lb)
Fs = Side Force (lb)
Ca = Wind load coefficient for axial
Cs = Wind load coefficient for side
Kz = Exposure coefficient ( 1.00 s Kz s 2.58 )
z = Height above average ground level to midpoint of the section (m)
h = Total height of the structure (m)
A = Normal projected area of Antenna
V = Wind velocity ( m/s )
Herewith the following combinations are used below :
a) DL + WL at 0 degree direction (with weight of existing antenna)
b) DL + WL at 45 degree direction (with weight of existing antenna)
c) DL + WL at 0 degree direction (with weight of existing + proposed antenna)
d) DL + WL at 45 degree direction (with weight of existing + proposed antenna)
Where : DL = Dead load weight of the structure and appurtenances.
WL = Design wind load on antenna at above direction.
1.4. Allowable unit stress
The unit stresses in the structures members do not exceed the allowable unit stresses for the materials as
specified in the AISC Standard (American Institute of Steel Construction Standard)
1. Tension : Ft = 0.60 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)
2. Shear : Fv = 0.40 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)
3. Compression
i) On the gross section of axially loaded compression members when kl/r is less than Cc :
(kl/r)
2
[ 1 - ----------] Fy
2C
c
2
Fa = ----------------------------------------------- ( kg/cm
2
)
5/3 + [3/8(kl/r)]/8C
c
- [(kl/r)
3
/8C
c
3]
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 17 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
2t
2
E
Where: C
c
= ---------
Fy
ii) On the gross section of axially loaded compression members, when kl/r exceeds Cc :
12t
2
E
Fa = --------------- ( kg/cm
2
)
23(kl/r)
2
4. Bending
Tension and compression on extreme fibers : Fb = 0.66 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)
5. Tension on bolts : Ft = 0.60 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)
6. Shear on bolts : Ft = 0.30 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)
7. Bearing on bolts : Ft = 1.20 Fu ( kg/cm
2
)
8. The maximum slenderness ratio (kl/r) are as follows :
kl/r = 120 for compression members of legs
kl/r = 150 for compression members of diagonals
kl/r = 200 for tension members
Notations :
Ft = Allowable tensile stress ( kg /cm
2
)
Fy = Minimum yield point ( kg /cm
2
)
Fv = Allowable shear stress ( kg /cm
2
)
Fa = Allowable compressive stress ( kg /cm
2
)
k = Effective length factor
l = Actual unbraced length of member ( cm )
r = Governing radius of gyration ( cm )
Cc = Column slenderness ratio
E = Modulus of elascity of steel = 2,100,000 kg/cm
2
Fb = Allowable bending stress ( kg /cm
2
)
Fu = Minimum tensile strength ( kg /cm
2
)
1.5. Materials
Steel materials to be used for the towers and appurtenances conform to the relevant Indonesian Standards
and/or Japanese Industrial Standard.
1) Steel Structural
Description Tensile Strength
( kg/cm2 )
Minimum Yield Point Fy
( kg/cm2 )
Bj 41 4100 2500
SS 41 4100 2500
2) Bolts
Description Ft Fv Fv
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 18 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Friction Type Bearing Type
( kg/cm2 ) ( kg/cm2 ) ( kg/cm2 )
A 325 Bolts 3900 1230 1476
3) Concrete
Design compressive strength of concrete (fc) at 28 days.
K - 175 - fc = 175 kg/cm
2
4) Reinforcement steel
U - 24 - Fy = 2400 kg/cm2
1.6. Structural Analysis
The purpose of the structural analysis is to find the joint translations and the design axial loads in all members
of the tower. Load is applied and separate load cases combined to give the most severe design conditions at
various section.
The structural calculation is made using SAP 90 (Structural Analysis Program 90). The program will perform
the static analysis of a space truss of arbitrary geometry by the stiffness method. The truss may be subjected
to loads consisting of forces acting on the joints in any directions in space. The program output consists of the
joint translations, the member forces and the support reactions.
The program input contains :
a. Structure title
b. Loading system : number of static analysis that applied to the structure.
c. Group of data corresponding to the properties of the mathematical model of truss and the applied joint
- Group 1 : Joint coordinates
- Group 2 : Support joint restraints
- Group 3 : Material and member data
- Group 4 : Joint loads
The location of the joints in any structure are expressed as coordinates in a global right hand othogonal XYZ
coordinate system. For the space structures the Z axis is oriented in the vertical direction positive upward,
with the X and Y axes oriented in the major directions of the structure.
Global Axis
All applied joint loads, joint displacement and reactions are expressed as component in the global coordinate
system. Force component and translation components are positive if they act in the positive direction of an
axis.
The member forces and support reactions for both conditions, tower with existing antennas and tower with
existing and proposed antennas, are attached in computer output.
1.7. Design Calculation Of Foundation
The calculation of foundation consists of design and control of foundation.
Control of foundation includes :
Z +
X +
Y +
0
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 19 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
1) Control of stability for uplift force :
Sf = W1 / T > 2.0
Where : W1= Weight of foundation and soil ( kg )
T = Uplift force ( kg )
2.0 = Allowable safety factor
2) Control of bearing capacity of soil :
Wt M
F = -------- + --------------- < Q ( kg/m
2
)
A 1/6.A . B
Where : Wt = Total vertical load includes support reaction, weight of foundation and weight of soil
(kg)
M = Moment load ( horisontal loads x height of foundations ) ( kgm )
A = Area of the foundation base ( width x length of foundation ) (m2)
B = Width of the foundation base ( m )
Q = Allowable bearing capacity of soil.
3) Control of sliding force :
SF = Wt . | / H > 1.5
Where : SF = Safety factor
Wt = Total vertical load includes support reaction, weight of foundation
and
weight of soil (kg)
| = Coefficient of soil friction
H = Horisontal loads ( kg )
1.5 = Allowable safety factor
2. STRUCTURAL CALCULATION
The structural analysis is made using SAP 90. Input and output program is shown as attachment.
Deflection, sway and twist are calculated as follows :
a. Deflection : Dxn : Joint displacement at a point n
Dxn : Joint displacement at a point n
Dxn Dxn
b. Sway angle = arc tan ( --------------------------------------------------------- )
Distance between point n and point n
Dxn Dxn
c. Twist angle = arc tan ( ---------------------------------------------------------- )
Distance between point n and point n
1) Tower without proposed antenna
a. Deflection = 6.4177 cm
b. Dxn = 5.2096 cm
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 20 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Dxn = 5.8865 cm
d = 250 cm
Sway angle = arc tan (( 5.8865 5.2096 ) / 250 ) = 0.1551 degree
c. Dxn = 5.8865 cm
Dxn = 6.4173 cm
d = 300 cm
Twist angle = arc tan (( 6.4173 5.8865 ) / 300 ) = 0.1014 degree
2) Tower with proposed antenna
a. Deflection = 6.5947 cm
b. Dxn = 5.2534 cm
Dxn = 5.9388 cm
d = 250 cm
Sway angle = arc tan (( 5.9388 5.2534 ) / 250 ) = 0.1570 degree
c. Dxn = 6.4763 cm
Dxn = 5.9388 cm
d = 300 cm
Twist angle = arc tan (( 6.4763 5.9388 ) / 300 ) = 0.1027 degree
Sway and twist at 120 km/hour wind velocity without proposed antennas as follows :
Actual Allowable
Deflection (cm) 6.4177 42
Sway angle (degree) 0.1551 0.5
Twist angle (degree) 0.1014 0.5
Sway and twist at 120 km/hour wind velocity with proposed antennas as follows :
Actual Allowable
Deflection (cm) 6.5947 42
Sway angle (degree) 0.1570 0.5
Twist angle (degree) 0.1027 0.5
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 21 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
3. FOUNDATION ANALYSIS
3.1. Column Anchorage Bolt Calculation
1 1) Steel Bar Bj 37 --------- Fy = 2400 kg / cm
2
2 2 ) Notation :
Fy = Yield strength of steel
Fv = Allowable shear strength of anchor bolt
Ft = Allowable tensile stress of anchor bolt
Fts = Allowable tensile stress for bolt subject to combine tension and stress
Fcv = Allowable bond stress of concrete
fv = Actual shear stress of anchor bolt
ft = Actual tensile stress of anchor bolt
fc = Compressive strength of concrete
A = Total area of anchor bolt
P = Total compression of tower base per one leg
T = Total uplift force at tower base per one leg
S = Total shear force at tower base per one leg
Le = Required embeded length of anchor bolt in concrete
3 3 ) Maximum forces at tower base
a. Tower with existing antenna :
T = 21110 488.09 = 20621.91 kg
S = 2377 kg
b. Tower with existing and proposed antenna :
T = 21110 488.09 = 20621.09 kg
S = 2387 kg
1 4 ) Allowable tensile stress of anchor bolts
Fv = 0.3 Fy = 0.3 x 2400 = 720 kg/cm
2
Ft = 0.6 Fy = 0.6 x 2400 = 1440 kg/cm
2
a. Tower with existing antenna :
Number of anchor bolt = 6 |
A = 6 x ( 0.25t x 1.905
2
) = 6 x 2.85 = 17.1 kg/cm
2
fv = S / A = 2377 / 17.1 = 139.0 kg/cm
2
< Fv .Ok !
Fts = 1.4 Ft 1.6 fv = ( 1.4 x 1440 ) ( 1.6 x 139.0 )
= 2016 222.40 = 1793.60 kg
Fts > Ft ---------------- use Ft = Fts = 1440 kg/cm
2
ft = T / A = 20621.09 / 17.1 = 1205.91 kg/cm
2
< Ft Ok !
b. Tower with existing and proposed antenna :
Number of anchor bolt = 6 | ----- A = 17.1 cm
2
fv = S / A = 2387 / 17.1 = 139.59 kg/cm
2
< Fv . Ok !
Fts = ( 1.4 x 1440 ) ( 1.6 x 139.59 ) = 2016 223.344 = 1792.656 kg/cm
2
Fts > Ft ---------------- use Fts = Ft = 1440 kg/cm
2
ft = T / A = 20621.09 / 17.1 = 1205.91 kg/cm
2
< Ft Ok !
Keep using anchor bolt 6 |
Required embedded length of anchor bolt :
Fcv = 0.53 fc = 0.53 175 = 7.0 kg/cm
2
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 22 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
Le = T / ( Fcv x 6 x t x d ) = 20621.09 / ( 7 x 6 x 3.14 x 1.905 ) = 82.1 cm
Use Le = 85 cm
3.2. Column Base Plate
1) Steel : Bj 37 Fy = 2500 kg/cm2
Concrete : K 175 Fp = 0,35 fc = 0,35 x 175 = 61.25 kg/cm
2
2) The formula to calculate column base plate is shown as follows :
Ar = P / Fp ( m
2
)
Ab > Ar then check fp s Fp
Ab = B x B
t = ( 6M / Fb )

## Fb = 0.75 Fy = 0.75 x 2500 = 1875 kg/cm

2
Where : P = Total compression at tower base per one leg ( kg )
Ar = Required area of column base plate ( m
2
)
Ab = Designed area of column base plate ( m
2
)
B = Length of base plate ( cm )
fp = Actual bearing pressure ( kg/cm
2
)
Fp = Allowable bearing strength stress ( kg/m
2
)
tp = Required thickness of base plate ( cm, mm)
M = Moment at the edge of base plate ( kgm, kgcm)
Fb = Allowable bending stress of base plate ( kg/cm
2
)
Fy = Yield strength of steel ( kg/cm
2
)
fc = Compressive strength of concrete ( kg/cm
2
)
m = Distance from steel structural to the edges of base plate ( cm )
fb = Bending stress ( kg/cm
2
)
The calculation is shown as follows below :
a. Tower without proposed antennas
Column base plate area
The existing column base plate : 600 mm x 600 mm x 25 mm
Maximum compression force ( P ) = 26980 kg
Applied load at support join = 488.09 kg
P Total = 26980 + 488.09 = 27468.09 kg
A = 60 x 60 = 3600 cm
2
fp = P / A = 26980 / 3600 = 7.494 kg/cm
2
< Fp . Ok !
Column base plate thickness
Use m = (60 15) / 2 cm = 22.5 cm
M = q m
2
= x 7.494 x 22.5
2
= 1896.92 kgcm
check the stress : fb = ( 6M / tp
2
)= (6 x 1896.92 / 2.5
2
)
= 1821.042 kg/cm
2
< Fb (1875 kg/cm
2
).Ok !
b. Tower with proposed antennas
Maximum compression force ( P ) = 27200 kg
Applied load at support join = 488.09 kg
P Total = 27200 + 488.09 = 27688.09 kg
fp = P / A = 27688.09 / 3600 = 7.691 kg/cm
2
< Fp . Ok !
Column base plate thickness
Use m = (60 15) / 2 cm = 22.5 cm
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 23 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
M = q m
2
= x 7.691 x 22.5
2
= 1946.78 kgcm
check the stress : fb = ( 6M / tp
2
)= (6 x 1946.78 / 2.5
2
)
= 1868.91 kg/cm
2
< Fb (1875 kg/cm
2
).Ok !
Keep using column base plate : 600 mm x 600 mm x 25 mm
3.3. Design and Control Of Foundation
3.3.1. Tower with existing antennas
1) Design load : H = 2377 kg ( max horizontal reaction )
V = 26980 kg ( max vertical reaction )
T = 21110 kg ( max uplift reaction )
P = V + V1 = 26980 + 488.09 = 27468.09 kg
Tt = T V1 = 21110 488.09 = 20621.91 kg
From data above the design foundation will be checked for uplift force, bearing capacity of soil and
Design of foundation :
2) Check stability for uplift force
Concrete volume ( Vc ) :
Pedestal column : 0.80 x 0.80 x 2.15 = 1.376 m
3
Footing : 3.0 x 3.0 x 0.70 = 6.300 m
3
= 7.676 m
3
Soil volume for anti uplifting ( Vs ) :
Vs = (( 3.0 x 3.0 ) ( 0.80 x 0.80 )) x 1.95= 16.30 m
3
Weight of concrete and soil :
W1 = W+ Ws = 7.676 x 2.4 + 16.30 x 1.6 = 44.5024 t
S.F = W1 / T = 44.502 / 21.110 = 2.11 > 2.0 ..Ok !
3 ) Bearing capacity of soil
The allowable bearing capacity of soil is 0.267 kg/cm
2
= 2.67 t/m
2
( Bearing capacity data was gathered from Tower Name / Date Plate )
4 ) Check of compressive force
Wt = 44.502 + 27.468 = 71.970 t
M = 2.377 x 2.85 = 6.774 tm
Z = Section modulus of footing base
Z = 3.0 x 3.0 x 3.0 / 6 = 4.500 m
3
200
700
1950
800
3000
GroungLevel
Soil 2850
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 24 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
fe = Compressive stress of footing base
A = Area of foundation base = 3.00 x 3.00 = 9.00 m
2
fe = 71.970/ 9.0 + 6.774 / 4.5 = 7.999 t/m
2
> 2.67 t/m
2
.Fail
The dimension of foundation is designed based on the nomogram. As shown in calculation above, the
bearing capacity of soil is unable to support the existing tower. In fact, the soil is bearable. Possibly this is
due to the difference in type and dimension between the existing tower foundation and the designed
foundation above.
5) Factor of safety against sliding
Wt = 71.970 t
H = 2.377 t
u = Coefficient of friction = 0.45
SF = Wt x u / H = 71.970 x 0.45 / 2.377 = 13.62 > 1.50 . Ok !
3.3.2. Tower with existing and proposed antennas
1) Design load : H = 2387 kg ( max horizontal reaction )
V = 27200 kg ( max vertical reaction )
T = 21160 kg ( max uplift reaction )
P = V + V1 = 27200+ 488.09 = 27688.09 kg
Tt = T V1 = 21160 488.09 = 20671.09 kg
2) Check stability for uplift force
Concrete volume ( Vc ) :
Pedestal column : 0.80 x 0.80 x 2.15 = 1.376 m
3
Footing : 3.0 x 3.0 x 0.70 = 6.300 m
3
= 7.676 m
3
Soil volume for anti uplifting ( Vs ) :
Vs = (( 3.0 x 3.0 ) ( 0.80 x 0.80 )) x 1.95= 16.30 m
3
Weight of concrete and soil :
W1 = W+ Ws = 7.676 x 2.4 + 16.30 x 1.6 = 44.502 t
S.F = W1 / T = 44.502 / 21.160 = 2.103 > 2.0 ..Ok !
3 ) Bearing capacity of soil
The allowable bearing capacity of soil is 0.267 kg/cm
2
= 2.67 t/m
2
4 ) Check of compressive force
Wt = 44.502 + 27.688 = 72.190 t
M = 2.387 x 2.85 = 6.803 tm
Z = Section modulus of footing base
Z = 3.0 x 3.0 x 3.0 / 6 = 4.500 m
3
fe = Compressive stress of footing base
A = Area of foundation base = 3.00 x 3.00 = 9.00 m
2
fe = 72.190/ 9.00 + 6.803 / 4.500= 8.022 t/m
2
> 2.67 t/m
2
.Fail
5) Factor of safety against sliding
Wt = 72.190 t
H = 2.387 t
u = Coefficient of friction = 0.45
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 25 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
SF = Wt x u / H = 72.190 x 0.45 / 2.387 = 13,61 > 1.50 . Ok !
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University 26 B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES. Yoppy Soleman, 2005
4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
We have carefully analysed the existing tower of Limboto structure for the proposed additional antenna at 120
km/hr wind velocity. The following major conclusions have been drawn from this analysis :
- The existing tower has strength enough to support the existing configuration and the proposed
antennas at 120 km/hr maximum wind velocity.
- The anchor bolt and the base plate has strength enough to resist the forces at support joint.
- Additional force at the tower base (maximum) due to the proposed antennas is less than 2.10 % of
support reaction at tower without proposed antennas.
- The designed foundation has strength enough to resist the uplift and shear forces.
- The designed foundation has not strength enough to resist the compressive force. It means that the
bearing capacity of soil is unable to support the structure. This is, possibly, due to the difference in
type and dimension between the existing tower foundation and the designed foundation.
- The minimum required of bearing capacity to support the tower with existing and proposed antennas is