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## EE – 3410 Electric Power

Fall 2003
Instructor: Ernest Mendrela

TRANSFORMERS

## 1. MAGNETIC CIRCUIT EXCITED BY ALTERNATING CURRENT

According to the Faraday’s experiment the voltage e induced in one turn linking a
changing magnetic field (see Fig.1) is proportional to the time rate of change of flux Φ:

e= (1)
dt

The polarity of the induced voltage can be determined by the Lenz’s law that says:

“The induced voltage is always in such a direction as to tend to oppose the change in flux

## Fig.1 Explanation to equation (1)

This is shown in Fig.1. For multitern coil the induced voltage is:

dΦ dλ
e=N = (2)
dt dt

where:
N – is the number of coil turns and
λ – is the flux linkage in weber turns.

Suppose we have a coil wound on one leg of a close iron core as shown in Fig.2. To
draw an equivalent circuit of such a device called inductor, and then to analyze its
behavior under variable supply condition let we consider first an ideal inductor.

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2

## An ideal inductor is defined by the following assumptions:

• The coil of inductance L has the resistance R equal to zero,
• There is an ideal magnetic circuit of the iron core with no power losses in it,
• There is no leakage flux, what means that the whole magnetic flux is within the
iron core.

v e Ν

## Fig.2 Scheme of the inductor supplied from the ac. source

Assuming a linear relation between current and flux, the sinusoidal current

i = Im sin(ωt ) (3)

## produces the sinusoidal flux

Φ = Φ m sin(ωt ) (4)

## The voltage induced in N-turn coil is

e=N = N ⋅ ω ⋅ Φ m ⋅ cos(ωt ) = Em cos(ωt ) (5)
dt

## The effective value of this voltage is:

Em NωΦ m 2π
E= = = NfΦ m = 4.44 NfΦ m (6)
2 2 2

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The voltage expressed in terms of current flowing trough the coil is:

di
e=L (7)
dt

## e = LωIm cos ωt = Em cos ωt (8)

The effective value of the voltage expressed in the complex form is:

E = jX µ I (9)

## where Xµ = Lω is the magnetizing reactance.

For an ideal inductor, the induced voltage (emf – E) is equal to the voltage supply
E =V.
The equivalent circuit of such an inductor is shown in Fig.3. The phasor diagram of
voltages and current is shown in Fig.4.

I
E=V
Φ

V E
I

Fig.3 Inductor equivalent circuit Fig.4 Phasor diagram corresponding with Fig.3

## 1.2 A real inductor

A real inductor has a real coil and the real magnetic circuit. This magnetic circuit is
described by the hysteresis loop of B-H characteristic shown in Fig.5. During the process
of magnetization by the alternating flux the energy is lost due to the hysteresis loop. This
energy loss, called the hysteresis loss is proportional to the area closed by the hysteresis
loop. That means it depends on the material the inductor core is made of. The empirical
formula for this loss is:

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4

## ∆Ph = Kh f ⋅ Bmn (10)

where the constant Kh and n vary with the core material. n is often assumed to be 1.6 – 2.
Since, according to equation (6) B is proportional to E we can write for n=2

E2
∆Ph = Kh' (11)
f

B
Br

Hc H

## Fig.5 Hysterisis loop of B-H characteristic

There is another source of power loss in the magnetic core too. These are eddy
currents induced in the core. To illustrate this phenomenon let us consider the solid core
shown in Fig.6.a. If the magnetic flux existing in the core is directed towards the paper
and is increasing, it induces the voltages in the core, which, in the case of close electric
loops, cause the eddy currents that generate the power losses i 2 R as a heat. The power
losses can be reduced by decreasing i (increasing R). If, instead of a solid iron core, thin
laminations are used (Fig.6.b), the effective induced currents are decreased by the
increase of the resistance of the effective paths. The eddy current losses are significantly
reduced in that case.

(a) (b)
i
Φ

i
X X X X X X X X X

Fig.6. Eddy currents in: (a) solid iron core, (b) laminated iron core

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For the given core, the eddy currents power losses are given by

## ∆Pe = Ke f 2 Bm2 (12)

Since the voltage induced in the coil is proportional to f ⋅ Bm , the power losses are
equal to:

## ∆Pe = Ke' E 2 (13)

The constant Ke' depends on the conductivity of the core material and the square of
the thickness of the laminations.
Combining the eddy currents and hysteresis power losses the total core power losses
are:

## ∆PFe = ∆Ph + ∆Pe = K Fe f 1.3 B2 (14)

For the purpose of the equivalent circuit we intend to build, an equivalent resistance
RFe is introduced. Then the core power losses at constant supply frequency can be
expressed as follows:

E2
∆PFe = (15)
RFe

The power losses ∆PFe are proportional to the square of voltage E, which appears
across the resistance RFe . This allows to show the inductor equivalent circuit in form as
in Fig.7a.

(a) (b)

Ie E=V
IFe Iµ
v RFe E Xµ IFe Ie

Fig.7 An equivalent circuit (a) and the corresponding phasor diagram (b) of the inductor
with core losses

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The excitation current Ie is split into two components: the magnetizing current I µ and
I Fe , proportional to the core power losses. Fig.7.b, with the phasor diagram shows the
relationship between the voltage E and currents I µ and I Fe . These currents are displaced
from each other by an angle π/2. This displacement can be explained by means of
excitation current waveform shown in Fig.8. If the coil is supplied with sinusoidal
voltage the flux Φ must be sinusoidal too according to equation 1. Since the magnetizing
characteristic B-H is nonlinear, and has a hysteresis loop, the current waveform obtained
from magnetizing curve is far from sinusoidal. If we extract two current components
from the current ie by finding the symmetrical currents with regard to the l line we obtain
ih current being in phase with the voltage E and magnetizing current I µ lagging the
voltage E by the angle π/2 (see Fig.7).

l
I, Φ Φ
3’

ie
3 3

Φ
2 i µ. 4 4
2
2’
1’
5
1 4’ t 5,5’ 4’ 1,1’ 2’ 3’ i
e
ih
5’

## Fig.8 Extraction of hysteresis current component ih from the excitation current ie

So far we did not take into account the resistance of the coil R and the leakage flux
Φ s . This is the flux, which goes via air as shown in Fig.9. It induces the voltage Es in the
coil, which is equal

dΦ s
es = N (16)
dt

## If we express the flux Φ s in terms of the current:

Φ s = Ls i , (17)

## then the voltage:

di
es = Ls = LsωI m cos ωt (18)
dt

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E s = jXs I (19)

## where Xs is the leakage reactance.

R i

v es+ e Φs

Fig.9 Diagram of the real inductor with the coil resistance R and the leakage flux Φ s

The equivalent circuit of the real inductor is shown in Fig.10.a. The circuit shows
magnetic fluxes associated with their inductances Ls and Lµ . The voltage equation of the
circuit is

V = E + ( R + jXs ) I (20)

## An adequate phasor diagram is shown in Fig.10.b.

(a) (b)
Φs
V
R1 Xs1 Ie j Xs I

RI j Xs I
IFe Iµ RI
E
v RFe E1 Xµ Φ
IFe Ie

Φ

Fig.10 Equivalent circuit (a) and phasor diagram (b) of the real inductor

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2. SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMER

## 2.1. Transformer operation and construction

primary secondary
Φ
winding winding
i1 i2

v1 e 1 N1 N2 e 2 v2 Z2

(a) (b)

## H.V. Winding L.V. Winding

H.V. Winding L.V. Winding

yoke legs

## Two cooling systems:

- air-cooled: small transformers
- oil-cooled: large transformers

Very large transformers are immersed in the tanks with radiators and forced
circulation.

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(a) (b)

Fig.13. Construction of transformer cores from stampings: (a) shell-type and (b) core-
type transformer

## Assumptions for an ideal transformer:

- R1 and R2 are equal to 0
- Φ s1 and Φ s 2 are equal to 0 ( µ = ∞ and L = ∞ )

## Assuming a sinusoidal time variation of flux:

Φ = Φ m sin(ωt ) (21)

## the induced emfs:

e1 = N1 = N1 ⋅ ω ⋅ Φ m ⋅ cos(ωt ) = 2 E1 cos(ωt ) (22)
dt

e2 = N2 = N2 ⋅ ω ⋅ Φ m ⋅ cos(ωt ) = 2 E2 cos(ωt ) (23)
dt

e1 E1 N1
= = =a (27)
e2 E2 N2

## For an ideal transformer:

V1 = E1 and V2 = E2 (28)

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V1 N1
= (29)
V2 N2

## There are no power losses and

S1 = S2 (30)

V1 I1 = V2 I2 (31)

## From the above equation:

V1 I1
= =a (32)
V2 I2

I1 N1 : N2 I2

V1 E1 E2 V2

Fig.14 The equivalent circuit of ideal transformer with the magnetic link

To eliminate the magnetic connection let us express the secondary voltage and current
as:
V1 = aV2 = V2' (33)

1
I1 = I2 = I2' (34)
a

V2' and I2' are secondary voltage and current referred to a primary side.

I1 I2‘

V1 E1 = E2‘ V2‘

Fig.15 The equivalent circuit of an ideal transformer with electric connection of two
sides

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V1 = V2‘

ϕ1 = ϕ2

I1 = I2

I1 N1: N2 I2

## Fig.17 Ideal transformer with secondary load impedance

V1 aV2 V
= = a 2 2 = a 2 Z2 = Z2' (35)
I1 I2 I2
a

Z2' is the output impedance seen at the primary side or the transformer input
impedance as shown in Fig.18.

I1

Fig.18. Input impedance for ideal transformer with secondary load impedance Z2

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## 2.3 A real transformer

leakage flux
Φ

i1 R1 R2 i2

V1 N1 Φs1 Φs1 N2 V2 Z2

## I1 R1 Xs1 I1 - I e = I‘2 N1 : N2 I2 XS2 R2

Ie
IFe Iµ Φ

V1 RFe E1 Xµ E1 E2

ideal transformer

## Equation of magnetomotive forces in complex notation:

F me = F m1 − F m 2 (36)

where F me is the mmf responsible for generation of flux Φ . The above equation written
in other form:

N1 I e = N1 I 1 − N2 I 2 (37)

Thus:
N2
I e = I1 − I 2 (38)
N1

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or
I e = I 1 − I '2 (40)

where:
I e - excitation current, and
I '2 - secondary current referred to the primary side.

## From the equivalent circuit in Fig.20

V 1 = E1 + ( R1 + jXs1 ) I 1 (41)

V 2 = E 2 − ( R2 + jXs 2 ) I 2 (42)

## Multiplying the above equation by a:

I2 I
a ⋅ V 2 = a ⋅ E 2 − a 2 R2 − ja 2 Xs 2 2 (43)
a a

## V '2 = E '2 − R2' I '2 − jXs' 2 I '2 (44)

where:

V '2 = aV 2 ,
Are the secondary voltages and
E '2 = aE 2 , current referred to the primary
I side
I '2 = 2 ,
a

## R2' = a 2 R2 , Are the secondary circuit parameters

Xs' 2 = a 2 Xs 2 referred to the primary side

## Since E'2 = E1 , we can connect both circuits (Fig.21)

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, , ,
I1 R1 Xs1 I2 Xs2 R2

Ie , , , ,
R1 I 1 j X s1 I 1 j X s2 I 2 R2I2
IFe Iµ
,
V1 RFe
,
E1= E2o
,

## Fig.21 Modified equivalent circuit of a single-phase transformer

, V1
E1= E2o
IFe j X s1 I 1
,
, ,
, , j X s2 I 2
R2I 2
R1 I 1
Iµ ,
I2
Ie

Ie
I1

Fig.22 Phasor diagram of the real transformer at the inductive load (load current is
lagging the voltage)

The primary impedance together with the shunt parameters can be transferred to the
secondary side as shown in Fig.23.

## The transferred to the secondary side parameters are as follows:

R1 X
R1' = 2
, Xs' 1 = s21 ,
a a
' R Xµ
RFe = Fe 2
, X µ' = 2 ,
a a
' V1 '
V1 = , I1 = aI1 .
a

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, , ,
I1 R1 Xs1 I2 Xs2 R2
,
Ie
, ,
IFe Iµ
,
V1 ,
RFe
,
E1= E2o
,

I W

## Measured quantities: V1 , Io , Po and V2 .

Since Io << In and R1 << RFe , Xs1 << Xµ the modified equivalent circuit is as shown in
Fig.25. From the measured quantities the following parameters can be calculated:

E12 V2
Po = = 1 (45)
RFe RFe

V12
RFe = (46)
Po

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E1 V1
Xµ = = (47)
Iµ Iµ

,
Io I 2= 0

Ie

IFe Iµ
,
V1 RFe E1 Xµ

## According to the phasor diagram of Fig.26, which corresponds to the equivalent

circuit of Fig.25, the magnetizing current:

I µ = Io2 − I Fe
2
(48)

Po
where I Fe = (49)
V1

,
IFe V1 = E1 =

ϕ0

Ie

Fig.26 Phasor diagram at open-circuit test corresponding with the equivalent circuit in
Fig.25.

V1
a= (50)
V2

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I W

## Since Ie << Isc , the equivalent circuit is as in Fig.28.

, ,
I sc R1 Xs1 Xs2 R2

V1 E1

## Measured quantities: V1 , Isc , Psc .

Since:
2
Psc = Rsc I sc (51)

## the following parameters can be determined from the measured quantities:

Psc
Rsc = R1 + R2' = 2
(52)
Isc
Since
Vsc
Zsc = (53)
Isc

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## For most of power transformers:

Rsc Xsc
R1 = R2' = and Xs1 = Xs' 2 = (55)
2 2

The phasor diagram corresponding to the equivalent circuit in Fig.28 is drawn in Fig.29.

E1 V1

,
j X s2 I sc
j X s1 I sc
R 1 I sc ,
R 2 I sc

I sc

,
I1 R eq X eq I2

, ,
V1

V1
(a)
,
ϕ2 V2 j Xeq I eq

Req I eq

,
I = I1 = I2

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(b) ,
I2
V1
j X eq I 1

ϕ2
R eq I 1

V2

VNL
VFL PF = 1

VFL
PFlagging

0 I FL I2

## Fig.32 V-I characteristics (external characteristics) at V1 = const, f=const, PF=const.

Voltage regulation

As the current is drawn trough transformer, the secondary voltage changes because of
voltage drop in the internal impedance of the transformer. Voltage regulation (∆v%) is
used to identify this characteristic of voltage change. It is defined as:

V2 − V2
∆v% = NL L
100% (56)
V2 L

Referring to the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.30 Equ.56 can also be written as:

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V2' − V2'
∆v% = NL L

V2'
L
The load voltage is normally taken as the rated voltage. Therefore:

V2' = V2'
L rated

## If the load is thrown off ( I1 = I 2' = 0 ), the voltage V1 = V2' . Hence,

V2' = V1
NL

Finally:

V1 − V2'
∆v% = '
rated
100% (57)
V
2 rated

The voltage regulation depends on power factor of the load. This can be appreciated from
the phasor diagram (Fig.30). The locus of V1 is a circle of radius Z eq I1' . The magnitude
of V1 will be maximum if the phasor Z eq I1' is in phase with V2. That is

ϕ 2 + ϕ eq = 0 , and ϕ 2 = −ϕ eq
where: ϕ2 is the angle of the load impedance, and
ϕeq is the angle of the transformer equivalent impedance Zeq.

Therefore the maximum voltage regulation occurs if the power factor angle of the load is
the same as the transformer equivalent impedance angle and the load power factor is
lagging.
To keep the output voltage unchanged i.e. to adjust it to the required value, turns ratio is
changed by means of tap-changing switch as shown in Fig.33.

## Fig.33 Tap changing switch to vary the secondary

winding in the range of ±5% of the rating value

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2.7 Efficiency

Definition:

P2 P2
η= , or η% = ⋅ 100% (58)
P1 P1

## If expressed in terms of power losses:

P2
η= (59)
P2 + ∆P

The power losses consist of mainly the losses in the core ∆PFe and in the winding ∆Pw

## ∆P = ∆PFe + ∆Pw (60)

The latter one is equal to:

## ∆Pw = Rsc I22

F I IJ
=G 2
2
∆Pwn = I22pu ∆Pwn (61)
HI K2n
Since the output power is at V2 = V2 n :

I2
P2 = V2 I 2 cos ϕ 2 = V2 n I 2 n cos ϕ 2 = S n I 2 pu cos ϕ 2 (62)
I 2n

## The transformer efficiency:

I2 pu Sn cos ϕ 2
η= (63)
I2 pu Sn cos ϕ 2 + I22 pu ∆Pwn + ∆PFe

The efficiency vs. secondary current characteristic is shown in Fig.34. The maximum
efficiency is when the iron losses are equal to cooper losses. It comes from

d (η )
=0 (64)
d ( I2 pu )

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max

∆Pw

∆PFe

0 I2

## 2.8 “Per unit” system

In “per unit” (pu) system all quantities and equivalent circuit parameters are
expressed not in terms of normal units, but as a proportion of reference or rated value.
This is particularly useful in the quantitative description of transformer work.
Let us select a reference value of the voltage equal to the rated value Vn . Then the per
unit value is

V1 V2
V1 pu = , V2 pu = (66)
V1n V2 n

I1 I2
I1 pu = , I2 pu = (67)
I1n I2 n

## If we take as the reference impedance defined as

V1n V2 n
Z1n = , Z 2n = (68)
I1n I 2n

V = I ⋅ Z, (69)

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## in the real units can be written in per unit values as follows

V I Z
= (70)
Vn In Zn

or
Vpu = I pu ⋅ Z pu (71)

We see that

Vpu In
Z pu = =Z (72)
I pu Vn

## The impedance of the windings of transformers and rotating machines is usually

expressed as pu value and is related to the value in Ohms by the equation above.
Let us now consider the pu. system for power P or S. If the reference value of power

## Sn = V1n ⋅ I1n = V2 n I2 n (73)

S V ⋅I
S pu = = = V pu I pu (74)
Sn Vn I n

Having all quantities of one side expressed in pu. system we do not have to transfer
them to another side using turns ratio adjustment. They are just equal to the value of
another side. For example:

V1 pu V V2 n N1 N2
= = =1 (75)
V2 pu V1n V2 N2 N1

or

I1 pu I1 I2 n N2 N1
= = =1 (76)
I2 pu I1n I2 N1 N2

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3. THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

3.1 Construction

(a)
Φ/2 I/2
B1
Φ
B2
A1
ΣΦ = 0 Φ/2
A2
I/2
I/2
C1 I/2

C2

(b) (c)

Φ/2
Φ

## Fig.35.(a) Single-phase transformers supplied from 3-phase symmetrical source, (b) 3-

phase transformer core with magnetic symmetry, (c) core of the real 3-phase core-
type transformer

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## Fig.36 Three-phase core-type transformer

ΦA ΦB ΦC
A1 B1 C1
A2 B2 C2

t = t1

I/2
Φ Φ/2 Φ/2
I/2

t = t2

I/2
Φ/2 Φ Φ/2
I/2

Fig.37 Winding connection of 3-phase transformer and flux distribution in the core legs

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ΦA ΦC
I I
A1 B1 C1 I is positive in
A2 B2 C2 all phases

ΦB

I/2
Φ Φ/2 Φ/2
I/2

## Type of Circuit diagram Graphic symbol Symbol

connection H.V. L.V.

A B C

Star
Y Y y

A B C

Delta
∆ D d

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Zigzag - z

a b c

## Phasor diagrams Topographic diagrams

A B C
B A

a b c a

Connection
150 = 5 hours Dy 5

## 3.3 Parallel operation of transformers

Demands put upon the operation of transformers connected in parallel, which must be
1) There must be no currents in the secondary windings at no-load conditions,

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2) The transformers must load themselves accordingly to their rated powers at on-
3) The phase angles of the secondary line currents of all in parallel connected
transformers must be the same.

TR I TR II

ZL

## Fig.40 Three-phase transformers connected in parallel

To meet these demands the transformers must satisfy the following requirements:
1) Transformers must have the same voltage ratio,
2) The connection group of transformers must be identical,
3) The rated short-circuit voltages of transformers must be the same,
4) The ratio of rated powers ( S I / S II ) should not exceed 1/3.

(a) (b)
V2 V2
I
Z scII > Z sc
V2 I III
V2n = I
V2n
V2n
V2
TR I TR I
III
V2n
TR II
I TR II
I

II 0 I
I2 I2 0 II
I2 I2
I
I2
I2

## Fig.41.(a) and (b) Illustrations to the requirements 1) and 3) respectively

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4. AUTO-TRANSFORMER

(a) (b)

A B

V1 V1 N1

N2

C D

## Similar, as for two-winding transformer the turn ratio is defined as follows:

N1
a= (77)
N2
and it is approximately equal to the voltage ratio:

V1
a≅ (78)
V2
The power is transferred from the primary side to the secondary side in two ways: by
conduction and induction. This is illustrated in Fig.43.

(a) (b)
I1
I1

V1 -
I1
I2 I2

V1 I1

I - I1 I - I1

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(c)
I1

V1 -
I1
I2

I1

I - I1

(d)
I1

V1 -
I1
I - I1 I1 I1
+
I - I1

## Fig.43 Explanation to the power transfer in the auto-transformer

Ignoring the power losses the total volt-ampere power is the sum of “conduction”
power Sc and “induction” power Si .

S = Si + Sc (79)
where:
F 1 I
H
Si = (V1 − V2 ) I1 = V1 I1 1 −
a K (80)
1
Sc = V2 I1 = V1 I1 (81)
a
Since
S = V1 I1 (82)

the two power components expressed in terms of the total power are:

F 1 I
H
Si = S 1 −
a K (83)

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1
Sc = S (84)
a
The sum:
F 1I 1
H
Si + Sc = S 1 −
aK+S =S
a
(85)

## gives the total power S.

The common type of auto-transformer, which can be found in most of laboratories is
the variable-ratio auto-transformer in which the secondary connection is movable as
shown in Fig.44.

wiper

V1

## Fig.44 Auto-transformer with variable secondary voltage

5. MEASURING TRANSFORMERS

To measure the voltage and current in high voltage power systems it is necessary to use
the measuring voltage and current transformers. Their connection to a three-phase system
is shown in Fig.45.

## 5.1 Voltage transformer

The voltage transformer connected in similar way as ordinary transformer. Due to the
high resistance of a voltmeter it operates practically at no-load conditions. Similar to the
power transformer it cannot be short-circuited. That would damage the transformer.

K L

M N
k l
m n

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## 5.2 Current transformer

The primary winding labeled K-L is connected in series to a transmission line between
the source and the load. Operating in this mode it is essentially excited from the constant-
current source. The secondary terminals k-l are connected to the ammeter. Due to the low
resistance of ammeter connected to the secondary the current transformer operates
practically at short-circuit conditions. This is its normal operation. If the secondary is
open the current-transformer can be damaged. The reason why it happens is explained in
Fig.46.

(a) (b)

I1 I2 I1 I2
transmission line

Ic Ic

I2 ≅ I1 I2 = 0
Ic ≅ 0 Ic = I1

Fig.46 Equivalent circuit of current transformer at: (a) normal operation, (b) open-
circuited secondary

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