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Fall 2003

Instructor: Ernest Mendrela

TRANSFORMERS

According to the Faraday’s experiment the voltage e induced in one turn linking a

changing magnetic field (see Fig.1) is proportional to the time rate of change of flux Φ:

dΦ

e= (1)

dt

The polarity of the induced voltage can be determined by the Lenz’s law that says:

“The induced voltage is always in such a direction as to tend to oppose the change in flux

linkage that produces it”

This is shown in Fig.1. For multitern coil the induced voltage is:

dΦ dλ

e=N = (2)

dt dt

where:

N – is the number of coil turns and

λ – is the flux linkage in weber turns.

Suppose we have a coil wound on one leg of a close iron core as shown in Fig.2. To

draw an equivalent circuit of such a device called inductor, and then to analyze its

behavior under variable supply condition let we consider first an ideal inductor.

1

2

• The coil of inductance L has the resistance R equal to zero,

• There is an ideal magnetic circuit of the iron core with no power losses in it,

• There is no leakage flux, what means that the whole magnetic flux is within the

iron core.

v e Ν

Assuming a linear relation between current and flux, the sinusoidal current

i = Im sin(ωt ) (3)

Φ = Φ m sin(ωt ) (4)

dΦ

e=N = N ⋅ ω ⋅ Φ m ⋅ cos(ωt ) = Em cos(ωt ) (5)

dt

Em NωΦ m 2π

E= = = NfΦ m = 4.44 NfΦ m (6)

2 2 2

2

3

The voltage expressed in terms of current flowing trough the coil is:

di

e=L (7)

dt

The effective value of the voltage expressed in the complex form is:

E = jX µ I (9)

For an ideal inductor, the induced voltage (emf – E) is equal to the voltage supply

E =V.

The equivalent circuit of such an inductor is shown in Fig.3. The phasor diagram of

voltages and current is shown in Fig.4.

I

E=V

Φ

V E

I

Fig.3 Inductor equivalent circuit Fig.4 Phasor diagram corresponding with Fig.3

A real inductor has a real coil and the real magnetic circuit. This magnetic circuit is

described by the hysteresis loop of B-H characteristic shown in Fig.5. During the process

of magnetization by the alternating flux the energy is lost due to the hysteresis loop. This

energy loss, called the hysteresis loss is proportional to the area closed by the hysteresis

loop. That means it depends on the material the inductor core is made of. The empirical

formula for this loss is:

3

4

where the constant Kh and n vary with the core material. n is often assumed to be 1.6 – 2.

Since, according to equation (6) B is proportional to E we can write for n=2

E2

∆Ph = Kh' (11)

f

B

Br

Hc H

There is another source of power loss in the magnetic core too. These are eddy

currents induced in the core. To illustrate this phenomenon let us consider the solid core

shown in Fig.6.a. If the magnetic flux existing in the core is directed towards the paper

and is increasing, it induces the voltages in the core, which, in the case of close electric

loops, cause the eddy currents that generate the power losses i 2 R as a heat. The power

losses can be reduced by decreasing i (increasing R). If, instead of a solid iron core, thin

laminations are used (Fig.6.b), the effective induced currents are decreased by the

increase of the resistance of the effective paths. The eddy current losses are significantly

reduced in that case.

(a) (b)

i

Φ

i

X X X X X X X X X

Fig.6. Eddy currents in: (a) solid iron core, (b) laminated iron core

4

5

For the given core, the eddy currents power losses are given by

Since the voltage induced in the coil is proportional to f ⋅ Bm , the power losses are

equal to:

The constant Ke' depends on the conductivity of the core material and the square of

the thickness of the laminations.

Combining the eddy currents and hysteresis power losses the total core power losses

are:

For the purpose of the equivalent circuit we intend to build, an equivalent resistance

RFe is introduced. Then the core power losses at constant supply frequency can be

expressed as follows:

E2

∆PFe = (15)

RFe

The power losses ∆PFe are proportional to the square of voltage E, which appears

across the resistance RFe . This allows to show the inductor equivalent circuit in form as

in Fig.7a.

(a) (b)

Ie E=V

IFe Iµ

v RFe E Xµ IFe Ie

Iµ

Fig.7 An equivalent circuit (a) and the corresponding phasor diagram (b) of the inductor

with core losses

5

6

The excitation current Ie is split into two components: the magnetizing current I µ and

I Fe , proportional to the core power losses. Fig.7.b, with the phasor diagram shows the

relationship between the voltage E and currents I µ and I Fe . These currents are displaced

from each other by an angle π/2. This displacement can be explained by means of

excitation current waveform shown in Fig.8. If the coil is supplied with sinusoidal

voltage the flux Φ must be sinusoidal too according to equation 1. Since the magnetizing

characteristic B-H is nonlinear, and has a hysteresis loop, the current waveform obtained

from magnetizing curve is far from sinusoidal. If we extract two current components

from the current ie by finding the symmetrical currents with regard to the l line we obtain

ih current being in phase with the voltage E and magnetizing current I µ lagging the

voltage E by the angle π/2 (see Fig.7).

l

I, Φ Φ

3’

ie

3 3

Φ

2 i µ. 4 4

2

2’

1’

5

1 4’ t 5,5’ 4’ 1,1’ 2’ 3’ i

e

ih

5’

So far we did not take into account the resistance of the coil R and the leakage flux

Φ s . This is the flux, which goes via air as shown in Fig.9. It induces the voltage Es in the

coil, which is equal

dΦ s

es = N (16)

dt

Φ s = Ls i , (17)

di

es = Ls = LsωI m cos ωt (18)

dt

6

7

E s = jXs I (19)

R i

v es+ e Φs

Fig.9 Diagram of the real inductor with the coil resistance R and the leakage flux Φ s

The equivalent circuit of the real inductor is shown in Fig.10.a. The circuit shows

magnetic fluxes associated with their inductances Ls and Lµ . The voltage equation of the

circuit is

V = E + ( R + jXs ) I (20)

(a) (b)

Φs

V

R1 Xs1 Ie j Xs I

RI j Xs I

IFe Iµ RI

E

v RFe E1 Xµ Φ

IFe Ie

Iµ

Φ

Fig.10 Equivalent circuit (a) and phasor diagram (b) of the real inductor

7

8

2. SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER

primary secondary

Φ

winding winding

i1 i2

v1 e 1 N1 N2 e 2 v2 Z2

(a) (b)

H.V. Winding L.V. Winding

yoke legs

- air-cooled: small transformers

- oil-cooled: large transformers

Very large transformers are immersed in the tanks with radiators and forced

circulation.

8

9

(a) (b)

Fig.13. Construction of transformer cores from stampings: (a) shell-type and (b) core-

type transformer

- R1 and R2 are equal to 0

- Φ s1 and Φ s 2 are equal to 0 ( µ = ∞ and L = ∞ )

Φ = Φ m sin(ωt ) (21)

dΦ

e1 = N1 = N1 ⋅ ω ⋅ Φ m ⋅ cos(ωt ) = 2 E1 cos(ωt ) (22)

dt

dΦ

e2 = N2 = N2 ⋅ ω ⋅ Φ m ⋅ cos(ωt ) = 2 E2 cos(ωt ) (23)

dt

e1 E1 N1

= = =a (27)

e2 E2 N2

V1 = E1 and V2 = E2 (28)

9

10

V1 N1

= (29)

V2 N2

S1 = S2 (30)

V1 I1 = V2 I2 (31)

V1 I1

= =a (32)

V2 I2

I1 N1 : N2 I2

V1 E1 E2 V2

Fig.14 The equivalent circuit of ideal transformer with the magnetic link

To eliminate the magnetic connection let us express the secondary voltage and current

as:

V1 = aV2 = V2' (33)

1

I1 = I2 = I2' (34)

a

V2' and I2' are secondary voltage and current referred to a primary side.

I1 I2‘

V1 E1 = E2‘ V2‘

Fig.15 The equivalent circuit of an ideal transformer with electric connection of two

sides

10

11

V1 = V2‘

ϕ1 = ϕ2

‘

I1 = I2

I1 N1: N2 I2

V1 aV2 V

= = a 2 2 = a 2 Z2 = Z2' (35)

I1 I2 I2

a

Z2' is the output impedance seen at the primary side or the transformer input

impedance as shown in Fig.18.

I1

Fig.18. Input impedance for ideal transformer with secondary load impedance Z2

11

12

leakage flux

Φ

i1 R1 R2 i2

V1 N1 Φs1 Φs1 N2 V2 Z2

Ie

IFe Iµ Φ

V1 RFe E1 Xµ E1 E2

ideal transformer

F me = F m1 − F m 2 (36)

where F me is the mmf responsible for generation of flux Φ . The above equation written

in other form:

N1 I e = N1 I 1 − N2 I 2 (37)

Thus:

N2

I e = I1 − I 2 (38)

N1

12

13

or

I e = I 1 − I '2 (40)

where:

I e - excitation current, and

I '2 - secondary current referred to the primary side.

V 1 = E1 + ( R1 + jXs1 ) I 1 (41)

V 2 = E 2 − ( R2 + jXs 2 ) I 2 (42)

I2 I

a ⋅ V 2 = a ⋅ E 2 − a 2 R2 − ja 2 Xs 2 2 (43)

a a

where:

V '2 = aV 2 ,

Are the secondary voltages and

E '2 = aE 2 , current referred to the primary

I side

I '2 = 2 ,

a

Xs' 2 = a 2 Xs 2 referred to the primary side

13

14

, , ,

I1 R1 Xs1 I2 Xs2 R2

Ie , , , ,

R1 I 1 j X s1 I 1 j X s2 I 2 R2I2

IFe Iµ

,

V1 RFe

,

E1= E2o

,

Xµ

, V1

E1= E2o

IFe j X s1 I 1

,

, ,

, , j X s2 I 2

R2I 2

R1 I 1

Iµ ,

I2

Ie

Ie

I1

Fig.22 Phasor diagram of the real transformer at the inductive load (load current is

lagging the voltage)

The primary impedance together with the shunt parameters can be transferred to the

secondary side as shown in Fig.23.

R1 X

R1' = 2

, Xs' 1 = s21 ,

a a

' R Xµ

RFe = Fe 2

, X µ' = 2 ,

a a

' V1 '

V1 = , I1 = aI1 .

a

14

15

, , ,

I1 R1 Xs1 I2 Xs2 R2

,

Ie

, ,

IFe Iµ

,

V1 ,

RFe

,

E1= E2o

,

Xµ

I W

Since Io << In and R1 << RFe , Xs1 << Xµ the modified equivalent circuit is as shown in

Fig.25. From the measured quantities the following parameters can be calculated:

E12 V2

Po = = 1 (45)

RFe RFe

V12

RFe = (46)

Po

15

16

E1 V1

Xµ = = (47)

Iµ Iµ

,

Io I 2= 0

Ie

IFe Iµ

,

V1 RFe E1 Xµ

circuit of Fig.25, the magnetizing current:

I µ = Io2 − I Fe

2

(48)

Po

where I Fe = (49)

V1

,

IFe V1 = E1 =

ϕ0

Iµ

Ie

Fig.26 Phasor diagram at open-circuit test corresponding with the equivalent circuit in

Fig.25.

V1

a= (50)

V2

16

17

I W

, ,

I sc R1 Xs1 Xs2 R2

V1 E1

Since:

2

Psc = Rsc I sc (51)

Psc

Rsc = R1 + R2' = 2

(52)

Isc

Since

Vsc

Zsc = (53)

Isc

17

18

Rsc Xsc

R1 = R2' = and Xs1 = Xs' 2 = (55)

2 2

The phasor diagram corresponding to the equivalent circuit in Fig.28 is drawn in Fig.29.

E1 V1

,

j X s2 I sc

j X s1 I sc

R 1 I sc ,

R 2 I sc

I sc

,

I1 R eq X eq I2

, ,

V1

V1

(a)

,

ϕ2 V2 j Xeq I eq

Req I eq

,

I = I1 = I2

18

19

(b) ,

I2

V1

j X eq I 1

ϕ2

R eq I 1

Fig.31 Phasor diagrams at on-load conditions: (a) inductive load, (b) capacitive load

V2

VFL PFleading

VNL

VFL PF = 1

VFL

PFlagging

0 I FL I2

Voltage regulation

As the current is drawn trough transformer, the secondary voltage changes because of

voltage drop in the internal impedance of the transformer. Voltage regulation (∆v%) is

used to identify this characteristic of voltage change. It is defined as:

V2 − V2

∆v% = NL L

100% (56)

V2 L

Referring to the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.30 Equ.56 can also be written as:

19

20

V2' − V2'

∆v% = NL L

V2'

L

The load voltage is normally taken as the rated voltage. Therefore:

V2' = V2'

L rated

V2' = V1

NL

Finally:

V1 − V2'

∆v% = '

rated

100% (57)

V

2 rated

The voltage regulation depends on power factor of the load. This can be appreciated from

the phasor diagram (Fig.30). The locus of V1 is a circle of radius Z eq I1' . The magnitude

of V1 will be maximum if the phasor Z eq I1' is in phase with V2. That is

ϕ 2 + ϕ eq = 0 , and ϕ 2 = −ϕ eq

where: ϕ2 is the angle of the load impedance, and

ϕeq is the angle of the transformer equivalent impedance Zeq.

Therefore the maximum voltage regulation occurs if the power factor angle of the load is

the same as the transformer equivalent impedance angle and the load power factor is

lagging.

To keep the output voltage unchanged i.e. to adjust it to the required value, turns ratio is

changed by means of tap-changing switch as shown in Fig.33.

winding in the range of ±5% of the rating value

20

21

2.7 Efficiency

Definition:

P2 P2

η= , or η% = ⋅ 100% (58)

P1 P1

P2

η= (59)

P2 + ∆P

The power losses consist of mainly the losses in the core ∆PFe and in the winding ∆Pw

The latter one is equal to:

F I IJ

=G 2

2

∆Pwn = I22pu ∆Pwn (61)

HI K2n

Since the output power is at V2 = V2 n :

I2

P2 = V2 I 2 cos ϕ 2 = V2 n I 2 n cos ϕ 2 = S n I 2 pu cos ϕ 2 (62)

I 2n

I2 pu Sn cos ϕ 2

η= (63)

I2 pu Sn cos ϕ 2 + I22 pu ∆Pwn + ∆PFe

The efficiency vs. secondary current characteristic is shown in Fig.34. The maximum

efficiency is when the iron losses are equal to cooper losses. It comes from

d (η )

=0 (64)

d ( I2 pu )

21

22

max

∆Pw

∆PFe

0 I2

In “per unit” (pu) system all quantities and equivalent circuit parameters are

expressed not in terms of normal units, but as a proportion of reference or rated value.

This is particularly useful in the quantitative description of transformer work.

Let us select a reference value of the voltage equal to the rated value Vn . Then the per

unit value is

V1 V2

V1 pu = , V2 pu = (66)

V1n V2 n

I1 I2

I1 pu = , I2 pu = (67)

I1n I2 n

V1n V2 n

Z1n = , Z 2n = (68)

I1n I 2n

V = I ⋅ Z, (69)

22

23

V I Z

= (70)

Vn In Zn

or

Vpu = I pu ⋅ Z pu (71)

We see that

Vpu In

Z pu = =Z (72)

I pu Vn

expressed as pu value and is related to the value in Ohms by the equation above.

Let us now consider the pu. system for power P or S. If the reference value of power

S V ⋅I

S pu = = = V pu I pu (74)

Sn Vn I n

Having all quantities of one side expressed in pu. system we do not have to transfer

them to another side using turns ratio adjustment. They are just equal to the value of

another side. For example:

V1 pu V V2 n N1 N2

= = =1 (75)

V2 pu V1n V2 N2 N1

or

I1 pu I1 I2 n N2 N1

= = =1 (76)

I2 pu I1n I2 N1 N2

23

24

3. THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

3.1 Construction

(a)

Φ/2 I/2

B1

Φ

B2

A1

ΣΦ = 0 Φ/2

A2

I/2

I/2

C1 I/2

C2

(b) (c)

Φ/2

Φ

phase transformer core with magnetic symmetry, (c) core of the real 3-phase core-

type transformer

24

25

ΦA ΦB ΦC

A1 B1 C1

A2 B2 C2

t = t1

I/2

Φ Φ/2 Φ/2

I/2

t = t2

I/2

Φ/2 Φ Φ/2

I/2

Fig.37 Winding connection of 3-phase transformer and flux distribution in the core legs

25

26

ΦA ΦC

I I

A1 B1 C1 I is positive in

A2 B2 C2 all phases

ΦB

I/2

Φ Φ/2 Φ/2

I/2

connection H.V. L.V.

A B C

Star

Y Y y

A B C

Delta

∆ D d

26

27

Zigzag - z

a b c

A B C

B A

a b c a

Connection

150 = 5 hours Dy 5

Demands put upon the operation of transformers connected in parallel, which must be

fulfilled to avoid wrong operation at no-load and on-load conditions:

1) There must be no currents in the secondary windings at no-load conditions,

27

28

2) The transformers must load themselves accordingly to their rated powers at on-

load operation,

3) The phase angles of the secondary line currents of all in parallel connected

transformers must be the same.

TR I TR II

ZL

To meet these demands the transformers must satisfy the following requirements:

1) Transformers must have the same voltage ratio,

2) The connection group of transformers must be identical,

3) The rated short-circuit voltages of transformers must be the same,

4) The ratio of rated powers ( S I / S II ) should not exceed 1/3.

(a) (b)

V2 V2

I

Z scII > Z sc

V2 I III

V2n = I

V2n

V2n

V2

TR I TR I

III

V2n

TR II

I TR II

I

II 0 I

I2 I2 0 II

I2 I2

I

I2

I2

28

29

4. AUTO-TRANSFORMER

(a) (b)

A B

V1 V1 N1

N2

C D

N1

a= (77)

N2

and it is approximately equal to the voltage ratio:

V1

a≅ (78)

V2

The power is transferred from the primary side to the secondary side in two ways: by

conduction and induction. This is illustrated in Fig.43.

(a) (b)

I1

I1

V1 -

I1

I2 I2

V1 I1

I - I1 I - I1

29

30

(c)

I1

V1 -

I1

I2

I1

I - I1

(d)

I1

V1 -

I1

I - I1 I1 I1

+

I - I1

Ignoring the power losses the total volt-ampere power is the sum of “conduction”

power Sc and “induction” power Si .

S = Si + Sc (79)

where:

F 1 I

H

Si = (V1 − V2 ) I1 = V1 I1 1 −

a K (80)

1

Sc = V2 I1 = V1 I1 (81)

a

Since

S = V1 I1 (82)

the two power components expressed in terms of the total power are:

F 1 I

H

Si = S 1 −

a K (83)

30

31

1

Sc = S (84)

a

The sum:

F 1I 1

H

Si + Sc = S 1 −

aK+S =S

a

(85)

The common type of auto-transformer, which can be found in most of laboratories is

the variable-ratio auto-transformer in which the secondary connection is movable as

shown in Fig.44.

wiper

V1

5. MEASURING TRANSFORMERS

To measure the voltage and current in high voltage power systems it is necessary to use

the measuring voltage and current transformers. Their connection to a three-phase system

is shown in Fig.45.

The voltage transformer connected in similar way as ordinary transformer. Due to the

high resistance of a voltmeter it operates practically at no-load conditions. Similar to the

power transformer it cannot be short-circuited. That would damage the transformer.

SUPPLY LOAD

K L

M N

k l

m n

31

32

The primary winding labeled K-L is connected in series to a transmission line between

the source and the load. Operating in this mode it is essentially excited from the constant-

current source. The secondary terminals k-l are connected to the ammeter. Due to the low

resistance of ammeter connected to the secondary the current transformer operates

practically at short-circuit conditions. This is its normal operation. If the secondary is

open the current-transformer can be damaged. The reason why it happens is explained in

Fig.46.

(a) (b)

I1 I2 I1 I2

transmission line

Ic Ic

I2 ≅ I1 I2 = 0

Ic ≅ 0 Ic = I1

Fig.46 Equivalent circuit of current transformer at: (a) normal operation, (b) open-

circuited secondary

32

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