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CONTENTS

1. Orifices & Flows


Coefficients of Discharge for Various Types of Orifices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Orifice Flow Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Orifice Capacity Tables, Low Pressure Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Orifice Capacity Tables, High Pressure Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piping Pressures Losses, Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piping Pressure Losses, Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Pressure (Compressible) Flow of Natural Gas in Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equivalent Lengths of Standard Pipe Fittings & Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simplified Selection of Air, Gas and Mixture Piping Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quick Method for Sizing Air Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sizing Branch Piping by the Equal Area Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cv Flow Factor Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duct Velocity & Flow Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4
4
5
9
12
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17

2. Fan Laws & Blower Application Engineering


Theoretical Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fan Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Blower Horsepower Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Blowers Used as Suction Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Effect of Pressure on Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Effect of Altitude on Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Effect of Temperature on Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18
19
20
20
20
20
21

3. Gas
Physical Properties of Commercial Fuel Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combustion Properties of Commercial Fuel Gases
Air/Gas Ratio, Flammability Limits, Ignition Temperature & Flame Velocity . . .
Heating Value, Heat Release & Flame Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combustion Products & CO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equivalent Propane/Air & Butane/Air Btu Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Propane/Air & Butane/Air Mixture Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22
23
23
24
24

4. Oil
Fuel Oil Specifications Per ANSI/ASTM D 396-79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Properities of Commercial Fuel Oils in the U.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Oil Viscosity Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
API Vs. Oil Specific Gravity & Gross Heating Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Piping Pressure Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Temperature Drop in F Per 100 Foot of Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25
26
26
27
27
29

5. Steam & Water


Boiler Terminology & Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Properties of Saturated Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Btu/Hr. Required to Generate One Boiler H.P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sizing Water Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sizing Steam Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30
30
31
31
31

22

6. Electrical Data
Electrical Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Electrical Wire Dimensions & Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
NEMA Size Starters for Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
NEMA Enclosures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Electric Motors Full Load Current, Amperes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7. Process Heating
Heat Balances Determining the Heat Needs of Furnaces and Ovens . . . . 35
Thermal Properties of Various Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Thermal Capacities of Metals & Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Industrial Heating Operations Temperature & Heat Requirements . . . . . . 41
Crucibles for Metal Melting Dimensions & Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Radiant Tubes Sizing & Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Heat Losses, Heat Storage & Cold Face Temperatures Refractory Walls . 44
Air Heating & Fume Incineration Heat Requirements
Using Raw Gas Burners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Using Burners with Separate Combustion Air Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Fume Incineration Selection & Sizing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Liquid Heating Burner Sizing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Black Body Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Thermocouple Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Orton Standard Pyrometric Cone Temperature Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8. Combustion Data
Available Heat for Birmingham Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Available Heat for Various Fuel Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Flue Gas Analysis Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Theoretical Flame Tip Temperature vs. Excess Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Heat Transfer Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Thermal Head & Cold Air Infiltration into Furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Furnace Flue Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9. Mechanical Data
Dimensional and Capacity Data Schedule 40 Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Dimensions of Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Sheet Metal Gauges & Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Steel Wire Gauges & Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Circumferences & Areas of Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Drill Size Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Tap Drill Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Drilling Templates Pipe Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
10. Abbreviations & Symbols
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Electrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
11. Conversion Factors
General Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Temperature Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Pressure Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Index . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Tech Notes
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
3

CHAPTER 1 ORIFICES & FLOWS


COEFFICIENTS OF DISCHARGE FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF ORIFICES

Sharp Edge
Cd = 0.60

Reentrant
0.72

Round Edge
0.97

Short Pipe
0.82

Coefficient of Discharge (Cd)

Orifices and Nozzles Discharging from Plenum


0.95
0.93
0.91
0.89
0.87
NOTE: The loss is least at 13

0.85
0.83

Converging
depends on angle. See
curve at right.

6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Angle of Convergence in Degrees

22

24

ORIFICE FLOW FORMULAS


The flow of air or gas through an orifice can be determined
by the formula
h
Q = 1658.5 x A x Cd g

3.Effect of Changes in Operating Conditions on Pressure Drop Across an OrificeGeneral Relationship:


h2
Q2 2
A1 2 Cd1 2 g2
=
x
h1
Q1
A2 x Cd2 x g1
Again, if any of the factors in this equation are unchanged
from Condition 1 to Condtion 2, they can be dropped out to
form simplified relationships:

( ) ( ) ( )

where Q =flow, cfh


A =area of the orifice, sq. in. (see Pages 57 & 58)
Cd =discharge coefficient of the orifice
(see above)
h =pressure drop across the orifice, w.c.
g =specific gravity of the gas, based on standard
air at 1.0 (see Pages 19, 20, & 22 thru 24.)

3a. Pressure Drop Change vs. Flow Change


h2
Q2 2
=
h1
Q1
This is the square root law, stated another way.

( )

1. Sizing Orifice Plates

3b. Pressure Drop Change vs. Orifice Area Change

To calculate the size of an orifice plate, this equation can


be rearranged as follows:
Q
A=
x g
h
1658.5 x Cd

h2
A1
h1 = A2

( )

3c. Pressure Drop Change vs. Specific Gravity Change


h2 g2
h1 = g1
This relationship may not apply where specific gravity has
been changed by a change in gas temperature. See Page 25.

2. Effect of Changes in Operating Conditions on


Flow through an Orifice General Relationship
Q2 A2 Cd2
h
g
= x
x 2 x g1
Q1 A1 Cd1
h1
2
If any of the factors in this relationship remain constant
from Condition 1 to Condition 2, they can be dropped out of
the equation, yielding these simplified relationships. Each of
them assumes only one factor has been changed.

4. Effect of Changes in Gas Temperature on Flow and


Pressure Drop through an Orifice
Raising a gass temperature has two effects it increases
the volume and decreases the specific gravity, both in proportion to the ratio of the absolute temperatures. If we are concerned with changes in mass flows (scfh), these relationships
must be used:

2a. Flow Change vs. Orifice Area Change


Q2 A2
=
Q1 A1

4a. Flow Change vs. Temperature Change


Q2
TADS1
Q1 = TABB2

2b. Flow Change vs. Pressure Drop Change


Q2
h
= 2
Q1
h1
This is the so-called square root law.

4b. Pressure Drop Change vs. Temperature Change


h2
TABS2
h1 = TABS1 to maintain constant scfh

2c. Flow Change vs. Specific Gravity Change


g
Q2
= g1
Q1
2
4

ORIFICE CAPACITY TABLES


LOW PRESSURE GAS
Flows in these tables are based on an orifice pressure drop
of 1 w.c. and a coefficient of discharge (Cd) of 1.0.
To determine flow through an orifice of a known diameter:
1. Locate the orifice diameter in the left-hand column of the
table.
2. Read across to the column corresponding to the gas being
measured. This is the uncorrected flow.
3. Multiply this flow by the coefficient of discharge of the
orifice. (see page 4)
4. Correct this flow to the pressure drop actually measured,
using the square root law (equation 2b, page 4).
Example: What is the flow of natural gas through a 7/32"
diameter sharp edge orifice at 6 w.c. pressure drop?
From the table, uncorrected natural gas flow through a
7/32" orifice is 80.7 cfh at 1 w.c.
Cd for a sharp edge orifice is 0.60 (page 1.1), so corrected
flow is 80.7 x 0.60 = 48.4 cfh at 1" w.c. pressure drop.
Per equation 2b, page 4,
h
h2
Q2
= 2 or Q2 = Q1 x
Q1
h1
h1

To determine the orifice size to handle a known flow at a


specified pressure drop, reverse the process:
1. Correct the known flow to a pressure drop of 1 w.c.,
using the square root law.
2. Divide the flow by the orifice coefficient.
3. In the orifice table, locate the column for the gas under
consideration. In this column, locate the flow closest to
the corrected value found in step 2.
4. Read to the left to find the corrected orifice size.
Example: Size a gas jet for a mixer. Entrance to the jet orifice
converges at a 15 included angle. Gas is propane. Required
flow is 120 cfh at 30 w.c. pressure drop.
Per equation 2b, page 4,
h
h
Q2
= 2 , or Q2 = Q1 x 2
Q1
h1
h1
Substituting the numbers for this case:
Q2 = 120 x 1 = 22 cfh
30
From page 1.1, Cd for a 15 convergent nozzle is 0.94, so
corrected flow is
22 0.94 = 23.4 cfh.
Locate 23.4 cfh in the propane column of the orifice
table and then read to the left to find a #26 drill size orifice.

Substituting the numbers for this case:


Q2 = 48.4 x 6 w.c. = 119 cfh
1 w.c.

CAPACITY, CFH @ 1 W.C. PRESSURE DROP


AND COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF 1.0
Drill
Size
80
79
1/64
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
1/32
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58

Dia.
In.
.0135
.0145
.0156
.016
.018
.020
.021
.0225
.024
.025
.026
.028
.0292
.030
.0312
.032
.033
.035
.036
.037
.038
.039
.040
.041
.042

Area
.000143
.000165
.00019
.00020
.00025
.00031
.00035
.00040
.00045
.00049
.00053
.00062
.00067
.00075
.00076
.00080
.00086
.00092
.00102
.00108
.00113
.00119
.00126
.00132
.00138

Natural
Gas
0.60 Sp. Gr.
.308
.355
.409
.431
.538
.668
.754
.861
.969
1.06
1.14
1.33
1.44
1.61
1.64
1.72
1.85
2.07
2.20
2.33
2.43
2.56
2.71
2.84
2.97

Air
1.0 Sp. Gr.
.239
.275
.317
.334
.417
.517
.584
.668
.751
.817
.884
1.03
1.12
1.25
1.27
1.33
1.43
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.88
1.98
2.10
2.20
2.30
5

Propane/
Air
1.29 Sp. Gr.
.210
.242
.279
.294
.367
.455
.514
.587
.661
.720
.778
.910
.984
1.10
1.12
1.17
1.26
1.41
1.50
1.59
1.66
1.75
1.85
1.94
2.03

Propane
1.5 Sp. Gr.
.195
.225
.259
.272
.340
.422
.477
.545
.613
.667
.722
.844
.912
1.02
1.04
1.09
1.17
1.31
1.39
1.47
1.54
1.62
1.72
1.8
1.88

Butane
2.0 Sp. Gr.
.169
.195
.224
.236
.295
.366
.413
.472
.531
.578
.625
.731
.790
.885
.896
.944
1.01
1.13
1.20
1.27
1.33
1.40
1.49
1.56
1.63

CAPACITY, CFH @ 1 W.C. PRESSURE DROP


AND COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF 1.0
Drill
Size
57
56
3/64
55
54
53
1/16
52
51
50
49
48
5/64
47
46
45
44
43
42
3/32
41
40
39
38
37
36
7/64
35
34
33
32
31
1/8
30
29
28
9/64
27
26
25
24
23
5/32
22
21
20
19
18
11/64
17
16
15
14
13
3/16

Dia.
In.
.043
.0465
.0469
.0520
.0550
.0595
.0625
.0635
.0670
.070
.073
.076
.0781
.0785
.081
.082
.086
.089
.0935
.0937
.096
.098
.0995
.1015
.104
.1065
.1093
.110
.111
.113
.116
.120
.125
.1285
.136
.1405
.1406
.144
.147
.1495
.152
.154
.1562
.157
.159
.161
.166
.1695
.1719
.175
.177
.180
.182
.185
.1875

Area
.00145
.00170
.00173
.00210
.0023
.0028
.0031
.0032
.0035
.0038
.0042
.0043
.0048
.0049
.0051
.0053
.0058
.0062
.00687
.0069
.0072
.0075
.0078
.0081
.0085
.0090
.0094
.0095
.0097
.0100
.0106
.0113
.0123
.0130
.0145
.0155
.0156
.0163
.0174
.0175
.0181
.0186
.0192
.0193
.0198
.0203
.0216
.0226
.0232
.0235
.0246
.0254
.0260
.0269
.0276

Natural
Gas
0.60 Sp. Gr.
3.12
3.66
3.73
4.52
4.95
6.03
6.68
6.89
7.54
8.18
9.04
9.26
10.3
10.5
11.
11.4
12.5
13.4
14.8
14.9
15.5
16.2
16.8
17.4
18.3
19.4
20.2
20.5
20.9
21.5
22.8
24.3
26.4
27.9
31.1
33.3
33.5
35.
37.3
37.5
38.8
39.9
41.2
41.4
42.5
43.6
46.3
48.5
49.8
50.4
52.8
54.5
55.8
57.7
59.2

Air
1.0 Sp. Gr.
2.42
2.84
2.89
3.50
3.84
4.67
5.17
5.34
5.84
6.34
7.01
7.17
8.01
8.17
8.51
8.84
9.67
10.3
11.4
11.5
12.
12.5
13.
13.5
14.2
15.
15.7
15.8
16.2
16.7
17.7
18.8
20.4
21.6
24.1
25.8
25.9
27.1
28.9
29.1
30.1
30.9
31.9
32.1
32.9
33.7
35.9
37.6
38.6
39.1
40.9
42.2
43.2
44.7
45.9
6

Propane/
Air
1.29 Sp. Gr.
2.13
2.5
2.54
3.08
3.38
4.11
4.55
4.7
5.14
5.58
6.17
6.31
7.05
7.2
7.49
7.78
8.52
9.11
10.
10.1
10.6
11.
11.5
11.9
12.5
13.2
13.8
14.
14.2
14.7
15.6
16.6
18.
19.
21.2
22.7
22.8
23.9
25.5
25.6
26.5
27.2
28.1
28.2
29.
29.7
31.6
33.1
33.9
34.4
36.
37.2
38.
39.4
40.4

Propane
1.5 Sp. Gr.
1.97
2.32
2.36
2.86
3.13
3.81
4.22
4.36
4.77
5.18
5.72
5.86
6.54
6.67
6.95
7.22
7.9
8.44
9.36
9.40
9.81
10.2
10.6
11.0
11.6
12.3
12.8
12.9
13.2
13.6
14.4
15.4
16.7
17.6
19.7
21.
21.2
22.1
23.6
23.7
24.6
25.2
26.1
26.2
26.9
27.5
29.3
30.7
31.5
31.9
33.4
34.5
35.3
36.5
37.5

Butane
2.0 Sp. Gr.
1.71
2.01
2.04
2.48
2.71
3.30
3.66
3.77
4.13
4.48
4.95
5.07
5.66
5.78
6.02
6.25
6.84
7.31
8.1
8.14
8.49
8.85
9.2
9.55
10.
10.6
11.1
11.2
11.4
11.8
12.5
13.3
14.5
15.3
17.
18.2
18.3
19.2
20.4
20.6
21.3
21.9
22.6
22.7
23.3
23.9
25.4
26.6
27.3
27.6
28.9
29.9
30.6
31.6
32.4

CAPACITY, CFH @ 1 W.C. PRESSURE DROP


AND COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF 1.0
Drill
Size
12
11
10
9
8
7
13/64
6
5
4
3
7/32
2
1
A
15/64
B
C
D
1/4
F
G
17/64
H
I
J
K
9/32
L
M
19/64
N
5/16
O
P
21/64
Q
R
11/32
S
T
23/64
U
3/8
V
W
25/64
X
Y
13/32
Z
27/64
7/16
29/64
15/32

Dia.
In.
.189
.191
.1935
.196
.199
.201
.2031
.204
.2055
.209
.213
.2187
.221
.228
.234
.2343
.238
.242
.246
.250
.257
.261
.2656
.266
.272
.277
.281
.2812
.290
.295
.2968
.302
.3125
.316
.323
.3281
.332
.339
.3437
.348
.358
.3593
.368
.375
.377
.386
.3906
.397
.404
.4062
.413
.4219
.4375
.4531
.4687

Area
.02805
.02865
.0294
.0302
.0311
.0316
.0324
.0327
.0332
.0343
.0356
.0376
.0384
.0409
.0430
.0431
.0444
.0460
.0475
.0491
.0519
.0535
.0554
.0556
.0580
.0601
.0620
.0621
.0660
.0683
.0692
.0716
.0767
.0784
.0820
.0846
.0866
.0901
.0928
.0950
.1005
.1014
.1063
.1104
.1116
.1170
.1198
.1236
.1278
.1296
.1340
.1398
.1503
.1613
.1726

Natural
Gas
0.60 Sp. Gr.
60.2
61.5
63.1
64.8
66.7
67.8
69.5
70.2
71.2
73.6
76.4
80.7
82.4
87.8
92.3
92.5
95.3
98.7
102.
105.
111.
115.
119.
119.3
124.
129.
133.
133.2
142.
147.
148.
154.
165.
168.
176.
182.
186.
193.
199.
204.
216.
218.
228.
237.
239.
251.
257.
265.
274.
278.
288.
300.
322.
346.
370.

Air
1.0 Sp. Gr.
46.6
47.6
48.9
50.2
51.7
52.5
53.8
54.3
55.2
57.0
59.2
62.5
63.8
68.
71.5
71.6
73.8
76.5
78.9
81.6
86.3
88.9
92.1
92.4
96.4
99.9
103.
103.2
110.
113.
115.
119.
127.
130.
136.
141.
144.
150.
154.
158.
167.
169.
177.
184.
185.
194.
199.
205.
212.
215.
223.
232.
250.
268.
287.
7

Propane/
Air
1.29 Sp. Gr.
41.
41.9
43.
44.2
45.5
46.2
47.4
47.8
48.6
50.2
52.1
55.
56.2
59.8
62.9
63.1
65.
67.3
69.5
71.8
75.9
78.3
81.1
81.4
84.9
87.9
90.7
90.9
96.6
99.9
101.
105.
112.
115.
120.
124.
127.
132.
136.
139.
147.
148.
156.
162.
163.
171.
175.
181.
187.
190.
196.
205.
220.
236.
253.

Propane
1.5 Sp. Gr.
38.1
38.9
39.9
41.
42.2
42.9
44.
44.4
45.1
46.5
48.3
51.
52.1
55.5
58.4
58.5
60.3
62.4
64.5
66.6
70.4
72.6
75.2
75.4
78.7
81.6
84.1
84.3
89.6
92.7
93.9
97.2
104.
106.
111.
115.
118.
122.
126.
129.
136.
138.
144.
150.
151.
159.
163.
168.
173.
176.
182.
190.
204.
219.
234.

Butane
2.0 Sp. Gr.
33.
33.7
34.6
35.5
36.5
37.1
38.1
38.4
39.
40.3
41.8
44.2
45.1
48.1
50.5
50.7
52.2
54.1
55.8
57.7
61.
62.9
65.1
65.3
68.2
70.6
72.9
73.
77.6
80.3
81.3
84.1
90.1
92.1
96.4
99.4
102.
106.
109.
112.
118.
119.
125.
130.
131.
137.
141.
145.
150.
152.
157.
164.
177.
190.
203.

CAPACITY, CFH @ 1 W.C. PRESSURE DROP


AND COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF 1.0
Drill
Size
31/64
1/2
33/64
17/32
35/64
9/16
37/64
19/32
39/64
5/8
41/64
21/32
43/64
11/16
45/64
23/32
47/64
3/4
49/64
25/32
51/64
13/16
53/64
27/32
55/64
7/8
29/32
15/16
31/32
1
1-1/16
1-1/8
1-3/16
1-1/4
1-5/16
1-3/8
1-1/2
1-9/16
1-5/8
1-11/16
1-3/4
1-13/16
1-7/8
1-15/16
2
2-1/8
2-1/4
2-3/8
2-1/2
2-5/8
2-3/4
2-7/8

Dia.
In.
.4843
.50
.5156
.5312
.5468
.5625
.5781
.5937
.6093
.625
.6406
.6562
.6718
.6875
.7031
.7187
.7343
.750
.7656
.7813
.7969
.8125
.8281
.8438
.8594
.8750
.9062
.9375
.9688
1.0
1.063
1.125
1.188
1.250
1.313
1.375
1.5
1.563
1.625
1.688
1.75
1.813
1.875
1.938
2.0
2.125
2.250
2.375
2.50
2.625
2.75
2.875

Area
.1843
.1963
.2088
.2217
.2349
.2485
.2625
.2769
.2916
.3068
.3223
.3382
.3545
.3712
.3883
.4057
.4236
.44179
.46040
.47937
.49873
.51849
.53862
.55914
.5800
.60132
.64504
.69029
.73708
.7854
.88664
.99402
1.1075
1.2272
1.3530
1.4849
1.7671
1.9174
2.0739
2.2365
2.4053
2.5802
2.7612
2.9498
3.1416
3.5466
3.9761
4.4301
4.9087
5.4119
5.9396
6.4918

Natural
Gas
0.60 Sp. Gr.
395.
421.
448.
476.
504.
533.
563.
594.
626.
658.
691.
725.
760.
796.
833.
870.
909.
948.
988.
1029.
1070.
1112.
1156.
1200.
1244.
1290.
1384.
1481.
1581.
1685.
1902.
2133.
2376.
2633.
2903.
3186.
3791.
4114.
4450.
4799.
5161.
5536.
5924.
6329.
6741.
7610.
8531.
9505.
10532.
11612.
12744.
13929.

Air
1.0 Sp. Gr.
306.
326.
347.
368.
390.
413.
436.
460.
485.
510.
536.
562.
589.
617.
645.
674.
704.
734.
765.
796.
829.
862.
895.
929.
964.
999.
1072.
1147.
1225.
1305.
1474.
1652.
1841.
2040.
2249.
2468.
2937.
3187.
3447.
3717.
3998.
4288.
4589.
4903.
5221.
5894.
6608.
7363.
8158.
8995.
9872.
10789.

Propane/
Air
1.29 Sp. Gr.
270.
287.
306.
324.
344.
364.
384.
405.
427.
449.
472.
495.
519.
543.
568.
594.
620.
646.
674.
701.
730.
759.
788.
818.
849.
880.
944.
1010.
1079.
1149.
1297.
1455.
1621.
1796.
1980.
2173.
2586.
2806.
3035.
3273.
3520.
3776.
4040.
4316.
4597.
5190.
5818.
6483.
7183.
7919.
8691.
9499.

Propane
1.5 Sp. Gr.
250.
266.
283.
301.
319.
337.
356.
376.
396.
416.
437.
459.
481.
504.
527.
551.
575.
599.
625.
651.
677.
704.
731.
759.
787.
816.
875.
937.
1000.
1066.
1203.
1349.
1503.
1665.
1836.
2015.
2398.
2602.
2814.
3035.
3264.
3501.
3747.
4003.
4263.
4813.
5396.
6012.
6661.
7344.
8060.
8809.

Butane
2.0 Sp. Gr.
217.
231.
245.
261.
276.
292.
308.
325.
343.
361.
379.
397.
417.
436.
456.
477.
498.
519.
541.
563.
586.
609.
633.
657.
682.
707.
758.
811.
866.
923.
1042.
1168.
1302.
1442.
1590.
1745.
2077.
2253.
2437.
2628.
2827.
3032.
3245.
3467.
3692.
4168.
4673.
5206.
5769.
6360.
6980.
7629.

ORIFICE CAPACITY TABLES FOR HIGH PRESSURE GASES


These tables list compressible flows of high pressure gases
through orifices and spuds. They are based on an orifice pressure drop of 10 psi and a coefficient of discharge (Cd) of 1.0.
They also assume the gas is discharging to a region of atmospheric pressure.
To determine flow through an orifice of a known diameter:
1. Locate the orifice diameter in the left-hand column of the
table.
2. Read across to the column corresponding to the gas being
measured. This is the uncorrected flow.
3. Multiply this flow by the coefficient of discharge of the
orifice. (see page 4)
4. Correct this flow to the pressure actually measured ahead
of the orifice (P) using the following relationship:
Qp = Q 10

To determine the orifice size to handle a known flow at a


specified pressure drop, reverse the process:
1. Correct the known flow to a pressure drop of 10 psig, using
the equation above.
2. Divide the flow by the orifice coefficient.
3. In the orifice table, locate the column for the gas under
consideration. In this column, locate the flow closest to the
corrected value found in step 2.
4. Read to the left to find the corrected orifice size.
Example: Size an airjet with a convergent inlet of 15.
Required flow is 450 scfh at 20 psig inlet pressure.
Per the equation above,
Qp = Q 10 P + 14.7, or Q 10 = Qp 24.7
24.7
P + 14.7

P + 14.7
24.7

Substituting the numbers for this case:


Q10 = 450 24.7 = 320 scfh
20 + 14.7
From page 4, C d for a 15 convergent nozzle is 0.94, so corrected flow is
320 0.94 = 340 scfh.
Locate 340 scfh in the air column of the orifice table. Closest
value is 341 scfh, which requires a 1/8" diameter jet.

Where Qp is the unknown flow


Q10 is the flow at 10 psig from the table
Example: What is the flow of propane air mixture through a
3/64" diameter jet with a 15 angle of convergence at 35 psig?
From the table, uncorrected propane air flow through a
3/64" orifice is 41 scfh at 10 psig.
Cd for 15 convergent jet is 0.94 (page 4), so corrected flow
is 41 x 0.94 = 38.5 scfh at 10 psig.
Corrected flow for 35 psig pressure, per the equation above, is
35 + 14.7
Qp = 38.5
= 77.5 scfh
24.7

CAPACITY, SCFH @ 10 PSI PRESSURE DROP, DISCHARGING TO ATMOSPHERE,


WITH COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF 1.0
Drill
Size
80
79
1/64
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
1/32
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60

Area
Sq. In.
.000143
.000165
.00019
.00020
.00025
.00031
.00035
.00040
.00045
.00049
.00053
.00062
.00067
.00075
.00076
.00080
.00086
.00096
.00102
.00108
.00113
.00119
.00126

Natural Gas
0.60 Sp. Gr.
4.9
5.6
6.6
7.0
9.2
10.8
11.9
13.6
15.6
17.0
18.5
21
23
26
27
28
30
34
35
37
40
41
44

Air
1.0 Sp. Gr.
3.8
4.3
5.1
5.4
7.1
8.4
9.2
10.5
12.1
13.2
14.3
16.4
18.1
20
21
22
23
26
27
29
31
32
34
9

Propane/Air
1.29 Sp. Gr.
3.3
3.8
4.5
4.8
6.3
7.4
8.1
9.2
10.7
11.6
12.6
14.4
15.9
17.6
18.5
19.4
20
23
24
26
27
28
30

Propane
1.5 Sp. Gr.
3.1
3.5
4.2
4.4
5.8
6.9
7.5
8.6
9.9
10.8
11.7
13.4
14.8
16.3
17.1
18.0
18.8
21
22
24
25
26
28

Butane
2.0 Sp. Gr.
2.7
3.0
3.6
3.8
5.0
5.9
6.53
7.4
8.6
9.3
10.1
11.6
12.8
14.1
14.8
15.6
16.3
18.4
19.1
20
22
23
24

CAPACITY, SCFH @ 10 PSI PRESSURE DROP, DISCHARGING TO


ATMOSPHERE, WITH COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF 1.0 (Contd)
Drill
Size
59
58
57
56
3/64
55
54
53
1/16
52
51
50
49
48
5/64
47
46
45
44
43
3/32 (42)
41
40
39
38
37
36
7/64
35
34
33
32
31
1/8
30
29
28
9/64
27
26
25
24
23
5/32
22
21
20
19
18
11/64
17
16
15
14
13
3/16
12

Area
Sq. In.
.00132
.00138
.00145
.00170
.00173
.00210
.00230
.00280
.00310
.00320
.00350
.00380
.00420
.00430
.00480
.00490
.00510
.00530
.00580
.00620
.00690
.00720
.00750
.00780
.00810
.00850
.00900
.00940
.00950
.00970
.01000
.01060
.01130
.01230
.01300
.01450
.01550
.01560
.01630
.01740
.01750
.01810
.01860
.01920
.01930
.01980
.02030
.02160
.02260
.02320
.02350
.02460
.02540
.02600
.02690
.02760
.02805

Natural Gas
0.60 Sp. Gr.
45
48
52
59
61
75
84
98
108
112
124
136
147
160
169
172
182
187
205
219
243
244
266
275
285
300
315
332
336
342
354
374
400
440
458
514
550
553
572
599
621
642
660
678
684
702
728
766
800
822
830
871
904
920
951
976
993

Air
1.0 Sp. Gr.
35
37
40
46
47
58
65
76
84
87
96
105
114
124
131
133
141
145
159
170
188
189
206
213
221
232
244
257
260
265
274
290
310
341
355
398
426
428
443
464
481
497
511
525
530
544
564
593
620
637
643
675
700
713
737
756
769
10

Propane/Air
1.29 Sp. Gr.
31
33
35
41
41
51
57
67
74
77
85
92
100
109
115
117
124
128
140
150
166
166
181
188
195
204
215
226
229
233
241
255
273
300
313
350
375
377
390
409
423
437
450
462
467
479
497
522
546
561
566
594
616
628
649
666
677

Propane
1.5 Sp. Gr.
29
30
33
38
38
47
53
62
69
71
78
86
93
101
107
109
115
118
130
139
154
154
168
174
180
189
199
210
212
216
224
237
253
278
290
325
348
349
362
379
393
406
417
429
433
444
461
484
506
520
525
551
572
582
602
617
628

Butane
2.0 Sp. Gr.
25
26
28
33
33
41
46
54
59
62
68
74
81
88
93
94
100
103
112
120
133
134
146
151
156
164
173
182
184
187
194
205
219
241
251
281
301
303
313
328
340
351
361
371
375
385
399
419
438
450
455
477
495
503
521
534
544

CAPACITY, SCFH @ 10 PSI PRESSURE DROP, DISCHARGING TO


ATMOSPHERE, WITH COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE OF 1.0 (Contd)
Drill
Size
11
10
9
8
7
13/64
6
5
4
3
7/32
2
1
A
15/64
B
C
D
1/4 E
F
G
17/64
H
I
J
K
9/32
L
M
19/64
N
5/16
O
P
21/64
Q
R
11/32
S
T
23/64
U
3/8
V
W
25/64
X
Y
13/32
Z
27/64
7/16
29/64
15/32
31/64
1/2

Area
Sq. In.
.02865
.02940
.03020
.03110
.03160
.03240
.03270
.03320
.03430
.03560
.03760
.03840
.04090
.04300
.04310
.04440
.04600
.04750
.04910
.05190
.05350
.05540
.05560
.05800
.06010
.06200
.06210
.06600
.06830
.06920
.07160
.07670
.07840
.08200
.08460
.08660
.09010
.09280
.09500
.10050
.10140
.10630
.11040
.11160
.11700
.11980
.12360
.12780
.12960
.13400
.13980
.15030
.16130
.17260
.18430
.19630

Natural Gas
0.60 Sp. Gr.
1015
1041
1066
1100
1122
1148
1155
1172
1216
1263
1327
1361
1447
1523
1529
1571
1627
1686
1738
1836
1891
1960
1969
2054
2128
2192
2200
2337
2418
2448
2534
2714
2782
2893
2996
3065
3193
3283
3373
3553
3595
3775
3912
3959
4135
4237
4374
4537
4580
4751
4943
5307
5714
6121
6527
6977

Air
1.0 Sp. Gr.
786
806
826
852
869
889
895
908
942
978
1028
1054
1121
1180
1184
1217
1260
1306
1346
1422
1465
1518
1525
1591
1648
1698
1704
1810
1873
1896
1963
2102
2155
2241
2321
2374
2473
2543
2613
2752
2785
2924
3030
3067
3203
3282
3388
3514
3548
3680
3829
4111
4426
4741
5056
5204
11

Propane/Air
1.29 Sp. Gr.
692
710
727
750
765
783
788
799
829
861
905
928
987
1039
1042
1072
1109
1150
1185
1252
1290
1336
1343
1401
1451
1495
1500
1594
1649
1669
1728
1851
1897
1973
2044
2090
2177
2239
2301
2423
2452
2574
2668
2700
2820
2890
2983
3094
3124
3240
3371
3620
3897
4452
4448
4758

Propane
1.5 Sp. Gr.
642
658
674
696
710
726
731
741
769
799
839
861
915
963
967
994
1029
1066
1099
1161
1196
1239
1245
1299
1346
1386
1391
1478
1529
1548
1603
1716
1760
1830
1895
1938
2019
2076
2134
2247
2274
2387
2474
2504
2615
2680
2766
2869
2897
3005
3126
3357
3614
3871
4128
4412

Butane
2.0 Sp. Gr.
556
570
584
602
614
629
633
642
666
692
727
745
793
834
837
861
891
923
952
1006
1036
1073
1078
1125
1165
1201
1205
1280
1324
1341
1388
1486
1524
1585
1641
1679
1749
1798
1848
1946
1969
2068
2143
2169
2265
2321
2396
2485
2509
2602
2708
2907
3130
3352
3575
3821

PIPING PRESSURE LOSSES FOR LOW PRESSURE AIR


Inches w.c. per 100 ft. of Schedule 40 pipe
Scfh
Air
40
50
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000
1,500
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
20,000
Scfh
Air
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
180,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
450,000
500,000
550,000
600,000
650,000
700,000
800,000
900,000
1,000,000
1,100,000
1,200,000
1,300,000
1,400,000
1,600,000
1,800,000
2,000,000

1/2"
0.3
0.5
2.1
8.4
18.9

4"

0.4
0.7
1.1
1.6
2.2
2.8
3.6
4.4
6.9
9.9
13.5
17.6

3/4"

0.5
1.9
4.2
7.5
11.8
16.9

6"

0.3
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.1
3.3
4.7
6.4
8.3
10.5
13.0
18.7

1"

0.5
1.2
2.1
3.3
4.7
6.4
8.3
10.5
13.0

8"

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
1.0
1.4
1.9
2.4
2.9
4.2
5.7
7.4
9.4
11.6
18.2

1-1/4"

0.3
0.5
0.8
1.1
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.1
7.0
12.4

1-1/2

0.4
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.4
3.2
5.6
12.6

10"

0.3
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
1.3
1.8
2.4
3.0
3.7
5.8
8.4
11.4
14.9
18.8

12

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.2
1.4
2.2
3.2
4.4
5.7
7.2
9.0
10.8
12.9
15.1
17.5

12

2"

0.3
0.4
0.8
1.4
3.2
5.8
9.0
13.0
17.6

14"

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.8
1.3
1.9
2.5
3.3
4.2
5.2
6.2
7.4
8.7
10.1
13.2
16.7
20.6

2-1/2"

0.3
0.6
1.3
2.2
3.5
5.0
6.9
9.0
11.3
14.0
20.2

0.4
0.8
1.2
1.7
2.3
3.0
3.8
4.7
6.8
9.2
12.0
15.2
18.8

16"

0.3
0.3
0.4
0.6
0.9
1.3
1.6
2.1
2.6
3.1
3.7
4.4
5.0
6.6
8.3
10.3
12.5
14.8
17.4
20.2

18

0.3
0.5
0.6
0.8
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.2
2.5
3.3
4.2
5.2
6.3
7.5
8.8
10.2
13.3
16.8
20.8

PIPING PRESSURE LOSSES FOR LOW PRESSURE NATURAL GAS


Inches w.c. per 100 ft. of Schedule 40 pipe
Scfh
Nat. Gas
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000

3/8"
0.3
1.1
2.5
4.4
6.9
9.9
13.5
17.6

1/2"

0.3
0.7
1.2
1.9
2.8
3.8
5.0
11.2
19.8

3/4"

0.3
0.4
0.6
0.9
1.1
2.5
4.5
7.0
10.1
13.8
18.0

1"

0.3
0.7
1.2
1.9
2.8
3.8
4.9
6.3
7.7
17.4

1-1/4"

0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.9
4.2
7.5
11.8
16.9

1-1/2"

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.8
1.9
3.3
5.2
7.5
13.2
20.7

2"

0.5
0.9
1.3
1.9
3.4
5.4
7.7
10.5
13.8
17.4

PIPING PRESSURE LOSSES FOR LOW PRESSURE NATURAL GAS


Inches w.c. per 100 ft. of Schedule 40 pipe
Scfh
Nat. Gas
2,000
2,500
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
20,000
22,000
24,000
26,000
28,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
45,000
50,000
55,000
60,000
70,000

2-1/2"
0.3
0.5
0.8
1.3
2.1
3.0
4.1
5.4
6.8
8.4
12.1
16.4

3"

0.3
0.4
0.7
1.0
1.4
1.8
2.3
2.8
4.0
5.5
7.2
9.1
11.2
13.6
16.1
18.9

4"

0.3
0.4
0.6
0.7
1.0
1.4
1.8
2.2
2.8
3.3
4.0
4.7
5.4
6.2
8.5
11.0
14.0
17.3
20.9

6"

0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.8

8"

0.3
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8

Scfh
Nat. Gas
80,000
90,000
100,000
110,000
120,000
130,000
140,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000

13

Inches w.c.
per 100 ft
of Schedule 40 pipe
6"
8"
5.0
1.1
6.3
1.4
7.8
1.7
9.4
2.1
11.2
2.4
13.2
2.9
15.3
3.3
17.6
3.8

6.8

10.6

15.3

HIGH PRESSURE (COMPRESSIBLE) FLOW OF


NATURAL GAS IN PIPES
Flows in table are scfh of 0.6 sp. gr. natural gas
Pipe
Inlet
Pressure Drop Per 100 Equivalent Feet of
Size, Pressure,
Pipe as a Percentage of Inlet Pressure
Inches
PSIG
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%

1-1/4

1-1/2

2-1/2

2
5
10
20
50
2
5
10
20
50
2
5
10
20
50
2
5
10
20
50
2
5
10
20
50
2
5
10
20
50
2
5
10
20
50
2
5
10
20
50

340
590
930
1570
3380
710
1230
1950
3260
7040
1080
1860
2940
4930
10,640
2100
3630
5740
9610
20,720
3390
5850
9240
15,480
33,400
6060
10,450
16,510
27,650
59,640
12,480
21,520
34,000
56,960
122,850
37,250
64,240
101,520
170,060
366,770

480
840
1320
2210
4770
1010
1740
2760
4600
9910
1530
2630
4160
6960
15,000
2980
5120
8090
13,550
29,190
4810
8260
13,040
21,840
47,050
8590
14,760
23,290
38,990
84,010
17,690
30,400
47,980
80,320
173,070
52,800
90,760
143,260
239,810
516,680

590
1030
1610
2700
5820
1230
2130
3370
5620
12,090
1870
3220
5080
8490
18,290
3640
6270
9890
16,540
35,610
5880
10,100
15,940
26,660
57,400
10,500
18,050
28,480
47,620
102,500
21,620
37,180
58,650
98,090
211,140
64,560
111,010
175,120
292,840
630,360

680
1180
1850
3110
6690
1420
2450
3880
6470
13,910
2160
3710
5850
9780
21,040
4200
7230
11,400
19,050
40,960
6780
11,650
18,370
30,700
66,010
12,120
20,820
32,810
54,820
117,880
24,960
42,890
67,580
112,930
242,840
74,510
128,040
201,780
337,150
724,970

760
1320
2070
3470
7450
1590
2740
4330
7210
15,490
2410
4140
6530
10,900
23,430
4700
8070
12,720
21,230
45,610
7580
13,010
20,500
34,220
73,510
13,540
23,240
36,610
61,110
131,270
27,890
47,880
75,410
125,880
270,420
83,270
142,950
225,150
375,820
807,320

EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF STANDARD PIPE FITTINGS & VALVES

Pipe
Size

VALVES FULLY OPEN


I.D.
Swing 90
45 90 Tee, Flow 90 Tee, Flow
Inches Gate Globe Angle Check Elbow Elbow Through Run Through Branch

1/2"
3/4"
1"
1-1/4"
1-1/2"
2"
2-1/2"
3"
4"
6"

0.622
0.824
1.049
1.380
1.610
2.067
2.469
3.068
4.026
6.065

0.35
0.44
0.56
0.74
0.86
1.10
1.32
1.60
2.1
2.6

18.6
23.1
29.4
38.6
45.2
58
69
86
112
140

9.3
11.5
14.7
19.3
22.6
29
35
43
56
70

4.3
5.3
6.8
8.9
10.4
13.4
15.9
19.8
26.8
40.4

1.6
2.1
2.6
3.5
4.0
5.2
6.2
7.7
10.1
15.2

0.78
0.97
1.23
1.6
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.6
5.4
8.1

1.0
1.4
1.8
2.3
2.7
3.5
4.1
5.1
6.7
10.1

3.1
4.1
5.3
6.9
8.0
10.4
12.4
15.3
20.1
30.3

Equivalent lengths are for standard screwed fittings and for screwed, flanged, or welded valves relative to
schedule 40 steel pipe.
14

SIMPLIFIED SELECTION OF AIR, GAS AND MIXTURE PIPING SIZE


Air, gas and mixture piping systems should be sized to
deliver flow at a uniform pressure distribution and without
excessive pressure losses in transit.
Two factors cause air pressure loss and consequent pressure variations:
1) Friction in piping and bends, and
2) Velocity pressure losses due to changes in direction.
In combustion work, piping runs are usually short (under
50 ft.), but often have many bends. By assuming that all
velocity pressure is lost or dissipated at each change of direction and by using a pipe size to give a very low velocity pressure, other losses can be disregarded. In general, a velocity
pressure of 0.3 to 0.5 w.c. satisfies this need. This is equivalent to air velocities of about 2200 to 2800 ft/minute. For
other gases, this velocity is inversely proportional to their
gravities; consequently, higher velocities can be tolerated
with natural gas, but propane and butane piping should be
sized for lower velocities than air.
The accuracy of orifice meters is also sensitive to pipe
velocity, so every effort should be made to keep velocity pressure below 0.3 w.c. in metering runs.

Pipe Size

Pv, "wc
Velocity
Nat.
Pro- Bu- Ft/Min
Gas Air pane tane x1000
3.0

5.0
4.0

2.0

3.0

1.5
1.0

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.15
0.1

2.0
1.5
1.0

2.0
1.5
1.0

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.15
0.1

0.05

5.0
4.0
3.0

1-1/2"
1/4"

10
9
8
7

5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0

The graph below shows the relationship between velocity,


velocity pressure and flow for various pipe sizes handling air,
natural gas, propane, and butane. Because the specific gravity of most air-gas mixtures is close to that of air, mixture piping can be sized the same as air piping. The error will be
insignificant.
Example: A burner requires 10,000 cfh air at a static pressure
of 13 w.c. The blower supplying this burner develops 15
w.c. static pressure. Piping between the two will run 15 feet,
including four 90 bends. What size piping is required?
Solution: Total pressure available for piping losses is
15 w.c. - 13 w.c. = 2 w.c.
This allows a velocity pressure loss of:
2 4 = 0.5 w.c. for each of the four elbows.
Under the Air column on the left-hand side of the Pv
graph, locate 0.5 w.c. velocity pressure. This is equivalent to
about 2800 ft/minute air velocity. Locate the intersection of
the 2800 ft/minute line and the 10,000 cfh line, then drop
down to the first curve below this point, in this case, 4 pipe.
This is the pipe size that should be used.

3/8" 1/2"

3/4"

1"

1-1/4"

18"

2-1/2"

2"

3"

4"

6"

8"

10" 12" 14"16"

1.5
1.0

2.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2

10
9
8
7

0.5
0.4
0.3

2.5

1.5

0.15 0.2
0.1 0.15

Shaded Areas
Indicate Recommended
Velocity Pressure
Range

1.5

2
100

3 4

3 4

1000

6 8

3 4

10,000

2
100,000

3 4

Flow, cfh

QUICK METHOD FOR SIZING AIR PIPING


If pipe sizing charts or tables arent available, you can
quickly estimate the maximum air flow capacity of a pipe
with these simple equations:
Maximum cfh air = (Nominal pipe size)2 x 1000
The result will correspond to a velocity pressure of about 0.5
w.c., the maximum recommended for low pressure air systems.
Optimum cfh air = (Nominal pipe size)2 x 750

This will produce a flow rate equivalent to about 0.3 w.c.


velocity pressure.
Example: What is the maximum air flow rate for 212" pipe?
(212)2 = 6.25
6.25 x 1000 = 6,250 cfh air.

15

SIZING BRANCH PIPING BY THE EQUAL AREA METHOD


The equal area method of sizing pipe manifolds is based on
maintaining constant total cross-sectional area in all portions of
a piping train, regardless of the number of branches in each portion. In the sketch below, the equal area method requires that:
Area of X = 2 times area of Y = 6 times area of Z.

To use the table below, read across from the pipe size of the
smallest branch in the manifold (Z in the sketch at left) and
down from the number of these branches. At the intersection,
find the recommended size pipe to feed these branches. For
example, if Z is 3/4", Y should be 114" and X should be 2" pipe.

X
Y
Z

Y
Z

The advantage of this method is that once the size of the


smallest branch has been determined, via velocity pressures or
any other valid method, the remainder of the piping system
can be correctly sized without any additional calculations.
Remember, however, that if the calculation of the smallest
branches is in error, the entire system will be incorrectly sized.

Size of
Branch
Connection

1/4
3/8

1/4
3/8

3/8
3/4

1/2
3/4

3/4
1

1/2
3/4

1/2
3/4

Number of Branch Connections


5

3/4
1
1-1/4 1-1/4

3/4
1
1
1-1/4 1-1/4 1-1/2

1
2

1
1-1/4

1
1-1/4
2
1-1/4
2
2-1/2

2
3

1-1/2
2

1-1/2 2-1/2
2
3

3
4

3
4

4
6

2-1/2
3

2-1/2
3

4
4

4
6

6
6

4
6

4
6

6
8

8
10

8
10

8
10

12
14

14
18

1-1/4
2

2-1/2 2-1/2
3
4

1
1
1-1/4 1-1/4
1-1/2 2
2 2-1/2
3
4

3
4

4
6

4
6

6
6

6
8

6
8

6
8

6
8

8
12

10
14

10
16

10
18

12
18

16
20

18
24

20
24

20 or 24 24
30
30

Cv FLOW FACTOR CONVERSIONS


Cv, flow factor, is defined as the full flow capacity of a
valve expressed in gpm of 60F water at 1 psi pressure drop.
This rating is determined by actual flow test. To convert Cv to
actual flow capacity for gases, use the graph below.
Locate Cv at the left, read across to the appropriate curve and
then down to obtain flow capacity at 1 w.c. pressure drop.
For drops other than 1 w.c., multiply the flow by the square
root of the pressure drop.

For conditions other than 14.7 psia and 60F, use this formula:
Q = 1360Cv (P1-P2) P2,
GT
where
Q = SCFH
P1 = Inlet pressure, psia
P2 = Outlet pressure, psia
T = Absolute flowing temperature (F + 460)
G = Specific gravity of gas

1000
8
6
4
3

BUTANE 2.0 SP GR

Cv Flow Factor

PROPANE 1.5 SP GR
100
8
6
4
3
PROPANE - AIR
1.29 SP GR

AIR 1.0 SP GR
10
8
6
4
3

NATURAL GAS 0.6 SP GR

10

20

30 40 60 80 100

8 1000

8 10,000 2

Flow, SCH @ 1" W.C. P @ 14.7 PSIA & 60 F

16

DUCT VELOCITY & FLOW MEASUREMENTS


The total pressure of an air stream flowing in a duct is the
sum of the static or bursting pressure exerted upon the sidewalls of the duct and the impact or velocity pressure of the
moving air. Through the use of a pitot tube connected differentially to a manometer, the velocity pressure alone is indicated and the corresponding air velocity determined.
For accuracy of plus or minus 2%, as in laboratory applications, extreme care is required and the following precautions should be observed:
1. Duct diameter 4" or greater.
2. Make an accurate traverse per sketch below and average the
readings.
3. Provided smooth, straight duct sections 10 diameters in
length both upstream and downstream from the pitot tube.
4. Provide an egg crate type straightener upstream from the
pitot tube.

In making an air velocity check select a location as suggested


above, connect tubing leads from both pitot tube connections to
the manometer and insert in the duct with the tip directed into the
air stream. If the manometer shows a minus indication reverse the
tubes. With a direct reading manometer, air velocities will now be
shown in feet per minute. In other types, the manometer will read
velocity pressure in inches of water and the corresponding velocity will be found from the curves below. If circumstances do not
permit an accurate traverse, center the pitot tube in the duct,
determine the center velocity and multiply by a factor of .9 for the
approximate average velocity. Field tests run in this manner
should be accurate within plus or minus 5%.
The velocity indicated is for dry air at 70F., 29.9" Barometric
Pressure and a resulting density of .075#/ cu. ft. For air at a temperature other than 70F. refer to the curves below. For other
variations from these conditions, corrections may be based
upon the following data:

Air Velocity = 1096.2 Pv


D
where Pv = velocity pressure in inches of water
D = Air density in #/cu. ft.
Air Density = 1.325 x PB
T
where PB= Barometric Pressure in inches of mercury
T = Absolute Temperature (indicated temperature
plus 460)
Flow in cu. ft. per min. = Duct area in square feet x air
velocity in ft. per min.

.35D
.60D
.80D
.92D

13000

140

12000

120

1000

800

11000
600

Air Velocity in Feet Per Minute

10000

400

9000

300

8000

200

100

7000

40
6000

70

5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

.2

.4

.6

.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.2

3.4

3.6

Gage Reading with Pilot Tube (Velocity Pressure) in Inches of Water


REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION OF F.W. DWYER MANUFACTURING CO., MICHIGAN CITY, INDIANA

17

3.8

4.0

CHAPTER 2 FAN LAWS & BLOWER


APPLICATION ENGINEERING

RPM
"R"

Volume
"V"

For blower wheel with eight segments, Theoretical Flow = 8 x V x R


Combustion air blowers are normally rated in terms of standard cubic feet (scf) of air; that is, 70F air at Sea Level
(29.92" Hg) barometric pressure. Density of this air is 0.075
lb/cu ft, and its specific gravity is 1.0.
Although fuel/air ratios are usually stated in cubic feet of air
per cubic foot or gallon of fuel, its the weight of air per
weight of fuel thats important. As long as air temperature and
pressure are close to standard conditions, blower and burner
sizing charts can be used without correction. However, if air
temperature, gauge pressure or altitude change the density of
air by any significant amount, blower ratings have to be corrected from actual cubic feet (acf) to standard cubic feet to
insure the proper weight flow of air reaches the burner.
Centrifugal fans are basically constant volume devices; at a
given rotational speed, they will deliver the same volume of
air regardless of its density.

If, for example, a blower has a wheel made up of eight segments, each with a volume V, and the wheel is rotating at R
rpm, the theoretical flow rating of the blower will be 8 x V x
R, because each fan wheel segment fills with air and empties
itself once each revolution.
The actual volume delivered is strictly a function of the carrying capacity of the wheel and its speed. Cfm, whether it is
standard (scfm) or actual (acfm) is the same. Consequently, if
the density of air is reduced by temperature, pressure, or both,
the blower will deliver a lower weight flow of air, even
though the measured volume hasnt changed.
Air density also affects the pressure developed by the blower
and its power consumption. Because air density is related to
temperature, pressure, and altitude (barometric pressure) see
pages 20 and 21 it is possible to relate blower performance to
these factors with a set of realtionships known as fan laws.

18

FAN LAWS
1. Effect of Blower Speed on Flow, Pressure and Power
Consumption
a. Flow vs. Speed: The flow rate (V) changes in direct
ratio to the speed (S)
V2 = S2
V1
S1
Example: A blower operating at 1750 rpm (S1) delivers 1000 cfm (V1). How many cfm (V2) will it deliver
if speed is increased to 3500 rpm (S2)?
V2 = V1 x S2 = 1000 x 3500 = 2000 cfm
S1
1750
b. Pressure vs. Speed: The pressure (P) changes as the
square of the speed ratio (S)
P2 = S2 2
P1
S1
Example: A blower operating at 1750 rpm (S1) develops
1 psig (P1) pressure. If speed is doubled to 3500
rpm (S2), what is the new pressure (P2)?
2
2
P2 = P1 x S2 = 1 x 3500
S1
1750

( )

( )

2. Effect of Air Density on Flow, Pressure, and Power


Consumption.
a. Volume Flow vs. Density
Volume flow (cfm) remains constant regardless of density.
b. Weight Flow vs. Density: Weight flow (W) changes
in direct ratio to the density (D) or specific gravity (G)
W2
D
G
= 2 = 2
W1
D1 G1
Example: A blower delivers 1500 lb/hr (20,000 cu ft/hr)
(W1) of air at standard conditions (density D1 = 0.075
lb/cu ft). What will be the weight flow delivered if the air
temperature is 250F?
From page 21, air density (D 2) at 250F is .056 lb/cu ft.
W2 = W1 x D2 = 1500 x .056 = 1120 lb/hr.
D1
.075
c. Pressure vs. Density: Pressure (P) changes in direct
proportion to density (D) or specific gravity (G).
P2 = D2 = G2
P1
D1
G1
Example: At sea level conditions (G1 = 1.0), a blower
develops 28" w.c. pressure (P1). What pressure (P2) will it
develop at 4000 ft. altitude?
From page 20, air gravity (G 2) at 4000 ft is 0.86.
P2 = P1 x G2 = 28 x .86 = 24.1" w.c.
G1
1.0
d. Horsepower vs. Density: Horsepower (HP) consumed
changes in direct proportion to density (D) or specific
gravity (G).
HP2 = D2 = G2
HP1
D1
G1
Example: A standard air (G1) blower requires a 10 hp
(HP1) motor. What horsepower (HP2) is required if this
blower is to handle a gas of 0.5 specific gravity (G2)?
The gravity of standard air is 1.0, so
HP2 = HP1 x G2 = 10 x 0.5 = 5 hp
G1
1.0

= 1 x (2)2 = 1 x 4 = 4 psig
c. Horsepower vs. Speed: The horsepower (HP) consumed changes as the cube of the speed ratio (S)
HP2
S 3
= 2
HP1
S1
Example: A blower operating at 1750 rpm (S1) requires
a 5 hp (HP1) motor. How many horsepower (HP2) will
be required to handle a speed increase to 3500 rpm (S2)?
S 3
3500 3
HP2 = HP1 2 = 5 x
S1
1750

( )

( )

( )

= 5 x (2)3 = 5 x 8 = 40 hp
Laws 1a, 1b and 1c are known as the 1-2-3 rule of centrifugal blowers. Volume increases in direct ratio, pressure as the
square, and horsepower as the cube, of the speed ratio.
Re-rating blowers for nonstandard conditions
As fan laws 2b, 2c, and 2d show, blower weight flow,
pressure, and horsepower all change in direct proportion to
air density or gravity. While these relationships are important to know, its usually more important to know how to
select a blower to compensate for nonstandard conditions.
The following example shows how it is done.
Example: A burner is rated a 1 million Btu/hr. at an air pressure of 20"w.c., including piping and control valve drops. If
the burner is to be installed at 6000 feet altitude, select a
blower that will permit the burners input rating to be maintained.
Solution: Use the rule-of-thumb of 100 Btu per standard
cubic foot of air to estimate blower flow requirements:
1,000,000 Btu/hr 100 Btu/scf air = 10,000 scfh air.
This is the blowers standard (sea level) rating.
At 6,000 feet, the specific gravity of air is 0.80 (see page 20).
To maintain a weight flow of air through the burner
equivalent to 10,000 scfh, the volume flow through the
burner has to be increased to offset the airs lower density.

V2 = V1 x G1 = 10,000 cfh x 1.00 = 12,500 cfh


G2
0.80
In other words, 12,500 cfh air at 6000 feet has the same
weight as 10,000 cfh at sea level.
The pressure required now will be adjusted for the new air
flow, taking into account the lower density of the air.
2
V2 2 = G1
P2 = P1 x V2
V1
V1
G2

( )

P2 = P1 x

( )

G1 = 20"w.c. x 1.00 = 25"w.c.


G2
0.80
Because the pressure generated by the blower decreases
with air density, the sea level pressure rating has to be higher
to compensate for the loss of outlet pressure at higher altitudes.
P1 = P2 x G1 = 25"w.c. x 1.00 = 31.25"w.c.
G2
0.80
Therefore, the blower must be capable of delivery at least
12,500 cfh at 31.25"w.c. at sea level to satisfy the needs of
the burner at 6000 feet altitude.
19

Blower horsepower requirements


Blower horsepower increases with the air flow delivered
and the pressure developed. The four equations below can be
used to predict blower horsepower consumption. They differ
only in the flow and pressure units used. The term efficiency is the overall blower efficiency a composite of fan,
motor and drive train efficiencies expressed as a decimal.
scfm x "w.c.
scfm x osi
hp = 6356
hp = 3670
x efficiency
x efficiency

Blowers used as suction fans


When a blower is used as a suction device discharging to
atmosphere, the amount of suction or vacuum developed can
be calculated from this relationship:

P2 x 27.7, where
B+P
V = suction or vacuum, " w.c.
P = Absolute atmospheric pressure, psia, at the location where
the blower is operated
B = Rated blower discharge pressure, psig (psig = " w.c. 27.7)
Example: A blower with a catalog pressure rating of 21" w.c.
is used as a suction fan on an installation at 1500 ft altitude.
How much suction will it develop?
P at 1500 ft = 13.9 psia (from table below)
B = 21 27.7 = .76 psig
2
V = 13.9 - (13.9)
x 27.7 = 20 "w.c.
.76 + 13.9

V= P

scfh x "w.c.
scfh x osi
hp = 381,360
x efficiency hp = 220,200 x efficiency

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON AIR

THE EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON AIR

Basis: 70F dry air at sea level


(29.92" Hg) barometric pressure

Basis: 70F dry air at sea level


(29.92" Hg) barometric pressure

Gauge
Pressure,
PSIG

Absolute
Pressure,
PSIA

Density
Lb./Cu. Ft.

Specific
Gravity

Specific
Volume
Cu. Ft./Lb.

Altitude
Ft.

Barometric
"Hg

Pressure,
PSIA

Density
Lb./Cu. Ft.

0
1
2

14.7
15.7
16.7

0.07500
0.08010
0.08520

1.000
1.068
1.136

13.33
12.48
11.74

0
500
1000

29.92
29.38
28.86

14.7
14.4
14.2

.07500
.07365
.07234

1.00
.98
.96

13.33
13.58
13.82

3
4
5

17.7
18.7
19.7

0.09031
0.09541
0.10051

1.204
1.272
1.340

11.07
10.48
9.95

1500
2000
2500

28.33
27.82
27.31

13.9
13.7
13.4

.07101
.06974
.06846`

.95
.93
.91

14.08
14.34
14.61

10
15
20

24.7
29.7
34.7

0.12602
0.15153
0.17704

1.680
2.020
2.361

7.94
6.60
5.65

3000
3500
4000

26.81
26.32
25.84

13.2
12.9
12.7

.06720
.06598
.06477

.90
.88
.86

14.88
15.16
15.44

25
30
35

39.7
44.7
49.7

0.20255
0.22806
0.25357

2.701
3.041
3.381

4.94
4.38
3.94

4500
5000
5500

25.36
24.89
24.43

12.5
12.2
12.0

.06357
.06239
.06124

.85
.83
.82

15.73
16.03
16.33

40
45
50

54.7
59.7
64.7

0.27908
0.30459
0.33010

3.721
4.061
4.401

3.58
3.28
3.03

6000
6500
7000

23.98
23.53
23.09

11.8
11.6
11.3

.06011
.05898
.05788

.80
.79
.77

16.64
16.95
17.28

60
70
80

74.7
84.7
94.7

0.38112
0.43214
0.48316

5.082
5.762
6.442

2.62
2.31
2.07

7500
8000
8500

22.65
22.22
21.80

11.1
10.9
10.7

.05678
.05570
.05465

.76
.74
.73

17.61
17.95
18.30

90
100
125

104.7
114.7
139.7

0.53418
0.58520
0.71276

7.122
7.802
9.503

1.87
1.71
1.40

9000
9500
10000

21.38
20.98
20.58

10.5
10.3
10.1

.05359
.05259
.05159

.71
.70
.69

18.66
19.01
19.38

150
175
200

164.7
189.7
214.7

0.84031
0.96786
1.09541

11.204
12.905
14.605

1.19
1.03
0.91

15000
20000

16.88
13.75

8.29
6.76

.04231
.03447

.56
.46

23.63
29.01

250
300
400

264.7
314.7
414.7

1.35051
1.60561
2.11582

18.007
21.408
28.211

0.74
0.62
0.47

500

514.7

2.62602

35.014

0.38

Helpful conversions:
Altitude in meters x 3.28 = Altitutde in feet
Barometric pressure in "Hg 2.036 = Barometric pressure
in psia.

20

Specific
Specific Volume
Gravity Cu. Ft./Lb.

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON AIR


Basis: 70F dry air at sea level (29.92" Hg) barometric pressure
Explanation of terms:
Absolute Temperature Ratio: Temperature, F + 460
530
Specific Gravity: Density at stated temperature
.07500
Specific Volume:

1
Density, lb/cu. ft.

Temp.
F

Absolute
Temp.
Ratio

Density
Lb./Cu. Ft.

Specific
Gravity

Specific
Volume
Cu. Ft./Lb.

Absolute
Temp.
Ratio

Density
Lb./Cu. Ft.

Specific
Gravity

Specific
Volume
Cu. Ft./Lb.

-60
-40
-30

.7547
.7925
.8113

.09938
.09464
.09244

1.325
1.262
1.233

10.06
10.57
10.82

520
530
540

1.849
1.868
1.887

.04056
.04015
.03975

.541
.535
.530

24.65
24.91
25.16

-20
-10
0

.8302
.8491
.8679

.09034
.08833
.08641

1.205
1.178
1.152

11.07
11.32
11.57

550
560
570

1.906
1.925
1.943

.03936
.03897
.03859

.525
.520
.515

25.41
25.66
25.91

20
40
60

.9057
1.019
.9811

.08281
.07361
.07644

1.104
.981
1.019

12.08
13.58
13.08

580
590
600

1.962
1.981
2.000

.03822
.03786
.03750

.510
.505
.500

26.16
26.42
26.67

70
80
90

1.000
.9434
1.038

.07500
.07361
.07227

1.000
1.060
.964

13.33
12.58
13.84

610
620
630

2.019
2.038
2.057

.03715
.03681
.03647

.495
.491
.486

26.92
27.17
27.42

100
110
120

1.057
1.075
1.094

.07098
.06974
.06853

.946
.930
.914

14.09
14.34
14.59

640
650
660

2.075
2.094
2.113

.03614
.03581
.03549

.482
.477
.473

27.67
27.92
28.18

130
140
150

1.113
1.132
1.151

.06737
.06624
.06516

.898
.883
.869

14.84
15.09
15.35

670
680
690

2.132
2.151
2.170

.03518
.03487
.03457

.469
.465
.461

28.43
28.68
28.93

160
170
180

1.170
1.189
1.208

.06411
.06310
.06211

.855
.841
.828

15.60
15.85
16.10

700
710
720

2.189
2.208
2.226

.03427
.03397
.03369

.457
.453
.449

29.18
29.43
29.69

190
200
210

1.226
1.245
1.264

.06115
.06023
.05933

.815
.803
.791

16.35
16.60
16.86

730
740
750

2.245
2.264
2.283

.03340
.03313
.03285

.445
.442
.438

29.94
30.19
30.44

220
230
240

1.283
1.302
1.321

.05846
.05761
.05679

.779
.768
.757

17.11
17.36
17.61

760
770
780

2.302
2.321
2.340

.03258
.03232
.03206

.434
.431
.427

30.69
30.94
31.19

250
260
270

1.340
1.358
1.377

.05599
.05521
.05445

.747
.736
.726

17.86
18.11
18.36

790
800
825

2.358
2.377
2.425

.03180
.03155
.03093

.424
.421
.412

31.45
31.70
32.33

280
290
300

1.396
1.415
1.434

.05372
.05300
.05230

.716
.707
.697

18.62
18.87
19.12

850
875
900

2.472
2.519
2.566

.03034
.02978
.02923

.405
.397
.390

32.96
33.58
34.21

310
320
330

1.453
1.472
1.491

.05162
.05096
.05032

.688
.679
.671

19.37
19.62
19.87

925
950
975

2.613
2.660
2.708

.02870
.02819
.02770

.383
.376
.369

34.84
35.47
36.10

340
350
360

1.509
1.528
1.547

.04969
.04907
.04848

.663
.654
.646

20.13
20.38
20.63

1000
1025
1050

2.755
2.802
2.849

.02723
.02677
.02623

.363
.357
.350

36.73
37.36
37.99

370
380
390

1.566
1.585
1.604

.04789
.04732
.04676

.639
.631
.623

20.88
21.13
21.38

1100
1150
1200

2.943
3.033
3.132

.02548
.02469
.02395

.340
.329
.319

39.25
40.50
41.76

400
410
420

1.623
1.642
1.660

.04622
.04569
.04517

.616
.609
.602

21.64
21.89
22.14

1250
1300
1350

3.226
3.321
3.415

.02325
.02259
.02196

.310
.301
.293

43.02
44.28
45.53

430
440
450

1.679
1.698
1.717

.04466
.04417
.04368

.595
.589
.582

22.39
22.64
22.89

1400
1500
1600

3.509
3.698
3.887

.02137
.02028
.01930

.285
.270
.257

46.79
49.31
51.81

460
470
480

1.736
1.755
1.774

.04321
.04274
.04229

.576
.570
.564

23.14
23.40
23.65

1700
1800
1900

4.075
4.264
4.453

.01840
.01759
.01684

.245
.235
.225

54.35
56.85
59.38

490
500
510

1.792
1.811
1.830

.04184
.04141
.04098

.558
.552
.546

23.90
24.15
24.40

2000
2100
2200

4.642
4.830
5.019

.01616
.01553
.01494

.215
.207
.199

61.88
64.39
66.93

Temp.
F

21

CHAPTER 3 GAS
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL FUEL GASES
Constituents % by Volume
No. Gas

CH4

C2H6

C3H8

Density,
Lb per
Cu Ft

Specific
Volume
Cu Ft/Lb

CO

H2

CO2

O2

N2

Specific
Gravity

(100% C2H2)

27.5
93

(100% C4H8)

11.5

60

0.91
1.02
1.95
1.94

.07
.078
.149
.148

14.4
12.8
6.71
6.74

40.5
46.5

3
2.2
25

0.5
0.8

2.9
8.1

0.97
0.63
0.44
0.80

.074
.048
.034
.062

13.5
20.8
29.7
16.3

C4H10

1
2
3
4

Acetylene
Blast Furnace Gas
Butane (natural gas)
Butylene (Butene)

5
6
7
8

Carbon Monoxide
Carburetted Water Gas
Coke Oven Gas
Digester (Sewage) Gas

10.2
32.1
67

9
10
11
12

Ethane
Hydrogen
Methane
Natural (Birmingham, AL)

100
90

100

100

1.05
0.07
0.55
0.60

.080
.0054
.042
.046

12.5
186.9
23.8
21.8

13
14
15
16

Natural (Pittsburgh, PA)


Natural (Los Angeles, CA)
Natural (Kansas City, MO)
Natural (Groningen,
Netherlands)

83.4
77.5
84.1
81.3

15.8
16.0
6.7
2.9

0.4

0.1

6.5
0.8
0.9

0.8

8.4
14.4

0.61
0.70
0.63
0.64

.047
.054
.048
.048

21.4
18.7
20.8
20.7

17 Natural (Midlands Grid, U.K.) 91.8


18 Producer (Wellman-Galusha) 2.3

3.5

0.8

0.3

25

14.5

0.4
4.7

2.8
52.7

0.61
0.84

.046
.065

21.8
15.4

5.5

0.5
0.9

1
27.6

1.52
1.45
0.42
0.71

.116
.111
.032
.054

8.61
9.02
31.3
18.7

19
20
21
22

Propane (natural gas)


Propylene (Propene)
Sasol (South Africa)
Water Gas (bituminous)

26
4.6

100
(6.1% C2H4, 2.8% C6H6)
34
(3.5% C2H4, 0.5% C6H6) 6.3

(8% H2O)

100

(100% C3H6)

22
(0.4% C2H4, 0.3% C6H6) 28.2

48
32.5

COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL FUEL GASES


Air/Gas Ratio, Flammability Limits, Ignition Temperature & Flame Velocity

No. Gas
1
2
3
4

Acetylene
Blast Furnace Gas
Butane (natural gas)
Butylene (Butene)

5
6
7
8

Carbon Monoxide
Carburetted Water Gas
Coke Oven Gas
Digester (Sewage) Gas

Stoichiometric
Air/Gas Ratio
Cu Ft Air/ Lb Air/
Cu Ft Gas Lb Gas

Limits of
Flammability
% Gas in
Air/Gas Mixture
Lean
Rich

Minimum
Maximum
Ignition
Flame Velocity
Temperature
in Air,
in Air, F
Ft/Sec*

11.91
0.68
30.47
28.59

13.26
0.67
15.63
14.77

2.5
45
1.86
1.7

80
72
8.41
9

581

826
829

9.4

2.8
3.2

2.38
4.60
4.99
6.41

2.46
7.36
11.27
7.97

12
4.2
4.5
8

74
42.9
31.5
17

1128

2.0

2.8
16.0
2.2

9
10
11
12

Ethane
Hydrogen
Methane
Natural (Birmingham, AL)

16.68
2.38
9.53
9.41

15.98
33.79
17.23
15.68

3.15
4
5
7.03

12.8
74.2
15
15.77

882
1065
1170

13
14
15
16

Natural (Pittsburgh, PA)


Natural (Los Angeles, CA)
Natural (Kansas City, MO)
Natural (Groningen,
Netherlands)

10.58
10.05
9.13
8.41

17.31
14.26
14.59
13.45

4.6
4.9
5.4
6.1

14.7
15.6
16.3
15

1238

1.18

17 Natural (Midlands Grid, U.K.) 9.8


18 Producer (Wellman-Galusha) 1.30

16.13
1.56

5
16.4

15
69.4

1300

0.98

19
20
21
22

15.73
14.77
9.84
2.86

9.50
11.1
37.4
61

898
856

2.7
3.3

Propane (natural gas)


Propylene (Propene)
Sasol (South Africa)
Water Gas (bituminous)

23.82
21.44
4.13
2.01

2.37
2
5.3
8.9

*Uniform flame speed in a 1" diameter tube. Flame speeds increase in larger diameter tubes.

22

COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL FUEL GASES


Heating Value, Heat Release & Flame Temperature
Heating Value
Btu/cu ft
Gross
Net

No. Gas
1
2
3
4

Acetylene
Blast Furnace Gas
Butane (natural gas)
Butylene (Butene)

5
6
7
8

Carbon Monoxide
Carburetted Water Gas
Coke Oven Gas
Digester (Sewage) Gas

Gross

Btu/lb
Net

Heat release, Btu


Per Cu Ft Air

Per Lb Air

Theoretical
Flame
Temperature
F

1498
92
3225
3077

1447
92
2977
2876

21,569
1178
21,640
20,780

20,837
1178
19,976
19,420

125.8
135.3
105.8
107.6

1677
1804
1411
1435

4250
2650
3640
3810

323
550
574
690

323
508
514
621

4368
11,440
17,048
11,316

4368
10,566
15,266
10,184

135.7
119.6
115.0
107.6

1809
1595
1533
1407

3960
3725
3610
3550

9
10
11
12

Ethane
Hydrogen
Methane
Natural (Birmingham, AL)

1783
325
1011
1002

1630
275
910
904

22,198
61,084
23,811
21,844

20,295
51,628
21,433
19,707

106.9
136.6
106.1
106.5

1425
1821
1415
1420

3710
3960
3640
3565

13
14
15
16

Natural (Pittsburgh, PA)


Natural (Los Angeles, CA)
Natural (Kansas City, MO)
Natural (Groningen,
Netherlands)

1129
1073
974
941

1021
971
879
849

24,161
20,065
20,259
19,599

21,849
18,158
18,283
17,678

106.7
106.8
106.7
111.9

1423
1424
1423
1492

3562
3550
3535
3380

17 Natural (Midlands Grid, U.K.)


18 Producer (Wellman-Galusha)

1035
167

902
156

22,500
2650

19,609
2476

105.6
128.5

1408
1713

3450
3200

19
20
21
22

2572
2322
500
261

2365
2181
443
239

21,500
20,990
14,550
4881

19,770
19,630
13,016
4469

108
108.8
116.3
129.9

1440
1451
1551
1732

3660
3830
3452
3510

Propane (natural gas)


Propylene (Propene)
Sasol (South Africa)
Water Gas (bituminous)

COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL FUEL GASES


Combustion Products & %CO2
Combustion Products, Cu Ft/Cu Ft Gas
CO2

H2O

N2

Total

CO2

H2O

N2

Total

Ultimate
CO2
%*

1 Acetylene
2 Blast Furnace Gas

2.00
0.39

1.00
0.02

9.41
1.14

12.41
1.54

3.38
.59

0.69

10.19
1.08

14.26
1.67

17.5
25.5

3 Butane (natural gas)


4 Butylene (Butene)
5 Carbon Monoxide

3.93
4.00
1.00

4.93
4.00

24.07
22.59
1.88

32.93
30.59
2.88

3.09
3.14
1.57

1.59
1.29

11.95
11.34
1.89

16.63
15.77
3.46

14.0
15.0
34.7

0.76
0.51
0.92
2.00

0.87
1.25
1.42
3.00
1.00

3.66
4.02
5.44
13.18
1.88

5.29
5.78
7.78
18.18
2.88

1.85
1.76
1.74
2.93

0.87
1.76
1.10
1.8
8.89

5.64
8.75
6.53
12.25
25.90

8.36
12.27
9.37
16.98
34.79

17.2
11.2
14.5
13.2|
0

11 Methane
12 Natural (Birmingham, AL)

1.00
1.00

2.00
2.02

7.53
7.48

10.53
10.50

2.75
2.54

2.25
2.11

13.23
12.03

18.23
16.68

11.7
11.8

13
14
15
16

1.15
1.16
0.98
0.89

2.22
2.10
1.95
1.73

8.37
7.94
7.30
6.74

11.73
11.20
10.23
9.36

2.86
2.51
2.39
2.17

2.27
1.87
1.95
1.73

13.18
10.88
11.25
10.45

18.31
15.26
15.59
14.35

12.1
12.7
11.9
11.7

17 Natural (Midlands Grid, U.K.) 1.05


18 Producer (Wellman-Galusha) 0.34

2.19
0.17

7.94
1.59

11.78
2.11

2.67
0.61

2.29
0.13

12.84
1.82

17.80
2.56

11.7
17.6

19
20
21
22

4.17
3.00
1.00
0.47

18.82
16.94
3.28
1.86

25.99
22.94
4.76
2.74

3.00
3.14
1.76
0.89

1.70
1.29
1.50
0.42

12.03
11.34
7.63
2.55

16.73
15.77
10.89
3.86

13.7
15.0
12.8
18.0

No. Gas

6
7
8
9
10

Carburetted Water Gas


Coke Oven Gas
Digester (Sewage) Gas
Ethane
Hydrogen

Natural (Pittsburgh, PA)


Natural (Los Angeles, CA)
Natural (Kansas City, MO)
Natural (Groningen,
Netherlands)

Propane (natural gas)


Propylene (Propene)
Sasol (South Africa)
Water Gas (bituminous)

3.00
3.00
0.48
0.41

*In dry flue gas sample

23

Combustion Products, Lb/Lb Gas

PROPANE/AIR & BUTANE/AIR MIXTURES


EQUIVALENT BTU TABLES
PROPANE/AIR MIXTURE

B.t.u.
Content

Kind of Gas

Carbureted Water Gas . . . . . . . . . .517


Mixed Water and Coke Oven . . . . . .530
Coke Oven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .590
Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .900
Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1050
Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1140

BUTANE/AIR MIXTURE

Specific
Gravity

Equivalent
PropaneAir
Mixture
B.t.u.

Specific
Gravity

.65
.46
.42
.56
.60
.65

690
855
1000
1100
1400
1560

1.14
1.17
1.20
1.23
1.28
1.32

B.t.u.
Content

Kind of Gas

Carbureted Water Gas . . . . . . . . . .517


Mixed Water and Coke Oven . . . . . .530
Coke Oven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .590
Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .900
Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1050
Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1140

Specific
Gravity

Equivalent
ButaneAir
Mixture
B.t.u.

Specific
Gravity

.65
.46
.42
.56
.60
.65

708
870
1058
1380
1550
1680

1.20
1.25
1.31
1.41
1.46
1.50

NOTE: The B.t.u. content and specific gravity figures are representative figures and will vary according to area. Therefore, these tables should be used as a guide only.

MIXTURE SPECIFICATIONS

PROPANE/AIR MIXTURES
B.t.u. per
Cubic Foot
of MIxture

Percentage
of Propane
by Volume

Percentage
of Air by
Volume

Percentage
of Oxygen by
Volume (Orsat)

3200
3150
3100
3050
3000

2950
2900
2850
2800
2750

BUTANE/AIR MIXTURES

Specific
Gravity of
the MIxture

Percentage
of Butane
by Volume

Percentage
of Air by
Volume

Percentage
of Oxygen by
Volume (Orsat)

Specific
Gravity of
the Mixture

100.00
98.44
96.88
95.32
93.75

0.00
1.56
3.12
4.68
6.25

0.000
0.328
0.656
0.984
1.312

1.950
1.935
1.920
1.905
1.891

92.20
90.62
89.08
87.51
85.95

7.80
9.38
10.92
12.49
14.05

1.643
1.967
2.297
2.625
2.953

1.875
1.861
1.846
1.831
1.817

2700
2650
2600
2550
2500

100.00
98.04

0.00
1.96

0.000
0.409

1.523
1.513

84.38
82.82
81.25
79.70
78.18

15.62
17.18
18.75
20.30
21.82

3.280
3.612
3.935
4.268
4.590

1.802
1.786
1.771
1.755
1.744

2450
2400
2350
2300
2250

96.08
94.12
92.16
90.19
88.24

3.92
5.88
7.84
9.81
11.76

0.819
1.288
1.639
2.050
2.458

1.502
1.492
1.482
1.472
1.461

76.58
75.00
73.44
71.86
70.30

23.42
25.00
26.56
28.14
29.70

4.921
5.249
5.576
5.899
6.238

1.728
1.712
1.698
1.683
1.668

2200
2150
2100
2050
2000

86.27
84.31
82.35
80.39
78.43

13.73
15.69
17.65
19.61
21.56

2.869
3.279
3.688
4.098
4.506

1.451
1.441
1.431
1.420
1.410

68.79
67.20
65.63
64.09
62.52

31.21
32.80
34.37
35.91
37.48

6.561
6.889
7.219
7.548
7.869

1.653
1.638
1.623
1.608
1.593

1950
1900
1850
1800
1750

76.47
74.51
72.55
70.58
68.62

23.53
25.49
27.45
29.42
31.38

4.918
5.317
5.737
6.149
6.558

1.400
1.390
1.379
1.369
1.359

60.96
59.38
57.87
56.25
54.69

39.04
40.62
42.13
43.75
45.31

8.200
8.542
8.868
9.162
9.500

1.579
1.564
1.550
1.535
1.520

1700
1650
1600
1550
1500

66.67
64.70
62.74
60.78
58.82

33.33
35.30
37.26
39.22
41.18

6.964
7.378
7.787
8.197
8.606

1349
1.338
1.328
1.318
1.308

53.17
51.60
50.00
48.50
46.92

46.83
48.40
50.00
51.50
53.08

9.850
10.180
10.488
10.817
11.130

1.505
1.490
1.475
1.461
1.446

1450
1400
1350
1300
1250

56.86
54.90
52.94
50.98
49.02

43.14
45.10
47.06
49.02
50.98

9.016
9.246
9.835
10.245
10.654

1.297
1.287
1.277
1.267
1.256

45.35
43.75
42.22
40.60
39.09

54.65
56.25
57.78
59.40
60.91

11.490
11.810
12.130
12.481
12.795

1.431
1.416
1.401
1.386
1.371

1200
1150
1100
1050
1000

47.06
45.09
43.13
41.17
39.21

52.94
54.91
56.87
58.83
60.79

11.064
11.476
11.886
12.295
12.705

1246
1.236
1.226
1.215
1.205

37.50
35.92
34.38
32.80
31.25

62.50
64.08
65.62
67.21
68.75

13.137
13.462
13.787
14.100
14.412

1.356
1.340
1.326
1.312
1.296

950
900
850
800
750

37.25
35.29
33.33
31.37
29.41

62.75
64.71
66.67
68.63
70.59

13.115
13.524
13.934
14.344
14.753

1.195
1.185
1.174
1.164
1.154

29.75
28.20
26.55
25.00
23.50

70.25
71.80
73.45
75.00
76.50

14.775
15.100
15.425
15.712
16.081

1.282
1.266
1.252
1.237
1.223

700
650
600
550
500

27.45
25.49
23.53
21.56
19.61

72.55
74.51
76.47
78.44
80.39

15.163
15.573
15.982
16.394
16.892

1.114
1.133
1.123
1.113
1.103

21.88
20.38
18.75
17.25
15.63

78.12
79.62
81.25
82.75
84.37

16.400
16.750
17.081
17.412
17.712

1.206
1.194
1.178
1.163
1.148

450
400
350
300
250

17.65
15.69
13.73
11.76
9.80

82.35
84.31
86.27
88.24
90.20

17.211
17.621
18.031
18.442
18.852

1.092
1.082
1.072
1.062
1.051

14.13
12.50
11.00
9.38
7.75

85.87
87.50
89.00
90.62
92.25

18.081
18.375
18.687
19.031
19.313

1.135
1.120
1.105
1.089
1.074

200
150
100

7.84
5.88
3.92

92.16
94.12
96.08

19.261
19.670
20.081

1.041
1.031
1.021

6.25
4.75
3.13

93.75
95.25
96.87

19.687
20.000
20.342

1.059
1.045
1.029

24

CHAPTER 4 OIL
FUEL OIL SPECIFICATIONS PER ANSI/ASTM D 396-79A

Grade of
Fuel Oil

Carbon
Residue
Water on
Flash Pour and 10%
Point, Point, Sedi- Bot- Ash,
C
C ment, toms, weight
(F) (F) vol % %
%
Min Max Max Max Max

No. 1
38
A distillate oil (100)
intended for
vaporizing pottype burners and
other burners
requiring this
grade of fuel

-18C
(0)

0.05

0.15

No. 2

-6C

0.05

0.35

38

A distillate oil for(100) (20)


general purpose
heating for use in
burners not
requiring No. 1
fuel oil

Distillation
Temperatures,
C(F)
10%
Point 90% Point
Max Min Max
215
(420)

288
(550)

282C

338

(32.6) (37.9)

1.4

2.2

1.3

2.1

0.8499 No. 3 0.5


(35 min)

2.0C

3.6

1.9C

3.4

0.8762 No. 3 0.5B


(30 min)

0.50

0.10

No. 5 (Light) 55

Preheating may(130)
be required
depending on
climate and
equipment

1.00

0.10

No. 5 (Heavy) 55

Preheating may(130)
be required
for burning and,
in cold climates,
may be required
for handling

1.00

0.10

2.00E

At 40C
(104F)
Min Max

(540) (640)

No. 4
55
-6C
Preheating not(130) (20)
usually required
for handling
or burning

No. 6
60
Preheating (140)
required for
burning and
handling

Universal at Furol at 50C At 38C


38C(100F)
122F)
(100F)
Min Max Min Max
Min Max

Specific CopGravity per


60/60F Strip SulAt 50C
(deg Corro- fur,
(122F)
API)
sion %
Min Max Max Max Max

Kinematic Viscosity, cStD

Saybolt Viscosity, sD

(45)

(125)

(>125) (300)

(>300) (900) (23)

(>900) (9000) (>45) (300)

(40)

5.8

26.4F

>26.4 65F

5.5

24.0F

>24.0

58F

(42)

(81)

>92 638F

>65

194F

>58

168F

A
It is the intent of these classifications that failure to meet any requirement of a given grade does not automatically place an oil in the next lower
grade unless in fact it meets all requirements of the lower grade.
B
In countries outside the United States other sulfur limits may apply.
C
Lower or higher pour points may be specified whenever required by conditions of storage or use. When pour point less than -18C (0F) is
specified, the minimum viscosity for grade No. 2 shall be 1.7 cSt (31.5 SUS) and the minimum 90% point shall be waived.
D
Viscosity values in parentheses are for information only and not necessarily limiting.
E
The amount of water by distillation plus the sediment by extraction shall not exceed 2.00%. The amount of sediment by extraction shall not
exceed 0.50%. A deduction in quanity shall be made for all water and sediment in excess of 1.0%.
F
Where low sulfur fuel oil is required, fuel oil failing in the viscosity range of a lower numbered grade down to and including No. 4 may be supplied by agreement between purchaser and supplier. The viscosity range of the initial shipment shall be identified and advance notice shall be
required when changing from one viscosity range to another. This notice shall be in sufficient time to permit the user to make the necessary
adjustments.
G
Where low sulfur fuel oil is required. Grade 6 fuel oil will be classified as low pour + 15C (60F) max or high pour (no max). Low pour fuel oil
should be used unless all tanks and lines are heated.

COPYRIGHT ASTM REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

25

TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL FUEL OILS IN THE U.S.


Grade of
Fuel Oil

Flash Point, F

Pour Point, F

Water, Vol. %

Carbon Residue,
Wt. %

Ash, Wt. %

1
2
4*
5 (Light)*
5 (Heavy)*
6

106 to 174
120 to 250
150 to 276
154 to 250
136 to 300+
140 to 250

-85 to -10
-60 to +35
-40 to +80
-15 to +55
-17 to +90
0 to +110

0.050 max.
0.060 max.
0.3 max.
0.08 to 0.6
0.4 max.
0.300 max.

0.200 max.
0.820 max.
0.19 to 7.6
2.10 to 13.6
1.55 to 9.6
1.02 to 15.80

0.07 max.
0.001 to 0.08
0.001 to 0.16
0.001 to 0.630

Grade of
Fuel Oil

Viscosity,
SSU @ 100F

Specific Gravity
60/60F

Gravity, API

Sulfur, Wt %

Gross Heating
Value, Btu/gallon

1
2
4*
5 (Light)*
5 (Heavy)*
6

37 max.
42 max.
35 to 160
80 to 700
240 to 1300
240 to 6100

0.79 to 0.85
0.80 to 0.92
0.85 to 0.99
0.89 to 1.01
0.91 to 1.02
0.92 to 1.09

47.9 to 34.8
45.3 to 21.9
34.6 to 12.1
28.2 to 8.5
23.4 to 7.5
22.0 to -1.5

0 to 0.47
0.04 to 0.5
0.18 to 1.81
0.58 to 3.48
0.6 to 2.54
0.17 to 3.52

131,100 to 138,700
132,600 to 147,400
140,400 to 151,700
142,700 to 156,400
144,800 to 153,600
146,700 to 162,000

The above data are summarized from Heating Oils, 1984, published by the American Petroleum Institute and U.S.
Dept. of Energy. The ranges in the tables represent the extreme maximums and minimums for the oil samples
included in the survey.
*1975-1976 data. No data available for these grades in 1983-1984.
FUEL OIL VISCOSITY CONVERSIONS

10,000
8
6
4
3

SR

1000
8
6

10

14

SS

12
2

4
3

SS

Kinematic Viscosity, SSU @ 100F, SSF @ 122F, SR1 @ 140F, or E

This chart converts four commonly-used fuel oil viscosity


scales to a common base of centistokes
ABBREVIATIONS: SSU = Saybolt Seconds Universal
SSF = Saybolt Seconds Furol
SRI = Seconds Redwood #1
E = Degrees Engler

100
8
6
4
3
2
10
8
6
4
3
2
1

3 4

6 8 10

3 4

6 8 100

3 4

6 8 1000 2

Kinematic Viscosity, Centistokes (CS)

26

API VS. OIL SPECIFIC GRAVITY


& GROSS HEATING VALUE
1.1

-155

Specific Gravity @ 60F

1.0
-150

-145

0.9

-140
0.8
-135

Gr0ss Heating Value, Btu/Gallon x 1000

-160

- 130
0.7
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

API
To determine specific gravity of an oil, find API at the bottom of the graph, read up to the curve, and left to the specific
gravity.
To find gross heating value of an oil, find API at the bottom of the graph, read up to the curve, and right to the heating
value.

For greater accuracy or for gravities not on this chart, use


these equations:
Specific gravity @ 60/60F =
141.5
API + 131.5
Gross Heating Value, Btu/lb
= 17,887 + (57.5 x API) - (102.2 x %S)
where %S is weight % sulfur in the oil.
Gross Heating Value, Btu/gal
= g.h.v., Btu/lb x 8.335 x specific gravity

OIL PIPING PRESSURE LOSSES


35 SSU Distillate Oil

10
Pressure Drop, psi per
100 feet of equivalent
pipe length

These charts show oil pressure drop per 100 equivalent


feet of horizontal schedule 40 steel pipe. To determine total
equivalent length, add equivalent lengths of fittings and
valves (Page 16) to the actual linear feet of pipe.
The charts for 1000 SSU and 10,000 SSU oils are
accompanied by correction factors for oils of other viscosities. To find the pressure drop for an oil not on either of
these charts, simply multiply the drop from the chart by the
appropriate correction factor.
If the entrance and exit ends of the oil line are at different elevations, the static head of the oil must be added to or
subtracted from the calculated piping drop.
Static head, psi = 0.433 x specific gravity of oil x elevation difference, ft.

1/2"

1"

5
1-1/4"

27

3/4"

10
Oil Flow, gpm

15

20

OIL PIPING PRESSURE LOSSES (Contd)


100 SSU Intermediate Oil
Pressure Drop, psi per
100 feet of equivalent
pipe length

10

3/4"

1/2"

1"

1-1/4"
5

1-1/2"
0

10
Oil Flow, gpm

1"

Pressure Drop
Correction Factors
for Other Viscosities

1-1/4"

Pressure Drop, psi per 100 feet


of equivalent pipe length

1-1/2"

Viscosity,
SSU
200
300
400

Correction
Factor
0.2
0.3
0.4

500
600
700

0.5
0.6
0.7

2"

800
900
1200

0.8
0.9
1.2

2-1/2"

1500
2000
2500

1.5
2.0
2.5

15

10

20

1000 SSU Heavy Oil

20

15

10
Oil Flow, gpm

15

20

10,000 SSU Heavy Oil

20
2"

2-1/2"

Pressure Drop, psi per 100 feet


of equivalent pipe length

Pressure Drop
Correction Factors
for Other Viscosities
15
3"

10

4"

10
Oil Flow, gpm

15

20

28

Viscosity,
SSU
2000
3000
4000

Correction
Factor
0.2
0.3
0.4

5000
6000
7000

0.5
0.6
0.7

8000
9000
12000

0.8
0.9
1.2

15000

1.5

OIL PIPING TEMPERATURE LOSSES


This table lists the temperature drop of 220F oil flowing through steel pipe insulated with 1" thick 85% magnesia pipe
insulation. Ambient temperature is assumed to be 60F. For oil temperatures other than 220F, multiply the temperature loss by
the appropriate correction factor.

OIL TEMPERATURE DROP IN F PER FOOT OF PIPE


Oil Flow
GPH
.5
1
2
3
4
5
10
15
20
30
40
60
80
100
200
300

Nominal Pipe Size


1
1-1/4

1/4

3/8

1/2

3/4

10.92
5.46
2.73
1.82
1.365
1.09
.546
.364
.273
.182
.136
.091
.068
.055
.027
.018

12.18
6.09
3.04
2.03
1.52
1.218
.609
.405
.304
.203
.152
.101
.076
.061
.030
.020

13.68
6.84
3.42
2.28
1.71
1.368
.684
.455
.342
.228
.171
.114
.086
.068
.034
.023

15.48
7.74
3.87
2.58
1.933
1.548
.774
.515
.387
.258
.193
.129
.097
.077
.039
.026

17.64
8.82
4.41
2.94
2.205
1.764
.882
.588
.441
.294
.220
.147
.110
.088
.044
.029

20.6
10.3
5.15
3.43
2.58
2.06
1.03
.686
.515
.343
.258
.172
.129
.103
.052
.034

1-1/2

22.50
11.25
5.63
3.75
2.82
2.25
1.125
.750
.563
.375
.282
.187
.141
.113
.056
.038

26.30
13.15
6.57
4.38
3.28
2.63
1.315
.876
.657
.438
.328
.219
.164
.132
.066
.044

OIL TEMPERATURE
CORRECTION FACTORS
Oil
Temperature, F
130
140
150
160
170
180

Oil
Factor Temperature, F Factor
0.44
190
0.81
0.5
200
0.88
0.56
210
0.94
0.63
230
1.06
0.69
240
1.13
0.75
250
1.19

Temperature losses from uninsulated pipe will vary with the


pipe size. For 1/4" pipe, the losses are about 8 times the figures in
the table. For 3" pipe, they are about 6 times the table values.

29

2-1/2

30.00 34.8
15.00 17.4
7.50
8.70
5.00
5.75
3.75
4.35
3.00
3.48
1.50
1.74
1.00
1.16
.750
.870
.500
.575
.375
.435
.250
.290
.188
.218
.150
.174
.075
.087
.050
.058

CHAPTER 5 STEAM & WATER


BOILER TERMINOLOGY AND CONVERSION FACTORS
Boiler horsepower One boiler horsepower
= 33,479 Btu/hr heat to steam
= 34.5 lb/hr of water evaporated
from and at 212F
= 9.8 Kilowatts
Dry Steam Steam which contains no liquid water.
Enthalpy Heat content, Btu/lb, of a liquid or vapor.
Latent heat of vaporization The heat required to convert a
material from its liquid to its vapor phase without raising its
temperature. The latent heat of vaporization of water at 1
atmosphere pressure and 212F is 970.3 Btu/lb.

Quality In a mixture of steam and water, the weight percentage which is present as steam; in other words, the percent
of complete vaporization which has taken place. The quality of
saturated steam is 100%.
Saturated Steam Steam which is at the same temperature as
the water from which it was evaporated.
Wet Steam Steam which contains liquid water. Its quality is
less than 100%.

PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM

Temperature, Pressure, psi


F
Absolute Gauge
32
.089

40
.121

50
.178

60
.256

70
.363

80
.507

90
.698

100
.949

110
1.28

120
1.69

130
2.22

140
2.89
_
150
3.72

160
4.74

170
5.99

180
7.51

190
9.34

200
11.53

212
14.696
0
220
17.19
2.49
240
24.97
10.27
260
35.43
20.73
280
49.20
34.50
300
67.01
52.31
320
89.64
74.94
340
117.99 103.29
360
153.01 138.31
380
195.73 181.03
400
247.26 232.56
500
680.86 666.16
600
1543.2 1528.5
700
3094.3 3079.6
705.47*
3208.2 3193.5

Vg,
Specific
hf,
hfg,
hg,
Volume of Heat Content Latent Heat, Heat Content
Vapor
of Liquid, of Vaporization,
of Vapor
cu ft/lb
Btu/lb
Btu/lb
Btu/lb
3304.7
-0.018
1075.5
1075.5
2445.8
8.03
1071.0
1079.0
1704.8
18.05
1065.3
1083.4
1207.6
28.06
1059.7
1087.7
868.4
38.05
1054.0
1092.1
633.3
48.04
1048.4
1096.4
468.1
58.02
1042.7
1100.8
350.4
68.00
1037.1
1105.1
265.4
77.98
1031.4
1109.3
203.3
87.97
1025.6
1113.6
157.3
97.96
1019.8
1117.8
123.0
107.95
1014.0
1122.0
97.07
117.95
1008.2
1126.1
77.29
127.96
1002.2
1130.2
62.06
137.97
996.2
1134.2
50.22
148.00
990.2
1138.2
40.96
158.04
984.1
1142.1
33.64
168.09
977.9
1146.0
26.80
180.17
970.3
1150.5
23.15
188.23
965.2
1153.4
16.32
208.45
952.1
1160.6
11.76
228.76
938.6
1167.4
8.64
294.17
924.6
1173.8
6.47
269.7
910.0
1179.7
4.91
290.4
894.8
1185.2
3.79
311.3
878.8
1190.1
2.96
332.3
862.1
1194.4
2.34
353.6
844.5
1198.0
1.86
375.1
825.9
1201.0
0.67
487.9
714.3
1202.2
0.27
617.1
550.6
1167.7
0.075
822.4
172.7
995.2
0.051
906.0
0
906.0

*Critical Temperature

30

BTU/HR REQUIRED TO GENERATE ONE BOILER H.P.

45

40

35

70

75

80

85

90

% Boiler Efficiency

SIZING WATER PIPING


1/2"

10
8

3/4"

1"

1-1/4"1-1/2"

2" 2-1/2"

3"

4"

6
4
6"

Pressuer Drop, psi per 100 ft of pipe

1000's of Btu/hr Burner


Input Required to Generate
One Boiler Horsepower

50

1
.8

8"

.6
.4
.3
.2

.1
.08
.06
.04
.03
.02

.01

3 4

6 8 10

20 30 40

60 80 100

200 300

500

1000

Water Flow, Gallons Per Minute

Pressure drops are for 60F water flowing in horizontal Schedule 40 steel pipe.

31

SIZING STEAM PIPING


Pipe Size,
Inches
(Schedule 40)
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
6
8

Lb/hr steam for piping pressure drop of 1 psi/100ft


Steam Pressure, psig
5
10
25
50
100
150
31
34
43
53
70
84
61
68
86
110
140
170
135
150
190
235
310
370
210
230
290
370
485
570
425
470
590
750
980
1,150
700
780
980
1,250
1,600
1,900
1,280
1,450
1,800
2,250
2,950
3,500
2,700
3,000
3,800
4,750
6,200
7,400
8,200
9,200 11,500 14,500 19,000 22,500
17,000 19,000 24,000 30,000 39,500 47,000

Lb/hr steam for piping drop of 5 psi/100 ft


Steam Pressure, psig
10
25
50
100
150
73
93
120
155
185
145
185
235
315
375
320
410
520
690
820
500
640
810
1,050
1,300
1,000
1,300
1,650
2,150
2,600
1,650
2,150
2,700
3,600
4,250
3,050
3,900
4,300
6,600
7,800
6,500
8,200 10,500 14,000 16,500
19,500 25,000 31,500 42,000 50,000
41,000 52,000 66,000 88,000 105,000

These flows were calculated from Babcocks Equation,

W = 87

Pd D5
(1 + 3.6 ) L
D

where W = steam flow, lb/minute


P = pressure drop, psi
D = inside diameter of pipe, inches
d = density of steam, lb/cu ft
L = length of pipe run, feet

32

CHAPTER 6 ELECTRICAL DATA


ELECTRICAL FORMULAS
Ohms Law

Motor Formulas

Amperes = Volts/Ohms
Ohms = Volts/Amperes
Volts = Amperes x Ohms

Torque (lb-ft) = 5250 x Horsepower


rpm

Watts

D.C. Circuit Power Formulas

Watts = Volts x Amperes


Amperes = Watts/Volts
Synchronous rpm = Hertz x 120
Volts = Watts/Amperes
Poles
Horsepower = Volts x Amperes x Efficiency*
746
A.C. Circuit Power Formulas
Single-Phase
Three-Phase
= Volts x Amps x Power Factor*
= 1.73 x Volts x Amps x Power Factor*

Amperes

= WattsVolts x Power Factor*


= kVA x 1000/Volts
=
Horsepower x 746
Volts x Efficiency* x Power Factor*

Kilowatts

= Amps x Volts x Power Factor*


= 1.73 x Amps x Volts x Power Factor*
1000
1000
= Amps x Volts
= 1.73 x Amps x Volts
1000
1000
= Volts x Amps x Effic.* x Pwr. Factor* = 1.73 x Volts x Amps x Effic.* x Pwr. Fact.*
746
746

kVA
Horsepower

= Watts/1.73 x Volts x Power Factor*


= kVA x 1000/1.73 x Volts
=
Horsepower x 746
1.73 x Volts x Effic.* x Power Factor*

*Expressed as a decimal

ELECTRICAL WIRE
DIMENSIONS & RATINGS
All data for solid copper wire

NEMA SIZE STARTERS FOR MOTORS


Starter size for

A.W.G.
Resistance,
Maximum Allowable
Wire Diameter, Ohms per 1000 Ft Current Capacity per
Gauge
Inches
@ 77 F
NFPA 70-1984*, Amps
0
.3249
.100
125-170
1
.2893
.126
110-150
2
.2576
.159
95-130
3
.2294
.201
85-110
4
.2043
.253
70-95
6
.1620
.403
55-75
8
.1285
.641
40-55
10
.1019
1.02
30-40
12
.0808
1.62
20-30
14
.0641
2.58
15-25
16
.0508
4.09
18
18
.0403
6.51
14
*Maximum current capacity permitted by National Electrical Code,
NFPA 70-1984, varies with type of insulation, ambient temperature, voltage carried, and other factors. Consult NFPA 70-1984 for
specific information.

33

460/3/60
Horsepower 115/1/60 230/1/60 230/3/60 380/3/60 575/3/60
Up to 1/3
1/2 to 1
1-1/2
2
3
5
7-1/2
10
15
20-25
30
40-50
60-75
100
125-150
200

00
0
1
1
2
3
3

00
00
1
1
2
2
2
3

00
00
00
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
6
6

00
00
00
0
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
6

00
00
00
00
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5

All sizes listed apply only to magnetic starters with fusible


alloy overload relays.

NEMA ENCLOSURES
NEMA 1. General Purpose Indoor
Sheet metal enclosures intended for indoor use. Primary purpose is to prevent accidental personnel contact with enclosed
equipment, although they will also provide some protection
against falling dirt.
NEMA 2. Drip Proof Indoor
Indoor enclosure that protects contents against falling noncorrosive liquids and dirt. Must be equipped with a drain.
NEMA 3. Dust Tight, Raintight & Sleet-Resistant (IceResistant),
NEMA 3R. Rainproof & Sleet-Resistant (Ice-Resistant).
NEMA 3S. Dust Tight, Raintight & Sleet-Proof (Ice-Proof)
Outdoor enclosures for protection against windblown dust, rain
and sleet. All have provision for locking.
NEMA 4. Water Tight & Dust Tight Indoor & Outdoor
Protect contents against splashing, seeping, falling, or hosedirected water and severe external condensation. Commonly used
in food-processing plants where equipment hosedown is required.
NEMA 6. Submersible, Watertight, Dust Tight and Sleet (Ice)ResistantIndoor & Outdoor
Capable of being submerged up to 30 minutes in up to 6 feet of
water without harm to the contents.
NEMA 7. Hazardous Locations Indoor Air Break
Equipment
Enclosures for use in atmospheres containing explosive gases
and vapors as defined in Class 1, Division I, Groups A, B, C or D
of the National Electrical Code. Enclosure must contain an internal explosion without causing an external hazard. Construction
details vary with the nature of the explosive gas or vapor.
NEMA 8. Hazardous Locations Indoor Oil-Immersed
Equipment
Enclosures for oil-immersed circuit breakers in Class I,
Division I, Group A, B, C or D hazardous atmospheres.
NEMA 9. Hazardous Locations Indoor Air-Break
Equipment
Used in Class II, Division I, Group E, F, or G hazardous locations as defined by the National Electrical Code. Enclosures are
designed to exclude combustible or explosive dusts.
NEMA 10. Mine Atmospheres
For use in mines containing methane or natural gas.
NEMA 11. Corrosion-Resistant and Drip Proof Indoor
Indoor enclosures that protect contents from dripping, seepage
and external condensation of corrosive liquids, as well as corrosive
fumes.
NEMA 12. Industrial Use Dust Tight & Drip Tight Indoor
Protect enclosed equipment from lint, fibers, flyings, dust, dirt
and light splashing, seepage, dripping and external condensation
of noncorrosive liquids.
NEMA 13. Oil Tight & Dust Tight Indoor
Protect enclosed equipment from lint, dust and seepage, external condensation and spraying of water, oil, or coolant. They have
oil-resistant gaskets and must have provision for oiltight conduit
entry.
For more complete details on application and construction specifications for NEMA Enclosures, refer to NEMA Standards
Publication No. ICS 6.

34

ELECTRIC MOTORS
FULL LOAD CURRENT, AMPERES

Horse
Power

Single
Phase
AC Motors
115V 230V

Three-Phase AC Motors
Induction Type
Squirrel Cage &
Wound-Rotor
115V 230V 460V 575V

1/6
1/4
1/3

4.4
5.8
7.2

2.2
2.9
3.6

1/2
3/4
1

9.8
13.8
16

4.9
6.9
8

4
5.6
7.2

2
2.8
3.6

1
1.4
1.8

.8
1.1
1.4

2.6
3.4
4.8

2.1
2.7
3.9

1-1/2
2
3

20
24
34

10
12
17

10.4
13.6

5.2
6.8
9.6

5
7-1/2
10

56
80
100

28
40
50

15.2
22
28

7.6 6.1
11
9
14
11

15
20
25

42
54
68

21
27
34

17
22
27

30
40
50

80
104
130

40
52
65

32
41
52

60
75
100

154
192
248

77
96
124

62
77
99

125
150
200

312
360
480

156
180
240

125
144
192

CHAPTER 7 PROCESS HEATING


HEAT BALANCESDETERMINIING THE HEAT NEEDS OF
FURNACES AND OVENS
Although rules of thumb are frequently used to size furnace and oven burners, they have to be used with care. All
rules of thumb are based on certain assumptions about production rates, furnace dimensions, and insulation. If the system under consideration differs from these assumed conditions, using a rule of thumb can result in a significant error.

For out-of-the ordinary conditions, or where more accurate


results are required, heat balance calculations are preferred. A
heat balance consists of calculating load heat requirements
and adding losses to them to determine the heat input.
Below is a schematic representation of the heat balance in
a fuel-fired heat processing device.

Flue Gas Loss

Wall
Loss

Radiation
Loss
Gross
Input
(Purchased
Fuel)

Available
Heat

Net Output
(Heat To Load)
Stored
Heat
Conveyor
Loss

General heat balance in a fuel-fired heat processing device.

The terms used in heat balance calculations, and their definitions, are:
Gross heat input the total amount of heat used by the furnace. It equals the amount of fuel burned multiplied by its
heating value.
Available heat heat that is available to the furnace and its
workload. It equals gross input minus flue gas losses.
Flue gas losses heat contained in flue gases as they are
exhausted from the furnace.
Stored heat heat absorbed by the insulation and structural
components of the furnace or oven to raise them to operating
temperature. This stored heat becomes a loss each time the furnace is cooled down, because it has to be replaced on the next
startup. Heat storage can usually be ignored on continuous furnaces, because cooldowns and restarts don't occur often.
Wall losses heat conducted out through the walls, roof and
floor of the furnace due to the temperature difference between

the inside and outside. At a constant temperature, wall losses


will remain constant regardless of production rate.
Radiation losses heat lost from the furnace as radiant energy escaping through openings in walls, doors, etc.
Conveyor losses heat which is stored in conveying devices
such as furnace cars and conveyor belts and which is lost
when the heated conveyor is removed from the furnace.
Net output this is the heat that ultimately reaches the product in the oven or furnace.
On page 36 is a simplified worksheet for carrying out a
heat balance. By following this format, you can determine the
gross heat input required at maximum load and minimum
load conditions, along with the furnace turndown and theoretical thermal efficiency.

35

HEAT BALANCE TABLE


Heat Balance
Component
Heat to load
+ Wall losses
+ Radiation losses
+ Conveyor losses
= Available heat
required
Available heat,
expessed as a
decimal
= Gross heat input

Maximum Load
Conditions
(Full Production Rate)
__________Btu/hr
+ __________Btu/hr
+ __________Btu/hr
+ __________Btu/hr
= __________Btu/hr

Minimum Load
Conditions
(Empty and Idling)
____0____Btu/hr
+ _________Btu/hr
+ _________Btu/hr
+ ____0____Btu/hr
= _________Btu/hr

__________

_________

= __________Btu/hr

= _________Btu/hr

Furnace turndown = Gross heat input, maximum load conditions = _________


Gross heat input, minimum load conditions
Theoretical Thermal efficiency, % = Heat to load, maximum load conditions
x 100 = _________
Gross heat input, maximum load conditions
Next, consult the available heat charts (page 51) to determine the percent available heat for the fuel, operating temperature, and fuel/air ratio conditions of this application.
Enter this figure as a decimal on both sides above.

Supporting Calculations:
Heat to Load
Heat to load = lb per hour x specific heat x temperature rise.
Specific heats for many materials are listed on pages 37-39.
For most common metals and alloys, use the graphs on page 40.
Simply multiply lb/hr production rate by the heat content
picked from the graph.
Enter the heat to load under Maximum Load Conditions.
Heat to load is usually zero under Minimum Load Conditions
because no material is being processed through the oven or
furnace.

Gross Input:
Gross Input = Available heat (Btu/hr) Available heat
(decimal).
Figure this for both maximum and minimum load conditions.
Gross input, maximum conditions, is the maximum heating
input required of the combustion system you select.
Furnace Turndown:
Divide maximum load gross input by minimum load gross
input. The result is the furnace or oven turndown. Your
combustion system must provide at least this much turndown or the furnace will overshoot setpoint on idle.

Wall Losses:
Wall loss = Wall Area (inside) x heat loss, Btu/sq ft/hr.
Typical heat loss data are tabulated on page 44 .
If the roof and floor of the furnace are insulated with different
materials than the walls, calculate their losses separately.
Add all the losses together and enter them in both the
Maximum Load and Minimum Load columns above.
Caution: If the furnace is to be idled at a temperature lower
than its normal operating temperature, wall losses will be correspondingly lower. Calculate them on the basis of the actual
idling temperature.

Theoretical Thermal Efficiency:


% Efficiency = Heat to load, maximum load conditions x 100
Gross heat input, maximum load conditions
This is the maximum theoretical efficiency of the furnace,
assuming it operates at 100% of rating with no production interruptions and with a properly adjusted combustion system.
Heat Storage
Heat Storage was left out of this analysis. Althought it is a
factor in furnace efficiency, burner systems are rarely sized
on the heat storage needs of the furnace.
On continuous furnaces where cold startups occur infrequently, heat storage can usually be ignored without any
major effect on efficiency calculations. On batch-type furnaces that cycle from hot to cold frequently, storage should be
factored into efficiency calculations.
Heat Storage = Inside refractory surface area, ft2 x Heat
Storage Capacity, Btu/ft2
Heat storage capacities for typical types of refractory construction are tabulated on Page 44.

Radiation Losses:
Radiation Losses = Opening Area x Black Body Radiation
Rate x Shape Factor. See page 49 for radiation rates. Assume
a Shape Factor of 1.
Conveyor Losses:
Treat the conveyor as you would a furnace load.
Conveyor Loss = Lb/hr of conveyor heated x specific heat x
(Temperature leaving furnace temperature entering furnace)
At minimum load, conveyor losses are usually zero because
no material is being processed through the furnace.
Available Heat:
Available heat = Heat to load + wall losses + radiation losses
+ conveyor losses.
Calculate available heat for both maximum and minimum
load conditions.

36

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS MATERIALS


Material

Density
Lb/Cu Ft
@60F

Solid
Specific
Heat
Btu/Lb-F

Acetone
Acetic Acid
Air
Alcohol-Ethyl
-Methyl
Alumina
Aluminum
Ammonia 32
Andalusite
Aniline
Antimony
Asbestos
Asphalt-Trinidad
-Gilsonite
Arsenic
Babbit 75 Pb 15 Sb 10 Sn
84 Sn 8 Sb 8 Cu
Bakelite
Beef Tallow
Beeswax
Benzene-Benzol
Beryllium
Bismuth
Borax 105.5
Brass 67 Cu 33 Zn
85 Cu 15 Zn
90 Cu 10 Zn
Brick-Fireclay
-Red
-Silica
Bronze 90 Cu 10 Al
90 Cu 10 Sn
80 Cu 10 Zn 10 Sn
Cadmium
Calcium
Calcium Carbonate
Calcium Chloride
Camphor
Carbon, Amorphous
Carbon, Disulfide
Carbon, Graphite
Castor Oil
Celotex
Celluloid
Cellulose
Cement
Charcoal
Chlorine
Chloroform
Chromite
Chromium
Clay, Dry
Coal (Anthracite)
Coal (Bituminous)
Coal Tar
Coal Tar Oil
Cobalt
Coke
Concrete
Copper
Cork
Corundum
Cotton
Cottonseed Oil
Cream
Cuprice Oxide

65.8
.0765
49.26
49.6
243.5
166.7
45.6
199.8
2.25
422
124-174
97
67.5
357.6

57-61
60
55
113.8
615
0.238
528

137-150
118
144-162

534
540
96.6
175
157
62.4
129
79.2
138.3
59.6

95

18-38
0.190
95.5
281
437
112-162

76.7

555

558

250

58

374-406

0.540

0.232

0.197
0.248
0.502
0.168
0.741
0.054
0.195
0.55
0.55
0.082
0.039
0.071
0.30
0.50
0.82
0.299
0.50
0.033
1366
0.105
0.104
0.104
0.240
0.230
0.260
0.126
0.107
0.095
0.038
0.170
0.210
0.16
0.440
0.241

0.184

0.40
0.36
0.320
0.20
0.165
0.19

0.22
0.12
0.224
0.31
0.30
0.413

0.145
0.2-0.38
0.27
0.104
0.48
0.304
0.32

0.227

Melting
Point,
F
-138
62.6

-173.2
-142.6
3722
1214
-83.0
3290
17.6
1166

190
300
Sublimes
462
464

80-100
144
41.8
2345
518

1688
1877
1952

1922
1850
1832
610
1564
Dec. 1517
1422
353
6300
-166
6300

-151
-85
3956
2822
3160

196

2723

1982

3722

32

1944

T = Transformation Point

Latent
Heat of
Fusion,
Btu/Lb

Liquid
Specific
Heat,
Btu/Lb-F

Boiling
Point,
F

33.5
44

44.8
29.5

169.1
195

37.8
70.0

26.2
34.1

76.2
55.6
621.9
18.5

71.0
84.4
86.6

98.6
84.2
79.9
19.5

97.7
19.4

41.3

57.1

90.8

0.530
0.462
0.237
0.648
0.601

0.252
1.099

0.514
0.054

0.55
0.55

0.038
0.063

0.423
0.425
0.035

0.123
0.116
0.115

0.125
0.106
0.109
0.074

0.61

0.24

0.149

0.34

0.111

0.474
0.78

128-134
244.4
-311.0
172.4
150.8

3272
-37.3

363
2624

176.3
5036
2606

1412
2709

>2912
408
8721
115
8721

-30.3
142.1

4500

325
390-910
5252

4703

6332

Subl. = Sublimes
37

Dec = Decomposes

Latent
Heat of
Vaporization,
Btu/Lb
225.5
152.8
91.7
369.0
480.6

543.2

198

169.4

409

150.8

121
105.3

136

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS MATERIALS (Contd)


Material

Density
Lb/Cu Ft
@60F

Solid
Specific
Heat
Btu/Lb-F

Melting
Point,
F

Latent
Heat of
Fusion,
Btu/Lb

Liquid
Specific
Heat,
Btu/Lb-F

Cyanite
225
0.227
3290

Diasporite
215
0.260
3722

Die Cast Metal:

87.3 Zn 8.1 Sn 4.1 Cu 0.5Al


0.103
780
48.3
0.138
90 Sn 4.5 Cu 5.5 Sb

0.070
450
30.3
0.062
80 Pb 10 Sn 10 Sb

0.038
600
17.4
0.037
92 Al 8 Cu

0.236
1150
163.1
0.241
Diphenyl
103
0.385
159
47
0.481
Dolomite
181
0.222

Dowtherm
58.8
0.53
180

Earth

0.44

Ebonite

0.35

Ether
45.9

-180.4

0.529
Fats

0.46

Fosterite
200
0.22
3470

Fuel Oil

0.45
Gasoline
42

0.514
German Silver

0.109
1850
86.2
0.123
Glass, Crown

0.16

Glass, Flint

0.13

Glass, Pyrex

0.20

Glass, Window (Soda Lime)160


0.19
2192

Glass Wool
1.5
0.16

Glycerine
78.7
0.047
68
85.5
0.576
Gold
1205
0.032
1945
28.5
0.034
Granite

Graphite
0.30-0.38

Subl. 6606

Gypsum
145
0.259
2480

Hydrochloric Acid
75

-12

Hydrogen
.0053

-434
27

Hydrogen Sulfide

-117

Iron
491
0.1162
2795
117

Iron, Gray Cast


443
0.119
2330
41.7

Iron, White Cast


480
0.119
2000
59.5

Kerosene

0.470
Lead
711
0.032
621
9.9
0.032
Lead Oxide
575-593
0.049
1749

Leather

0.36

Lucite

0.35

Light Oil

0.5
Linseed Oil
58

-5

0.441
Lipowitz Metal

0.041
140
17.2
0.041
Magnesite
187
0.200
Dec. 662

Magnesium
108.6
0.272
1204
83.7
0.266
Magnesium Oxide
223
0.23-0.30 5072

Manganese
500
0.171
2246
65.9
0.192

T = 1958
T = 43.5

Marble

0.21

Mercury
885
0.033
-38
5.1
0.033
Mica

0.21

Milk
63.4

0.847
Molasses
87.4

0.60
Molybdenum
636
0.065
4748

Monel
550
0.129
2415
117.4
0.139
Mallite
188.8

3290

0.175
Naptha
41.2

0.493
Napthalene
71.8
0.325
176
64.1
0.427
Neats Foot Oil

32

0.457
Nickel
556
0.134
2646
131.4
0.124
Nichrome
517

0.111
Nitric Acid
96.1

-43.6

0.445
Nitrogen
.0741

-346
11.1

Nylon

0.55

T = Transformation Point Subl. = Sublimes Dec = Decomposes


38

Boiling
Point,
F

492

500

94.3

176

554
5371

-423
-79
5430

3171

600

675

8672

306
424.4

186.8
-320

Latent
Heat of
Vaporization,
Btu/Lb

136.5

123

159.1

128-146

29

194

108

145-150

117

184
135.7

207.2
85.6
_

THERMAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS MATERIALS (Contd)


Material

Density
Lb/Cu Ft
@60F

Olive Oil
Oxygen
Paraffin
Petroleum
Phosphorus
Pitch, Coal Tar
Plaster of Paris
Platinum
Porcelain
Potassium Nitrate
Quartz
Resin-Phenolic
-Copals
Rhodium
Rockwool
Roses Metal
Rosin
Rubber
Salt-Rock
Sand
Sandstone
Sawdust
Shellac
Silica
Silicon
Silicon Carbide
Sillimanite
Silk
Silver
Snow
Sodium Carbonate
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Oxide
Sodium Sulfate
Solder - 50 Pb 50 Sn
- 63 Pb 37 Sn
Steel - 0.3% C

57.4
.0847
54-57
48-55
114
62-81
0.265
1335
150
129.2
165.5
80-100
68.6
773
6

68
62-125
135
162

75
180
155
199
202
84
656

151.5
140.5
142
168
580

491

Stone
Sugar - Cane
Sulfur
Sulfuric Acid
Talc
Tar-Coal
Tin
Titanium
Toluene
Tungsten
Turpentine
Type Metal-Linotype
Type Metal-Stereotype
Uranium
Vanadium
Varnish
Water
Wood
Woods Metal
Wool
Xylene
Zinc
Zinc Oxide
Zircon
Zirconia
Zirconium

Solid
Specific
Heat
Btu/Lb-F

Melting
Point,
F

Latent
Heat of
Fusion,
Btu/Lb

Liquid
Specific
Heat,
Btu/Lb-F

Boiling
Point,
F

Latent
Heat of
Vaporization,
Btu/Lb

40

0.471
572

0.336
-361
5.98
0.394
-297
91.6
0.622
126
63
0.712
750

0.511

0.189
111
9.05

536
234
0.45
86-300

1.14

0.036
3224
49
0.032
7933

0.26

0.19
646
88

Dec. 752

0.23

0.3-0.4

0.39
300-680

0.058
3571

0.198

0.043
230
18.3
0.041

0.5
170-212

0.48
248

0.22
1495

2575

0.20

0.22

0.5

0.40
170-180

3182

0.1910
4046

0.176
2600

4149
0.23
4082

Subl. 3032

0.175
3290

0.33

0.063
1761
46.8
0.070
3634

0.5
32

0.306
1566

Dec.

0.231
597
116.8

1716

0.231
Subl. 2327

0.21

0.051
450
23
0.046

0.044
468
14.8
0.041
0.129 (70-1330)*
*Phase change between 1330 & 1500 requires
0.166 (1500-2500)
additional 80 Btu/lb.
168
0.20

102
0.30
320
_

119-130
0.19
235
16.9
0.234
840
652
115.9
0.239
50.0

0.370

0.21

71-81
0.35

460
0.069
450
25.9
0.0545
4118

281
0.14
3272

53.7

0.40
230.5
150.3
1204
0.034
6098

10652

53.7

0.411
318.8
133.3

0.036
486
21.5
0.036

670
0.036
500
26.2
0.036

370
0.028
2071

372
0.115
3110

5432

600

62.37
0.480
32
144
1.00
212
970.4
19-56
0.33

0.041
158
17.2
0.042

81
0.325

54.3

-18

0.411
288
147
443
0.107
786
47.9
0.146
1706

341
0.125
>3272

293
0.132
4622

349
0.103
4919

399
0.067
3100

9122

T = Transformation Point Subl. = Sublimes Dec. = Decomposes


39

THERMAL CAPACITIES OF METALS & ALLOYS

150

Heat Content, Btu/lb

Alloy 903 Die Cast Zinc

100
Babbit
75 Pb/15Sb/10Sn
Pure Zinc

50
Solder
50 Pb/50Sn

Lead

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Temperature, F

600

Pure Aluminum

500

Aluminum Die Cast Alloy 380.0


Pure Magnesium
Magnesium Casting Alloy AZ91A

Heat Content, Btu/lb

400

0.3% Carbon
Steel
Pure
Copper

Titanium Alloy
Ti-6AI-4V

300

65-35 Yellow Brass


200
85-15 Red Brass

100

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Temperature, F

40

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

INDUSTRIAL HEATING OPERATIONSTEMPERATURE & HEAT REQUIREMENTS


Material
Aluminum

Asphalt
Babbit
Brass

Bread
Bronze

Brick, common
fireclay
Cake
Candy
Cast Iron (Gray)

Cast Iron, Ductile


(Nodular Iron)

Cast Iron (Malleable)

Cement
China
Coffee
Cookies
Copper

Operation
Age
Anneal
Homogenize
Hot Work (Extrude,
Roll, Forge)
Melt
Solution Heat Treat
Stabilize
Stress Relieve
Melt
Melt
Anneal
Hot Work (Extrude,
Roll, Forge)
Melt
Recrystallize
Stress Relieve
Bake
Anneal
Hot Work (Extrude,
Roll, Forge)
Melt
Stress Relieve
Burn
Burn
Bake
Cook
Anneal
Austenitize (Harden)
Melt
Normalize
Stress Relieve
Temper (Draw)
Anneal
Austenitize (Harden)
Normalize
Stress Relieve
Temper (Draw)
Anneal (Malleablize)
Austenitize (Harden)
Temper (Draw)
Calcine
Fire
Glaze
Roast
Bake
Anneal
Hot Work (Extrude,
Roll, Forge)
Melt

Approximate
Temperature, F

Heat Content of
Material, Btu/lb*

190-470
645-775
850-1150

30-100
130-190
175-300

500-950
1175-1500
820-1025
435-655
650-775
350-450
600-1000
800-1450

100-240
370-550
170-280
80-160
130-190
160-220
60-75
70-150

1150-1650
1930-2370
550-700
475
300-500
800-1650

100-150
230-290
40-70
30-40

70-170

1200-1750
1600-2350
375-550
1900-2000
2100-2200
300-350
225-300
1300-1750
1450-1700
2800-2900
1600-1700
700-1250
300-1020
1300-1650
1550-1700
1600-1725
950-1250
800-1300
1650-1750
1550-1600
1100-1300
2800-3000
1900-2650
1500-1900
600-800
375-450
500-1200

100-160
220-320
30-50
800-950
900-1050

290-420
330-410
720-750
380-410
110-280
35-175
290-390
360-410
380-415
160-275
120-290
290-420
360-380
190-290

450-600
350-450

50-120

1300-1750
1970-2100

130-180
290-310

Enamel
(Paint)
Bake
250-450

(Porcelain)
Fire
1700-1800

*Heat contained in material only. Does not include furnace or oven losses or available
heat correction.
41

INDUSTRIAL HEATING OPERATIONSTEMPERATURE & HEAT REQUIREMENTS


(Contd)

Material

Approximate
Temperature, F

Operation

Frit
Glass

Heat Content of
Material, Btu/lb*

Smelt
2000-2400
400-550
Melt
2200-2900
400-650
Anneal
1000-1200

Gold
Melt
2000-2370
125-145
Lacquer
Dry
150-200

Lead
Melt
620-700
18-32
Lime
Calcine
2000-2200

Magnesium
Age
265-625
70-140
Homogenize
200-800
30-190
Hot Work (Extrude,
Roll, Forge)
550-850
110-200
Melt
1150-1550
375-490
Solution Heat Treat
665-1050
150-350
Stress Relieve
300-800
50-200
Meat
Smoke
100-150

Pie
Bake
500

Potato Chips
Fry
350-400

Sand
Dry
350-500
60-90
Sand Cores
Bake
400-450
70-80
Silver
Melt
1800-1900
155-165
Solder
Melt
400-500
40-45
Steel
Anneal
1150-1650
150-270
(Carbon & Alloy)
Austenitize
1320-1650
180-270
Carbonitride
1300-1650
180-270
Carburize
1600-1800
260-300
Cyanide
1400-1600
210-260
Hot Work (Forge,
Roll)
2200-2400
360-400
Nitride
925-1050
110-140
Normalize
1500-1700
240-280
Stress Relieve
450-1350
50-210
Steel (Stainless)
Anneal
1150-2050
150-340
Austenitize (Harden)
1700-1950
280-320
Hot Work (Forge,
Roll)
1600-2350
260-390
Stress Relieve
400-2050
30-340
Temper (Draw)
300-1200
25-160
Tin
Melt
500-650
70-80
Titanium
Age
900-1000
120-140
Anneal
1100-1600
150-250
Hot Work (Roll,
Forge)
1300-1900
180-310
Solution Heat Treat
1550-1750
240-280
Stress Relieve
1000-1200
140-170
Varnish
Cook
500-750

Zinc
Galvanize
850-900
130-140
Melt
800-900
130-150
Hot Work (Extrusion,
Rolling)
200-575
10-55
*Heat contained in material only. Does not include furnace or oven losses or available
heat correction.
42

CRUCIBLES FOR METAL MELTING DIMENSIONS & CAPACITIES

B
A

Dimensions, inches
Approximate Capacity, lb
A,
B,
C,
Size
Top
Bilge Bottom
D,
Red
Number
OD
OD
OD
Height Aluminum Brass
20
71116
838
618
101516
20
65
25
8316
878
612
101516
25
81
30
858
9516
61316
1112
30
97
35
9
934
718
12
35
113
40
938
1018
7716
1212
40
129
45
978
101116
71316
13316
45
146
50
1014
1118
818
1334
50
162
60
101316
111116
8916
14716
60
194
70
1114
12316
81516
15116
70
226
80
111116
121116
914
1558
80
259
90
1218
1318
9916
16316
90
291
100
1212
1312
978
161116
100
323
125
13
14116
10516
1738
125
404
3
7
7
150
13 4
14 8
10 8
1838
150
485
175
1438
15916
1138
1914
175
566
200
15
1614
1178
20
200
657
225
1512
161316
12516
2034
225
728
250
16
17516
121116
2138
250
808
275
16716
171316
13
22
275
889
300
1678
1814
1338
2212
300
970
400
18316
191116
14716
24516
400
1293

Copper Magnesium
67
13
84
16
100
20
117
23
134
26
151
29
167
33
201
39
234
46
268
52
301
59
335
65
418
81
502
98
586
114
669
130
753
147
837
163
921
179
1004
195
1339
261

RADIANT TUBES SIZING & INPUT DATA

TUBE EXTERNAL SURFACE AREA DATA

4
414
412
434

151
160
170
179

8
8
8
8

158
168
178
188

12
12
12
12

237
252
267
281

5
514
512
534

188
198
207
217

10
10
10
10

247
259
271
284

15
15
15
15

370
389
407
426

6
614
612
634

226
236
245
254

12
12
12
12

355
370
385
400

18
18
18
18

533
555
577
600

8
814
812

302
311
320

16
16
16

632
651
671

24
24
24

947
977
1007

Maximum Heat Transfer Rates


For Good Service Life of Alloy Tubes
Maximum Heat Transfer
Rate, Btu/hr per sq. in. of
External Tube Surface

Straight Tube
Tube
Sq. In.
180 Short Radius Elbow 180 Long Radius Elbow
OD,
Per Foot
Inches of Length
C
sq. in.
C
sq. in.
L to C
L, in.
L to C
L, in.
3
113
6
89
9
133
123
6
96
9
144
314
132
6
104
9
155
312
141
6
111
9
167
334

43

70
Tube free to radiate on 3 sides
60
50
40
30

Tube enclosed
on 3 sides

1500

1600

1700
1800
Furnace Temperature, F

1900

HEAT LOSSES, HEAT STORAGE & COLD FACE


TEMPERATURES REFRACTORY WALLS
Wall
Construction

HL
HS
TC

Hot Face Temperature, F


1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

HL
550
705
862
1030 1200 1375 1570
HS 12,500 15,400 18,400 21,500 24,700 27,950 31,200
TC
282
320
355
387
418
447
477
9" Hard Firebrick +
HL
130
168
228
251
296
341
390
412" 2300 Insulating F.B.
HS 22,380 27,700 33,060 38,450 43,930 49,350 55,800
TC
147
162
188
195
211
227
242
9" Hard Firebrick +
HL
111
128
155
185
209
244
282
412" 2000 Insulating F.B. +
HS 23,750 29,650 35,640 41,940 48,420 54,890 61,410
2" Block Insulation
TC
138
144
156
169
179
193
205
HL
185
237
300
365
440
521

412" 2000 Insulating F.B.


HS
1180 1450 1750 2075 2400 2720

TC
170
190
211
230
253
274

HL
95
124
159
189
225
266

9" 2000 Insulating F.B.


HS
2260 2840 3420 4000 4620 5240

TC
132
146
160
172
187
200

HL
142
178
218
264
312
362
416
9" 2800 Insulating F.B.
HS
3170 3970 4790 5630 6480 7360 8230
TC
151
166
183
200
217
234
250
9" 2800 Insulating F.B. +
HL
115
140
167
197
232
272
307
412" 2000 Insulating F.B. +
HS 14,860 17,340 19,910 22,508 24,908 28,360 31,531
TC
142
149
161
164
183
202
215
9" 2800 Insulating F.B. +
HL
71
91
112
134
154
184
204
412" 2000 Insulating F.B. +
HS 10,670 14,836 19,220 23,771 27,491 31,654 35,078
2" Block Insulation
TC
119
127
136
147
156
168
177
9" 2800 Insulating F.B. +
HL
114
142
172
201
232
264
298
3" Block Insulation
HS
7730 9765 11,760 13,810 15,880 17,973 20,084
TC
139
150
163
175
188
200
212
HL
575
730
897
1075 1300 1525 1775
412" Dense Castable
HS
5270 9520 11,310 13,060 14,820 16,120 18,300
TC
282
319
356
393
430
467
504
HL
315
410
500
627
694
844
947
9" Dense Castable
HS 13,120 16,240 19,960 23,673 26,355 29,212 32,019
TC
218
248
280
305
321
352
377
HL
390
490
610
730
860
1000 1155
9" Plastic
HS 17,825 21,735 25,640 29,610 33,345 37,125 41,040
TC
232
261
290
319
348
378
407
8" Ceramic Fiber
HL
27
45
64
86
114
146
178
Stacked Strips, 8 #/cu ft
HS
850
1018 1190 1358 1528 1692 1823
Density
TC
95
105
115
126
138
152
165
10" Ceramic Fiber
HL
16
35
54
76
94
120
142
Stacked Strips, 8 #/cu ft
HS
1054 1262 1473 1683 1895 2098 2262
Density
TC
92
101
110
119
129
140
151
12" Ceramic Fiber
HL
13
27
43
60
79
98
118
Stacked Strips, 8 #/cu ft
HS
1265 1517 1775 2033 2276 2518 2714
Density
TC
91
97
104
112
121
130
140
9" Hard Firebrick + 3"
HL
177
240
309
383
463
642
721
Ceramic Fiber Veneer,
HS
1920 3680 5430 7178 9219 11,200 12,503
8 #/cu ft Density
TC
170
191
214
235
259
305
320
9" 2800 Insulating F.B. +
HL
102
125
151
183
227
274
325
3" Ceramic Fiber Veneer,
HS
1150 2012 2910 3795 4576 5402 6272
8 #/cu ft Density
TC
134
143
153
167
183
200
217
9" Dense Castable +
HL
170
221
273
329
381
487
559
3" Ceramic Fiber Veneer,
HS
1910 3603 5340 7083 8899 10,576 12,136
8 #/cu ft Density
TC
164
183
202
222
240
270
289
HL = Heat Loss, Btu/hr sq ft HS = Heat Storage, Btu/sq ft TC = Cold Face Temperature, F
Note:These values are typical for the materials listed and are sufficiently accurate for estimating
purposes. Values for specific brands of refractories may differ.
9" Hard Firebrick

44

2400
1768
34,500
505
447
61,920
260
325
68,120
218

474
9160
267
347
34,664
228
230
38,252
187
333
22,209
224
2030
20,030
541
1134
35,861
406
1332
44,415
436
216
2039
180
172
2528
163
143
3034
151
800
14,891
341
408
7450
242
635
14,149
307

AIR HEATING & FUME INCINERATION


HEAT REQUIREMENTS USING RAW GAS BURNERS
Btu/Hr Required Per SCFM of Process Stream

2000
T

2=

T1

15

T2

00

1500

rea

00

13

00

11

00

90

80

70

60

500

tT
em

pe

rat
u

00

10

1000

Ou

tle

00

12

St

14

re

200

400

600

These curves show the heat input required per


scfm of process air stream where the burner derives
its combustion air from the stream. They can also be
used to calculate heat requirements for direct-fired
fume incinerators, provided:
1. Oxygen content of the fume stream is at least 20%,
and
2. Combustible solvents in the fume stream make a
negligible contribution to the heat input.
The curves are calculated from the relationship.
Btu/hr = scfm x 1.1 x (T2-T1)
available heat, expressed as a decimal
For high stream inlet and outlet temperatures, they
produce more accurate results than the traditional relationship
Btu/hr = scfm x 1.1 x (T2-T1),
which does not take variations of available heat into
account.
If the application requires a burner with a separate
combustion air source, use the curves below.

1000

800

T1, Process Stream Inlet Temperature, F

AIR HEATING & FUME INCINERATION


HEAT REQUIREMENTS USING BURNERS WITH SEPARATE
COMBUSTION AIR SOURCES
3500

T1

These curves show the heat input required per scfm


of process air stream using a burner with a separate
combustion air source. They are calculated from the
relationship:
Btu/hr = scfm x 1.1 x (T2-T1)
available heat, expressed as a decimal
See above for heat requirements of systems using a
raw gas burner.

T2

Btu/Hr Required Per SCFM of Process Stream

3000
T

2 =

15

00

2500

St

re

14

2000

1500

00

11

00

10

00

0
0

tle

90

tT
em

pe

ra
t

00

12

500

Ou

00

13

1000

am

ur

0F

80
0
70 F
0F
60
0F

200

400

600

800

1000

T1, Process Stream Inlet Temperature, F


45

FUME INCERATION SELECTION & SIZING GUIDELINES


I.

Process Information Required


A. Fume stream flow rate, scfm or acfm. (If acfm,
specify temperature at which flow is measured.)
Maximum and minimum flow rates are required.
B. Fume stream temperature at inlet to burner at
maximum and minimum flow rates.
C. Oxygen content of fume stream.
D. Amount of particulates or other non-volatile
matter in fume stream.
E. Incineration temperature required, typically:
600-900F for catalytic incinerators
1200-1500F for thermal incinerators.
F. Residence time required in combustion chamber,
typically, 0.3 to 0.7 seconds.
II. Burner Type Selection
Two basic types of burners are used to fire fume incinerators: raw gas burners, which obtain their combustion
air from the incoming fume stream, and fresh air burners,
which obtain theirs from an external source.
Raw gas burners permit higher fuel efficiency, but they
cant be used under as wide a variety of operating conditions. The table below provides some general guidelines
for burner selection.
Fresh Air
Selection Factor
Raw Gas Burner Burner
Oxygen content of 18-21%
ok
ok
fume stream
13-18% maybecheck mfr.
ok
below 13%
no
ok
Fume stream
Up to 1100F Depends on burner
ok
temperature
check mfr.
entering burner Over 1100F
no
ok
Particulates or None
ok
ok
other non-vola- Low
probably ok
ok
tiles in stream Heavy
Depends on burner
ok
check mfr.

{
{
{

III. Calculating Burner Input


A. For raw gas burners, use the chart on the top of page
45.
B. For fresh air burners use the chart on the bottom of
page 45.
These charts give Btu/hr required per scfm of
fume stream. Multiply this figure by the fume
stream flow rate, in scfm, to determine total burner heat input.
C. If the burner will take part of its combustion air
from the fume stream and the rest from an outside
source, heat input can be closely estimated with
this method:
From page 45, deteremine Btu/hr required with
a raw gas burner. Call this Br.
From page 45, deteremine Btu/hr required with
a 100% fresh air burner. Call this Bf.
Btu/hr (partial fresh air) =
Br + % fresh combustion air (BfBr)
100

46

IV. Sizing Profile Plates


If the burner is the type that is placed inside the
fume duct, it has to be surrounded with a profile plate.
Fumes are forced to pass through the gap between the
profile plate and burner, ensuring that they mix completely with the burner flame.
To size the profile gap, you need to know:
1.Temperature of the fume stream passing over the
burner,
2.Fume stream pressure drop required across the profile gap (see burner manufacturers catalog data).
Refer to the chart on page 17. Locate the required
pressure drop at the bottom of the chart, then read up
to the appropriate temperature curve and left to the
stream velocity. Divide this velocity into the fume
stream flow expressed in acfm:
Profile gap, sq ft = Fume stream flow, acfm
Fume stream velocity, ft/min
For best results, the profile gap must be uniform
width around the perimeter of the burner. Check manufacturers literature for specific recommendations on
design and location of profile plates.
NOTE: The air diffuser openings in some types of
burners are considered part of the profile area. If so,
deduct the area of these openings from the total profile area. The result will be the area of the gap around
the burner.
V. Sizing Downstream Combustion Chamber
A. Chamber Cross-sectional area (A), Good practice
requires no great than 30 ft/sec velocity in the combustion chamber, so
A, sq ft = acfm of heated fume stream
1800
B. Combustion chamber length (L) is dictated by
the required residence time.
L, feet = Stream velocity x residence time.
If, for example, velocity is 30 ft/sec, and residence
time is 0.5 seconds, L is 15 feet.
WARNING! Incineration of fume streams containing
compounds of chlorine, fluorine, or sulfur will produce
combustion products which may be toxic or corrosive, or
both. Consult with environmental authorities before considering fume incineration.

LIQUID HEATING BURNER SIZING GUIDELINES


I.

B. Heat Balance Steady State Heat Requirements


Tank Heating
1.Heat to workload
To determine the immersion burner size for heating a
liquid tank, conduct two heat balancesone for heatBtu/hr =
up requirements, the other for steady-state operating
Lb of work processed x
requirements. Use the larger of the two Btu inputs
hr
obtained from these calculations.
specific heat x temperature rise, F
A. Heat Balance Heatup Requirements
(Work weight must include all baskets & fixtures)
1.Heat to water
Specific heat of steel is 0.14 Btu/lb - F.
Btu/hr = Lb water x temperature rise, F
See pages 37 to 39 for other materials.
heatup time required, hr
2.Surface losses evaporation & radiation
or
Same as Step A.2.
Btu/hr = 8.3 x gallons water x temperature rise, F
3.Tank wall losses
heatup time required, hr
Same as Step A.3.
or
4.Heat to makeup water
Btu/hr =
Btu/hr = 62.4 x cu ft water x temperature rise, F
makeup rate, gal/hr x 8.3 x temperature rise, F
heatup time required, hr
5.Total steady state heat requirement
Common practice allows the following heatup
Heat to workload
times for various size tanks:
+ Surface losses
Tank Capacity
Heatup
+ Tank wall losses
Gallons
Cu Ft Time, hr
+ Heat to makeup water
0-375
0-50
2
= Total steady state requirement
375-750
50-100
4
C. Compare the heat requirements calculated in
750-1500 100-200
6
Steps A.5 and B.5. Select the larger of the two .
Over 1500 Over 200
8
(This is the net hourly input to the tank.)
2.Surface losses evaporation & radiation
D. Gross Heat Input (Burner Firing Rate)
Btu/hr = Exposed bath surface x heat loss
from Table 1.
Gross Input, Btu/hr = Net Input from A.5 or B.5 x 100
% Efficiency required
3.Tank wall losses
Efficiency is a function of immersion tube
Btu/hr = Total sq ft of tank walls & bottom x wall
length and burner firing rate. 70% is a commonly
loss from Table 1.
used efficiency rating.
4.Tank heat storage
E. Immersion Tube Sizing
See burner manufacturers product literature
Btu/hr =
for tube sizing recommendations.
Total sq ft, tank walls & bottom x storage, Table 1.
heatup time required, hr
Table 1. Tank losses & storage
5.Total heatup requirements
Surface Losses,
Wall Losses, Btu/sq ft-hr Heat Storage,
Heat to water
Liquid
Btu/sq ft-hr
Btu/sq ft
+ Surface losses
Temperature, Evapor- RadiaInsulation Thickness Steel Thickness
F
ation* tion
Total*
None
1"
2"
3"
1/8"
1/4"
+ Tank wall losses
+ Tank heat storage
90
80
50
130
50
12
6
4
21
42
100
160
70
230
70
15
8
6
28
56
= Total heatup requirement
110
240
90
330
90
19
10
7
35
70
120

360

110

470

110

23

12

42

84

130
140
150
160

480
660
860
1100

135
160
180
210

615
820
1040
1310

135
160
180
210

27
31
34
38

14
16
18
21

10
12
13
15

49
56
63
70

98
112
126
140

170
180
190
200

1380
1740
2160
2680

235
260
290
320

1615
2000
2450
3000

235
260
290
320

42
46
50
53

23
25
27
29

16
17
19
20

77
84
91
98

154
168
182
196

210
220
250
275

3240
4000

360
420
510
600

3590
4420

360
380
510
600

57
62
70
81

31
33
40
45

22
23
25
29

105
112
133
151

210
224
266
301

300
325
350
400

705
850
990
1335

705
850
990
1335

92
103
114
138

51
57
63
75

33
36
40
49

168
186
203
238

336
371
406
476

*Water or water-based solutions only.

47

B. Temperature Drop Rule of Thumb


1.Data required:
Gpm capacity of spray nozzles
Temperature of liquid
Tube efficiency (usually 70%)
2.Approximate temperature drop of water. Table
3 lists the approximate loss in water temperature as it is sprayed onto the workload.
Table 3. Water Temperature Drop
Water
Temperature
Drop, F
Temperature, F
150
5
160
6
170
7
180
8
190
9
200
10
3.Calculation of gross burner input.
Gpm x 500 x Temp Drop
Btu/hr =
x 100
% Efficiency
4.Tank sizing
Tank capacity = 3 x Gpm spray capacity
C. Quick Method Rule of Thumb
Btu/hr gross burner input =
4000 x Gpm sprayed @ 30 psi x 100
% Efficiency
Capacities of spray nozzles are listed in Table 4.

II. Spray Washers


Three methods are presented for calculating spray
washer heat requirements. The first is the most accurate, making use of detailed heat loss factors. The
other two are rule-of-thumb methods. While not as
accurate as method A, they are useful for quickly
estimating burner inputs.
A. Heat Loss Method
1.Data required:
Gpm capacity of spray nozzles
Height & width of washer housing (hood)
Height & width of opening through which
work passes
Liquid pressure head
Liquid temperature
Location of stage in washer
2.Heat Loss factors
From Table 2, find the heat loss factors for
housing height opening width
housing width liquid pressure
opening height liquid temperature
Add all these factors together to get the combined factor, f.
3.Stage location multiplier, M
Location
Multiplier
Entrance Stage
1.75
Intermediate Stage
1.00
After a Cold Rinse
1.25
Exist Stage
1.50
4.Calculation of Gross Burner Input
Btu/hr = Gpm x 500 x f x M
This method yields gross burner input because
an immersion tube efficiency of 70% has
already been assumed in the heat loss factors.

Table 4. Capacities of Spray Nozzles


PSI
Ft. Hd.
Press (Approx.)

Table 2. Spray Washer Heat Loss Factors


Housing
Wide
Ft.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

f
.7
.8
.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2

Opening

High
Ft.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

.3
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

Wide
Ft.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

f
.8
.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2

Liquid

High
Ft.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.5

Press.
PSIG

5
7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5
20
22.5
30
32.5
35
37.5
40
50
100

.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.6
3.5

Temp.
F
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
185
190

f
.4
.5
.6
.7
.8
.9
1.0
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.2

1/4"

Gallons per minute of water through


a nozzle diameter of:
5/16" 3/8" 7/16" 1/2"
5/8"
3/4"

5
10
15

11.5
23.0
35.0

3.3
4.7
5.8

5.2
7.3
9.1

7.4
10.4
12.9

10.2
14.3
17.7

13.3
18.7
23.2

20.8
29.3
36.2

30.0
42.3
52.3

20
25
30

46.5
57.5
68.5

6.7
7.4
8.1

10.5
11.7
12.9

14.8
16.6
18.2

20.7
22.7
24.8

26.7
29.7
32.4

41.8
46.8
50.7

60.5
67.0
73.0

35
40
45

81.0
92.5
104.0

8.8
9.4
10.0

13.8
14.8
15.7

19.7
21.3
22.4

27.0
28.8
30.6

35.2
37.7
39.9

55.1
58.9
65.1

79.5
85.0
90.0

50
55
60

115.0
126.5
138.0

10.5
11.0
11.0

16.5
17.3
18.1

23.5
24.7
25.8

32.1
33.7
35.2

42.0
44.1
46.1

65.7 94.6
68.9 99.5
72.1 104.0

65
70
75

150.0
162.0
172.0

12.0
12.4
12.9

18.8
19.6
20.2

26.9
27.9
28.9

36.7
38.1
39.4

48.0
49.7
51.5

75.0 108.2
77.9 112.0
80.6 116.0

80
85
90

184.5
195.0
205.0

13.3
13.7
14.0

20.9
21.5
22.0

29.9
30.7
31.4

40.7
41.8
42.9

53.3
54.7
56.2

83.1 119.9
85.5 123.5
87.7 126.7

95
100

214.5
224.0

14.4
14.6

22.6
23.1

32.1
32.8

43.9
44.8

57.5
58.7

89.8 129.5
91.7 132.0

Above values are based on an orifice discharge coefficient of .80

ORIFICE FLOW EQUATION:


Q = 19.65 C D2 H
WHERE:
Q = Gallons per minute
D = Diameter of orifice in inches
H = Pressure drop across orifice in feet head
C = Orifice discharge coefficient

48

BLACK BODY RADIATION


350

250

r) T
em
pe
rat u
re

200

eiv
er
(C
old
e

150

100

0
500

1000

1500

2000

2500

0F

0F

00

15

320

10

0F

60

300

F
00

280

50

18
0
20 0F
00
F
22
00
F
24
00
F
260
0F

Re
c

Heat Transfer Rate, Btu/Sq Ft x 1000

300

3000

3500

Source (Hotter) Temperature, F


These curves are plotted from the relationship
4
4
Q = AK (T1 -T2 ) (page 8.2)
1 + 1 -1
P1 P2
where P1 & P2 equal 1, that is, the heat source and receiver both
have emissivities of 1.0, and they are arranged so there is no barrier to heat transfer between them.

THERMOCOUPLE DATA
ANSI Calibration Code

Useful Temp. Range, F

1600-3100

32-1600

400-1400

700-2300

1800-2700 1800-2700 -300 + 700

Positive Element
Negative Element

Pt-30%Rh*
Pt-6%Rh*

Chromel**
Constantan

Iron
Constantan

Chromel**
Alumel**

Pt-13%Rh* Pt-10%Rh*
Copper
Pt*
Pt*
Constantan

Color Coding
Positive Element
Negative Element
Outer Insulation on
Duplex Wire
Plugs & Jacks

Gray
Red
Gray
Gray

Purple
White
Yellow
Red
Red
Red
Purple or
Black or
Yellow or
Brown/Purple Brown/Black Brown/Yellow
Purple
Black
Yellow

Black
Red

Black
Red

Green
Green

Green
Green

*Pt = Platinum, Rh = Rhodium


**Trademarks - Hoskins Mfg. Co.
How to Deteremine Thermocouple Polarity if Wire Identification is Missing:
Types B, R, and S: Gently flex the ends of both wires. The stiffer wire is the positive element.
Type K: Negative element is slightly magnetic.
Type J: Positive element is magnetic.
Type T: Positive element has characteristic pinkish-orange color of copper.
49

Blue
Red
Blue or
Brown/Blue
Blue

ORTON STANDARD PYROMETRIC CONES


TEMPERATURE EQUIVALENTS
Cone Type
Heating Rate
Cone number

Large Regular
108F/hr 270F/hr

Large Iron Free


108F/hr 270F/hr

SelfSupporting Regular
108F/hr 270F/hr

SelfSupporting Iron Free Small Regular Small PCE


108F/hr 270F/hr
540F/hr
270F/hr

Cone Type
Heating Rate
Cone number

022
021
020
019
018

1074
1105
1148
1240
1306

1092
1132
1173
1265
1337

1087
1112
1159
1243
1314

1094
1143
1180
1267
1341

1157
1195
1227
1314
1391

022
021
020
019
018

017
016
015
014
013

1348
1407
1449
1485
1539

1386
1443
1485
1528
1578

1353
1411
1452
1488
1542

1391
1445
1488
1531
1582

1445
1517*
1549*
1616
1638

017
016
015
014
013

012
011
010
09
08

1571
1603
1629*
1679*
1733*

1587
1623
1641*
1693*
1751*

1623
1683
1733

1656
1720
1773

1575
1607
1632
1683
1737

1591
1627
1645
1697
1755

1627
1686
1735

1659
1724
1774

1652
1684
1686*
1751*
1801*

012
011
010
09
08

07
06
05 1/2
05
04

1783*
1816*
1852
1888*
1922*

1803*
1830*
1873
1915*
1940*

1778
1816
1852
1890
1940

1816
1843
1886
1929
1967

1787
1819
1855
1891
1926

1807
1834
1877
1918
1944

1780
1816
1854
1899
1942

1818
1845
1888
1931
1969

1846*
1873*
1908
1944*
2008*

07
06
05 1/2
05
04

03
02
01
1
2

1987*
2014*
2043*
2077*
2088*

2014*
2048*
2079*
2109*
2124*

1989
2007
2016
2050
2052
2088
2079
2111
Not Manufactured

1990
2017
2046
2080
2091

2017
2052
2082
2113
2127

1990
2010
2021
2052
2053
2089
2082
2115
Not Manufactured

2068*
2098*
2152*
2154*
2154*

03
02
01
1
2

3
4
5
6
7

2106*
2134*
2151*
2194*
2219*

2134*
2167*
2185*
2232*
2264*

2104

2109
2142
2165
2199
2228

2138
2169
2199
2232
2273

2109

2185*
2208*
2230*
2291*
2307*

3
4
5
6
7

8
9
10
11
12

2257*
2300*
2345*
2361*
2383*

2305*
2336*
2381*
2399*
2419*

2273
2300
2345
2361
2383

2314
2336
2381
2399
2419

2372*
2403*
2426*
2437*
2471*

8
9
10
11
12

13
13 1/2
14
14 1/2
15

2410*
2455*
Not Manufactured
2530*
2491*
Not Manufactured
2595*
2608*

2428
2466
2489
2527
2583

2458
2493
2523
2568
2602

2460
2460*
Not Manufactured
2548
2548*
Not Manufactured
2606
2606*

13
13 1/2
14
14 1/2
15

15 1/2
16
17
18
19

Not Manufactured
2651*
2683*
2691*
2705*
2732*
2743*
2768*
2782*

2617
2655
2694
2736
2772

2633
2687
2709
2746
2786

Not Manufactured
2716
2716*
2754
2754*
2772
2772*
2806
2806*

15 1/2
16
17
18
19

2811
2851
2890

2824
2860
2898

20
21
23
26
27

2808*
2847*
2887*
2892*
2937*

2820*
2856*
2894*
2921*
2961*

28
29
30
31
31 1/2

2937*
2955*
2977*
3022*
ND

32
32 1/2
33
34
35

2136

2140

2847

2439*

2847*
2883*
2921*
2950*
2984*

20
21
23
26
27

2971*
2993*
3009*
3054*
ND

2995*
3018*
3029*
3061*
3090*

28
29
30
31
31 1/2

3103*
3124*
3150*
3195*
3243*

3123*
3146*
3166*
3198*
3243*

3123*
3135*
3169*
3205*
3245*

32
32 1/2
33
34
35

36
37
38
39
40

3268*
ND
ND
ND
ND

3265*
ND
ND
ND
ND

3279*
3308
3362
3389
3425

36
37
38
39
40

41
42

ND
ND

ND
ND

3578
3659

41
42

The temperature equivalent tables are designed to be a guide for the selection of cones to use during firing. The temperature listed may only have a relative value to
the user. However, the values do provide a good starting point and once the proper cones are determined for a particular firing condition, excellent firing control can
be maintained. NOTES: ND = Not determined *Temperature equivalents as determined by the National Bureau of Standards by H.P. Beerman (See Journal of the
American Ceramic Society Volume 39, 1956) Large cones at 2 inch mounting height, Small & PCE cones at 15/16 inch.
1. The temperature equivalents in this table apply only to Orton Standard Pyrometric Cones, heated at the rate indicated in air atmosphere.
2. The rates of heating shown at the head of each column of temperature equivalents were maintained during the last several hundred degrees of temperature rise.
3. The temperature equivalents are not necessarily those at which cones will deform under firing conditions different from those under which the calibration determination were made.
4. For reproducible results, care should be taken to insure that the cones are set in a plaque with the bending face at the correct angle of 8 from the vertical with the
cone tips at a uniform height above the plaque.
1986 The Edward Orton Jr. Ceramic Foundation. Reprinted with permission.

50

CHAPTER 8 COMBUSTION DATA


AVAILABLE HEAT CHARTS
Available heat for Birmingham Natural Gas (1002 Btu/cu ft, 0.60 sp gr) vs. % Excess Air and Combustion Air Temperature
(at 10% excess air).
60F
Copyright 1983, GTE Products Corp., Towanda, PA 18848 USA
10% Excess Air (preheated) Used by Permission

% Available Heat (Higher Heating Value)

90
80
70

1400
1200 F
1000 F

800 F
F
400
F

60
50

0% X

S AIR

40
30
20

25

0%

0%

20

0%

XS

50%

100

15

XS

%X

AIR

SA

25%

XS

AIR

XS A

IR

10%

XS A

IR

IR

XS
30
AIR
0%
AI
35
R
XS
0
10
%
AI
XS
R
AI
R
0
1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500

Flue Gas Exit Temperature F

AVAILABLE HEAT FOR VARIOUS FUEL GASES


These curves assume 0% excess air. The excess air curves above for Birmingham Natural Gas can be used for butane,
propane, natural, mixed, coke oven, & carbureted water gas without more than 5% error in the available heat.
BUTANE 3200 BTU

2400
2200

PROPANE 2500 BTU

2000

1600
1400
1200
NATURAL GAS 1232 BTU

1000

NATURAL GAS 1050 BTU


NATURAL GAS 967 BTU

800

MIXED GAS 800 BTU


600

COKE OVEN GAS 600 BTU


CARBURETED WATER GAS 534 BTU
COKE OVEN GAS 490 BTU

400

BLUE WATER GAS 310 BTU


PRODUCER GAS 157 BTU
PRODUCER GAS 116 BTU

200

0
200 600 1000 1400 1800 2200 2600 3000 3400 3800

Flue Gas Temperature F


51

Available Heat Btu/Cu. Ft.

1800

FLUE GAS ANALYSIS CHART


16
% CO2 - #6 OIL
% O2 - DRY SAMPLE
14
% CO2 - #2 OIL

% Flue Gas Constituent

12
% O2 - SATURATED SAMPLE
10

6
% CO2 - PROPANE
4
% CO2 - NATURAL GAS

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

% Excess Air

Oxygen curves are plotted for 1002 Btu/cu ft Birmingham


natural gas. These curves can be used for all common fuel
gases and fuel oils with no more than 0.2% error in oxygen
content.
Use the O2 dry sample curve with flue gas analyzers
that use dryers or condensers to remove water from the flue

gas sample. For analyzers which add water to produce a saturated sample, use the O2 saturated sample curve.
% CO2 curves are based on typical propane and fuel oil
anlyses. If the fuel composition differs, actual CO2 curves
may vary slightly from those shown.

THEORETICAL FLAME TIP


TEMPERATURE VS. EXCESS AIR

HEAT TRANSFER RELATIONSHIPS

The maximum theoretical temperature of combustion gases


at the tip of a flame decreases with increasing amounts of
excess air. The curve bleow shows this relationship for natural gas completely burned in 60F combustion air, but is reaonsably accurate for most other common hydrocarbon fuels.

Maximum Theoretical Temperature


of Products of Combustion (F)

3200
3000

Conduction
Q = kA (t1-t2)
L
Convection
Q = fA (t1-t2)
Radiation
4
4
Q = AK (T1 -T2 )
1 + 1-1
P1
P2

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

200

400

600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800


% Excess Air in Flue Gas

52

Q =heat transferred, Btu/hr


A =surface area across which heat is
being transferred, sq. ft.
t1 =temperature of heat source, F
t2 =temperature of heat receiver, F
L =thickness of object through which heat
is conducted
k =conductivity of material, Btu-ft
hr-sq ft-F
f =convection film coefficient, Btu-ft
hr-sq ft-F
K =Stefan-Boltzmann constant,
=.1724 x 10-8 Btu/sq ft-hr-(R)4
P1 =emissivity of heat source
P2 =emissivity of heat receiver
T1 =temperature of heat source, R
T2 =temperature of heat receiver, R
(R = F + 460)

THERMAL HEAD & COLD AIR INFILTRATION INTO FURNACES


The natural buoyancy of heated gases causes them to rise
and collect under the roof of a furnace or oven. This creates
a natural pressure differential, called thermal head or draft,
which tends to pull cold air in through furnace leaks on topflued furnaces. These leaks are most pronounced at low fire,
when burner combustion gas flow is insufficient to replace
furnace gases drawn out by thermal head.
This graph can be used to predict thermal head and cold
air infiltration.
Example: Determine thermal head and cold air infiltration
in a 10' tall furnace operating at 1600F.
Solution: Read up from 1600F furnace temperature to the
intersection of the 10' curve. Read to the left to find thermal
head, 0.08" w.c. To determine air infiltration, read right to
the infiltration curve and then down to the infiltration rate,
280 scfh per square inch.

Furnacr Thermal Head or Draft, "wc


Due to Gas Buoyancy

.20
Furnace
Height Above
Hearth
.15
16'
14'
12'
.10
10'
8'
6'

.05

4'

0
0

100 200 300 400


Air Infiltration
SCFH/ Sq. In.

500 1000 1500 2000


Furnace
Temperature F

500

FURNACE FLUE SIZING


30

Flue Cross-Sectional Area, Sq. In.


Per 1000 SCFH of Flue Gases

20

10
8
6
5
4
2500F

1500F
500F
Average
Flue Gas
Temp.

1
1

4
5
6
8
10
Stack Height, Ft, Above Furnace Hearth

These curves predict the flue area required per 1000 scfh of
flue gases, based on the average temperature of those gases
and the height of the furnace stack. Flue openings are assumed
to be simple orifices with a discharge coefficient of 0.6, and
all pressure drop across those orifices is provided by the thermal head of the flue gases.
This method is conservative it will produce generously
sized flues.

20

30

40

50

Refer to Page 23 for volumes of combustion products for


various fuels. Remember that if the combustion system is to
be operated with excess air, the volume of combustion products has to be adjusted accordingly.
Average flue gas temperature will have to be estimated,
taking into account the effect of stack heat losses and dilution
air.
53

CHAPTER 9 MECHANICAL DATA


DIMENSIONAL AND CAPACITY DATA SCHEDULE 40 PIPE
Diameter, Inches
Nominal

Actual
Inside

Actual
Outside

Wall
Thickness,
Inches

1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
3-1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

0.269
0.364
0.493
0.622
0.824
1.049
1.380
1.610
2.067
2.469
3.068
3.548
4.026
5.047
6.065
7.981
10.020
11.938
13.126
15.000
16.876
18.814

0.405
0.540
0.675
0.840
1.050
1.315
1.660
1.900
2.375
2.875
3.500
4.000
4.500
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.750
12.750
14.000
16.000
18.000
20.000

0.068
0.088
0.091
0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.226
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.365
0.406
0.437
0.500
0.562
0.593

Circumference,
Inches
Nominal
Dia. In.
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
3-1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

Outside
1.27
1.69
2.12
2.65
3.29
4.13
5.21
5.96
7.46
9.03
10.96
12.56
14.13
17.47
20.81
27.09
33.77
40.05
47.12
53.41
56.55
62.83

Inside
0.84
1.14
1.55
1.95
2.58
3.29
4.33
5.06
6.49
7.75
9.63
11.14
12.64
15.84
19.05
26.07
31.47
37.70
44.76
51.52
53.00
59.09

Cross-Sectional Area
Sq. in.
Outside

Inside

Metal

Weight Per Foot, lb.


of
of
of
Pipe
Water Pipe and
Alone
In Pipe
Water

0.129
0.229
0.358
0.554
0.866
1.358
2.164
2.835
4.431
6.492
9.621
12.568
15.903
24.308
34.474
58.426
90.79
127.67
153.94
201.06
254.47
314.16

0.057
0.104
0.191
0.304
0.533
0.864
1.495
2.036
3.356
4.788
7.393
9.888
12.730
20.004
28.890
50.030
78.85
113.09
135.33
176.71
223.68
278.01

0.072
0.125
0.167
0.250
0.333
0.494
0.669
0.799
1.075
1.704
2.228
2.680
3.173
4.304
5.584
8.396
11.90
15.77
18.61
24.35
30.79
36.15

0.25
0.43
0.57
0.86
1.14
1.68
2.28
2.72
3.66
5.80
7.58
9.11
10.80
14.70
19.00
28.60
40.50
53.60
63.30
82.80
105.00
123.00

Sq. Ft. of Surface


Per Lineal Foot
Outside
0.106
0.141
0.177
0.221
0.275
0.344
0.435
0.497
0.622
0.753
0.916
1.047
1.178
1.456
1.734
2.258
2.814
3.370
3.930
4.440
4.712
5.236

Inside
0.070
0.095
0.129
0.167
0.215
0.274
0.361
0.422
0.540
0.654
0.803
0.928
1.052
1.319
1.585
2.090
2.622
3.140
3.722
4.310
4.420
4.920

54

Contents of Pipe
Per Lineal Foot
Cu. Ft.
0.0004
0.0007
0.0013
0.0021
0.0037
0.0062
0.0104
0.0141
0.0233
0.0332
0.0514
0.0682
0.0884
0.1390
0.2010
0.3480
0.5470
0.7850
1.0690
1.3920
1.5530
1.9250

Gal.
0.003
0.005
0.010
0.016
0.028
0.045
0.077
0.106
0.174
0.248
0.383
0.513
0.660
1.040
1.500
2.600
4.100
5.870
7.030
9.180
11.120
14.400

0.028
0.045
0.083
0.132
0.232
0.375
0.649
0.882
1.454
2.073
3.201
4.287
5.516
8.674
12.52
21.68
34.16
48.50
58.64
76.58
96.93
120.46

0.278
0.475
0.653
0.992
1.372
2.055
2.929
3.602
5.114
7.873
10.781
13.397
16.316
23.374
31.52
50.28
74.66
102.10
121.94
159.38
201.93
243.46

Lineal Feet To Contain

1 Cu. Ft.
2533.775
1383.789
754.360
473.906
270.034
166.618
96.275
70.733
42.913
30.077
19.479
14.565
11.312
7.198
4.984
2.878
1.826
1.273
1.067
0.814
0.644
0.517

1 LB.
1 Gal. of Water
338.74 35.714
185.00 22.222
100.85 12.048
63.36
7.576
36.10
4.310
22.28
2.667
12.87
1.541
9.46
1.134
5.74
0.688
4.02
0.482
2.60
0.312
1.95
0.233
1.51
0.181
0.96
0.115
0.67
0.080
0.38
0.046
0.24
0.029
0.17
0.021
0.14
0.017
0.11
0.013
0.09
0.010
0.07
0.008

DIMENSIONS OF MALLEABLE IRON THREADED FITTINGS


per ANSI B 16.3-1977
A

A
A

90 Elbow

90 Street Elbow

45 Elbow

Cross

Tee

Street Tee
(150 lb only)

M1
M2
M3

Coupling

Reducer

Return Bend

E
F

45 Street Elbow

45 Y-Bend
(150 lb only)

Cap

CLASS 150 FITTINGS

Size

Thread
Engagement

M1
M2
M3
Close
Med.
Open
Pattern Pattern Pattern

1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
3-1/2
4
5
6

0.25
0.32
0.36
0.43
0.50
0.58
0.67
0.70
0.75
0.92
0.98
1.03
1.08
1.18
1.28

0.69
0.81
0.95
1.12
1.31
1.50
1.75
1.94
2.25
2.70
3.08
3.42
3.79
4.50
5.13

0.73
0.80
0.88
0.98
1.12
1.29
1.43
1.68
1.95
2.17
2.39
2.61
3.05
3.46

1.00
1.19
1.44
1.63
1.89
2.14
2.45
2.69
3.26
3.86
4.51

5.69
6.86
8.03

0.73
0.80
0.88
0.98
1.12
1.29
1.43
1.68
1.95
2.17

2.61

0.94
1.03
1.15
1.29
1.47
1.71
1.88
2.22
2.57
3.00

3.70

1.93
2.32
2.77
3.28
3.94
4.38
5.17
6.25
7.26

8.98

1.43
1.71
2.05
2.43
2.92
3.28
3.93
4.73
5.55

6.97

0.53
0.63
0.74
0.87
0.97
1.16
1.28
1.33
1.45
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.08
2.32
2.55

0.96
1.06
1.16
1.34
1.52
1.67
1.93
2.15
2.53
2.88
3.18

3.69

1.00
1.13
1.25
1.44
1.69
2.06
2.31
2.81
3.25
3.69

4.38

Size

Thread
Engagement

M1

M2

M3

1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3

0.43
0.47
0.57
0.64
0.75
0.84
0.87
1.00
1.17
1.23

0.94
1.06
1.25
1.44
1.63
1.94
2.13
2.50
2.94
3.38

0.81
0.88
1.00
1.13
1.31
1.50
1.69
2.00
2.25
2.50

1.44
1.63
2.00
2.19
2.56
2.88
3.13
3.69
4.50
5.13

1.00
1.13
1.31
1.50
1.69
2.00

1.38
1.56
1.81
2.13
2.31
2.69

0.78
0.83
0.98
1.08
1.26
1.38
1.43
1.68
2.06
2.17

1.37
1.62
1.87
2.12
2.37
2.87
2.87
3.62
4.12
4.12

1.44
1.69
1.75
2.00
2.38
2.69
3.19
3.69
4.06

1.75
2.25
3.00
4.00

2.50
2.50
3.50
6.00

3.00
3.00
6.00
8.00

1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.19
2.62

1.25
1.50
1.87
2.25
2.50
3.00

1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
4.50
5.00

6.00

CLASS 300 FITTINGS

55

SHEET METAL GAUGES & WEIGHTS


Gauge
No.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Carbon Steel
Thickness,
in.
lb. per sq. ft.
.1793
.1644
.1495
.1345
.1196
.1096
.0897
.0747
.0673
.0598
.0538
.0478
.0418
.0359
.0329
.0299
.0269
.0239
.0209
.0179
.0164
.0149
.0135
.0120

Galvanized Steel
Thickness,
in.
lb per sq. ft

7.500
6.875
6.250
5.625
5.000
4.375
3.750
3.125
2.812
2.500
2.250
2.000
1.750
1.500
1.375
1.250
1.125
1.000
.875
.750
.688
.625
.563
.500

.1681
.1532
.1382
.1233
.1084
.0934
.0785
.0710
.0635
.0575
.0516
.0456
.0396
.0366
.0336
.0306
.0276
.0247
.0217
.0202
.0187
.0172
.0157

Stainless (Cr-Ni) Steel


Thickness,
in.
lb. per sq. ft.

7.031
6.406
5.781
5.156
4.531
3.906
3.281
2.969
2.656
2.406
2.156
1.906
1.656
1.531
1.406
1.281
1.156
1.031
.906
.844
.781
.719
.656

.165
.1563
.135
.120
.1054
.090
.0751
.0703
.0595
.0563
.048
.042
.0355
.0344
.0293
.0281
.0235
.0219
.0178
.0172
.0151

6.930
6.563
5.670
5.040
4.427
3.780
3.154
2.953
2.499
2.363
2.016
1.764
1.491
1.444
1.231
1.181
.987
.919
.748
.722
.634

SHEET WIRE GAUGES & WEIGHTS

Gauge
No.

AWG1

Diameter, inches
Steel
Wire
Gauge2

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

.3249
.2893
.2576
.2294
.2043
.1819
.1620
.1443
.1285
.1144
.1019
.0907
.0808
.0720
.0641

.3065
.2830
.2625
.2437
.2253
.2070
.1920
.1770
.1620
.1483
.1350
.1205
.1055
.0915
.0800

BWG3
.340
.300
.284
.259
.238
.220
.203
.180
.165
.148
.134
.120
.109
.095
.083

American Wire Gauge or Brown & Sharpe Gauge for


non-ferrous wire, including electrical wire.
2
Or Washburn & Moen Gauge.
3
Birmingham Wire Gauge or Stubs Gauge.
1

56

Gauge
No.
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Diameter, inches
Steel
Wire
AWG1
Gauge2
BWG3
.0571
.0508
.0453
.0403
.0359
.0320
.0285
.0253
.0226
.0201
.0179
.0159
.0142
.0126
.0113
.0100

.0720
.0625
.0540
.0475
.0410
.0348
.0317
.0286
.0258
.0230
.0204
.0181
.0173
.0162
.0150
.0140

.072
.065
.058
.049
.042
.035
.032
.028
.025
.022
.020
.018
.016
.014
.013
.012

CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES


In Inches
Dia.

Circum.

1/64
1/32
3/64
1/16
3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4
9/32
5/16
11/32
3/8
13/32
7/16
15/32
1/2
17/32
9/16
19/32
5/8
21/32
11/16
23/32
3/4
25/32
13/16
27/32
7/8
29/32
15/16
31/32
1
1/16
1/8
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
9/16
5/8
11/16
3/4
13/16
7/8
15/16
2
1/16
1/8
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
9/16
5/8
11/16
3/4
13/16
7/8
15/16

.04909
.09818
.14726
.19635
.29452
.39270
.49087
.58905
.68722
.78540
.88357
.98175
1.0799
1.1781
1.2763
1.3744
1.4726
1.5708
1.6690
1.7671
1.8653
1.9635
2.0617
2.1598
2.2580
2.3562
2.4544
2.5525
2.6507
2.7489
2.8471
2.9452
3.0434
3.1416
3.3379
3.5343
3.7306
3.9270
4.1233
4.3197
4.5160
4.7124
4.9087
5.1051
5.3014
5.4978
5.6941
5.8905
6.0868
6.2832
6.4795
6.6759
6.8722
7.0686
7.2649
7.4613
7.6576
7.8540
8.0503
8.2467
8.4430
8.6394
8.8357
9.0321
9.2284

Area
.00019
.00077
.00173
.00307
.00690
.01227
.01917
.02761
.03758
.04909
.06213
.07670
.09281
.11045
.12962
.15033
.17257
.19635
.22166
.24850
.27688
.30680
.33824
.37122
.40574
.44179
.47937
.51849
.55914
.60132
.64504
.69029
.73708
.7854
.8866
.9940
1.1075
1.2272
1.3530
1.4849
1.6230
1.7671
1.9175
2.0739
2.2365
2.4053
2.5802
2.7612
2.9483
3.1416
3.3410
3.5466
3.7583
3.9761
4.2000
4.4301
4.6664
4.9087
5.1572
5.4119
5.6727
5.9396
6.2126
6.4918
6.7771

Dia.

Circum.

Area

Dia.

Circum.

Area

3
1/16
1/8
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
9/16
5/8
11/16
3/4
13/16
7/8
15/16
4
1/16
1/8
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
9/16
5/8
11/16
3/4
13/16
7/8
15/16
5
1/16
1/8
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
9/16
5/8
11/16
3/4
13/16
7/8
15/16
6
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
7
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8

9.4248
9.6211
9.8175
10.014
10.210
10.407
10.603
10.799
10.996
11.192
11.388
11.585
11.781
11.977
12.174
12.370
12.566
12.763
12.959
13.155
13.352
13.548
13.744
13.941
14.137
14.334
14.530
14.726
14.923
15.119
15.315
15.512
15.708
15.904
16.101
16.297
16.493
16.690
16.886
17.082
17.279
17.475
17.671
17.868
18.064
18.261
18.457
18.653
18.850
19.242
19.635
20.028
20.420
20.813
21.206
21.598
21.991
22.384
22.776
23.169
23.562
23.955
24.347
24.740

7.0686
7.3662
7.6699
7.9798
8.2958
8.6179
8.9462
9.2806
9.6211
9.9678
10.321
10.680
11.045
11.416
11.793
12.177
12.566
12.962
13.364
13.772
14.186
14.607
15.033
15.466
15.904
16.349
16.800
17.257
17.721
18.190
18.665
19.147
19.635
20.129
20.629
21.135
21.648
22.166
22.691
23.221
23.758
24.301
24.850
25.406
25.967
26.535
27.109
27.688
28.274
29.465
30.680
31.919
33.183
34.472
35.785
37.122
38.485
39.871
41.282
42.718
44.179
45.664
47.173
48.707

8
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
9
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
10
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
11
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
12
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
13
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
14
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
15
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8

25.133
25.525
25.918
26.311
26.704
27.096
27.489
27.882
28.274
28.667
29.060
29.452
29.845
30.238
30.631
31.023
31.416
31.809
32.201
32.594
32.987
33.379
33.772
34.165
34.558
34.950
35.343
35.736
36.128
36.521
36.914
37.306
37.699
38.092
38.485
38.877
39.270
39.663
40.055
40.448
40.841
41.233
41.626
42.019
42.412
42.804
43.197
43.590
43.982
44.374
44.768
45.160
45.553
45.946
46.338
46.731
47.124
47.517
47.909
48.302
48.695
49.087
49.480
49.873

50.265
51.849
53.456
55.088
56.745
58.426
60.132
61.862
63.617
65.397
67.201
69.029
70.882
72.760
74.662
76.589
78.540
80.516
82.516
84.541
86.590
88.664
90.763
92.886
95.033
97.205
99.402
101.62
103.87
106.14
108.43
110.75
113.10
115.47
117.86
120.28
122.72
125.19
127.68
130.19
132.73
135.30
137.89
140.50
143.14
145.80
148.49
151.20
153.94
156.70
159.48
162.30
165.13
167.99
170.87
173.78
176.71
179.67
182.65
185.66
188.69
191.75
194.83
197.93

57

CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES (Contd)


In Inches
Dia.

Circum.

Area

Dia.

Circum.

Area

Dia.

Circum.

Area

16
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
17
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
18
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
19
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
20
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
21
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
22
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
23
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8

50.265
50.658
51.051
51.444
51.836
52.229
52.622
53.014
53.407
53.800
54.192
54.585
54.978
55.371
55.763
56.156
56.549
56.941
57.334
57.727
58.119
58.512
58.905
59.298
59.690
60.083
60.476
60.868
61.261
61.654
62.046
62.439
62.832
63.225
63.617
64.010
64.403
64.795
65.188
65.581
65.973
66.366
66.759
67.152
67.544
67.937
68.330
68.722
69.115
69.508
69.900
70.293
70.686
71.079
71.471
71.864
72.257
72.649
73.042
73.435
73.827
74.220
74.613
75.006

201.06
204.22
207.39
210.60
213.82
217.08
220.35
223.65
226.98
230.33
233.71
237.10
240.53
243.98
247.45
250.95
254.47
258.02
261.59
265.18
268.80
272.45
276.12
279.81
283.53
287.27
291.04
294.83
298.65
302.49
306.35
310.24
314.16
318.10
322.06
326.05
330.06
334.10
338.16
342.25
346.36
350.50
354.66
358.84
363.05
367.28
371.54
375.83
380.13
384.46
388.82
393.20
397.61
402.04
406.49
410.97
415.48
420.00
424.56
429.13
433.74
438.36
443.01
447.69

24
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
25
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
26
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
27
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
28
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
29
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
30
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

75.398
75.791
76.184
76.576
76.969
77.362
77.754
78.147
78.540
78.933
79.325
79.718
80.111
80.503
80.896
81.289
81.681
82.074
82.467
82.860
83.252
83.645
84.038
84.430
84.823
85.216
85.608
86.001
86.394
86.786
87.179
85.572
87.965
88.357
88.750
89.143
89.535
89.928
90.321
90.713
91.106
91.499
91.892
92.284
92.677
93.070
93.462
93.855
94.248
94.640
95.033
95.426
95.819
96.211
96.604
96.997
97.389
100.531
103.673
106.814
109.956
113.097
116.239
119.381

452.39
457.11
461.86
466.64
471.44
476.26
481.11
485.98
490.87
495.79
500.74
505.71
510.71
515.72
520.77
525.84
530.93
536.05
541.19
546.35
551.55
556.76
562.00
567.27
572.56
577.87
583.21
588.57
593.96
599.37
604.81
610.27
615.75
621.26
626.80
632.36
637.94
643.55
649.18
654.84
660.52
666.23
671.96
677.71
683.49
689.30
695.13
700.98
706.86
712.76
718.69
724.64
730.62
736.62
742.64
748.69
754.77
804.25
855.30
907.92
962.11
1017.9
1075.2
1134.1

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

122.522
125.664
128.805
131.947
135.088
138.230
141.372
144.513
147.655
150.796
153.939
157.080
160.221
163.363
166.504
169.646
172.788
175.929
179.071
182.212
185.354
188.496
191.637
194.779
197.920
201.062
204.204
207.345
210.487
213.628
216.770
219.911
223.053
226.195
229.336
232.478
235.619
238.761
241.903
245.044
248.186
251.327
254.469
257.611
260.752
263.894
267.035
270.177
273.319
276.460
279.602
282.743
285.885
289.027
292.168
295.310
298.451
301.593
304.734
307.876
311.018
314.159

1194.6
1256.6
1320.3
1385.4
1452.2
1520.5
1590.4
1661.9
1734.9
1809.6
1885.7
1963.5
2042.8
2123.7
2206.2
2290.2
2375.8
2463.0
2551.8
2642.1
2734.0
2827.4
2922.5
3019.1
3117.2
3217.0
3318.3
3421.2
3525.7
3631.7
3739.3
3848.5
3959.2
4071.5
4185.4
4300.8
4417.9
4536.6
4656.6
4778.4
4901.7
5026.5
5153.0
5281.0
5410.6
5541.8
5674.5
5808.8
5944.7
6082.1
6221.1
6361.7
6503.9
6647.6
6792.9
6939.8
7088.2
7238.2
7389.8
7543.0
7697.7
7854.0

58

DRILL SIZE DATA


Twist
Drill Size

1/64

1/32

3/64

1/16

5/64

3/32

7/64

80
79

78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68

67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56

55
54
53

52
51
50
49
48

47
46
45
44
43
42

41
40
39
38
37
36

35
34
33

Dia.
In.

Area
Sq. In.

Twist
Drill Size

Dia.
In.

.0135
.0145
.0156
.016
.018
.020
.021
.0225
.024
.025
.026
.028
.0292
.030
.0312
.032
.033
.035
.036
.037
.038
.039
.040
.041
.042
.043
.0465
.0469
.0520
.0550
.0595
.0625
.0635
.0670
.070
.073
.076
.0781
.0785
.081
.082
.086
.089
.0935
.0937
.096
.098
.0995
.1015
.104
.1065
.1093
.110
.111
.113

.000143
.000165
.00019
.00020
.00025
.00031
.00035
.00040
.00045
.00049
.00053
.00062
.00067
.00075
.00076
.00080
.00086
.00096
.00102
.00108
.00113
.00119
.00126
.00132
.00138
.00145
.00170
.00173
.00210
.0023
.0028
.0031
.0032
.0035
.0038
.0042
.0043
.0048
.0049
.0051
.0053
.0058
.0062
.0069
.0069
.0072
.0075
.0078
.0081
.0085
.0090
.0094
.0095
.0097
.0100

1/8

9/64

5/32

11/64

3/16

13/64

7/32

15/64

1/4

17/64

9/32

.116
.120
.125
.1285
.136
.1405
.1406
.144
.147
.1495
.152
.154
.1562
.157
.159
.161
.166
.1695
.1719
.175
.177
.180
.182
.185
.1875
.189
.191
.1935
.196
.199
.201
.2031
.204
.2055
.209
.213
.2187
.221
.228
.234
.2343
.238
.242
.246
.250
.257
.261
.2656
.266
.272
.277
.281
.2812
.290
.295

32
31

30
29
28

27
26
25
24
23

22
21
20
19
18

17
16
15
14
13

12
11
10
9
8
7

6
5
4
3

2
1
A

B
C
D
E
F
G

H
I
J
K

L
M

59

Area
Sq. In.
.0106
.0113
.0123
.0130
.0145
.0155
.0156
.0163
.0174
.0175
.0181
.0186
.0192
.0193
.0198
.0203
.0216
.0226
.0232
.0235
.0246
.0254
.0260
.0269
.0276
.02805
.02865
.0294
.0302
.0311
.0316
.0324
.0327
.0332
.0343
.0356
.0376
.0384
.0409
.0430
.0431
.0444
.0460
.0475
.0491
.0519
.0535
.0554
.0556
.0580
.0601
.0620
.0621
.0660
.0683

Twist
Drill Size
19/64

5/16

21/64

11/32

23/64

3/8

25/64

13/32

7/16
29/64
15/32
31/64
1/2
33/64
17/32
35/64
9/16
37/64
19/32
39/64
5/8
41/64
21/32
43/64
11/16
45/64
23/32
47/64
3/4
49/64
25/32
51/64
13/16
53/64
27/32
55/64
7/8

O
P

Q
R

S
T

V
W

X
Y

Dia.
In.

Area
Sq. In.

.2968
.302
.3125
.316
.323
.3281
.332
.339
.3437
.348
.358
.3593
.368
.375
.377
.386
.3906
.397
.404
.4062
.413
.4375
.4531
.4687
.4843
.5000
.5156
.5312
.5468
.5625
.5781
.5937
.6093
.625
.6406
.6562
.6718
.6875
.7031
.7187
.7343
.750
.7656
.7812
.7968
.8125
.8281
.8337
.8593
.875

.0692
.0716
.0767
.0784
.0820
.0846
.0866
.0901
.0928
.0950
.1005
.1014
.1063
.1104
.1116
.1170
.1198
.1236
.1278
.1296
.1340
.1503
.1613
.1726
.1843
.1963
.2088
.2217
.2349
.2485
.2625
.2769
.2916
.3068
.3223
.3382
.3545
.3712
.3883
.4057
.4236
.4418
.4604
.4794
.4987
.5185
.5386
.5591
.5800
.6013

TAP DRILL SIZES


Taps for Machine Threads Drill sizes for 75% of full
thread
Thread
Tap Drill
Thread
Tap Drill
Size
Size
Size
Size
6-32 NC
6-40 NF
8-32 NC
8-36 NF

36
34
30
29

3/8-16 NC
3/8-24 NF
7/16-14 NC
7/16-20 NF

5/16
Q
U
W

10-24 NC
10-32 NF
12-24 NC
12-28 NF

25
21
17
15

1/2-13 NC
1/2-20 NF
9/16-12 NC
9/16-18 NF

.425
29/64
31/64
.508

1/4-20 NC
1/4-28 NF
5/16-18 NC
5/16-24 NF

7
3
F
I

5/8-11 NC
5/8-18 NF
3/4-10 NC
3/4-16 NF

17/32
.571
21/32
11/16

7/8-9 NC
7/8-14 NF
1-8 NC

49/64
.805
7/8

Pipe Taps American Standard and Dryseal Pipe


Threads
Pipe Threads
Tap
Pipe Threads Tap
Size,
Per
Drill
Size
Per
Drill
Inches
Inch
Size Inches
Inch
Size
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2

27
18
18
14

11/32
7/16
9/16
45/64

2
2-1/2
3
4

11-1/2
8
8
8

2-7/32
2-5/8
3-1/4
4-1/4

3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2

14
11-1/2
11-1/2
11-1/2

29/32
1-9/64
1-31/64
1-47/64

5
6
8

8
8
8

5-5/16
6-3/8
8-3/8

N
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
12
12
12
16
16
20
20

Bolt
Diameter
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
5/8
5/8
5/8
5/8
3/4
3/4
7/8
7/8
1
1
1-1/8
1-1/8
1-1/4

See page 59 for diameters of numbered and lettered


tap drills.

DRILLING TEMPLATES PIPE FLANGES


Drilling template dimensions of Class 150 pipe flanges per
ANSI B 16.5 1981.

C - Bolt Hole Diameter


N - Number of Bolt Holes
A - O.D.

B - Bolt Circle
Diameter

60

Nominal
Pipe
Size
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24

All dimensions in inches


A
3.50
3.88
4.25
4.62
5.00
6.00
7.00
7.50
9.00
11.00
13.50
16.00
19.00
21.00
23.50
25.00
27.50
32.00

B
2.38
2.75
3.12
3.50
3.88
4.75
5.50
6.00
7.50
9.50
11.75
14.25
17.00
18.75
21.25
22.75
25.00
29.50

C
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.75
.75
.75
.75
.88
.88
1.00
1.00
1.12
1.12
1.25
1.25
1.38

CHAPTER 10 ABBREVIATIONS & SYMBOLS


ABBREVIATIONS
A ampere(s), area
A, C, or a-c alternating current
acfh actual cubic feet per hour
acfm actual cubic feet per minute
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API American Petroleum Institute
API degrees API (a measurement of fuel oil specific gravity)
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
AWG American Wire Gauge
Btu British thermal unit
BWG Birmginham Wire Gauge
C or C degrees Celsius or Centigrade
Cal kilogram-calorie or kilo-calorie (equals 1000 calories)
cal calorie
Cd coefficient of discharge
cfh cubic feet per hour
cfm cubic feet per minute
CL centerline
cm centimeter(s)
cs or cSt centistoke(s)
cu ft cubic feet
cu in cubic inches
cu m cubic meters
Cv - flow coefficient or flow factor (for valve capacities)
D or d density, diameter
D.C. or d-c direct current
deg degree(s)
dia diameter
e - emissivity
E degrees Engler (a measurement of fuel oil viscosity)
F or F degrees Fahrenheit
f convection film coefficient
F.B. firebrick
fpm feet per minute
fps feet per second
ft foot or feet
G or g gravity or specific gravity
gal gallon(s)
gph gallons per hour
gpm gallons per minute
h - pressure drop
hf heat content of liquid (water & steam)
hfg latent heat of vaporization, water to steam
hg heat content of vapor (steam)
"Hg inches of mercury column
HL heat loss
HP or hp horsepower
hr hour(s)
HS heat storage
Hz Hertz (cycles per second in alternating current)
ID or id inside diameter
I.F.B. insulating firebrick
in inch(es)
in2 square inch(es)

in3 cubic inch(es)


JIC Joint Industrial Council
K Stefan Boltzmann constant
k thermal conductivity
K degrees Kelvin
kcal kilogram-calorie or kilo-calorie (same as Cal)
kPa kiloPascal
kVA kilo volt amperes
L length or thickness
lb pound(s)
LPG liquified petroleum gas
mbar millibar(s)
mmHg millimeters of mercury column
mmw.c. millimeters of water column
N.C. normally closed
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
N.O. normally open
OD or od outside diameter
osi ounces per square inch
oz ounce(s)
P pressure or pressure drop
psi pounds per square inch
psia pounds per square inch, absolute
psig pounds per square inch, gauge
Pv velocity pressure
Q flow (of gases, liquids, or heat)
R degrees Rankine
rpm revolutions per minute
scfh standard cubic feet per hour
scfm standard cubic feet per minute
sec second
S.G. or sg specific gravity
sp ht specific heat
sp gr specific gravity
sq ft square feet
sq in square inch(es)
SR1 seconds Redwood #1 (a measurement of fuel oil viscosity)
SSF seconds Saybolt Furol (a measurement of fuel oil viscosity)
SSU seconds Saybolt Universal (a measurement of fuel oil
viscosity)
T or t temperature
Tabs absolute temperature
TC cold face temperature or thermocouple
V vacuum, volts, or volume
Vg specific volume of water vapor
W flow rate
"w.c. inches of water column
"w.g. inches of water gauge (same as "w.c.)
wt weight

61

ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS
Shown below are graphic symbols commonly used in JICtype ladder diagrams for combustion control systems. For
a complete list of symbols, refer to JIC Electrical Standard
EMP-1.
Description
Coils
Relays (CR)
Timers (TR)
Motor Starters (M)
Contactors (CON)

Symbol
CR
M

TR
CON

Coils
Solenoids

SOL

Symbol

Contacts
Relays (CR)
Motor Starters (M)
Contactors (CON)
N.O.

Connected
GRD

Description

N.C.

CR
M
CON

Pilot Light
Push to Test
(Letter denotes
color)

OL
IOL

Pushbutton
Single
Circuit, N.O.
Single
Circuit, N.C.

H1

Control Circuit
Transformer

H3

H2

X1

CH

PL

LT
R

LT
R

PB

PB

PB
H4

Chassis or
Frame (not
necessarily
grounded)

Symbol

Pilot Light
(Letter denotes
color)

CR
M
CON

Contacts
Thermal Overload
Overload Relay
(OL)
Instataneous
Overload (IOL)

Conductors
Not Connected

Connections
Ground

Description

X2

FU

Fuses All
Types

Double
Circuit
Double
Circuit,
Mushroom
Head

PB

PB

Plug and
Receptacle

AH

Horn or Siren
(Alarm)

PB

Maintained
Contact

RECP

Contacts
Time Delay
After Coil
Energized
N.O.

TR

Meters
Volt

VM

Amp

AM

TR

Circuit
Breaker

MTR

Time Delay
After Coil
De-energized
N.O.

TR
A

D.C .

POT

TR

Potentiometer
N.C.

62

CI

Circuit
Interruptor

MTR

Motors
3 Phase

N.C.

DISC

Switches
Disconnect

CB

ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS (Contd)


Description

Symbol

Switch, Limit
N.O.

LS

Switch, Selector
2 Position

Symbol
2

LS

N.C.

LS

Held Open

Description

Symbol

Switch, Vacuum
or Pressure
N.O.

PS

SS
1

LS

Held Closed

Neutral
Position,

Description

N.C.
3 Position

SS
2

Thermal Overload
Element
Overload (OL)
Instantaneous
Overload (IOL)

LS
NP

PS

OL
IOL

LS

Neutral
Position,
Actuated

NP

Switch,
Temperature
N.O.

Switch, Liquid
Level
N.O.

FS

N.C.

FS

TAS

N.C.

TAS

Switch,
Toggle

TGS

63

Thermocouple

T/C

CHAPTER 11 CONVERSION FACTORS


GENERAL CONVERSION FACTORS
MULTIPLY

BY

MULTIPLY

TO OBTAIN

atmospheres . . . . . . . . .33.90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Feet of H2O


29.92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Inches of Hg
14.70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Psi
1013.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Millibars
760.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .mm. of Hg
1.058 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tons/sq..ft
1.033 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kg./sq. cm.
barrels (oil) . . . . . . . . . . . .42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gallons (oil)
bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..9869 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Atmospheres
1020 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg./sq. meter
btu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .778.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-pounds
252 . . . . . . . . . . . . .gram-calories
.000393 . . . . . . . . . .horsepower-hours
1055 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .joules
.252 . . . . . . . . . . .kilogram-calories
.000293 . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatt-hours
btu/cu. ft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.9 . . . . . . . . . .kilogram-calories/
cu. meter
btu/hr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..216 . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft.-pounds/sec.
.007 . . . . . . . . . . . . .gram-cal./sec.
.000393 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .horsepower
.293 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .watts
btu ft./hr. sq. ft. F . . . . .14.88 . . . . . . . .Cal-cm/hr. sq. cm C
8890.0 . . . . . . . . . .Cal. gm/cu. meter
btu/lb . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.556 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .calories/gm.
btu/lb. F . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .calories/gm C
btu/sec. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.055 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kW
btu/sq. ft.-min . . . . . . . . . .122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .watts/sq. in.
calories-gram . . . . . . ..00397 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Btu
calorie-Kg . . . . . . . . . . . .3.97 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Btu
calorie-Kg/cu. meter 0.1124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Btu/cu. ft. @
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .32F 30" Hg
calorie/hr. sq. cm. . . . . .3.687 . . . . . . . . . . . . .Btu/hr. sq. foot
centiliters . . . . . . . . . . . ..001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
centimeters . . . . . . . . . ..0328 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet
.0394 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inches
.00001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers
.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
.0000062 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .millimeters
393.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .mils
.0109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .yards
1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .microns
centimeters of mercury ..0132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres
.446 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft. of water
136 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg./sq. meter
27.85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. ft.
.193 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. in.
centimeters/sec. . . . . . .1.969 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/min.
.0328 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/sec.
.036 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers/hr.
6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters/min.
.0224 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/hr.
.00373 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/min.
centimeters/sec./sec. . ..0328 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft./sec./sec.
.036 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kms./hr.sec.
.01 . . . . . . . . . . . .meters/sec.sec.
.0224 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/hr.sec.
centipoise . . . . . . . . . . . . ..01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gr.cm.-sec.
.00067 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pound/ft.-sec.
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pound/ft.-hr.

64

BY

TO OBTAIN

circular mils . . . . . ..00000507


.785
.000000785
cubic centimeters . ..0000353
.061
.000001
.00000131
.000264
.001
.00211
00106
cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . .28320
1728
.028
.037
7.48
28.32
59.84
29.92
cubic feet/min. . . . . . . . . .472
.125
.472
62.43
cubic inches . . . . . . . . .16.39
.000579
.0000164
.0000214
.00433
.0164
.0346
.0173
cubic meters . . . . .1,000,000
35.31
6102
1.308
264.2
1000
2113
1057
cubic yards . . . . . . . .764,600
27
46656
.765
decigrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..1
deciliters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..1
decimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . ..1
degrees (angle) . . . . . . ..011
.0175
3600
degrees/sec. . . . . . . . . ..0175
.0167
.00278
dekagrams . . . . . . . . . . . .10
dekaliters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
dekameters . . . . . . . . . . . .10
dynes/sq. cm. . . ..000000987
.0000295
.000402
.00001
feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30.48
.000305
.305
.000189
304.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq.cm.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq.mils
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic in.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic yards
. . . . . . . . .gallons (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
. . . . . . . . . . .pints (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . .quarts (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. yards
. . . . . . . . .gallons (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
. . . . . . . . . . .pints (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . .quarts (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. cms./sec.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gallons/sec.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters/sec.
. . . . . . . . . .pounds water/min.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. yards
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gallons
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
. . . . . . . . . . .pints (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . .quarts (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. yards
. . . . . . . . .gallons (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
. . . . . . . . . . .pints (U.S. liuqid)
. . . . . . . . . .quarts (U.S. liquid)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .quadrants
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .radians
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .seconds
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .radians/sec.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .rvolutions/min.
. . . . . . . . . . . .revolutions/sec.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres
. . . . . .in. of mercury (at 0C.)
. . . . . . . . .in. of water (at 4C)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .bars
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .centimeters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles (stat.)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .millimeters

GENERAL CONVERSION FACTORS (Contd)


MULTIPLY

BY

MULTIPLY

TO OBTAIN

BY

TO OBTAIN

grams/sq. cm. . . . . . . . .2.048 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. ft.


gram-calories . . . . . . ..00397 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu
3.086 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-pounds
.00000156 . . . . . . . . . . .horsepower-hrs.
.00000116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatt-hrs.
.00116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .watt-hrs.
gram-calories/sec. . . . .14.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/hr.
hectares . . . . . . . . . . . .2.471 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .acres
10760 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. feet
hectograms . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
hectoliters . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
hectometers . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
hectowatts . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .watts
horsepower . . . . . . . . . .42.44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/min.
33000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-lbs./min.
550 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-lbs./sec.
horsepower (metric) . . . ..986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .horsepower
horsepower . . . . . . . . ..1.014 . . . . . . . .horsepower (metric)
10.68 . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories/min.
.746 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatts
745.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .watts
horsepower-hours . . . . ..2547 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu
1,980,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-lbs.
641,190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gram-caloies
2,684,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .joules
641.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories
273,700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-meters
.746 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatt-hrs.
hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..0417 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .days
.00595 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .weeks
25.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .millimeters
1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .mils
.0278 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .yards
in. of mercury . . . . . . . ..0334 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres
1.133 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet of water
.0345 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./sq. cm.
345.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./sq. meter
70.73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. ft
.491 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. in.
in. of water (at 4C) . . ..00246 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres
.0736 . . . . . . . . . .inches of mercury
.00254 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./sq. cm.
.578 . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces/sq. in.
5.204 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. ft.
.0361 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. in.
joules . . . . . . . . . . . ..000949 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu
.774 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-pounds
.000239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories
.102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-meters
.000278 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .watt-hrs.
kilograms . . . . . . . . . . . .1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
.0981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .joules/cm.
9.807 . . . . . .joules/meter (newtons)
2.205 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds
.000984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tons (long)
.00110 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tons (short)
35.27 . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces (avdp.)

feet of water . . . . . . . . ..0295 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres


.883 . . . . . . . . . . . . .in. of mercury
.0305 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./sq. cm.
304.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./sq. meter
62.43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. ft.
.434 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. in.
feet/min. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..508 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cms./sec.
.0167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/sec.
.0183 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kms./hr.
.305 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters/min.
.0114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/hr.
30.48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cms./sec.
feet/sec. . . . . . . . . . . . .1.097 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kms./hr.
18.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters/min.
.682 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/hr.
.0114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/min.
feet/sec./sec. . . . . . . . .30.48 . . . . . . . . . . . . .cms./sec./sec.
1.097 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kms./hr./sec.
.305 . . . . . . . . . . .meters/sec./sec.
foot-pounds . . . . . . . . ..00129 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu
.324 . . . . . . . . . . . . .gram-calories
.000000505 . . . . . . . . . . .horsepower-hrs.
1.356 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .joules
.000324 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories
.138 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-meters
.000000377 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatt-hrs.
foot-pounds/sec. . . . . . . .4.63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/hr.
.0772 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/min.
.00182 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .horsepower
.00195 . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories/min.
.00136 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatts
.00001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers
gallons . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3785 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. cms.
.134 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. feet
231 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. inches
.00379 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. meters
.00495 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. yards
3.785 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
gallons (liq. Br. imp.) . . .1.201 . . . . . . . . .gallons (U.S. liuqid)
gallons (U.S.) . . . . . . . . ..833 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gallons (imp.)
gallons of water . . . . . . .8.34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gallons (imp.)
gallons/min. . . . . . . . ..00223 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. feet/sec.
.0631 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters/sec.
8.021 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. feet/hr.
grains (troy) . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .grains (avdp.)
.0648 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
.00208 . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces (avdp.)
grams . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15.43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grains (troy)
.0000981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .joules/cm.
.00981 . . . . . .joules/meter (newtons)
.001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilograms
1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .milligrams
.0353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces (troy)
.00221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds
grams/cu. cm. . . . . . . . .62.43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/cu. ft.
.0361 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/cu. in.
grams/liter . . . . . . . . . . .58.42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grains/gal.
8.345 . . . . . . . . . .pounds/1,000 gal.
.0624 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/cu. ft.

65

GENERAL CONVERSION FACTORS (Contd)


MULTIPLY

BY

TO OBTAIN

MULTIPLY

BY

TO OBTAIN

kilograms/cu. meter . . . . ..001 . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams/cu. cm. meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .centimeters


.0624 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/cu. ft
3.281 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet
.0000361 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/cu. in.
39.37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inches
kilograms/sq. cm. . . . .980665 . . . . . . . . . . . . .dynes/sq. cm.
.001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers
.968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres
.00054 . . . . . . . . . . . .miles (nautical)
32.81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet of water
.000621 . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles (statute)
28.96 . . . . . . . . . .inches of mercury
1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .millimeters
2048 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. ft.
1.094 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .yards
14.22 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. in. meters/min. . . . . . . . . . .1.667 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cms./sec.
kilograms/sq. meter ..0000968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres
3.281 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/min.
.0000981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .bars
.0547 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/sec.
.00328 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet of water
.06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kms./hr.
.0029 . . . . . . . . . .inches of mercury
.0373 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/hr.
.205 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. ft.
meters/sec. . . . . . . . . . .196.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/min.
.00142 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. in.
3.281 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/sec.
98.07 . . . . . . . . . . . . .dynes/sq. cm.
3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers/hr.
kilograms/sq. mm . .1,000,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./sq. meter
.06 . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers/min.
kilogram-calories . . . . . .3.968 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu
2.237
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/hr.
3086 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-pounds
.0373
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/min.
.00156 . . . . . . . . . . .horsepower-hrs.
4183 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .joules meters/sec./sec. . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . . . .cms./sec./sec.
3.281 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft./sec./sec.
1163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatt-hrs.
3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kms./hr.sec.
kilogram-meters . . . . . .7.233 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-pounds
2.237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/hr./sec.
9.807 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .joules
.00234 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories micrograms . . . . . . . ..000001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
.00000272 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatt-hrs. micrograms/cu. ft. . . ..000001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams/cu. ft
.0000353 . . . . . . . . . . .grams/cu. meter
kiloliters . . . . . . . . . . . . .1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
kilometers . . . . . . . . .100,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .centimeters
.00000022 . . . . . . . . . . . .lbs./1000 cu. ft.
3281 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet
35.314 . . . . . . .micrograms/cu. meter
39,370 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inches micrograms/cu. m. . . . .0.001 . . . . . . . . . . .milligrams/cu. m.
1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
0.02832 . . . . . . . . . . .micrograms/cu. ft
.621 . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles (statute) microhms . . . . . . . . ..000001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ohms
.54 . . . . . . . . . . . .miles (nautical) microliters . . . . . . . . ..000001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
1,000,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .millimeters micromicrons ..000000000001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
1093.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .yards microns . . . . . . . . . . ..000001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
kilometers/hr. . . . . . . . .27.78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cms./sec. miles (statute) . . . . . .160,900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .centimeters
54.68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/min.
5280 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet
.911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet/sec.
63360 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inches
kilowatts . . . . . . . . . . . . .3413 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/hr
1.609 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers
44,260 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-lbs./min.
1609 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
737.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-lbs.sec.
.868 . . . . . . . . . . . .miles (nautical)
1.341 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .horsepower
1760 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .yards
14.34 . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories/min.
1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .watts miles/hr. . . . . . . . . . . . .44.70 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cms./sec.
88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft./min.
kilowatt-hrs. . . . . . . . . . .3413 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu
1.467
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft./sec.
2,655,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-lbs.
1.609 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kms./hr.
859,850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gram calories
.0268 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kms./min.
1.341 . . . . . . . . . .horsepower-hours
26.82 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters/min.
3,600,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .joules
.0167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles/min.
860.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories
367,100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-meters milligrams . . . . . . . . . . . ..001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
3.53 . .pounds of water evaporated milligrams/liter . . . . . . . . . .1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .parts/million
from and at 212F milliters . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
22.75 . . . . . .pounds of water raised millimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . ..1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .centimeters
.00328 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet
from 62 to 212F.
liters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. cm.
.0394 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inches
.0353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. ft.
.000001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilometers
61.02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. inches
.001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .meters
.001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. meters
.000000621 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .miles
.00131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. yards
39.37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .mils
.264 . . . . . . . . .gallons (U.S. liquid)
.00109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .yards
2.113 . . . . . . . . . . .pints (U.S. liquid) mils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..00254 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .centimeters
1.057 . . . . . . . . . .quarts (U.S. liquid)
.0000833 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet
liters/min. . . . . . . . . . ..00589 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. ft./sec.
.001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inches
.0044 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gals./sec.
66

GENERAL CONVERSION FACTORS (Contd)


MULTIPLY

BY

MULTIPLY

TO OBTAIN

minutes (angles) . . . . . ..0167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .degrees


.000185 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .quadrants
.000291 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .radians
60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .seconds
minutes (time) . . . . ..0000992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .weeks
.000694 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .days
.0167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .hours
60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .seconds
ounces . . . . . . . . . . . . .437.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grains
28.35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grains
.0625 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds
.912 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces (troy)
ounces (fluid) . . . . . . . .1.805 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. inches
.0296 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
ounces (troy) . . . . . . . . . .480 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grains
31.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
1.097 . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces (avdp.)
ounce/sq. in. . . . . . . . . .4309 . . . . . . . . . . . . .dynes/sq. cm.
.0625 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. in.
1.732 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inches w.c.
parts/million . . . . . . . . ..0584 . . . . . . . . . . . .grains/U.S. gal.
.0702 . . . . . . . . . . . .grains/imp. gal.
8.345 . . . . . . . . . .pounds/million gal.
ppm (volume) . . .385,100,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lb/ft3
0.02404 . . . . . . . . . .micrograms/cu. m.
ppm (weight) . . . . . . . . .0012 . . . . . . . . . .micrograms/cu. m.
pints (liquid) . . . . . . . . .473.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic cms.
.0167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic ft.
28.87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic inches
.000473 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic meters
.000619 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cubic yards
.125 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gallons
.473 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .quarts (liquid)
poise
1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .gram/cm.-sec.
pounds
7000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grains
453.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams
4.448 . . . . . .joules/meter (newtons)
.454 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilograms
16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces
14.58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces (troy)
.0005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tons (short)
pounds of water . . . . . . ..016 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. ft.
27.68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. inches
.12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gallons
pounds of water/min. .000267 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. ft/sec.
pounds/cu. ft. . . . . . . . . ..016 . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams/cu. cm.
16.02 . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./cu. meter
133,700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ppm (weight)
.000579 . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/cu. in.
pounds/cu. in. . . . . . . . .27.68 . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams/cu. cm.
27680 . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./cu. meter
1728 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/cu. ft
pounds/ft. . . . . . . . . . . .1.488 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./meter
pounds/in. . . . . . . . . . . .178.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .grams/cm.

67

BY

TO OBTAIN

pounds/sq. ft. . . . . . ..000473


.016
.0141
.192
4.882
.111
.00694
pounds/sq. inc. . . . . . . . ..068
2.307
2.036
27.71
703.1
16
144
quadrants (angle) . . . . . . .90
5400
1.571
324,000
quarts (liquid) . . . . . . . .946.4
.0334
57.75
.000946
.00124
.25
.946
radians . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57.3
3438
.637
206,300
radian/sec. . . . . . . . . . . .9.55
rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.1047
seconds (angle) . . . ..000278
.0167
square centimeters . .197,300
.00108
.155
.0001
100
.00012
square feet . . . . . . . . . . .929
144
.093
.0000000359
92900
.111
square inches . . . . . . . .6.452
.00694
645.2
1,000,000
.000772
square kilometers .10,760,000
1,000,000
.386

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet of water
. . . . . . . . . .inches of mercury
. . . . . . . . . . . .inches of water
. . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./sq. meter
. . . . . . . . . . . .ounces/sq. inch
. . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. inch
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .atmospheres
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .feet of water
. . . . . . . . . .inches of mercury
. . . . . . . . . . . .inches of water
. . . . . . . . . . . . .kgs./sq. meter
. . . . . . . . . . . .ounces/sq. inch
. . . . . . . . . . . .pounds/sq. foot
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .degrees
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .minutes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .radians
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .seconds
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cu. yards
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gallons
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .degrees
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .minutes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .quadrants
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .seconds
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rpm
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rad./sec.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .degrees
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .minutes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .circular mils
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. feet
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. millimeters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. yards
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. miles
. . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. millimeters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. yards
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. millimeters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. mils
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. yards
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. miles

GENERAL CONVERSION FACTORS (Contd)


MULTIPLY

BY

TO OBTAIN

square meters . . . . . . .10000


10.76
1550
1,000,000
1,196
square miles . . . .27,880,000
2.590
2,590,000
3,098,000
square millimeters . . . . .1973
.01
.0000108
.00155
therms . . . . . . . . . . .100,000
tons (long) . . . . . . . . . . .1016
2240
1.12
tons (metric) . . . . . . . . .1000
2205
tons (short) . . . . . . . . . .907.2
32000
2917
2000
2430
.893
.908

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. millimeters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. yards
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. kms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. meters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. yards
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .circular mils
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. cms.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. ft.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .sq. inches
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilograms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tons (short)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilograms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilograms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .ounces (troy)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .pounds (troy)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tons (long)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .tons (metric)

MULTIPLY

BY

TO OBTAIN

ton refrigeration (U.S.) .12,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/hr


83.33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lb. ice melted
per hr. from and at 32F
watts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.413 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/hr.
.0569 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/min.
44.27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft.-lbs./min.
.738 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ft.-lbs./sec.
.00134 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .horsepower
.00136 . . . . . . . .horsepower (metric)
.0143 . . . . . . . . . . .kg.-calories/min.
.001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatts
watt-hours . . . . . . . . . . .3.413 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu
2656 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .foot-lbs.
860.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .gram-calories
.00134 . . . . . . . . . .horsepower-hours
.861 . . . . . . . . . . .kilogram-calories
367.2 . . . . . . . . . . .kologram-meters
.001 . . . . . . . . . . . . .kilowatt-hours
watt/sq.cm. . . . . . . . . .3170.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .btu/hr./sq. foot
watt cm
btu-ft
sq. cm. F . . . . . . . . . . .57.79 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .hr. sq. ft. F

TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS
Fahrenheit = 9/5C + 32
Celsius = 5/9 (F32)
Rankine = F absolute = F + 459.69
Kelvin = C absolute = C + 273.16
Fahrenheit to Celsius
F
C
F
C
0
-17.78 950 510.0
20
-6.67 1000 537.8
40
4.44
1100 593.3
60
15.56 1200 648.9
80
26.67 1300 704.4
100
37.78 1400 760.0
120
48.89 1500 815.6
140
60.00 1600 871.1
160
71.11 1700 926.7
180
82.22 1800 982.2
200
93.33 1900 1038
250
121.1 2000 1093
300
148.9 2100 1149
350
176.7 2200 1204
400
204.4 2300 1260
450
232.2 2400 1316
500
260.0 2500 1371
550
287.8 2600 1427
600
315.6 2700 1482
650
343.3 2800 1538
700
371.1 2900 1593
750
398.9 3000 1649
800
426.7 3200 1760
850
454.4 3400 1871
900
482.2 3600 1982
68

Celsius to Fahrenheit
C
F
C
F
0
32
850 1562
10
50
900 1652
20
68
950 1742
30
86
1000 1832
40
104 1050 1922
50
122 1100 2012
60
140 1150 2102
70
158 1200 2192
80
176 1250 2282
90
194 1300 2372
100
212 1350 2462
150
302 1400 2552
200
392 1450 2642
250
482 1500 2732
300
572 1550 2822
350
662 1600 2912
400
752 1650 3002
450
842 1700 3092
500
932 1750 3182
550
1022 1800 3272
600
1112 1850 3362
650
1202 1900 3452
700
1292 1950 3542
750
1382 2000 3632
800
1472 2050 3722

PRESSURE CONVERSIONS
inches
water
("w.c.)
.04
.1
.17
.2
.35
.39
.40
.5
.787
.80
.87
1
1.73
2
2.01
2.77
3
3.46
4
4.02
5
5.2
5.54
6
6.93
7
8
8.03
8.66
9
10
10.39
11
12
12.05
12.12
13
13.6
13.86
14
15
15.59
16
16.06
17
17.32
18
19
19.05
20

ounces/
sq in
(osi)
.023
.058
.1
.115
.2
.227
.23
.29
.45
.46
.5
.58
1
1.15
1.16
1.6
1.73
2
2.31
2.32
2.89
3
3.2
3.46
4
4.04
4.62
4.64
5
5.2
5.77
6
6.35
6.93
6.96
7
7.51
7.85
8
8.08
8.66
9
9.24
9.28
9.82
10
10.39
10.97
11
11.55

lb/sq in
(psi)
.001
.004
.006
.007
.013
.014
.015
.018
.028
.029
.031
.036
.063
.072
.073
.1
.108
.125
.144
.145
.181
.188
.2
.216
.25
.253
.289
.29
.313
.325
.361
.375
.397
.433
.435
.438
.469
.491
.5
.505
.541
.563
.578
.58
.614
.625
.649
.686
.688
.722

inches
mercury
("Hg)
.003
.007
.013
.015
.026
.029
.029
.037
.058
.059
.064
.074
.127
.147
.148
.204
.221
.254
.294
.296
.368
.382
.407
.441
.51
.515
.588
.591
.637
.662
.735
.764
.809
.882
.887
.891
.956
1
1.02
1.03
1.10
1.15
1.18
1.18
1.25
1.27
1.32
1.4
1.40
1.47

millibars
(mbar)
.1
.25
.42
.5
.87
.97
1
1.24
1.96
2
2.16
2.49
4.30
4.98
5
6.89
7.46
8.61
9.95
10
12.5
12.9
13.8
14.9
17.2
17.4
19.9
20
21.5
22.4
24.9
25.9
27.4
29.9
30
30.2
32.4
33.8
34.5
34.9
37.4
38.8
39.8
40
42.3
43.1
44.8
47.3
47.4
49.8

69

kilograms/ millimeters kilosq cm


water
pascals
(kg/cm2)
(mm H2O) (kPa)
.0001
1
.01
.0003
2.54
.02
.0004
4.4
.04
.0005
5.08
.05
.0009
8.8
.09
.001
10
.1
.0010
10.2
.1
.0013
12.7
.12
.002
20
.2
.0020
20.4
.2
.0022
22
.22
.0025
25.4
.25
.0044
44
.43
.0051
50.8
.5
.0051
51
.5
.0070
70.3
.69
.0076
76.2
.75
.0088
87.9
.86
.010
101.6
1
.010
102
1
.013
127
1.25
.013
131.9
1.29
.014
140.7
1.38
.015
152.4
1.49
.018
175.8
1.72
.018
177.8
1.74
.020
203.2
1.99
.020
204
2
.022
219.8
2.15
.023
228.6
2.24
.025
254
2.49
.026
263.8
2.59
.028
279.4
2.74
.030
304.8
2.99
.031
306
3
.031
307.7
3.02
.033
330.2
3.24
.035
345.4
3.38
.035
351.6
3.45
.036
355.5
3.49
.038
381
3.74
.04
395.6
3.88
.041
406.4
3.98
.041
408
4
.043
431.8
4.23
.044
439.6
4.31
.046
457.2
4.48
.048
482.6
4.73
.048
483.6
4.74
.051
508
4.98

PRESSURE CONVERSIONS (Contd)


inches
water
("w.c.)
20.1
20.78
21
22
22.52
23
24
24.1
24.25
25
25.98
26
27
27.2
27.71
28
28.11
29
29.44
30
31
31.18
32
32.13
32.91
33
34
34-64
35
36
36.14
36.37
37
38
38.1
39
39.37
39.84
40
40.16
40.8
41
41.57
42
43
43.3
44
45
46
46.76

ounces/
sq in
(osi)
11.6
12
12.12
12.7
13
13.28
13.86
13.92
14
14.43
15
15.01
15.59
15.7
16
16.17
16.24
16.74
17
17.32
17.9
18
18.48
18.56
19
19.05
19.63
20
20.21
20.79
20.88
21
21.36
21.94
22
22.52
22.73
23
23.09
23.20
23.56
23.67
24
24.25
24.83
25
25.4
26
26.56
27

lb/sq in
(psi)
.725
.75
.758
.794
.813
.83
.866
.87
.875
.902
.938
.938
.974
.982
1
1.01
1.02
1.05
1.06
1.08
1.12
1.13
1.16
1.16
1.19
1.19
1.23
1.25
1.26
1.3
1.31
1.31
1.34
1.37
1.38
1.41
1.42
1.44
1.44
1.45
1.47
1.48
1.5
1.52
1.55
1.56
1.59
1.63
1.66
1.69

inches
mercury
("Hg)
1.48
1.53
1.54
1.62
1.66
1.69
1.76
1.77
1.78
1.84
1.91
1.91
1.99
2
2.04
2.06
2.07
2.13
2.16
2.21
2.28
2.29
2.35
2.36
2.42
2.43
2.5
2.55
2.57
2.65
2.66
2.67
2.72
2.79
2.80
2.87
2.89
2.93
2.94
2.96
3
3.01
3.06
3.09
3.16
3.18
3.24
3.31
3.38
3.44

millibars
(mbar)
50
51.7
52.3
54.8
56.0
57.3
59.7
60
60.3
62.3
64.6
64.7
67.2
67.7
68.9
69.7
70
72.2
73.3
74.7
77.2
77.6
79.7
80
81.9
82.2
84.7
86.2
87.2
89.6
90
90.5
92.1
94.6
94.8
97.1
98.0
99.1
99.6
100
101.5
102.0
103.4
104.5
107
107.7
109.5
112
114.5
116.3

70

kilograms/ millimeters kilosq cm


water
pascals
(kg/cm2)
(mm H2O) (kPa)
.051
510
5
.053
528
5.17
.053
533
5.23
.056
559
5.48
.057
572
5.60
.058
584
5.73
.061
610
5.98
.061
612
6
.062
615
6.03
.064
635
6.23
.066
659
6.46
.066
660
6.47
.069
686
6.72
.069
711
6.77
.070
703
6.89
.071
711
6.97
.071
714
7
.074
737
7.22
.075
747
7.33
.076
762
7.47
.079
787
7.72
.079
791
7.76
.081
813
7.97
.082
816
8
.084
835
8.19
.084
838
8.22
.086
864
8.47
.088
879
8.62
.089
889
8.72
.091
914
8.96
.092
918
9
.092
923
9.05
.094
940
9.21
.097
965
9.46
.097
967
9.48
.099
991
9.71
.1
1000
9.80
.101
1011
9.91
.102
1016
9.96
.102
1020
10
.104
1036
10.2
.104
1041
10.2
.106
1055
10.3
.107
1067
10.5
.109
1092
10.7
.11
1099
10.8
.112
1118
11
.114
1144
11.2
.117
1168
11.5
.118
1184
11.6

PRESSURE CONVERSIONS
inches
water
("w.c.)
47
48
48.5
49
50
50.23
51
51.96
52
53
53.69
54
54.4
55.4
68
78.7
80.32
81.6
83.14
95.2
108.8
110.8
120.5
138.6
160.6
166.3
194
196.9
200.8
221.7
241
249.4
277.1
281.1
321.3
361.4
393.7
401.6
415.7
554
693
831
970
1108
1386
1663
1940
2217
2494
2771

ounces/
sq in
(osi)
27.14
27.71
28
28.29
28.87
29
29.45
30
30.02
30.6
31
31.18
31.41
32
39.26
45.46
46.4
47.11
48
55
62.8
64
69.6
80
92.8
96
112
113.7
116
128
139
144
160
162
186
209
227
232
240
320
400
480
560
640
800
960
1120
1280
1440
1600

lb/sq in
(psi)
1.7
1.73
1.75
1.77
1.80
1.81
1.84
1.88
1.88
1.91
1.94
1.95
1.96
2
2.45
2.84
2.9
2.94
3
3.44
3.93
4
4.35
5
5.8
6
7
7.1
7.25
8
8.7
9
10
10.15
11.6
13.05
14.21
14.5
15
20
25
30
35
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

inches
mercury
("Hg)
3.46
3.53
3.57
3.60
3.68
3.69
3.75
3.82
3.82
3.9
3.95
3.97
4
4.07
5
5.79
5.91
6
6.11
7
8
8.15
8.87
10.2
11.8
12.2
14.3
14.5
14.8
16.3
17.7
18.3
20.4
20.7
23.6
26.6
28.9
29.6
30.6
40.7
51
61.1
71.3
81.5
101.9
122.3
142.6
163.0
183.4
203.8

millibars
(mbar)
116.9
119.4
120.7
121.9
124.4
125
126.9
129.3
129.4
131.9
133.6
134.4
135.4
137.8
169.2
195.8
200
203
207
237
271
276
300
345
400
414
483
490
500
552
600
621
689
700
800
900
980
1000
1034
1378
1724
2068
2414
2757
3449
4138
4827
5516
6206
6895

71

kilograms/
sq cm
(kg/cm2)
.119
.122
.123
.124
.127
.128
.13
.132
.132
.135
.136
.137
.138
.141
.173
.2
.204
.207
.211
.242
.276
.282
.306
.352
.408
.422
.493
.5
.510
.563
.612
.634
.703
.714
.816
.918
1
1.02
1.06
1.41
1.76
2.11
2.46
2.81
3.52
4.22
4.93
5.63
6.33
7.04

millimeters kilowater
pascals
(mm H2O) (kPa)
1194
11.7
1219
12
1232
12.1
1245
12.2
1270
12.5
1276
12.5
1295
12.7
1320
12.9
1321
12.9
1346
13.2
1364
13.4
1372
13.4
1382
13.5
1408
13.8
1727
16.9
2000
19.6
2040
20
2072
20.3
2112
20.7
2418
23.7
2763
27.1
2816
27.6
3060
30
3517
34.5
4080
40
4223
41.4
4927
48.3
5000
49.0
5100
50
5631
55.2
6120
60
6335
62.1
7033
68.9
7140
70
8160
80
9180
90
10,000
98.0
10,200
100
10,559
103.4
14,072
137.8
17,602
172.4
21,107
206.8
24,638
241.3
28,143
275.8
35,204
344.7
42,240
413.7
49,276
482.6
56,312
551.6
63,348
620.5
70,383
689.5

INDEX
Abbreviations
Air
effect of altitude
effect of pressure
effect of temp.
infiltration
pipe
sizing
pressure losses
Air Heating
heat requirements
Alloys
thermal capacities
Area
of circles
Available Heat
definition
charts
Black Body Radiation
Blowers
as suction device
fan laws
horsepower
ratings
Boilers
Btu/hr. & H.P.
conversion factors
sizing steam pipe
Butane
butane/air mixtures
properties
Cv
Circles
areas
circumferences
Circumference
of circles
Coefficients of Discharge
Cones, Pyrometric
Conversions
boilers
h.p. & Btu/hr.
general
oil viscosity
pressure
temperature, F & C
Crucibles
capacities & dimensions
Drills
sizes
tap drill sizes
Duct Velocity
Efficiency, Thermal
Electrical
formulas
motor current
motor starters
NEMA enclosures
ohms law
symbols
wire specs
Equivalent Length
pipe
valves
Fan Laws
Fans
see blowers

61
20
20
21
53
16
12
45
40
57, 58
35-36
51
49
20
19
20
18, 19
31
30
32
24
22, 23
16
57, 58
57, 58
57, 58
4
50
30
31
64 thru 68
26
69
69
43
59
60
17
36
33
34
33
34
33
62, 63
33
14
14
19

Flame Tip Temp.


Flow
and Cv
and duct velocity
orifices
Flue Gas Analysis
Flue Sizing
Fume Incineration
heat requirements
sizing
Furnaces
cold air infiltration
flue sizing
thermal head
turndown
Gas/Air Mixtures
Gases
available heat
combustion products
constituents
density
flame temp.
flame velocity
flammability limits
heat release
heating value
ignition temp.
mixtures
pipe, sizing
properties
specific gravity
specific volume
stoichiometric ratio
Heat
available
balance
losses
general
refractory
spray washers
tank
net output
required for processes
storage, refractory
storage, tank
transfer, equations
Heating Operations
temp. & heat reqd.
Liquid Heating
sizing, burner
Metals
thermal capacities
Motors
current
formulas
NEMA size starters
Natural Gas, Properties
Net Heat Output
Nozzles
spray capacities
Ohms Law
Oil
ANSI specs
heating value & API
piping pressure losses
piping temp. losses
s.g. & API
typical properties
viscosity conversions

72

52
16
17
4
52
53
45
46
53
53
53
36
24
51
23
22
22
23
22
22
23
23
22
24
16
22-24,37
22
22
22
35-36
35-36
35-36
44
48
47
35-36
41
44
47
52
41-42
47
40
34
33
33
22-23
35-36
48
33
25
27
27, 28
29
27
26
26

Orifices
capacities
high pressure
low pressure
coefficients of discharge
flow formulas
Pipe
capacities
dimensions
fittings
dimensions
equivalent length
flange templates
pressure losses
air
natural gas
oil
sizing
air, gas & mixture
air, quick method
branch
steam
water
Pressure, Conversions
Propane
propane/air mixtures
properties
see also Gases
Pyrometric Cones
Radiant Tubes
Radiation, Black Body
Refractory
Sheet Metal
gauges
weights
Spray Washers
heat loss factors
heat requirements
nozzle capacities
Steam
pipe sizing
properties
terminology
Symbols
electrical
Temperature
F & C
flame tip
refractory face
required, various processes
Thermal
capacities, metals & alloys
efficiency
head, furnaces
properties, materials
Turndown
furnace
Valves
Cv and flow
equivalent pipe length
Velocity, Duct
Washers, spray
heat requirements
Wire
gauges
specifications
weights

9-11
5-8
4
4
54
54
55
14
60
12
13, 14
27, 28
15
15
16
32
31
69-71
24
22, 23
50
43
49
44
56
56
48
48
48
32
30
30
62, 63
68
52
44
41
40
36
53
37
36
16
14
17
48
56
33
56

Tech Notes

Table Of Contents

Section 1-Eclipse Equipment (numbers correspond to Bulletin numbers)


656
810/812

Selecting TVT Mixing Tees (Page 74)


Sizing Pilots, Blasts Tips & Pilot Mixers with Flow Charts (Page 76)

Section 2-Engineering Data


Part A- Combustion Data
A-1
Flue Gas Analysis vs. Excess Air (Page 80)
A-2
Flame Temperatures vs. Air Preheat & % Oxygen (Page 81)
A-3
Available Heat vs. Oxygen Enrichment (Page 82)
A-4
Available Heat-Extended Chart (Page 83)
Part C- Control systems
C-1
Summary of Fuel-Air Ratio Control Systems for Nozzle Mixing Burners (Page 84)
C-2
Ratio Control Using Proportioning Fixed Port Valves for Nozzle Mixing Burners (Page 85)
C-3
Ratio Control Using Proportioning (Adjustable Characteristic) Valves for Nozzle Mixing Burners (Page 87)
C-4
Ratio Control Using Cross-Connected Proportionators for Nozzle Mixing Burners (Page 89)
C-5
Ratio Control Using Cross-Connected Proportionator with Bleed Fitting for Nozzle Mixing Burners (Page 91)
C-6
Ratio Control Using Electronic Controllers for Nozzle Mixing Burners (Page 92)
C-7
Excess Air Operation by Controlling Fuel Only for Nozzle Mixing Burners (Page 94)
C-8
Excess Air Operation with Biased Proportionator for Nozzle Mixing Burners (Page 95)
C-9
Excess Air Operation with Throttled Impulse (Adjustable Bleed) to Proportionator for Nozzle Mixing
Burners (Page 96)
C-10 Backpressure Compensation System for Cross-Connected Nozzle Mix Burner Systems (Page 97)
Part E- Emissions
E-2
Conversion Factors for Emissions Calculations (Page 98)
E-3
Correcting Emissions Readings to 3% O2 or 11% O 2 Basis (Page 100)
Part H- Heat Recovery
H-1
Recuperator Efficiency: Fuel Savings & Effectiveness (Page 101)
Part R- Regulations & Codes
R-1
NFPA Requirements for Gas Burner Systems (Page 103)
R-2
IRI Requirements for Gas Burner Systems (Page 105)

Section 3-Application Data


Part I-

Incineration
I-1
Heating Values of Flammable Liquids (Page 108)

Part L-

Liquid
L-1
L-2
L-3

Heating
Immersion Tube Sizing (Page 110)
Submerged Combustion (Page 112)
Immersion Tubes-What Will The Stack Temperature Be? (Page 116)

Part O- Ovens
O-1
Determining % O2 in a Recirculating System (Page 117)

73

Tech Notes

Section I
Sheet 656

Selecting TVT Mixing TeesBulletin 656


General Remarks:

Series TVT two-valve mixing tees lack a tapered discharge sleeve, so they are not as
efficient as LP Proportional Mixers. Their performance will also be strongly affected
by downstream piping, so use them only where gas pressure available at the mixer
connection exceeds mixture pressure by:
3" w.c. for natural or LP gas (except 166-24-TVT, which requires 7" w.c.)
6" w.c. for coke oven gas
8" w.c. for digester gas

For coke oven or digester gas, do not use the 84-16, 124-24 or 166-24; their gas inlets
are too small. Also, do not use any of these mixers with producer gas. Producer gas
flows far exceed the capacity of the gas orifices and inlet connections.

Selection Data Required:

1.

CFH air flow through the mixer (if customer specifies Btu/hr, divide by 100 to

get cfh air).

Selection Procedure:

2.

Air pressure available at mixer inlet, "w.c.

3.

Mixture pressure desired, "w.c.

1.

Refer to Table I, page 75. Select a mixer whose maximum air capacity is higher
than the required air flow.

2.

To size the air jet, subtract the mixture pressure from the air pressure. This
gives you the air pressure drop available across the mixer. Then refer to the
graph. Locate the desired air flow on the horizontal axis and the air pressure
drop on the vertical axis. Locate the point where they intersect and then move
right to the next diagonal line. That line represents the optimum jet size.

3.

Cross-check the air jet size against Table I to be sure it is within the range of
sizes available for the mixer. If it isnt, select the next larger size of mixer to
avoid taking a higher pressure drop.

74

Table I - TVT Mixer Data

Air Jet
Part No.

Range of
Jet Sizes
1/32nds of
an inch

Use Mixer With


These Gases

900
2000
2000

021702550255-

10 - 16
12 - 25
12 - 25

Natural, LP, Coke Oven, Digester


Natural, LP, Coke Oven, Digester
Natural, LP, Coke Oven, Digester

84-16-TVT
86-24-TVT
124-24-TVT

3500
3500
8000

022502250695-

18 - 36
18 - 36
32 - 56

Natural, LP
Natural, LP, Coke Oven, Digester
Natural, LP

126-24-TVT
166-24-TVT
168-30-TVT

8000
15,000
15,000

069509940994-

32 - 56
36 - 80
36 - 80

Natural, LP, Coke Oven, Digester


Natural, LP
Natural, LP, Coke Oven, Digester

Mixer
Catalog
No.

Maximum
Air Flow,
scfh

44-17-TVT
64-16-TVT
66-24-TVT

Figure I - Air Jet Sizing Chart


Air Jet Size
21

10

11

12

13

23

22

14 15 16 17 18 19 20

24

25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 42
46 50 54
26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40
44
48 52 56

30

58

Air P Through Mixer, "w.c.

25

60
20

62
64
66

15

68
70
72
74

10
9

76
78
80

8
7
6
200

300

400

500

600

800

Maximum
For 44-17 TVT

1000

1500

2000

Maximum
For 64-16
& 66-24 TVT

3000

Max. For
84-16 &
86-24 TVT

Air Flow Through Mixer, scfh

75

4000

5000 6000

Maximum For
124-24 &
126-24 TVT

8000 10,000

Max. For
166-24 &
168-30 TVT

15,000

Tech Notes

Section I
Sheet 810/812

Sizing Pilots, Blast Tips & Pilot Mixers With Flow Charts
Selection Factors

To select the right equipment, you need to know:


1. Type and number of pilot or blast tips;
2. Btu/hr. at which each tip will fire;
3. Air pressure (P ) available at the mixer inlet.
A

Air
PA - PM = Mixture

YY
ZZ

Mixture Pressure

P
M

P
A

Desired Tip

1. From the tip capacity chart on page 77, find the required
mixture pressure. Do not exceed 8" w.c. mixture pressure,
unless youve chosen a Cumapart (CP) tip or blast tip.

XX

Using The Charts Properly

Desired Btu/hr.

2. Subtract the mixture pressure (P ) found in Step 1 from the air presM
sure (PA) which is available at the mixer. The difference is the mixer
pressure drop.
3. Figure the total air flow through the mixer by the following equation:
Btu/hr. per tip x number of tips
cfh air =
100

123

4)

4. Next, refer to the mixer air capacity charts (page 78 for Series 121 mixers and page 79 for Series 131). To use the charts properly, follow the
directions below:

AB

C(

1 Locate the mixer

Pressure Drop

pressure drop figure


in Step 2, and read
to the right.

3 From the point where

these lines cross, move


right to the nearest mixer
flow curve. This curve is
the proper size mixer to use.
The air jet part number
is in parentheses.

Air Flow

2 Locate the air flow figured in Step 3


and read up.

5. Do not use the Series 121 mixers above 300 scfh air or the Series 131
mixers above 600 scfh airotherwise pipe velocities are too high.

76

AF
I
5R
A

4E
P

3F

4F

5R

AF
I
3E
P

4R
A

4R

3R
2-NAFI
2F
3R
6-KAF
3C
P

5- K

1F
3-K
4-K
2C
20 P
-ST

1C
P

2-K

1-K

Capacities Of Eclipse Pilot & Blast Tips

Mixture Pressure, "w.c.

5
4

1
1

10

20

Btu/hr. x 1000 @ 10:1 Air/Gas Ratio

77

30

40

50

60

100

Series 121 Pilot Mixers


Mixer Catalog No. &
(Air Jet Part No.)

50

12
1-4
6(
14
52
0-1
)
12
1-4
2(
14
12
52
1-4
0-2
0(
)
14
52
0-1
7)
12
1-3
6(
14
52
0-3
)
12
1-3
0(
14
52
0-1
6)

Air Flow Capacity

121-25 (14520-5)
121-22 (14520-6)

40
121-18 (14520-7)

30

121-17 (14520-15)

121-12 (14520-8)

20

121-10 (14520-14)
121-8 (14520-13)
121-6 (14520-12)
121-4 (14520-11)

P Across
P
AcrossMixer,
Mixer,"w.c.
"w.c.

121-7/32 (14520-9)
121-1 (14520-10)

10

6
5
4

1
10

15

20

30

40

50

60

80

100

Combustion Air Flow Through Mixer, SCFH


(Btu/hr. = SCFH Air x 100)

78

150

200

300

4-8
25

)
1 -1

3 /6

4(

10

4 -3

25

25

10
13

1 -6

(1 0

4(

40

13

)
4 -2
25
(1 0

1 /6
1 -1
13

13

50

1 -5

(1 0
1 -4
13

Mixer Catalog No. &


(Air Jet Part No.)

25

4 -1

4-1

Air Flow Capacity

4)

Series 131 Pilot Mixers

131-7 (10254-4)

131-15/64 (10254-9)
131-8 (10254-5)

30

131-17/64 (10254-10)
131-9 (10254-6)

20

131-19/64 (10254-11)

P Across
P
AcrossMixer,
Mixer,"w.c.
"w.c.

131-10 (10254-7)

131-21/64 (10254-15)

10

6
5
4

1
20

30

40

50

60

80

100

150

200

Combustion Air Flow Through Mixer, SCFH


(Btu/hr. = SCFH Air x 100)

79

300

400

500 600

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet A-1

Flue Gas Analysis vs. Excess Air


Reference:

Eclipse Combustion Engineering Guide, p. 52


The graph below supplements the flue gas analysis chart on page 52 of the
Combustion Engineering Guide, which extends to only 200% excess air.
These curves are calculated for Birmingham Natural Gas, same as the
Engineering Guide.
20

% OxygenDry Sample
% OxygenSaturated Sample

% Flue Gas Constituent By Volume

Figure 1:
Flue Gas Constituents
vs. % Excess Air

15

10

5
% Carbon DioxideNatural Gas
0
200

400

600

800

1000

1200

% Excess Air

80

1400

1600

1800

2000

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet A-2

Flame Temperatures vs. Air Preheat & % Oxygen

Figure 1:
Theoretical Flame
Temperature vs. Preheat

Both preheated air and oxygen enrichment increase the theoretical temperature of burner flames. The following graphs show their effect on the
theoretical flame temperature of natural gas, which, with 60F combustion air and 21% oxygen, would be about 3500 - 3550 F.
Theoretical Flame Temp., F

General Remarks:

4500

4000

3500

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Combustion Air Temperature, F

5200

Figure 2:
Theoretical Flame
Temperature vs. O2 in Air

Flame Temperature, F

4800

4400

4000

3600

20

40

60
% Oxygen In Air

81

80

100

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet A-3

Available Heat vs. Oxygen Enrichment


General Remarks:

The graph below shows available heat as a function of flue gas temperature
and percent oxygen in the combustion air stream. These curves were calculated for natural gas with combustion air at 60F.
100

Figure 1:
Available Heat vs.
Oxygen Enrichment
% Available Heat

80

60

100% O 2

40
35% O 2

20

25% O 2
20.9% O 2

0
2000

2200

2400

2600

Flue Gas Temperature, F

82

2800

3000

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet A-4

Available HeatExtended Chart


Reference:

Eclipse Combustion Engineering Guide, p. 51


Page 51 of the Eclipse Combustion Engineering Guide carries two available
heat charts, but unfortunately, the more useful one of the two doesnt cover
flue gas temperatures below 1000F. The chart below, calculated from the
same conditions as the Engineering guide chart, extends these curves down
to 300F flue gas temperature.
Based On Birmingham Natural Gas (1002 Btu/Cu. ft., 0.6 Sp. Gr.)

90
80
70
% Available Heat

Figure 1:
Available Heat vs. Flue
Gas Exit Temperature, F

100

350%
400%

60

% Excess Air

500%

50

600%

40

800%

30

1000%

0%

10

0%

15

50

25

0
30

10

0%

0%

1200%

20

25

20

0%
%

10

200

600

1000

1400

1800

Flue Gas Exit Temperature, F

83

2200

2600

3000

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-1

Summary of Fuel-Air Ratio Control Systems


for Nozzle Mixing Burners
Control Mode

Control System

System
Cost*

Required
Gas
Pressure**

Hi-Low

On-ratio, linked valve

On-ratio,
characterized valve

On-ratio, cross connected


proportionator

On-ratio, cross connected


proportionator & bleeder

On-ratio, electronic

Excess air,
fuel-only control
Excess air,
biased proportionator
Excess air,
throttled impulse

*
**
***

L to M

Modulating

If backpressure
fluctuates, does system
maintain constant:
Firing Rate?

Fuel-Air
Ratio?

On multiple burner
zones, if one is
shut off, do the
others hold their
ratio?

No

***

No

No

***

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

***

No

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

H
L to M

I = Inexpensive, M = Moderate, E = Expensive


L = Low, M = Moderate, H = High
Depends on air and gas pressures at burner. See sheets for individual systems.
If bleeder vent is connected to combustion chamber.

84

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-2

Nozzle Mixing Burners


Ratio Control Using Proportioning (Linked) Fixed Port Valves
Operating Principle

Air and gas passages in the burner are the fixed resistances in the system.
Control valves in the air and gas lines are the variable resistance. The two
valves are connected by linkages to a common drive motor so that, in theory,
they open and close in proportion, maintaining a fixed air-gas ratio over
the systems turndown range.

FUEL

Advantages

Valve operation can be readily understoodconfidence builder for persons unfamiliar with control systems.
Working parts are visiblelittle chance that a hidden defect is present.
Can be used with low gas supply pressures. If a large enough gas valve is
selected, the pressure required is only a little higher than the burner gas
nozzle pressure (2 in above figure).
Inexpensive.
(continued on page 86)

85

Disadvantages

Differences in valve characteristic curves make it difficult or impossible


to hold a fixed gas-air ratio across the entire turndown range. The system
is best limited to high-low control.
Unless air and gas pressures at the burner (1 and 2 in the figure on page
85) are equal, unforeseen changes in combustion chamber pressure will
cause the burner to shift off-ratio according to the table below:

And Chamber Pressure


If Air Pressure Is

Goes More
Positive (+), Then:

Stays The
Same (o), Then:

Goes More
Negative (-), Then:

Higher than gas pressure

Burner goes leaner

No change

Burner goes richer

Same as gas pressure

No change

No change

No change

Lower than gas pressure

Burner goes richer

No change

Burner goes leaner

If air pressure at the burner is higher than the gas pressure (this is usually the case), they can be made equal by installing a limiting orifice valve
between the gas control valve and burner and adjusting it until pressure
(2) equals pressure (1). However, this negates one of the advantages of
linked valve systemsthe low gas pressure requirement.
If the air supply becomes starved due to a dirty blower wheel or a plugged
filter, the system will go rich. The gas valve responds only to the mechanical linkage, not to air flow changes.
If multiple burners are controlled by a single set of linked valves, and the
fuel flow to one burner is throttled back manually or shut off entirely,
that fuel will go to the other burners, forcing them to run rich. In addition
to the safety hazard this presents, it makes multiple burners tedious to
set up. Any gas adjustment made to one burner upsets the settings of the
other burners in the zone.

86

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-3

Nozzle Mixing Burners


Ratio Control Using Proportioning (Adjustable Characteristic) Valves
Operating Principle

Air and gas passages in the burner are the fixed resistances in the system.
Control valves are the variable resistances and are connected in tandem to
a common drive motor. Because it is practically impossible to get two fixed
port valves to track together over their turndown range, at least one of the
valves is fitted with an adjustable screw rack which makes the valve open
faster or slower than the linkage calls for. This permits the valves flow
curve to be adjusted to more closely match that of the fixed port valve.

Advantages

Valve operation can be readily understoodconfidence builder for persons unfamiliar with control systems.
Working parts are visiblelittle chance that a hidden defect is present.
Can be used with low gas supply pressures.
Can be used with proportioning or high-low control systems.

Disadvantages

Adjustable characteristic valves are usually expensive.


Time consuming to set up. Most screw racks contain 8 to 12 adjustment
points, which must be individually set when the burner is commissioned.
Unless air and gas pressures at the burner (1 and 2 in the figure below)
are equal, unforeseen changes in combustion chamber pressure will cause
the burner to shift off-ratio according to the table on page 88.

FUEL

87

Disadvantages (continued)
And Chamber Pressure
If Air Pressure Is

Goes More
Positive (+), Then:

Stays The
Same (o), Then:

Goes More
Negative (-), Then:

Higher than gas pressure

Burner goes leaner

No change

Burner goes richer

Same as gas pressure

No change

No change

No change

Lower than gas pressure

Burner goes richer

No change

Burner goes leaner

If air pressure at the burner is higher than the gas pressure (this is usually the case), they can be made equal by installing a limiting orifice valve
between the gas control valve and burner and adjusting it until pressure
(2) equals pressure (1). However, this negates one of the advantages of
linked valve systemsthe low gas pressure requirement.
If the air supply becomes starved due to a dirty blower wheel or a plugged
filter, the system will go rich. The gas valve responds only to the mechanical linkage, not to air flow changes.
If multiple burners are controlled by a single set of linked valves, and the
fuel flow to one burner is throttled back manually or shut off entirely,
that fuel will go to the other burners, forcing them to run rich. In addition
to the safety hazard this presents, it makes multiple burners tedious to
set up. Any gas adjustment made to one burner upsets the settings of the
other burners in the zone.

88

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-4

Nozzle Mixing Burners


Ratio Control Using Cross-Connected Proportionators
Operating Principle

Burner air passage is fixed resistance for air flow. Gas passages in the
burner are usually too large to serve as the fixed resistance, so a limiting
orifice valve is installed at the gas inlet . At setup, this valve is adjusted to
provide the correct gas flow when gas pressure (2) is equal to air pressure
(1). Low fire gas-air ratio is set with spring in Proportionator.

Cross
Connection

FUEL
Proportionator

Advantages

Limiting
Orifice

Easy to set up. Once high and low fire ratios are set, everything in between is taken care of.
Can be used with proportioning or high-low control systems.
No problem with mismatched valve flow curves. Proportionator is slave to
air valve and automatically matches its characteristic curve.
Fuel-air ratio is unaffected by unforeseen changes in combustion chamber pressure.
Although air starvation due to a plugged filter or dirty blower wheel will
cause a loss in firing capacity, it will not cause the system to go rich. The
proportionator automatically reduces fuel flow as the air flow drops off.
On multiple burner systems fed from a single air control valve and
proportionator, changing or shutting off the fuel flow to one burner will
not upset the fuel flow to the others. This makes initial setup easier and
eliminates the hazard of burners in a zone going rich because one of
them has been misadjusted or shut off.
If proportionator permits, this system can be converted to an excess air
system (see page 95) with a simple proportionator spring adjustment.

89

Disadvantages

Requires higher gas pressures. Gas pressure at (3) in the figure on page
89 must equal air pressure at (1) plus gas pressure drop through
proportionator valve.
Operating principles of proportionator are poorly understood, especially
in oven and air heating industry; operators dont know how to set up
systems.
Internal working of proportionator cant be seen. Operators dont know if
its working correctly and, as a result, are afraid of it.

90

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-5

Nozzle Mixing Burners


Ratio Control Using Cross-Connected Proportionator With Bleed Fitting
Cross
Connection

Bleed Fitting

FUEL
Proportionator

Operating Principle

Limiting
Orifice

Used where proportionator system is desired, but where gas pressure at (3)
is insufficient to make a conventional proportionator system work (see page
89). This set-up is also used where the loading pressure on the proportionator
is equal to or higher than the maximum inlet gas pressure the proportionator
can tolerate. An adjustable bleed fittingbasically a needle valve in a tee
reduces the loading pressure (4) on the proportionator to a pressure at
least 2" w.c. lower than the inlet gas pressure (3). This permits the
proportionator to respond to changes in air loading pressure (1) over the
entire turndown range.
If, for example, high fire air pressure (1) is 20" w.c., but gas supply (3) is
only 13" w.c., the bleeder could be set to bleed off 50% of the air loading
pressure, producing a pressure of 10" w.c. at (4) and (2).

Advantages

Same as the conventional proportionator system (see page 89), except that
combustion chamber pressure fluctuations will cause the system to go offratio. Can be compensated by connecting the vent of the bleed fitting to the
combustion chamber.

Disadvantages

Same as the conventional proportionator system (see page 89), except


that high inlet gas pressure is no longer required.
Bleed fittings contain small orifices which are susceptible to plugging by
dirt. Filtered combustion air will alleviate the problem, but bleeders will
always require frequent maintenance attention and they are subject to
unauthorized tampering.

91

Tech Notes
Nozzle Mixing Burners
Ratio Control Using Electronic Controllers
Air Flow
Meter

Fuel Flow
Meter

Section 2
Sheet C-6

Cross
Connection

Primary
Valve

TC

Electronic
Controller
Slave Valve

FUEL

Operating Principle

For all of its sophistication, a variation of the linked valve system. In this
case, the linkage is electronic instead of mechanical. This system is also
known as a mass flow control system, although this a misnomerthe
flow signals fed to the controller are related either to pressure differential
or to flow velocity.
The air and fuel lines each contain a motor-driven control valve and a flow
metering device (orifice plate & P transmitter, turbine meter, vortex-shedding flowmeter, etc.) One of the control valves is the primary valve, driven
by the temperature controller. The second valve is slaved to the first through
the electronic ratio controller.
Flow meters in the air and fuel lines feed signals proportional to flow to the
controller. The controller compares the signals and, if they are out of ratio,
sends a correcting signal to the slave valve, which then alters its flow to
restore the desired air-fuel ratio.

Advantages

Extremely high accuracy inherent to electronic systems.


Can be integrated with master computer to control burner, as well as
provide fuel consumption data.
If controller can be reprogrammed, can be reconfigured as an excess air
system.
Will not allow the burner to go rich if air starvation occurs.
Provided that air and fuel supply pressures are adequate, will maintain a
predetermined firing rate regardless of combustion chamber backpressure
fluctuations. This is the only system that will do so.

92

Disadvantages

Most expensive of all the ratio control systems.


No matter how sophisticated the electronics, the accuracy of the system
is no better than the flow-sensing elements. If orifice plates are used to
measure flows, accuracy degrades rapidly at turndown ratios greater than
4:1 unless systems are individually calibrated in the field.
On a multiple burner system, turning the fuel of one burner down or off
will cause the others to run richthis system will try to maintain a gas
flow proportional to airflow, regardless of where the gas has to go.

93

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-7

Nozzle Mixing Burners


Excess Air Operation By Controlling Fuel Only
Optional Manual
Trimming Valve

FUEL

Operating Principle

This system is known as the fuel only control, fixed air or wild air
system; it is the simplest of all excess air systems. A motor-driven valve is
placed in the fuel line, while the air has no flow controllera manual
trimming valve might be installed for servicing or limiting the high fire
flow.

Advantages
Low cost.
Permits attainment of the maximum excess air capability of the burner.
Suitable for high-low or proportioning control.

Disadvantage
If multiple burners are controlled from a single fuel valve, reducing or
shutting off the fuel flow to one of them causes the others to go richer.

94

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-8

Nozzle Mixing Burners


Excess Air Operation With Biased Proportionator

Cross
Connection

FUEL
Proportionator

Operating Principle

Limiting
Orifice

System installation is identical to conventional proportionator system


(see page 89), but requires a proportionator whose spring can be adjusted to produce a significant negative bias. System is customarily set
up to operate near stoichiometric ratio at high fire. As air valve closes,
the proportionatorwith its negative spring biascauses fuel flow to
decrease even more rapidly, producing increasing amounts of excess
air.

Advantages
Better fuel economy than fuel-only control excess air system (see page
94).
Suitable for high-low or proportioning control.
Unlike fuel-only control system, turning down or shutting off the gas
flow to one burner in a multi-burner system will not cause the others
to go rich.

Disadvantages
Not capable of excess air rates as high as the fuel-only control system.
More expensive than fuel-only control system.

95

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-9

Nozzle Mixing Burners


Excess Air Operation With Throttled Impulse (Adjustable Bleed) To
Proportionator
Cross
Connection

Optional Manual
Trimming Valve

Motor-Driven
Bleed Valve

Small Limiting Orifice


Or Needle Valve
Tee
FUEL
Proportionator

Limiting
Orifice

Operating Principle

A variation on the cross-connected proportionator system (see page 89).


There is no control valve in the combustion air line. Instead, the firing rate
control valve is placed in the bleed leg of a tee in the impulse line to the
proportionator, and the linkage is adjusted to make the bleed valve reverse-acting; i.e., the valve closes when the temperature controller calls
for heat. The limiting orifice or needle valve in the loading line is closed
partway to restrict air flow through the impulse linethis insures that the
motor-driven bleed valve is able to control over its entire range.

Advantage

Of all the excess air control systems, this one probably has the best
combination of sensitivity and a wide operating range.

Disadvantages

Like fixed bleed orifice sytems, this control system can be upset by accumulations of airborne dirtand unauthorized tampering.
The only valve proven suitable as a motor-driven bleed valve is the North
American 3/8" Adjustable Port Valve. Even 3/8" motorized oil valves
whether Eclipses, Haucks or North Americanslack the sensitivity for
this application.

96

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet C-10

Backpressure Compensation System


For Cross-Connected Nozzle Mix Burner Systems
Purpose:

To maintain a constant burner firing rate and fuel-air ratio regardless of


random fluctuations in combustion chamber backpressure.

Method:

Hold a constant differential pressure between point B (upstream of main


air control valve) and point D (combustion chamber), even if pressure at
point D varies. This is done by putting two air control valves in series, one
responding to the temperature controller, the other to the differential pressure between points B and D.
P Transducer

Chamber Pressure Impulse Line

Power
Supply
Pressure
Controller

TC

PC

Temperature
Controller

Motorized
Trim Valve

Blower

Main Air
Control Valve

ABP

Example:

ALO

Assume backpressure will vary uncontrollably between 0 & 10" w.c.


Assume burner P is 10" w.c. @ high fire, 1" w.c. @ low fire.
Main air control valve P is 5" w.c. @ high fire.
Blower develops 30" w.c. static pressure.
Static Pressures,
"W.C.
A
B
C
D

Differential Pressures,
"W.C.
A-B
B-C C-D
A-C
A-D

Must Be
Constant
B-D

Firing
Rate

Back
Press

High

0" w.c.
5" w.c.
10" w.c.

30
30
30

15
20
25

10
15
20

0
5
10

15
10
5

5
5
5

10
10
10

20
15
10

30
25
20

15
15
15

Low

0" w.c.
5" w.c.
10" w.c.

30
30
30

15
20
25

1
6
11

0
5
10

15
10
5

14
14
14

1
1
1

29
24
19

30
25
20

15
15
15

97

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet E-2

Conversion Factors For Emissions Calculations


Preparing emissions estimates for environmental authorities can be difficult because they often ask for emissions expressed in units not available through existing data. Here are the conversion procedures for some
of the more commonly-used measurement systems:
1) ppm at 3% O2 (15% excess air) in dry flue gases to lb./million Btu
(ppm)(F3) = lb./million Btu
Values of multiplier F3 for various fuels and emissions

Various Fuels

NOX
Measured
As NO2

CO

Birmingham Nat. Gas*


Propane
Butane
#2 Oil**

.001187
.001185
.001212
.001317

.000722
.000721
.000735
.000801

Aldehydes,
Unburned Hydrocarbons,
Measured As
Measured As:
Formaldehyde Methane
Propane
.000781
.000780
.000798
.000867

.000416
.000415
.000424
.000461

.001147
.001146
.001172
.001273

CO2

SO2

.001147
.001146
.001172
.001273

.001672
.001669
.001707
.001854

2) lb./million Btu to ppm at 3% O2 (15% excess air) in dry flue


gases
(lb./million Btu)(f3) = ppm @ 3% O2, dry
Values of multiplier f3 for various fuels and emissions

Various Fuels

NOX
Measured
As NO2

CO

Birmingham Nat. Gas*


Propane
Butane
#2 Oil**

842
844
825
759

1385
1387
1361
1248

Aldehydes,
Unburned Hydrocarbons,
Measured As
Measured As:
Formaldehyde Methane
Propane
1280
1282
1253
1153

2404
2410
2358
2169

872
873
853
786

CO2

SO2

872
873
853
786

598
599
586
539

3) ppm at 0% O2 in dry flue gases to lb./million Btu


(ppm)(F0) = lb./million Btu
Values of multiplier F0 for various fuels and emissions

Various Fuels

NOX
Measured
As NO2

CO

Aldehydes,
Measured As
Formaldehyde

Birmingham Nat. Gas*


Propane
Butane
#2 Oil**

.001017
.001018
.001042
.001133

.000617
.000619
.000634
.00069

.00067
.00067
.000686
.000746

Unburned Hydrocarbons,
Measured As:
Methane
Propane
.000356
.000356
.000365
.000397

.000983
.000984
.001007
.001096

CO2

SO2

.000983
.000984
.001007
.001096

.001432
.001434
.001468
.001596

* 1002 Gross Btu/cubic foot, 8.48 Cubic feet dry flue products at stoichiometric ratio.
** Calculated as heptadecane, C17 H36, 19,270 Gross Btu/lb.

(continued on page 99)

98

4) lb./million Btu to ppm at 0% O2 in dry flue gases


(lb./million Btu)(f0) = ppm @ 0% O2, dry
Values of multiplier f0 for various fuels and emissions

Various Fuels

NOX
Measured
As NO2

CO

Birmingham Nat. Gas*


Propane
Butane
#2 Oil**

983
982
960
883

1621
1616
1577
1449

Aldehydes, Unburned Hydrocarbons,


Measured As
Measured As:
Formaldehyde Methane
Propane
1493
1493
1458
1340

2809
2809
2740
2519

1017
1016
983
912

CO2

SO 2

1017
1016
983
912

698
697
681
627

5) ppm at 3% O2 or 0% O2 in dry flue gases to lb./year


First, calculate lb./million Btu with Step 1 or 3 on the first page.
Then convert to lbs./year with the following relationship:
(lb./million Btu) (Maximum Burner Input, million Btu/hr.) (operating
hrs./year) = lb./year
6) lb/year to ppm at 3% O2 or 0% O2 in dry flue gases
lb./year operating hrs./year Maximum Burner Input, million
Btu/hr. = lb./million Btu
Convert lb./million Btu to ppm with Step 2 or 4.
7) ppm at 3% O2 or 0% O2 in dry flue gases to gm/Nm3
(ppm)(G) = gm/Nm3
Values of multiplier G for various emissions

Emission

NOX
Measured
As NO2

CO

.002031

.001235

Aldehydes, Unburned Hydrocarbons,


Measured As
Measured As:
Formaldehyde Methane
Propane
.001341

.000716

.001969

CO2

SO 2

.001965

.002861

8) gm/Nm3 to ppm at 3% O2 or 0% O2 in dry flue gases


(gm/Nm3)(g) = ppm
Values of multiplier g for various emissions
Emission

NOX
Measured
As NO2

CO

Aldehydes,
Measured As
Formaldehyde

492.4

809.7

745.7

Unburned Hydrocarbons,
Measured As:
Methane
Propane
1396.6

507.9

CO2

SO2

508.9

349.5

* 1002 Gross Btu/cubic foot, 8.48 Cubic feet dry flue products at stoichiometric ratio.
** Calculated as heptadecane, C17H36, 19,270 Gross Btu/lb.

99

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet E-3

Correcting Emissions Readings to 3% O2 or 11% O2 Basis


Multiplier For:

Many environmental authorities, including


the U.S. EPA and several European agencies, require that gaseous pollutants, like
NOx and CO, be reported in ppm (parts per
million by volume) corrected to a based of
3% excess O2or 15% excess airin the flue
gases. Japan, on the other hand, customarily uses a base of 11% O2.
Emission readings taken at different oxygen levels can be easily converted to a standard base using a multiplier:
ppmcorrected = ppmtest x multiplier
The multiplier is calculated from the oxygen reading taken during the test and the
base oxygen reading required by the regulation:
multiplier =

21 - % O2 base
21 - % O2 test

For your convenience, a table of multipliers


is presented to the right.

100

%O 2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
18.5
19
19.5
20
20.2
20.4
20.6
20.8

3%O 2

11%O2

.86
.9
.95
1
1.06
1.13
1.2
1.29
1.38
1.5
1.64
1.8
2.0
2.25
2.57
3.0
3.6
4.5
6
7.2
9
12
18
22.5
30
45
90

.48
.5
.53
.56
.59
.63
.67
.71
.77
.83
.91
1
1.11
1.25
1.43
1.67
2
2.5
3.33
4
5
6.67
10
12.5
16.67
25
50

Tech Notes
Recuperator Efficiency: Fuel Savings & Effectiveness
Percent Fuel Savings

There are two commonly-used methods for figuring recuperator efficiency:


percent fuel savings and percent effectiveness.
Percent savings is calculated by this relationship:

((

Available Heat Less Recuperator


( (%% Available
Heat With Recuperator

% Savings= 1-

x100

Because available heat figures vary with the composition of the fuel and
the amount of excess air, one suppliers fuel savings data may be different
from anothers by one or two percentage points. More often than not, the
tables will be based on natural gas at
10% excess air.
Percent effectiveness measures the inherent heat transfer capabilities of
the recuperator without regard to fuel composition or fuel/air ratio:

% Effectiveness=

Combustion Air Temp


Leaving Exchanger

Combustion Air Temp


Entering Exchanger

Flue Gas Temp


Entering Exchanger

Combustion Air Temp


Entering Exchanger

Percent Effectiveness

x 100

Basically, it compares the actual rise in combustion air temperature to the


maximum that could possibly be achieved (combustion air preheated to
the same temperature as the incoming flue gases). Since the maximum is
unattainable, effectiveness is always less than 100 %.
The graph on page 102 relates combustion air temperature to flue gas temperature and recuperator effectiveness.
To predict air preheat, read up from the flue gas temperature to the line
representing the effectiveness of the exchanger, then left to air preheat.

101

Based on Combustion Air


Entering at 60 F.

% Effectiveness
90%

1500

Combustion Air Preheat, F

Figure 1:
Heat Exchanger
Effectiveness Curves

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%
1000
30%
20%
500
10%

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Flue Gas Temp. Entering Exchanger, F

102

3000

TechNotes

Section 2
Sheet R-1

NFPA Requirements for Gas Burner Systems


Reference: NFPA 86 Ovens and Furnaces, 2003 Edition
General Remarks:
The schematic and notes on the following page condense the gas burner system requirements of National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA) 86 into an easy-to-use format. They should provide most of the engineering
information required to lay out burner air and gas trains. Numbers in parentheses refer to the applicable
paragraphs of the standard.
In addition to the requirements shown on the schematic, NFPA 86 also requires that the combustion control
system have the following features:
1)

All safety divices must be listed for their intended service (7.2.1), including purge and ignition timers
(7.2.3).

2)

Safety control circuits must be single phase, one side grounded, with all breaking contacts in the
hot, ungrounded, circuit protected line not exceeding 120V. (7.2.11)

3)

Prior to energizing spark or lighting pilot, a timed pre-purge of at least four standard cubic feet of air
per cubic foot of heating chamber volume is required (7.4.1).
a) Airflow must be proven & maintained during the purge.
b) Safety shutoff valve must be closed and when the chamber input exceeds 400,000 Btu/hr
(117 kW) it must be proved closed and interlocked. Proof of closure can be achieved by either a
proof of closure switch on at least one valve or a valve proving system.

4)

Exceptions to a re-purge are allowed for momentary shutdowns if (any one): (7.4.1.5)
a) Each burner is supervised, each has safety shutoff valves, and the fuel accumulation in the
heating chamber can not exceed 25% of lower explosive limit.
b) Each burner is supervised, each has safety shutoff valves, and at least one burner remains on in
same chamber.
c) The chamber temperature is more than 1400F (760C).

5)

Exception to the pre-purge is allowed for explosion resistant radiant tube systems. (7.4.1.4)

6)

All safety interlocks must be connected in series ahead of the safety shutoff valves. Interposing
relays are allowed when the required load exceeds the rating of available safety contacts or where
safety logic requires separate inputs, AND the contact goes to a safe state on loss of power, AND
each relay serves only one interlock. (7.2.7)

7)

Any motor starters required for combustion must be interlocked into the safety circuit. (7.6.3)

8)

A listed manual reset excess temperature limit control is required except where the system design
can not exceed the maximum safe temperature. (7.16)

9)

The user has the responsibility for establishing a program of inspection, testing, and maintenance
with documentation performed at least annually. (7.2.5.2)
The scope of NFPA 86 extends to all the factors involved in the safe operation of ovens and furnaces, and
anyone designing or building them should be familiar with the entire standard. Copies can be purchased from:
The National Fire Protection Association
1 Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02269-9101
800-344-3555 (508-895-8300 if outside U.S.)
www.nfpa.org

103

Piping Schematic
Gas

6
4

2
12

13
9

11
Gas Flow
Controls

10

16

11

11

15

10
Air Flow
Controls

Item

14

Description

Reference
Paragraph

Facility to install drip leg or sediment trap for each fuel supply line. Must be a minimum of 3 long.

6.2.5.3

Individual manual shutoff valve to each piece of equipment. 1/4 turn valves recommended.

Filter or strainer to protect downstream safety shutoff valves.

6.2.5.1
6.2.5.3.3

Pressure regulator required wherever plant supply pressure exceeds level required for proper burner function
or is subject to excessive fluctuations.

6.2.5.4

Regulator vent to safe location outside the building with water protection & bug screen.
Vent piping not required for listed regulator/vent limiter combination. Vent piping not required for ratio
regulator/zero governor.

Gas pressure switches may be vented to regulator vent lines if backloading wont occur.

Over pressure protection required if gas pressure at regulator inlet exceeds rating of any downstream part.

7.7.1.8

Two listed* safety shutoff valves required for each main and pilot gas burner system. A single valve can be
used for explosion resistant radiant tube systems.

7.7.2.1

Visual position indication required on safety shutoff valves to burners or pilots in excess of 150,000 Btu/hr
(44 kW).

7.7.1.9

10

Proof of closure switch or valve proving system required for capacities over 400,000 Btu/hr (117 kW).

7.7.2.2

11

Permanent and ready means for checking leak tightness of safety shutoff valves.

12

Listed* low gas pressure switch (normally open, makes on pressure rise).

7.7.2.3
7.8.1

13

Listed* high gas pressure switch (normally closed, breaks on pressure rise).

14

Flame Supervision:
Piloted burners
- Continuous pilot: Two flame sensors must be used, one for the pilot flame and one for the main burner flame.
- Intermittent pilot: Can use a single flame sensor for self-piloted burners (from same port as main, or
has a common flame base and has a common flame envelope with the main flame).
- Interrupted pilot: A single flame sensor is allowed.
Line, Pipe, Radiant burners
- If the burners are adjacent and light safely and reliably from burner to burner, then a single sensor is
allowed if it is located at the farthest end from the source of ignition.

15

6.2.5.4.8

7.8.2
7.9.2
7.9.2.1

7.9.2.2

Spark Ignition:
Except for explosion resistant radiant tube systems, direct spark igniters must be shut off after main burner
trial-for-ignition.
If a burner must be ignited at reduced input (forced low fire start), an ignition interlock must be provided to
prove control valve position.
Trial-for-ignition of the pilot or main must not exceed 15 seconds. An exception is allowed where fuel
accumulation in the heating chamber can not exceed 25% of the lower explosive limit and the authority
having jurisdiction approves a written request for extended time.

16

6.2.5.4

Listed* combustion air flow or pressure proving switch (normally open, makes on pressure rise).

7.4.2.4
7.15
7.4.2

7.6.2

*Underwriters Laboratory (UL) listing is accepted throughout the United States. Listed products can be found in the UL Gas and Oil
Equipment Directory, available from Underwriters Laboratory, Inc. Publications Stock, 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-2096.
Factory Mutual (FM) listed equipment is also acceptable in most jurisdictions and can be found in the FM Approval Guide available from
Factory Mutual Research Corporation, 115 Boston-Providence Turnpike, Norwood, MA 02062.

104

Tech Notes

Section 2
Sheet R-2

IRI Requirements For Gas Burner Systems


Reference: IM.4.2.0 & IM.4.2.1, June 1, 2000

General Remarks:
These schematic and notes condense the gas burner system requirements of GE Global Asset Protection
Services - Industrial Risk Insurers (IRI) publications IM.4.2.0 OVENS AND FURNACES - NFPA 86-1999 and
IM.4.2.1 HEAT TREAT FURNACES WITH INTERNAL QUENCH TANKS. They should provide most of the
engineering information required to lay out burner air and gas trains. IRI follows the requirements of NFPA 86 but
makes additional clarifications and changes for increased safety.
In addition to the requirements shown on the following schematic, IRI also requires that the combustion control
system have the following features. Numbers in parenthesis reference the paragraphs in IM.4.2.0, IM.4.2.1, and
NFPA 86.
1) NFPA: Safety control circuits must be single phase, one side grounded, with all breaking contacts in the
hot, ungrounded, circuit protected line and not exceed 120V. IRI: Any time delay used to avoid nuisance
shutdowns from momentary power fluctuations cannot exceed 5 seconds and any timer must not be
adjustable above this maximum. (5-2)
2) NFPA: Prior to energizing spark or lighting pilot, a timed pre-purge of at least four standard cubic feet of
air per cubic foot of heating chamber volume is required. IRI: Any adjustable purge timer must clearly
show its setting, have limited access, and be periodically inspected. Any employee with access must be
trained on its setting and consequences if not set properly. (5-4.1.2)
a. NFPA: Airflow must be proven and maintained during the purge. IRI: The location of pressure
switch sensing points must be analyzed against all other conditions (such as dirt accumulation
and damper positions in the system) to assure it will truly prove the required airflow. (5-4.1.2.1)
b. NFPA: Where the capacity exceeds 400,000 Btu/hr (117kW) at least one of the safety shutoff
valves must be proved closed and interlocked to the purge. IRI: Both safety shutoff valves shall
be proved closed and interlocked. (5-7.2.2)
3) IRI: The trial for ignition for pilots or main burners must not exceed 10 seconds. (5-4.2.1, 5-4.2.2)
Directly control the spark from a listed flame safeguard. (5-2.3)
4) NFPA: All safety interlocks must be connected in series ahead of the safety shutoff valves. Interposing
relays are allowed when the required load exceeds the rating of available safety contacts, or where the
safety logic requires separate inputs, AND the contact goes to safe state on loss of power, AND each
relay serves only one interlock. IRI: An interposing relay can be powered by more than one safety limit if
the safety shutoff valves derive power in series through the limits. When one limit opens then the fuel is
shutoff to all burners that use the interposing relay as a permissive. (5-2.7)
5) NFPA: Any motor starters, circulation, and exhaust fans required for safe combustion or purge must be
proven. (5-6.3) IRI: Use a rotation switch if pressure switches or sail switches are not suitable. (5-5.1)
6) NFPA-IRI: A listed manual reset excess temperature limit control is required except where the system
design cannot exceed the maximum safe temperature. (5-16)
7) NFPA-IRI: Piping and electrical schematics of the proposed system must be submitted to the local IRI
office in whose jurisdiction the system will be located. Drawings must include the various device settings,
switch positions, configurations and notes on options. Stamped approval is required before construction
begins. (1-4)
8) NFPA-IRI: The user has the responsibility to establish a program of inspection, testing, and maintenance
with documentation performed at least annually. (5-2.5.2)

105

Piping Schematic
5

17

6
8

7
4

Gas

12

10

13

Gas Flow
Controls

10

15

11

16
Air Flow
Controls

Item

14
Reference
Paragraph

Description

Facility to install drip leg or sediment trap for each fuel supply line. Must be a minimum of 3 long.

4-2.4.4

Individual manual shutoff valve to each piece of equipment. 1/4 turn valves recommended. Must be in an

4-2.4.1

accessible location near the floor.


3

Filter or strainer to protect downstream safety shutoff valves.

Pressure regulator required wherever plant supply pressure exceeds level required for proper burner function
or is subject to excessive fluctuations.

Regulator vent to safe location outside the building with water protection & bug screen.
Vent piping can terminate inside the building when gas is lighter than air, vent contains restricted orifice,
and there is sufficient building ventilation, where there are high clearances between the equipment and
roof and there are no ignition sources.
Vent piping not required for lighter than air gases at less than 1 psi, vent contains restricted orifice, and
there is sufficient ventilation. Vent piping not required for ratio regulator.

Gas pressure switches may be vented to regulator vent lines if backloading wont occur. No vent line
required if switch has no diaphragm.

4-2.4.5.5

Relief valve required if gas pressure at regulator inlet exceeds rating of safety shutoff valve. Physical
location can be upstream to meet application requirements.

5-7.1.7

Two listed* safety shutoff valves required for each main and pilot gas burner system. Both safety shutoff
valves must close after interruption of interlocks, combustion safeguard, or operating controls; no exceptions
allowed for multiple burner systems. A single valve can be used for explosion resistant radiant tube systems.

5-7.2.1
5-7.1.2

Position indication (not proof-of-closure) required on safety shutoff valves to burners or pilots in excess of
150,000 Btu/hr (44 kW). Electrical indicators must not replace mechanical indicators.

5-7.1.8

10

For capacities over 400,000 Btu/hr (117 kW) both safety shutoff valves must have a closed position switch to
interlock with the pre-purge.

5-7.2.2

11

Permanent and ready means for checking leak tightness of safety shutoff valves. Test in progressive
intervals starting weekly, monthly, quarterly, then annually.

5-7.2.3

12

Listed* low gas pressure switch (normally open, makes on pressure rise).

5-8.1

13

Listed* high gas pressure switch (normally closed, breaks on pressure rise).

5-8.2

14

Flame Supervision:
Piloted burners
- Continuous pilot: Two flame sensors must be used, one for the pilot flame and one for the main burner flame.
- Intermittant pilot: Can use a single flame sensor for self-piloted burners (from same port as main, or
has a common flame base and has a common flame envelope with the main flame).
- Interrupted pilot: A single flame sensor is allowed.
Line, Pipe, Radiant burners
- If the burners are adjacent and light safely and reliably from burner to burner, then a single sensor is
allowed if it is located at the farthest end from the source of ignition.

4-2.4.3

Continuous (>24 hr) operation with UV scanners must use self checking style scanners (or use flame rods
instead).

4-2.4.5.1
4-2.4.5.2

5-9
5-9.2.1

5-9.2.2

5-9.2

Continued on next page


106

Continued from previous page


Item
15

Reference
Paragraph

Description
Spark Ignition:

5-15.2

Except for explosion resistant radiant tube systems, direct spark igniters must be shut off after main
burner trial-for-ignition.
If a burner must be ignited at reduced input (forced low fire start), an ignition interlock must be provided to
prove control valve position.
Trial-for-ignition of the pilot or main must not exceed 10 seconds. An exception is allowed where fuel
accumulation in the heating chamber can not exceed 25% of the lower explosive limit and the authority
having jurisdiction approves a written request for extended time.
Manual (pushbutton) ignition systems must be designed to prevent further spark after the trial-for-ignition
until a full purge is first completed.

5-4.2.2

16

Listed* combustion air flow or pressure proving switch (normally open, makes on pressure rise).

5-6.4

17

A Listed* normally open (N.O.) vent valve with vent pipe run to a safe outside location is required when the line
capacity exceeds 400,000Btu/hr (117kW). Do not manifold to other vent lines. Size the vent line according to the
following table.

Fuel Line Size


1
2
2
3
4
5
6
8

5-15.1

5-15

5-7.2.1

Vent Line Size

1
1
1
2
2
3
3

As an alternate to using a vent valve, use a valve tightness proving system that is automatically activated
upon startup and shutdown
*Underwriters Laboratory (UL) listing is accepted throughout the United States. Listed products can be found in the UL Gas and Oil
Equipment Directory, available from Underwriters Laboratory, Inc. Publications Stock, 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062-2096.
Factory Mutual (FM) listed equipment is also acceptable in most jurisdictions and can be found in the FM Approval Guide available from
Factory Mutual Research Corporation, 115 Boston-Providence Turnpike, Norwood, MA 02062.

More information can be obtained by contacting:


Industrial Risk Insurers
85 Woodland Street
Hartford, CT 06102-5010
860-520-7329
860-520-7559 fax
http://www.industrialrisk.com

National Fire Protection Association


1 Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02269-9101
800-344-3555
508-895-8300
http://www.nfpa.org

107

Tech Notes

Section 3
Sheet I-1

Heating Values of Flammable Liquids


General Remarks:

Designers of fume incinerators are sometimes concerned about the heating value of the solvents being incinerated. The table below lists approximate heating values of various commercial solvents and flammable liquids, calculated from the references at the bottom of page 109.

Gross Heating Value


Btu/U.S. Gallon
Btu/lb.

Liquid
Acetone
n-Amyl Acetate
sec-Amyl Acetate
Amyl Alcohol

87,360
105,670
105,670
110,290

13,040
14,410
14,410
16,220

Benzene (Benzol)
n-Butyl Acetate
n-Butyl Alcohol
sec-Butyl Alcohol
Butyl Cellosolve (Glycol Monobutyl Ether)
Butyl Propionate

132,150
97,480
104,760
104,760
105,630
106,060

18,100
13,250
15,640
15,640
14,040
14,130

Camphor
143,010
Carbon Disulfide
61,210
Cellosolve (Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl)
91,960
Cellosolve Acetate (Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate)
87,140
Chlorobenzene-mono
105,420
m- or p-Cresol
122,870
Cyclohexane
130,300
Cyclohexanone
117,900
p-Cymene
146,000
Denatured Alcohol
Dibutyl Phthalate
o-Dichlorobenzene
N-Dimethyl Formamide
p-Dioxane (Diethylene Dioxide)
Ethyl Acetate
Ethyl Alcohol
Ethyl Ether

68,670 *
109,630
86,330
85,340
89,380
82,420
84,250
93,730

(continued on page 109)

Approximate; liquid is a mixture whose composition may vary.

108

17,150
5,650
11,790
10,720
11,490
14,730
20,050
15,710
19,450
9,930 *
13,150
7,960
11,370
10,720
10,990
12,770
16,060

Gross Heating Value


Btu/U.S. Gallon
Btu/lb.

Liquid
Ethyl Lactate
Ethyl Methyl Ether
Ethyl Propionate

78,990
86,700
90,970

Gasoline

129,000 *

21,050 *

Hexane

113,850

20,700

131,000137,000 * 19,70019,900 *

Kerosene (Fuel Oil #1)

Methyl Acetate
Methyl Alcohol
Methyl Carbitol (Diethylene Glycol Methyl Ether)
Methyl Cellosolve
Methyl Cellosolve Acetate
Methyl Ethyl Kerosene (2-Butanone)
Methyl Lactate

71,610
63,490
89,650
81,190
79,530
97,710
80,160

9,300
9,620
10,340
10,080
9,470
14,580
8,810

Nitrobenzene
Nitroethane
Nitromethane
1-Nitropropane
2-Nitropropane

90,170
50,190
17,010
66,290
65,760

9,010
5,470
1,850
7,950
7,950

Propyl Acetate
Propyl Alcohol
iso-Propyl Alcohol
n-Propyl Ether
Pyridine

85,770
96,560
93,160
109,280
122,210

11,430
14,410
14,120
17,470
14,920

Toluene
Turpentine

131,970
163,500 *

18,330
20,000 *

71,610

9,540

135,870

18,610

Vinyl Acetate
o-Xylene

References

9,470
14,850
12,290

Approximate; liquid is a mixture whose composition may vary.

NFPA 325M-1984, Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases, and

Volatile Solids.
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th Edition, 1959.

109

Tech Notes

Section 3
Sheet L-1

Immersion Tube Sizing


General Remarks

In 1944, AGA Testing Laboratories published Research Bulletin No. 24, Research in Fundamentals of Immersion Tube Heating With Gas. This landmark paper established beyond a doubt that the thermal efficiency of immersion tubes was strictly a function of their lengthtube diameter had
no effect. From their tests, AGA also developed an empirical relationship
between thermal efficiency, effective tube length and burner firing rate for
immersion tubes in boiling water:
2

E = 20log L + 71
R
where E = thermal efficiency, %
L = effective tube length, ft.
R = burner input rate, 1000s of Btu/hr
Effective tube length is the total centerline length of the tube immersed in
water, including elbows, plus 1.1 feet for each elbow or return bend.
This equation is the basis of the tube sizing charts in Eclipse literature.
The fact that tube diameter had no effect on efficiency came as a shock to
many people, but it makes sense when you think about it. Increasing the
tube diameter increases the heat transfer surface, but it also produces
lower gas velocity inside the tube, thus promoting a thicker gas boundary
layer along the inside walls of the tube. This leads to poorer heat transfer.
AGAs studies determined that the loss in convection heat transfer almost
exactly offset the gain in transfer surface.
Over 40 years have passed since this paper was published. Far more sophisticated heat transfer equations have been developed, and we now have
computers to perform the calculations, yet no one has been able to make a
significant improvement to the speed and accuracy of AGAs equation.
The curves in the graph on page 111 were calculated from the AGA equation.

110

150

Effective Tube Length, In Feet

Effective
Length, ft.
.47r
.771r
1.273r
2.113r
3.523r

%
Efficiency
60
65
70
75
80

where r =
heat
transferred
to the tank,
Btu/hr X 1000

80%

75%

100
70%
65%
50

Efficiency

Figure 1:
Immersion Tube
Efficiency vs. Length

60%

Heat Transfered To Tank, Btu/hr. (In Millions)

Burner Design

If heat transfer requirements dont determine immersion tube diameters,


what does?
Burner design doesmore specifically, the burners ability to fire against
the back pressure of the immersion tube.
Atmospheric burners operate at very low mixture pressures and depend on
natural draft to pull secondary air into the tube. Consequently, the firing
rate has to be kept low to avoid hot gases backing out of the tube around
the burner head.
Sealed, forced draft burners operate at higher pressures, so they can be
used to push tubes to higher firing rates. The operating pressures of the
combustion system determine just how hard the tube can be fired. Thats
why Immerso-Jet small bore burner systems, with their high operating
pressures, can operate satisfactorily at higher inputs per sq. in. of tube
cross-section than packaged IP burners. Figure 2 lists approximate maximum firing rates in Btu/sq. in. of tube cross-section for various types of
burner systems.

Figure 2:
Burner Design vs.
Firing Rate

Burner System Type


Atmospheric, natural draft, 7' high stack
Atmospheric with eductor, 0.2" w.c. draft
Atmospheric with eductor, 0.4" w.c. draft
Packaged forced draft, low pressure fan
Sealed nozzle-mix, high pressure blower
Small bore nozzle-mix

111

Max. Firing rate,


Btu/Sq. In. of
Tube Cross-Section
7000 - 8000
15,000 - 18,000
21,000 - 25,000
15,000 - 35,000
30,000 - 85,000
80,000 - 180,000

Tech Notes

Section 3
Sheet L-2

Submerged Combustion
Process Description:

Submerged combustion is the practice of heating liquids by bubbling a


burners hot combustion products through them. The process, which originated over 100 years ago, was first used to generate low pressure steam,
but later became popular as a way to concentrate chemical solutions by
evaporation. It is also viewed as an efficient way to heat water solutions to
moderate temperatures, although its success has been somewhat spotty in
this application. It agitates the bath and causes the water to become more
acidic as CO2 in the combustion products dissolves in the bath. Depending
on the process, these features can be either advantages or drawbacks.

Combustor Description:

Over the years a variety of designs have evolved, but most modern units
are some version of either the single-tube or manifold design.

Single Tube
Combustor

Manifold Type Combustor

Single-tube units have a relatively small coverage area, so their use is restricted to tanks with fairly confined dimensions. On the other hand, manifold-type combustors can be custom-designed to fit tanks of any reasonable dimensions without the need to locate the combustor near the center
of the tank. This permits submerged combustors to be used on dip tanks
and other jobs where the tank volume must be free of obstructions.

System Efficiency:

Submerged combustion gets its reputation for high efficiency from the fact
that the combustion gases come into direct contact with the liquid, creating excellent heat transfer. Below about 140 F, all the water vapor in the
combustion products condenses into the bath, releasing its latent heat of
vaporization and producing thermal efficiencies of 90-95%, based on the
higher heating value of the fuel.

112

Above 140 F water begins to vaporize, and the efficiency drops quickly.
One unusual effect of bubbling combustion products through water is that
it lowers the waters boiling point. For natural gas burned at sea level, the
boiling point is about 190 F; for propane, it is about 180 F. Higher altitudes will depress the boiling point even further. If the purpose of the system is to boil water away, this is an asset, but if its purpose is only heating
water, process thermal efficiency is zero at the boiling point.
From the efficiency curve below, you can see that at 165 F liquid temper
ature, a submerged combustion system has a thermal efficiency of 70%,
equivalent to a conventional immersion tube system. At higher temperatures, it is less efficient. To compete with an 80% efficient immersion tube
such as the IJ Small Bore system, a submerged combustion system would
have to operate at 155 F or less.
100

Figure 1:
Thermal Efficiency
of a Submerged
Combustion System
% Thermal Efficiency

Burning Natural Gas at Sea Level

80

60

40

20

0
60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

Water Temperature, F

System Design:
Custom-built submerged combustion units are available, although many
successful jobs have been done with standard burner equipment.
Tank Depth:

The tank must be deep enough to provide at least 16-20" of bubble path
through the liquid. Shallower tanks will not allow time for optimum heat
transfer. Beyond 20", the improvement in heat transfer is negligible, but
the tank may have to be deeper simply to accommodate the length of the
combustion tube, which has to be large enough to allow completion of the
flame.

Combustor Tube:

All portions of the tube immersed in the tank can be bare metal. Customary
practice is to locate the burner mounting flange within a few inches of the
liquid level so the entire tube can be left bare. Be sure to choose an alloy
that wont corrode in the solution.

113

Distribution Tubes:

Single-tube combustors are often provided with a perforated conical skirt


on the bottom to aid in breaking up and distributing the flue gases. Manifold systems are subject to a lot of design variations, but a few general
rules apply:

Large tanks will require distribution pipes to carry the combustion products throughout the tank. Dont depend on a single combustor isolated
in one corner to provide uniform tank heating.

Gas distribution openings in the pipe manifolds are most commonly


single rows of drilled holes, although slot openings have also been used.
There arent any universally accepted rules on hole sizing, but anything smaller than 1/4" diameter is probably a waste of effort.

The effect of hole location (facing up, down or sideways) on heat transfer is probably negligible. However, facing the holes downward aids draining the water out of the manifold when the system is started up. Be
sure to provide a couple of inches clearance between the manifolds and
the tank floor (more, if you expect sludge or debris to accumulate).

Total area of the distribution holes is, again, a matter of individual


preference, but one square inch of opening for every 50-60,000 Btu/hr
firing rate gives a good compromise between even distribution and low
pressure drops.

Design the manifold so it is free to expand without constraint. Otherwise, broken welds and leaks are sure to result.

When filled with combustion gases, the distribution tube will become
buoyant and try to float. Long, cantilevered tubes will vibrate and thrash
around the tank. Be sure theyre properly anchored to the tank bottom.

Supply Pressures:

Remember that the head pressure of the liquid in the tank has to be added
to all the normal air and gas supply pressures.

Burner:

Nozzle mix burners are strongly preferred; the flashback tendencies of premix
burners can be aggravated by fluctuations in system back pressure.

Moisture Protection:

Flame length should be no more than 1/2 to 2/3 the length of the combustor tube, or the flame is apt to be quenched, forming CO and aldehydes.
High levels of humidity are normal around tanks heated with submerged
combustors. Condensation will tend to collect on spark igniters, flame rods
and scanner cells. Provide them with air purging if this is expected to be a
problem. Use weather-resistant boots on electrode connectors, and all electrical wiring and control boxes should be selected or situated to exclude
moisture. Combustion air blowers should be located where they wont draw
in excessively humid air.

Operating Sequence:

This will be dictated in part by safety requirements, but all systems should
have a prepurge to remove the water from the combustor tube and distribution manifold. Regardless of burner capacity, low fire lightoff is strongly
recommended.

Safety:

Depending on the tank volume and the area over which the combustion
gases are bubbled, the liquid surface will be agitated anywhere from a gentle
rolling motion to a violent boil. Splashing and spilling over the sides of the
tank can occur, and precaution should be taken to avoid exposing workers
and equipment to hot and/or corrosive liquid.

114

References:

Thermal Manual of Submerged Combustion, Thermal Research & Engineering Corp., Conshohocken, PA 1961.
Tank & Solution Heaters for the Chemical Industry AGA Information letter No. 115, N.E. Keith, A.G.A., New York, 1960.

115

Tech Notes

Section 3
Sheet L-3

Immersion TubesWhat Will The Stack Temperature Be?


Reference:

Eclipse Combustion Engineering Guide, p. 51


Customers laying out immersion tube systems frequently ask what stack
temperatures they should expect. You can make a good approximation from
the available heat chart below. The heat transferred through an immersion
tube is the available heat in that system; everything else is flue gas loss, so
its easy to calculate flue gas temperature by working backward on the
available heat chart. All you need to know is the tube efficiency and the
amount of excess air at high fire.
For example, lets say you had an immersion system operating at 70%
thermal efficiency and 25% excess air at high fire. Starting at 70% available heat (with available heat equal to efficiency), read across until you hit
the 25% excess air curve and then drop straight down to get the flue gas
exit temperature, which, in this case, is 950F.
Based On Birmingham Natural Gas (1002 Btu/Cu. ft., 0.6 Sp. Gr.)

90
80
70
% Available Heat

Figure 1:
Available Heat vs. Flue
Gas Exit Temperature, F

100

350%
400%

60

% Excess Air

500%

50

600%

40

800%

30

1000%

25

0
10

0%
15

50

0%

30

10

0%

1200%

0%
%

10

20

0%
25

20

200

600

1000

1400

1800

Flue Gas Exit Temperature, F

116

2200

2600

3000

Tech Notes

Section 3
Sheet O-1

Determining % O2 in a Recirculating System

Fuel
Combustion
Air

QF

QA

Exhaust, Q X at Temperature, TX

Burner
Fresh
Makeup
Air

QM

Oven

Data Needed:

To determine O2 content in a recirculating system, you need to know:


QX =oven exhaust volume, acfm
TX =oven exhaust temperature
QF =maximum fuel flow to burner, scfm
R

=stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (e.g., 10:1 for natural gas, 25:1 for propane, or whatever)

(continued on page 118)

117

Procedure:

1. Determine scfm of exhaust.

QE in scfm = QX in acfm x

520
TX + 460

520
The temperature correction factor, T + 460 , equals the specific gravX
ity of the exhaust at temperature TX.
For simplicitys sake, assume the exhaust has properties nearly equal
to air. Then you can use the specific gravity figures on page 21 of the
Eclipse Combustion Engineering Guide.
2. For the oven to be balanced, the sum of fuel to the burner (QF), air to
the burner (QA), and fresh makeup air (QM) must equal the exhaust
volume:

QE = QF + QA + QM
3. Determine the portion of makeup and combustion air which is consumed in burning the fuel. This equals:
R x QF

The remaining unconsumed fresh air determines the oxygen level in


the oven. It equals:
QE QF R x QF

4. Calculate oxygen content in oven, assuming 20.8% oxygen in the fresh


air stream.

% O2 = 20.8 x

QE QF R x QF
QE

or in its simplest form:


% O2 = 20.8 x

QE 1 + R QF
QE

Example
For example, we have an oven exhausting 2000 acfm at 600 F. The
burner is rated at 1.8 million Btu/hr on 1000 Btu/cu.ft. natural gas
(10:1 stoichiometric ratio).
At 600 F, the specific gravity of air is .500, so QE = (2000) (.500) = 1000
scfm
QF, the maximum fuel input, is 1,800,000 Btu/hr divided by 1000 Btu/
cu.ft. = 1800 scfh. 1800 cfh divided by 60 minutes = 30 scfm
R, the stoichiometric air-gas ratio, is given as 10:1, so:

% O2 = 20.8 x

118

1000 1 +10 30 = 20.8 x


1000

670
1000

= 13.94%O2