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EXPERIMENT NO.

OBJECT :- To study the different characteristics of CB mode of transistor.

APRRATUS REQUIRED :- Transistor trainer kit and connecting lead.

THEORY :- The bipolar junction transistor is fabricated with the


semiconductor region. The three regions are called Emitter, Base and Collector.
There are two P-N junctions in transistor the first junction is called base-emitter
junction and second are called base-collector junction.

There are two types of transistor :-

1. NPN Transistor
2. PNP Transistor

An NPN transistor is fabricated by P-type material between two N-type region and
PNP transistor is fabricated by N-type material between two P-type type regions.

Thus in NPN Transistor :-


• Emitter-N-type
• Base-P-type
• Collector-N-type

And In PNP transistor :

• Emitter-P-type
• Base-N-type
• Collector-P-type

The symbolic representation of PNP and NPN transistor is shown below :-

Collector
P N P
Emitter

Base

N P N
Emitter Collector

Base

When we use transistor to amplify the signal we are required four terminals, two
in input circuit and two in output circuit but in transistor only three terminals so
found thus we have to require one terminal of transistor common in both input
and output circuit due to this there are three mode of transistor :-

➢ CB mode (common Base mode)


➢ CE mode (common Emitter mode)
➢ CC mode (common Collector mode)

In the circuit diagram of cell modes always we keep the input circuit in forward
bias and output circuit in reverse bias.

CB MODE :- In this mode the base terminal of transistor is used as a common


terminal in input and output circuit .The circuit diagram for CB mode of PNP
transistor is shown in figure:-

₊ ₋ Ie E C Ic ₊
mA1 mA2
B

₊ ₋
V1 V2
₋ ₊

CHARACTERISTICS OF CB MODE :- There are three characteristics in


transistors :-

 Input Characteristics Rin = ∆V1/∆I1


 Output Characteristics Rout = ∆V2/I2
 Transfer Characteristics Current gain = ∆I2/∆I1

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS :- This characteristics shows the change in input


circuit. For this characteristic we get different-different change in input current
when input voltages are applied at constant output voltage.

Observation table for input characteristics:

S.NO V1 (volt) IE(mA)


V2=2V V2=4V V2=6V

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
According to observation we plot the graph between input voltage and current at
different values of constant output voltages as shown in following graph :

I (mA)

X
V (Volt)

This characteristics is same as P-N junction diode by this characteristics we


obtain input resistance by following formula :

Rin = ( ∆V1/∆I1) V2

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS : This characteristics gives the changes in output


circuit when input current is constant .To plot this characteristics we get different
changes in output circuit when output voltage is applied aat costant input
current.

Observation table for Output characteristics:

S.NO V2 (volt) I2(mA)


I1=2mA I1=4mA I1=6mA

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

After taking observation we plot the graph between output voltage and output
current at different constant input current as shown in following figure:

I 2 (mA)
X

V2 (volt)

Thus from graph we conclue that the current Iz saturated after some output
voltage with the help of this characteristics we obtain output resistance by
following formula

Rout=(∆V2/∆I2)II

TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:-This characteristics of transistor shows the


change in output current with respect to input current at a constant voltage V2.

Observation table for Output characteristics:

S.NO I1(Ma) I2(mA)


1.
2.
3.
4.
Y

I2(mA) V2=4V

o X

I1(mA)

For this characteristics we plot the graph between input and output current at
constant output voltage V2 as shown in above diagram from this graph we obtain
the current gain of circuit by following:

Cgain = (∆I2/∆H)V2

RESULT:- After studying the different characteristics of CB mode transistor we get


different graphs as shown in figure attached graph and with the help of graphs
we will calculate the different parameters of transistors:

PRECAUTIONS:-

1. Always keep the input circuit of transistor in forward in forward bise and
output circuit in reverse bias.
2. All the observation should be taken carefully with different different
constant voltage and current.
TRANSISTOR

TELESCOPE

OPTICAL BENCH
SET UP
ZENER DIODE
TRAVELLING
MICROSCOPE
POLARISATION OF
SUGAR SOLUTION
TELESCOPE

VOLTMETER

1. ELECTRIC
VIBRATOR
LASER KIT
GEIGER MULLER