ABSTRACT
In this paper, a detailed dynamic model and simulation of a solar cell/wind turbine/fuel cell hybrid power system is Developed using a novel topology to complement each other and to alleviate the effects of environmental variations. Comparing with the nuclear energy and thermal power, the renewable energy is inexhaustible and has non-pollution Characteristics. The solar energy, wind power, hydraulic power and tide energy are natural resources of the interest to generate electrical sources. As the wind turbine output power varies with the wind speed and the solar cell output power varies with both the ambient temperature and radiation, a FC system with an UC bank can be integrated to ensure that the system performs under all conditions. Excess wind and solar energies when available are converted to hydrogen using electrolysis for later use in the fuel cell. In this paper Dynamic modeling of various components of this isolated system is presented. Transient responses of the system to step changes in the load, ambient temperature, radiation, and wind speed in a number of possible situations are studied. The recent commercial availability of small PEMFC units has created many new opportunities to design hybrid energy systems for remote applications with energy storage in hydrogen form. Here Ultra-capacitors are used in power applications requiring short duration peak power. The voltage variation at the output is found to be within the acceptable range. The output fluctuations of the wind turbine varying with wind speed and the solar cell varying with both environmental temperature and sun radiation are reduced using a fuel cell. Therefore, this system can tolerate the rapid changes in load and environmental conditions, and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the equipment side voltage. The proposed system can be used for off-grid power generation in non interconnected areas or remote isolated communities. Modeling and simulations are conducted using MATLAB/Simulink software packages to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system. The results show that the proposed hybrid power system can tolerate the rapid changes in natural conditions and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the voltage within the acceptable range.

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION
Comparing with the nuclear energy and thermal power, the renewable energy is inexhaustible and has non-pollution characteristics. The solar energy, wind power, hydraulic power and tide energy are natural resources of the interest to generate electrical sources. Extensive and generalized usage of renewable energy is very popular to reduce the pollutions we have cause on earth. The wind and solar energy are welcome substitution for many other energy resources because it is natural, inexhaustible resource of sunlight to generate electricity. The main disadvantage of wind turbines is that naturally variable wind speed causes voltage and power fluctuation problems at the load side. This problem can be solved by using appropriate power converters and control strategies. Another significant problem is to store the energy generated by wind turbines for future usage when no wind is available but the user demand exists. The solar cell depends on the weather factors, mainly the irradiation and the cell temperature. Therefore, the weather factors such as the irradiation and the temperature are utilized for the estimation of the maximum power in this paper. After many technological advances, proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology has now reached the test and demonstration phase. The recent commercial availability of small PEMFC units has created many new opportunities to design hybrid energy systems for remote applications with energy storage in hydrogen form. By using an electrolyzer, hydrogen conversion allows both storage and transportation of large amounts of power at much higher energy densities. Furthermore, coupling a wind turbine, a solar cell, fuel cells and electrolyzers is efficacious to improve environment pollution because of by using natural energy. In this paper, a detailed dynamic model and simulation of a solar cell/wind turbine/fuel cell hybrid power system is developed using a novel topology to complement each other and to alleviate the effects of environmental variations. Modeling and simulations are conducted using MATLAB/Simulink software packages to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system. The results show that the proposed hybrid power system can tolerate the rapid changes in natural conditions and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the voltage within the acceptable range.

C++. and numeric computation. data analysis.1 MATLAB INTRODUCTION MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory)  MATLAB is developed by The Math Works. data visualization. sale. Inc. and support for MATLAB  The Math works is located in Natick  The Math works is an employer that hires co-ops through our co-op program Strengths of MATLAB  MATLAB is relatively easy to learn.1. MATLAB was rewritten in C with more functionality (such as plotting routines)  The Math works.  MATLAB is a high-level technical computing language and interactive environment for algorithm development. when teaching courses in mathematics. Windows  MATLAB is a high-level language and interactive environment that enables you to perform computationally intensive tasks faster than with traditional programming languages such as C. and FORTRAN. was created in 1984  The Math works is now responsible for development. .  MATLAB can be install on Unix. History of MATLAB  Fortran subroutines for solving linear (LINPACK) and eigenvalue (EISPACK) problems  Developed primarily by Cleve Moler in the 1970‟s  Later. Inc. Moler wanted his students to be able to use LINPACK and EISPACK without requiring knowledge of Fortran  MATLAB developed as an interactive system to access LINPACK and EISPACK  MATLAB gained popularity primarily through word of mouth because it was not officially distributed  In the 1980‟s.

Fortran. C++.  MATLAB is an interpreted language (making it for the most part slower than a compiled language such as C++). and Microsoft Excel Weakness of MATLAB  MATLAB is NOT a general purpose programming language. errors are easier to fix.  Although primarily procedural. MATLAB does have some object-oriented elements. such as C. Java.  MATLAB is interpreted. Other Features  2-D and 3-D graphics functions for visualizing data  Tools for building custom graphical user interfaces  Functions for integrating MATLAB based algorithms with external applications and languages.  MATLAB is designed for scientific computation and is not suitable for some things (such as parsing text). MATLAB code is optimized to be relatively quick when performing matrix operations. Components of MATLAB interface  Workspace  Current Directory  Command History  Command Window .  MATLAB may behave like a calculator or as a programming language. COM.

simulating and analyzing multidomain systems.  They combine many technologies to provide reliable power that is tailored to the local resources and community.1. petroleumfueled and even hydrogen. micro-hydro.  Potential components include: PV. Simulink is widely used in control theory and digital signal processing for multidomain simulation and Model-based design Generally there are three ways to open Simulink  By using start in Matlab  By typing Simulink in Command prompt  By clicking Simulink icon in toolbar 1. wind. total site energy requirements. thermoelectric. seasonal availability of energy sources. PV has been effectively combined with other types of power generators such as wind. biomass. Its primary interface is a graphical block diagramming tool and a customizable set of block libraries. In these cases. etc. . cost of source implementation. batteries and conventional generators. To date.  Hybrid power systems use local renewable resource to provide power. it may prove more feasible to combine several different types of power sources to form what is known as a "hybrid" system. river-run hydro. The selection process for hybrid power source types at a given site can include a combination of many factors including site topography. cost of energy storage and delivery. hydro.3 HYBRID POWER SYSTEMS Electrical energy requirements for many remote applications are too large to allow the cost-effective use of stand-alone or autonomous PV systems.2 SIMULINK It is a commercial tool for modeling.  Village hybrid power systems can range in size from small household systems (100Wh/day) to ones supplying a whole area (10‟s MWh/day).

that when integrated. sub. the battery was charged by sub-motor. Hybrid systems can produce synergistic benefits in which the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The hybrid system was consisted of reduction gear. main-motor (EM1). reliability. power controller and battery. If the SOC (state of charge) of battery was decreased below the specific threshold.motor (EM2). efficiency. or two or more fuels for the same device.Hybrid power systems combine two or more energy conversion devices. Configuration of hybrid system Figure shows the basic configuration of hybrid system discussed in this study. emissions and / or economics. acceleration was assisted by was applied only by main motor when the driving speed was low. In the modified system. CVT was utilized to keep constant revolution numbers of the sub-motor when the sub-motor contributed to assist the system. At first." Hybrid systems are potentially very cost-effective solutions to rural AC electricity needs. overcome limitations inherent in either. Hybrid systems can address limitations in terms of fuel flexibility. engine. Figure 2 shows the modified configuration of hybrid system proposed in this study. while the corporation by two motors was often achieved to drive the system. It was supposed that a double-motor system was prepared for the driving system discussed in this study. This operation was priority to over other actions. Schematic view of double motor hybrid system .

For example.bio-fuels grown sustain ably. fallingwater. whereas the fossil and nuclear fuels are. bio-energy . Most of the renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted. Various forms of renewable energy  Solar energy  Wind energy  Bio mass energy  Geothermal energy  Tidal energy  Fuel cell . which are not replaceable.Due to industrializations and population growth our economy and technologies today largely depend upon natural resources..4 RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy are sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes. hydropower etc. in essence. and therefore they are called renewable. the available quantity of these fuels are extremely large. they are nevertheless finite and so will in principle „run out‟ at some time in the future. stocks of energy. sea-waves. and natural gases. wind. we can use such as heat or electricity.1. oil. solar energy.Renewable energy sources are essentially flows of energy. or biomass into a form. geothermal heat. However. Although. A renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight. are some of the examples of renewable energy sources. These fuels are often termed nonrenewable energy sources. ensuring that developing regions have access to electricity generation at a stable cost for the long-term future. The another advantage using renewable resources is that they are distributed over a wide geographical area. most of the world's energy sources are derived from conventional sources fossil fuels such as coal. Approximately 90% of our energy consumption comes from fossil fuels. wind energy.

energy is clean.solar 7. The energy can be produced 2. oil…. rain. recommending renewable energy subsidies and a price on carbon reflecting its cost for flood and related expenses Difference between Renewable and Non-Renewable Sources. Renewable energy is energy 1. The disadvantage of non- energy sources is that they are renewable energy sources is ready. and was commonly called alternative energy in the 1970s and 1980s.tidal. A non-renewable resource is again and again (continuous). The advantage of renewable 3. cheap. 5.(fossil fuels) .Renewable energy is an alternative to fossil fuels and nuclear power. Scientists have advanced a plan to power 100% of the world's energy with wind. Lot of pollution. it is 4. expire sometime in the future. easy to use. grown. tides energy (coal. or used on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate. generated. wind. No pollution. There is no expiration. The energy produced from which comes from natural resources fossil fuels is non renewable such as sunlight. 6. 2. Energy produced is high Ex: coal. RENEWABLE NON-RENEWABLE 1. They are finite and will continuous. 7. and solar power by the year 2030. Initially taking energy cost is 6. a natural resource which cannot be produced. 3. Energy cost is low very high.) and geothermal heat. oil. Energy produced is low Ex: wind. hydroelectric. 4. energy is filled with carbon elements. 5. and they are difficult costly to extract.

and related to the wavelength in a definite way meant that photoconductive materials were ideal for photographic light meters. In the following years photovoltaic effects were observed in copper{copper oxide thin film structures. where a semitransparent layer of metal deposited on top of the semiconductor provided both the asymmetric electronic junction. which is necessary for photovoltaic action. No external power supply was needed. The photovoltaic action of the selenium deferred from its photoconductive action in that a current was produced spontaneously by the action of light. in lead sulphide and thallium sulphide. Neville Mott and others.CHAPTER-2 DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELS 2. a rectifying junction had been formed between the semiconductor and the metal contact. and access to the junction for the incident light. Forty years later the first solid state photovoltaic devices were constructed by workers investigating the recently discovered photoconductivity of selenium. it was not the photovoltaic properties of materials like selenium which excited researchers. In this early photovoltaic device. but the photoconductivity.1 SOLAR CELL The photovoltaic effect was first reported by Edmund Bequerel in 1839 when he observed that the action of light on a silver coated platinum electrode immersed in electrolyte produced an electric current. However. In 1876 William Adams and Richard Day found that a photocurrent could be produced in a sample of selenium when contacted by two heated platinum contacts.e. In 1894. These early cells were thin film Schottky barrier devices. Later. the theory of metal{semiconductor barrier layers was developed by Walter Schottky. rectifying action) by Goldman and Brodsky in 1914. The photovoltaic effect in barrier structures was an added benefit. The fact that the current produced was proportional to the intensity of the incident light. meaning that the light meter could operate without a power supply. during the 1930s.. Charles Fritts prepared what was probably the first large area solar cell by pressing a layer of selenium between gold and another metal. It was not until the 1950s. The photovoltaic effect of structures like this was related to the existence of a barrier to current own at one of the semiconductor {metal interfaces (i. with the development of good quality silicon wafers for applications .

Part of the skin could be etched away to give access to the n type layer beneath. The obvious application was to satellites where the requirement of reliability and low weight made the cost of the cells unimportant and during the 1950s and 60s. six times higher than the best previous attempt.in the new solid state electronics. Nevertheless. That was to rise significantly over the following years and decades but. the development of silicon electronics followed the discovery of a way to manufacture pn junctions in silicon. However. amorphous silicon. these cells were not seriously considered for power generation for several decades. and funding for research and development in those areas. 1959. Green. silicon remained and remains the foremost photovoltaic material. The first silicon solar cell was reported by Chapin. at an estimated production cost of some $200 per Watt. benefitting from the advances of silicon technology for the microelectronics industry. and in the following years studies of p{n junction photovoltaic devices in gallium arsenide. 1990]. a cadmium sulphide p{n junction was produced with an efficiency of 6%. other `thin film' materials and organic conductors. Strategies for higher efficiency included tandem and other multiple band gap designs. that potentially useful quantities of power were produced by photovoltaic devices in crystalline silicon. silicon solar cells were widely developed for applications in space. the early silicon solar cell did introduce the possibility of power generation in remote locations where fuel could not easily be delivered. Naturally n type silicon wafers developed a p type skin when exposed to the gas boron trichloride. indium phosphide and cadmium telluride were stimulated by theoretical work indicating that these materials would over a higher efficiency. and a range of strategies for producing photovoltaic devices and materials more cheaply and for improving device efficiency were explored. Short histories of the solar cell are given elsewhere [Shive. and alternative materials such as polycrystalline silicon. Routes to lower cost included photoelectrochemical junctions. These p{n junction structures produced much better rectifying action than Schottky barriers. Wolf. and better photovoltaic behaviour. Photovoltaics was a subject of intense interest during this period. Fuller and Pearson in 1954 and converted sunlight with an efficiency of 6%. In the 1950s. Although none of these led to . Also in 1954. In the 1970s the crisis in energy supply experienced by the oil-dependent western world led to a sudden growth of interest in alternative sources of energy. 1972.

The trend coincides with the widespread deregulation of the electricity markets and growing recognition of the viability of decentralized power. hence their market share will likely increase in the future.2001]. Another important family of solar cells is based on thin-films. Several modules can be wired together to form an array. the economics of photovoltaics improved primarily through economies of scale. and rural electrification and for enhancement of supply in grid-connected loads at peak use [Anderson. new markets are opened up. Wafer-based silicon solar cells are approximately 200 μm thick. Thin-film solar cells can be manufactured at lower cost in large production quantities. Photovoltaics first became competitive in contexts where conventional electricity supply is most expensive. where the cost of the photovoltaic system is onset by the savings in building materials. interest in photovoltaics expanded. As prices fall. along with growing awareness of the need to secure sources of electricity alternative to fossil fuels. The current produced is directly dependent on the intensity of light reaching the module. driving a reduction in cost. for instance. Photovoltaic modules and arrays produce direct-current electricity. However. which mean that more exposure surface and material for the installation is required for a similar performance. During the 1990s. more than 90 % of the solar cells currently made worldwide consist of wafer-based silicon cells. They are either cut from a single crystal rod or from a block composed of many crystals and are correspondingly called mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. In the late 1990s the photovoltaic production expanded at a rate of 15{25% per annum. .widespread commercial development. They can be connected in both series and parallel electrical arrangements to produce any required voltage and current combination. telecommunications. There are several types of solar cells. they indicate lower efficiencies than wafer-based silicon solar cells. A number of solar cells electrically connected to each other and mounted in a single support structure or frame is called a „photovoltaic module‟. semiconducting material. for remote low power applications such as navigation. Modules are designed to supply electricity at a certain voltage. During this period. such as a common 12 volt system. However. which are approximately 1-2 μm thick and therefore require significantly less active. An important example is building integrated photovoltaic applications. our understanding of the science of photovoltaics is mainly rooted in this period.

allowing them to flow through the material to produce electricity. Due to the special composition of solar cells. such as silicon. The majority of . The solar cell works in three steps: 1. meaning electric. The energy generated from these solar modules. Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms. is named. after whom a unit of electro-motive force. The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek (phōs) meaning "light". An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity. and "voltaic". the volt. from the name of the Italian physicist Volta. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer (superstrate) or the back layer (substrate). also known as solar panels. Assemblies of cells are used to make solar modules. Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. is an example of solar energy. 3. Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials.A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell) is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. 2. referred to as solar power. the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction.

being an addition of the voltages from all the cells in the string (i. There are two basic connection methods: series connection. In both cases. Crystalline silicon is a commonly used semiconductor. a number of cells must be electrically connected.modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. If one cell produces a significantly lower current than the other cells (under the same illumination conditions). and parallel connection. The current output of the string is equivalent to the current of a single cell. but is usually insufficient for most applications. in this case. It is important to have well matched cells in the series string. In order to provide the appropriate quantity of electrical power. Series connection of cells. with resulting current–voltage characteristic. Series connection Figure shows the series connection of three individual cells as an example and the resultant group of connected cells is commonly referred to as a series string. particularly with respect to current. in which the top contact of each cell is connected to the back contact of the next cell in the sequence. as are all the bottom contacts. but the voltage output is increased.e. . this results in just two electrical connection points for the group of cells. Fig. ELECTRICAL CONNECTION OF THE CELLS The electrical output of a single cell is dependent on the design of the device and the Semi-conductor material(s) chosen. the voltage output is equal to 3Vcell). then the string will operate at that lower current level and the remaining cells will not be operating at their maximum power points. in which all the top contacts are connected together.

it is important to have the cells well matched in order to gain maximum output. In all cases. but this time the voltage is the important parameter since all cells must be at the same operating voltage. 3 Icell). with resulting current–voltage characteristic. the current from the cell group is equivalent to the addition of the current from each cell (in this case. The PV array can be of any size from a few hundred watts to hundreds of kilowatts. In this case.Parallel connection Figure shows the parallel connection of three individual cells as an example. Parallel connection of cells. If the voltage at the maximum power point is substantially different for one of the cells. with the poorer cell being pushed towards its opencircuit voltage value and the better cells to voltages below the maximum power point voltage. then this will force all the cells to operate off their maximum power point. mounted in the same plane and electrically connected to give the required electrical output for the application. but the voltage remains equivalent to that of a single cell. THE PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY A PV array consists of a number of PV modules. the power level will be reduced below the optimum. As before. . Fig.

There are several factors that contribute to the efficiency of the wind turbine in extracting the power from the wind. the device may be called a wind generator or wind charger.  Highly reliable. If the mechanical energy is used to drive machinery.  High initial cost. 2. If the mechanical energy is used to produce electricity.  Energy storage is essential.  They have long life.  Industrial applications. Wind . Disadvantages of Solar cell:  Large area is required to collect the solar energy. Applications:  Water pumping in agriculture.  Low efficiency. such as for grinding grain or pumping water.Kinetic energy from the wind is used to turn the generator inside the wind turbine to produce electricity. Advantages of Solar cell:  This system of energy conversion is noise less and cheap.  Energy is not uniform during cloudy weather and not available during nights.  For low-power portable electronics. like calculators or small fans.  Direction of rays changes continuously.  Maintenance cost is low.  Pollution free.  Developing remote areas.2 WIND TURBINES A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy. the device is called a windmill or wind pump.although the larger systems are often divided into several electrically independent sub arrays each feeding into their own power conditioning system.

Most have a gearbox. while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Wind Turbine Wind Turbine types: There are two types of wind turbine in relation to their rotor settings. .which varies with altitude. The power in the wind is proportional to:  The area of windmill being swept by the wind.  The cube of the wind speed. which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane. and  Vertical-axis rotor Horizontal axis wind turbine: Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower.  The air density . and must be pointed into the wind.turbine works on the basis of Bernoulli‟s principle. They are:  Horizontal-axis rotors.

These are generally referred to as upwind rotors.e. only the horizontal-axis wind turbine will be discussed since the modeling of the wind driven electric generator is assumed to have the horizontal-axis rotor. so the tower doesn't need to support it. Vertical axis wind turbine In this report.Horizontal axis wind turbine Vertical axis wind turbine: Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. the axis of rotation are parallel to the wind direction. Another type of horizontal axis wind turbine is called downwind rotors which has blades rotating in . With a vertical axis. the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground. and it is more accessible for maintenance. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable. Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. The horizontal-axis wind turbine is designed so that the blades rotate in front of the tower with respect to the wind direction i.

different parts of the typical grid-connected wind turbine. only the upwind rotors are used in large-scale power generation and in this report. the generator. and the yaw and control system.back of the tower. the transmission system. (a) (b) . and cross-section view of a nacelle of a wind turbine. the term horizontal-axis wind turbine refers to the upwind rotor arrangement. Nowadays. The following figures show the general layout of a typical horizontal-axis wind turbine. The main components of a wind turbine for electricity generation are the rotor.

(c) Figs: (a) Main Components of Horizontal-axis Wind Turbine (b) Cross-section of a Typical Grid-connected Wind Turbine (c) Cross-section of a Nacelle in A Grid-connected Wind Turbine Main Components of a wind turbine .

The main components of a wind turbine can be classified as  Tower  Rotor System  Generator  Yaw  Control System and transmission system Tower: It is the most expensive element of the wind turbine system. When the aerofoil moves in a flow. Rotor: The aerodynamic forces acting on a wind turbine rotor is explained by aerofoil theory. it is called stiff tower and if below is called soft tower. The tower should be designed to withstand gravity and wind loads. and generator are fixed on to or inside nacelle. controller. The design should consider the resonant frequencies of the tower do not coincide with induced frequencies from the rotor and methods to damp out if any. Zones of low and high pressure an aerofoil section in an air stream . The tower has to be supported on a strong foundation in the ground. Cheaper and smaller towers may be supported by guy wires. electrical switch boxes. a pressure distribution is established around the symmetric aerofoil shown in Fig (a). The lattice or tubular types of towers are constructed with steel or concrete. gearbox. The major components such as rotor brake. are mounted on the tower. which can rotate or yaw according to wind direction. If the natural frequency of the tower lies above the blade passing frequency.

To attain a high efficiency of rotor in wind turbine design is for the blade to have a relatively high liftto-drag ratio. This ratio can be varied along the length of the blade to optimize the turbine‟s energy output at various wind speeds. The generation of lift force L on an aerofoil placed at an angle of attack  to an oncoming flow is a consequence of the distortion of the streamlines of the fluid passing above and below the aerofoil. drag force or both extract the energy from wind. the pressure decreases towards the center of curvature of a streamline. When a blade is subjected to unperturbed wind flow. For aerofoil to be aerodynamically efficient. which an aerofoil makes with the direction of airflow measured against the chord line is called the angle of attack  . The lift force. Cambered or asymmetrical aerofoils have curved chord lines. The pressure difference results in lift force responsible for rotation of the blades. The drag force D is the component that is in line with the direction of oncoming flow is shown in above Figure These forces are both proportional to the energy in the wind. the lift force can be 30 times greater than the drag force. It is observed that the lift at zero angle of attack is no longer zero and that the zero lift occurs at a small negative angle of attack of approximately 4 o. The consequence is the reduction of pressure (suction) on the upper surface of the aerofoil compared to ambient pressure. The center of pressure. while on the lower side the pressure is positive or greater. which is at the . The angle. The chord line is now defined as the straight line joining the ends of the camber line and  is measured from this chord line. Cambered aerofoil is preferred to symmetrical aerofoil because they have higher lift/drag ratio for positive angles of attack.Forces acting on the rotor blade A reference line from which measurements are made on an aerofoil section is referred to as chord line and the length is known as chord.

This axial thrust should be resisted by the tower and foundations. propeller type rotors should be started either by changing the blade pitch or by turning the rotor with the aid of an external power source (such as generator used as a motor to turn the rotor). Therefore. as the power output depends on rotor area. A low design tip speed would require a short. under the conditions experienced by high solidity. the blades are completely stalled and the rotor cannot be self-started. For low solidity turbines. When operated at variable speed. The low speed rotor runs with high torque and the high-speed rotor runs with low torque. The low speed rotor has curved metal plates. flat blade. Rotor is allowed to run at variable speed or constrained to operate at a constant speed. The propeller type rotor comprises of a few narrow blades with more sophisticated airfoil section. the tip speed ratio remains constant and aerodynamic efficiency is increased. Upwind rotors face the wind in front of the vertical tower and have . When not working. weight. They get self-started because of their aerodynamic characteristics. The number of blades. the use of aerofoil section is more effective.¼ chord position on symmetrical aerofoil has at the ¼ chord position on cambered aerofoil and moves towards the trailing edge with increasing angle of attack. Rotor speed: Low speed and high-speed propeller are the two types of rotors. and difficulty of balancing the blades makes the rotors to be typically small. Rotor alignment: The alignment of turbine blades with the direction of wind is made by upwind or downwind rotors. the angle of attack. Arching or cambering a flat plate will cause it to induce higher lift force for a given angle of attack and blades with a cambered plate profile work well. The wind energy converters of the same size have essentially the same power output. slender blade having high aspect ratio. A large design tip speed ratio would require a long. The useful work is produced by the torque where as the thrust will overturn the turbine. multi bladed wind turbines. The characteristics of an aerofoil. the magnitude of the relative wind speed are the prime parameters responsible for the lift and drag forces. These forces acting on the blades of a wind turbine rotor are transformed into a rotational torque and axial thrust force.

The use of one or two blades will also result in more fluctuating loads because of the variation of the inertia. Compared to three bladed concepts. However. Upwind rotors need a yaw mechanism to keep the rotor axis aligned with the direction of the wind. downwind rotors can be made more flexible. implying that they have the rotor hinged to the main shaft. depending on the blades being in horizontal or vertical position and on the variation of wind speed when the blade is pointing upward or downward. This design allows the rotor to teeter in order to eliminate some of the unbalanced loads. Upwind rotors need to be rather inflexible to keep the rotor blades clear of the tower.the advantage of somewhat avoiding the wind shade effect from the presence of the tower. The vast majority of wind turbines in operation today have upwind rotors. Number of rotor blades: The three bladed rotors are the most common in modern aero generators. the two and one bladed concepts usually have so-called teetering hubs. Generator is usually 95% efficient and transmission losses should . A great disadvantage in this design is the fluctuations in the wind power due to the rotor passing through the wind shade of the tower which gives rise to more fatigue loads. if the rotor and nacelle can be designed in such a way that the nacelle will follow the wind passively. This is because they in addition to a higher rotational speed. One bladed wind turbines are less widespread than two–bladed turbines. need a counter weight to balance the rotor blade. Downwind rotors are placed on the lee side of the tower. Generator: Electricity is an excellent energy vector to transmit the high quality mechanical power of a wind turbine. the use of fewer rotor blades implies that a higher rotational speed or a larger chord is needed to yield the same energy output as a three bladed turbine of a similar size. The latter implies possible savings with respect to weight and may contribute to reducing the loads on the tower. more noise and visual intrusion problems. Downwind rotors can be built without a yaw mechanism. Therefore. thereby causing the power cables to twist. This may however include gyroscopic loads and hamper the possibility of unwinding the cables when the rotor has been yawing passively in the same direction for a long time. the two and one bladed concepts have the advantage of representing a possible saving in relation to cost and weight of the rotor.

An alternative method. Wind Turbine Generator System (WTGS): A wind turbine generator system (WTGS) transforms the energy present in the blowing wind into electrical energy. generators with a large number of poles are being manufactured to operate at lower frequency. The distinctive . only small turbines of less than 2 m radius can be coupled directly to generators. operation of a WTGS must be done according to this feature. Thus.be less than 10%. Larger machines require a gearbox to increase the generator drive frequency. To overcome this problem. generator control is independent of turbine operation.  Gearboxes are relatively expensive and heavy. They require maintenance and can be noisy. There are already many designs of wind/ electricity systems including a wide range of generators.  The turbine can be coupled with the generator to provide an indirect drive through a mechanical accumulator (weight lifted by hydraulic pressure) or chemical storage (battery). since the end use requirements vary. yet electricity generation is most efficient at constant or near constant frequency. The frequency and voltage of transmission need not be standardized. Thus.  The optimum rotational frequency of a turbine in a particular wind speed decreases with increase in radius in order to maintain constant tip speed ratio. As wind is highly variable resource that cannot be stored.  Mechanical control of turbine to maintain constant frequency increases complexity and expense. features of wind/electricity generating systems are:  Wind turbine efficiency is greatest if rotational frequency varies to maintain constant tip speed ratio. The general scheme of a WTGS is shown in Figure. usually cheaper and more efficient is to vary the electrical load on the turbine to control the rotational frequency.

Wind speed is measured with an anemometer.General scheme of a WTGS where three types of energy states are presented wind. mechanical. wound field synchronous generator (WFSG). doubly fed induction generator. It usually includes a gearbox that matches the turbine low speed to the higher speed of the generator. Commercially available wind generators installed at present are squirrel cage induction generator. Based on rotational speed. and electrical Wind energy is transformed into mechanical energy by a wind turbine that has several blades. in general. and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Some turbines include a blade pitch angle control for controlling the amount of power to be transformed. The electrical generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy.  Fixed speed WTGS  Variable speed WTGS Schematic diagram of a fixed speed WTGS . the wind turbine generator systems can be split into two types.

. Synchronous generators run at a fixed or synchronous speed. where p the number of poles is. An increase of the damping in the wind turbine drive train at the expense of losses in the rotor can be obtained by high slip at rated power output. The ingress of moisture is to be avoided by providing suitable protection of the generator.8 pole for connection to a 50 Hz net work. Air borne noise is reduced by using liquid cooling in some wind turbines. .Schematic diagram of VSWT-DFIG The generators used with wind machines are  Synchronous AC generator  Induction AC generator  Variable speed generator Synchronous AC generator: The Synchronous speed will be in the range of 1500 rpm – 4 pole. f is the electrical frequency and N s is the speed in rpm. N s . We have N s  120 f p . 1000 rpm – 6 pole or 750 rpm.

. The yaw drive is controlled by a slow closed. Yaw control is the arrangement in which the entire rotor is rotated horizontally or yawed out of the wind. the wind direction should be perpendicular to the swept area of the rotor. which is usually mounted on the top of the nacelle sensing the relative wind direction. the nacelle is yawed to attain reduction in power during high winds. Some design modifications are to be incorporated for induction generators considering the different operating regime of wind turbines and the need for high efficiency at part load.  A restricted speed range may be achieved by converting only a fraction of the output power. Yaw system: It turns the nacelle according to the actuator engaging on a gear ring at the top of the tower. and the wind turbine controller. The yaw drive is operated by a wind vane. The power flow direction in wires is the factor to be considered to differentiate between a synchronous generator and induction motor. The torque is applied to or removed from the shaft if the rotor speed is above or below synchronous.Induction AC generator: They are identical to conventional industrial induction motors and are used on constant speed wind turbines. One of the more difficult parts of a wind turbine designs is the yaw system. In some designs. Variable speed generator: Electrical variable speed operation can be approached as:  All the output power of the wind turbine may be passed through the frequency converters to give a broad range of variable speed operation. etc. Especially in turbulent wind conditions. In extremity. though it is apparently simple.loop control system. the prediction of yaw loads is uncertain. During normal operation of the system. the turbine can be stopped with nacelle turned such that the rotor axis is at right angles to the wind direction.

The turbine starts to produce power at Cut in wind speed usually between 4 and 5 m/s. brake. in case of stronger winds. Thus. blade. The turbine is stopped at Cut out wind speed usually at 25 m/s to reduce load and prevent damage to blades. hub. The functional capabilities of the control system are required for: i Controlling the automatic startup ii Altering the blade pitch mechanism iii Shutting down when needed in the normal and abnormal condition iv Obtaining information on the status of operation. the controller inside the nacelle. lifting and rotating the blades. The blades are used to extract the kinetic power from the wind to mechanical power i. blade and spinner. . However. The gearbox is used to connect the low-speed shaft (main shaft in the figure) to the high-speed shaft which drives the generator rotor. They are designed to yield maximum power at wind speeds that lies usually between 12 and 15 m/s. They are the generator. wind speed. the turbine does not generate power.Control systems: A wind turbine power plant operates in a range of two characteristic wind speed values referred to as Cut in wind speed u in and Cut out wind speed u out . It would not be economical to design turbines at strong winds. the wind turbine needs some sort of automatic control for the protection and operation of wind turbine. The generator is responsible for the conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. Anemometer: Measures the wind speed and transmits wind speed data to the controller. main shaft. The brake is used to stop the main shaft from over speeding. Other equipment that is not shown in the figure might include the anemometer. as they are too rare. direction and power production for monitoring purpose As can be seen in figure.e. clutch. it is necessary to waste part of the excess energy to avoid damage on the wind turbine. tower. The tower is made from tubular steel or steel lattice and it is usually very high in order to expose the rotor blades to higher wind speed. gearbox. main bearings. the nacelle consists of several components. the sensors and so on. yaw ring. Yaw motor is used power the yaw drive to turn the nacelle to the direction of the wind. yaw motor. Below this speed.

or hydraulically to stop the rotor in emergencies. Wind blowing over the blades causes the blades to "lift" and rotate. Other turbines are designed to run "downwind". Rotor: The blades and the hub together are called the rotor. or pitched. taller towers enable turbines to capture more energy and generate more electricity. so-called because it operates facing into the wind.Blades: Most turbines have either two or three blades. Brake: A disc brake which can be applied mechanically. Generator: Usually an off-the-shelf induction generator that produces 60-cycle AC electricity. A cover protects the components inside the nacelle. Because wind speed increases with height. Wind vane: Measures wind direction and communicates with the yaw drive to orient the turbine properly with respect to the wind. facing away from the wind. the wind blows the rotor downwind. Some nacelles are large enough for a technician to stand inside while working. Wind direction: This is an "upwind" turbine. and brake. Tower: Towers are made from tubular steel (shown here) or steel lattice. which sits atop the tower and includes the gear box. Controller: The controller starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour (mph) and shuts off the machine at about 65 mph. Turbines cannot operate at wind speeds above about 65 mph because their generators could overheat. generator. Yaw drive: Upwind turbines face into the wind. out of the wind to keep the rotor from turning in winds that are too high or too low to produce electricity. . Low-speed shaft: The rotor turns the low-speed shaft at about 30 to 60 rpm. Gear box: Gears connect the low-speed shaft to the high-speed shaft and increase the rotational speeds from about 30 to 60 rotations per minute (rpm) to about 1200 to 1500 rpm. Nacelle: The rotor attaches to the nacelle. the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the wind as the wind direction changes.and high-speed shafts. electrically. The gear box is a costly (and heavy) part of the wind turbine and engineers are exploring "direct-drive" generators that operate at lower rotational speeds and don't need gear boxes. High-speed shaft: Drives the generator. low. controller. the rotational speed required by most generators to produce electricity. Downwind turbines don't require a yaw drive. Pitch: Blades are turned.

The reactants flow into the cell. and the reaction products flow out of it.000 MW and India now ranks FOURTH in the world. while the electrolyte remains within it. triggered in the presence of an electrolyte. Andhra and Gujarat are considered suitable for wind power generation. The Wind power potential of the country is estimated as 20. The location of wind turbines is a very important factor.3 FUEL CELL A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts a source fuel into an electrical current. To avoid turbulence from one turbine affecting the wind flow at others it is located at 5-15 times blades diameter. Fuel cells can operate continuously as long as the necessary reactant and oxidant flows are maintained. Wind turbines will not work in winds below 13 km an hour. TamilNadu. It generates electricity inside a cell through reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. Wind mills are operated at wind speed normally not less than 3 mph. which must be replenished a . Fuel cells are different from conventional electrochemical cell batteries in that they consume reactant from an external source.Yaw motor: Powers the yaw drive. Disadvantages of wind turbine:  These are noisy  Construction can be very expensive and costly Applications:  Used as coolant  Used in water pumping 2. Advantages of Wind turbine:  Improving price competitiveness  Modular installation  Rapid construction  Complementary generation  Improved system reliability and  Non-polluting. which influences the performance of the machine.

usually oxygen. normally referred to as the load. which can be used to power electrical devices. The ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode. Fuel cells come in many varieties. usually hydrogen. to create water or carbon dioxide. the electrolyte. The net result of the two reactions is that fuel is consumed. turning the fuel into a positively charged ion and a negatively charged electron. . A hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen as its fuel and oxygen (usually from air) as its oxidant. and the cathode. but the electrons cannot. Fuel cell At the anode a catalyst oxidizes the fuel. the ions are reunited with the electrons and the two react with a third chemical. Once reaching the cathode. Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments. Other fuels include hydrocarbons and alcohols. The electrolyte is a substance specifically designed so ions can pass through it. By contrast. They are made up of three segments which are sandwiched together: the anode. however. water or carbon dioxide is created. Many combinations of fuels and oxidants are possible. batteries store electrical energy chemically and hence represent a thermodynamically closed system. and an electrical current is created. they all work in the same general manner. Other oxidants include chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The freed electrons travel through a wire creating the electrical current.thermodynamically open system.

 The cathode catalyst.DESIGN FEATURES IN A FUEL CELL ARE:  The electrolyte substance.  The fuel that is used. and parallel allows a higher current to be supplied. The most common fuel is hydrogen. to allow stronger current from each cell. which turns the ions into the waste chemicals like water or carbon dioxide. A typical fuel cell produces a voltage from 0. also named proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. where series yields higher voltage. causing rapid loss of voltage). Voltage decreases as current increases. The anode catalyst is usually made up of very fine platinum powder. The electrolyte substance usually defines the type of fuel cell. the fuel cells can be combined in series and parallel circuits. Among others. due to several factors:  Activation loss  Ohmic loss (voltage drop due to resistance of the cell components and interconnects)  Mass transport loss (depletion of reactants at catalyst sites under high loads. the polymer electrolyte (PE) fuel cell. .7 V at full rated load. To deliver the desired amount of energy.  The anode catalyst. The cell surface area can be increased. high specific power and rapid start-up at different temperatures have a significative importance. The cathode catalyst is often made up of nickel. can be considered a good alternative for the use aboard of electric Vehicles in which simplicity.6 V to 0. Types of fuel cells:  Proton exchange Fuel cell  High temperature Fuel cell  Molten Carbonate Fuel cell Proton exchange fuel cell: There are different fuel cell technologies that have been successfully used. Such a design is called a fuel cell stack. which breaks down the fuel into electrons and ions.

The electrodes are composed by a gas diffusion layer and a catalyst layer. electrodes and membrane.Structure of a PEM fuel cell (a) Bipolar plate. Both layers have a porous. A basic diagram showing the structure of the cell is shown in Fig. Air is fed to the cathodic layer. The set of layers is pressed by two conductive plates containing some channels in which the reactants flow. (c) Electrode layer. structure. (b) Gas flow channel. and . partially hydrophobic. A PEM fuel cell is constituted by a stack with a central membrane able to conduct protons. The external layers work as two electrodes. (d) Catalyst layer and (e) polymer layer. The main elements inside the cell are: conductor plates.

separates the anode and cathode sides. nano iron powders or palladium) for higher efficiency. Eq.hydrogen is fed to the anodic one. These protons often react with oxidants causing them to become what is commonly referred to as multi-facilitated proton membranes. Carbon paper separates them from the electrolyte. nickel or carbon nanotubes. Finally. before the proton exchange mechanism was wellunderstood. and are coated with a catalyst (like platinum. . The electrochemical reactions involved are summarized below. hydrogen diffuses to the anode catalyst where it later dissociates into protons and electrons. The protons are conducted through the membrane to the cathode. eq. a proton-conducting polymer membrane. The electrons are transferred to the platinum layer and protons to the central membrane. (1) describes the chemical reaction at the anode. oxygen molecules react with the electrons (which have traveled through the external circuit) and protons to form water. The central membrane works as a electrolyte that performs both the functions of transferring H+ from the anode to the cathode and reactant separation. (the electrolyte). (2) shows what happens at the cathode. In the archetypal hydrogen–oxygen proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) design. (Notice that "polymer electrolyte membrane" and "proton exchange mechanism" result in the same acronym. In a typical membrane electrode assembly (MEA). the electrode–bipolar plates are usually made of metal. The materials used in fuel cells differ by type. This was called a "solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell" (SPEFC) in the early 1970s. H2 → 2H+ + 2e− 2H+ +1/2O2 + 2e− → H2O H2 +1/2O2 → H2O (1) (2) (3) Eq. (3) shows the overall reaction. The oxygen reacts with the protons coming from the membrane and with the electrons fed by the catalyst. but the electrons are forced to travel in an external circuit (supplying power) because the membrane is electrically insulating. The result is water. On the cathode catalyst.) On the anode side. The electrolyte could be ceramic or a membrane.

Stationary fuel cell applications typically require more than 40. while automotive fuel cells require a 5. a porous polyethylene film patented by DSM. Ballard Power Systems have experiments with a catalyst enhanced with carbon silk which allows a 30% reduction (1 mg/cm² to 0.  The production costs of the PEM (proton exchange membrane). Automotive engines must also be able to start reliably at -30 °C (-22 °F) and have a high power to volume ratio (typically 2. and eventually it will crack. the membrane must be hydrated.000 hour lifespan (the equivalent of 150.  Limited carbon monoxide tolerance of the cathode. This is particularly challenging as the 2H2 + O2 -> 2H2O reaction is highly exothermic.Proton exchange membrane fuel cell design issues:  Many companies are working on techniques to reduce cost in a variety of ways including reducing the amount of platinum needed in each individual cell. the electrodes will flood. generating heat that will damage the fuel cell. and special requirements for some type of cells.  Durability.000 miles) under extreme temperatures.  Temperature management.7 mg/cm²) in platinum usage without reduction in performance. preventing the reactants from reaching the catalyst and stopping the reaction. If the water is evaporated too slowly. resistance across it increases. Current service life is 7. service life. The same temperature must be maintained throughout the cell in order to prevent destruction of the cell through thermal loading. In this type of fuel cell. so a large quantity of heat is generated within the fuel cell.000 hours of reliable operation at a temperature of -35 °C to 40 °C (-31 °F to 104 °F). Monash University. The Nafion membrane currently costs $566/m². creating a gas "short circuit" where hydrogen and oxygen combine directly.5 kW per liter). the membrane dries. If water is evaporated too quickly.300 hours under cycling conditions. requiring water to be evaporated at precisely the same rate that it is produced.  Water and air management (in PEMFCs). In 2005 Ballard Power Systems announced that its fuel cells will use Sholapur. Melbourne uses PEDOT as a cathode. .

Below are the chemical equations for the reaction: Anode Reaction: CH3OH + H2O → CO2 + 6H+ + 6eCathode Reaction: 3/2 O2 + 6H+ + 6e. The hydrogen ions move across the electrolyte to the cathode side. Much research is currently being done to find alternatives to YSZ that will carry ions at a lower temperature. to build up on the anode. SOFCs can run on hydrogen. The standard operating temperature is about 950oC. Unlike most other fuel cells which only use hydrogen. Another disadvantage of running the cell at such a high temperature is that other unwanted reactions may occur inside the fuel cell. as a result of the high heat. methanol. but is non-conductive to electrons. The different fuels each have their own chemistry. Like all fuel cell electrolytes YSZ is conductive to ions. and free electrons. Running the fuel cell at such a high temperature easily breaks down the methane and oxygen into ions. graphite.High temperature fuel cell: Solid oxide fuel cell: A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is extremely advantageous “because of a possibility of using a wide variety of fuel”. Although YSZ is a good ion conductor. For methanol fuel cells.→ 3H2O Overall Reaction: CH3OH + 3/2 O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + electrical energy At the anode SOFCs can use nickel or other catalysts to break apart the methanol and create hydrogen ions and CO2. hydrogen ions. allowing them to pass from the anode to cathode. butane. preventing the fuel from reaching the catalyst. where they react with oxygen to create water. YSZ is a durable solid and is advantageous in large industrial systems. on the anode side. A solid called yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as the electrolyte. low-pollution technology to electrochemically generate electricity at high efficiencies. since their efficiencies are not . A major disadvantage of the SOFC. A load connected externally between the anode and cathode completes the electrical circuit. it only works at very high temperatures. and other petroleum products. is that it “places considerable constraints on the materials which can be used for interconnections”. It is common for carbon dust. a catalyst breaks methanol and water down to form carbon dioxide. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a clean.

Because of these advantages. modularity. reduction of the SOFC operating temperature by 200 oC (392oF) or more allows use of a broader set of materials. fuel adaptability. However. to overcome these drawbacks. and when pressurized. can be integrated with a gas turbine to further increase the overall efficiency of the power system. Quiet. vibration-free operation of SOFCs also eliminates noise usually associated with conventional power generation systems. natural gas). However. SOFCs were being developed for operation primarily in the temperature range of 900 to 1000oC (1692 to 1832oF). electrolyte conductivity and electrode kinetics decrease significantly. reliability. and very low levels of polluting emissions. at lower temperatures. Up until about six years ago. alternative cell materials and designs are being extensively investigated. is less demanding on the seals and the balance-of-plant components. such high temperature SOFCs provide high quality exhaust heat for cogeneration. in addition to the capability of internally reforming hydrocarbon fuels (for example. Structure of Solid Oxide Fuel cell . simplifies thermal management. These fuel cells provide many advantages over traditional energy conversion systems including high efficiency.limited the way conventional heat engine's is. and results in less degradation of cell and stack components. aids in faster start up and cool down. activity in the development of SOFCs capable of operating in the temperature range of 650 to 800oC (1202 to 1472oF) has increased dramatically in the last few years.

. Molten-Carbonate fuel cell: Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are high-temperature fuel cells. Electrons (electricity) flow from the anode through the external circuit to the cathode. oxide ion conducting electrolyte. oxide ions combine with hydrogen (and/or carbon monoxide) in the fuel to form water (and/or carbon dioxide). The operating principle of such a cell is illustrated in Figure 1. that operate at temperatures of 600°C and above. which migrate to the anode (fuel electrode) through the oxide ion conducting electrolyte. adequate chemical and structural stability at high temperatures encountered during cell operation as well as during cell fabrication. and matching thermal expansion among different components. The materials for the cell components are selected based on suitable electrical conducting properties required of these components to perform their intended cell functions.Figure 1: Operating principle of a solid state fuel cell An SOFC essentially consists of two porous electrodes separated by a dense. Oxygen supplied at the cathode (air electrode) reacts with incoming electrons from the external circuit to form oxide ions. liberating electrons. At the anode. minimal reactivity and inter diffusion among different components.

non-precious metals can be used as catalysts at the anode and cathode. chemically inert ceramic matrix of betaalumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Scientists are currently . these fuels are converted to hydrogen within the fuel cell itself by a process called internal reforming.Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are currently being developed for natural gas and coal-based power plants for electrical utility. Since they operate at extremely high temperatures of 650°C (roughly 1. Due to the high temperatures at which MCFCs operate. which also reduces cost. The high temperatures at which these cells operate and the corrosive electrolyte used accelerate component breakdown and corrosion. Unlike alkaline. considerably higher than the 37-42 percent efficiencies of a phosphoric acid fuel cell plant. When the waste heat is captured and used. The primary disadvantage of current MCFC technology is durability.200°F) and above. MCFCs don't require an external reformer to convert more energy-dense fuels to hydrogen. phosphoric acid. industrial. Structure of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Improved efficiency is another reason MCFCs offer significant cost reductions over phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs). and military applications. overall fuel efficiencies can be as high as 85 percent. MCFCs are high-temperature fuel cells that use an electrolyte composed of a molten carbonate salt mixture suspended in a porous. and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. reducing costs. decreasing cell life. Molten carbonate fuel cells can reach efficiencies approaching 60 percent.

as combustion engines are. the lower the efficiency. of the reaction. but the maximum theoretical efficiency is higher (83% efficient at 298K in the case of hydrogen/oxygen reaction) than the Otto cycle thermal efficiency (60% for compression ratio of 10 and specific heat ratio of 1. (Depending on the fuel cell system design. A typical cell running at 0.7 V has an efficiency of about 50%.48 V. As such. the remaining 50% will be converted into heat.4). some fuel might leave the system unreacted. such as Carnot cycle efficiency. For this reason. and quality and temperature of the cell. At times this is misrepresented by saying that fuel cells are exempt from the laws of thermodynamics. The laws of thermodynamics also hold for chemical processes (Gibbs free energy) like fuel cells. which increases the losses in the fuel cell. the more power (current) drawn. in the same way by thermodynamic limits. Fuel cell efficiency: The efficiency of a fuel cell is dependent on the amount of power drawn from it. it is common to show graphs of voltage versus current (so-called polarization curves) for fuel cells.) The difference between these numbers represents the difference between the reaction's enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. along with any losses in electrical conversion efficiency. Most losses manifest themselves as a voltage drop in the cell.) For a hydrogen cell operating at standard conditions with no reactant leaks. so the efficiency of a cell is almost proportional to its voltage. (This voltage varies with fuel used.23 V. the second law efficiency is equal to cell voltage divided by 1. As a general rule. . For the same cell. This difference always appears as heat. they are not constrained. because most people think of thermodynamics in terms of combustion processes (enthalpy of formation). based on the enthalpy. the efficiency is equal to the cell voltage divided by 1. Drawing more power means drawing more current. meaning that 50% of the energy content of the hydrogen is converted into electrical energy. constituting an additional loss. Fuel cells do not operate on a thermal cycle.exploring corrosion-resistant materials for components as well as fuel cell designs that increase cell life without decreasing performance. or heating value.

they can have very high efficiencies in converting chemical energy to electrical energy. In practice: For a fuel cell operating on air. The tank-to-wheel efficiency of a fuel cell vehicle is greater than 45% at low loads and shows average values of about 36% when a driving cycle like the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) is used as test procedure. In 2008 Honda released a fuel cell electric vehicle (the Honda FCX Clarity) with fuel stack claiming a 60% tank-to-wheel efficiency. over 70% of US electricity used for hydrogen production comes from thermal power. Also. In addition to the production losses. the correct claim is that the "limitations imposed by the second law of thermodynamics on the operation of fuel cells are much less severe than the limitations imposed on conventional energy conversion systems". especially when they are operated at low power density.Comparing limits imposed by thermodynamics is not a good predictor of practically achievable efficiencies. losses due to the air supply system must also be taken into account. if propulsion is the goal. Consequently. This refers to the pressurization of the air and dehumidifying it. This reduces the efficiency significantly and brings it near to that of a compression ignition engine. and 17% if it is stored as liquid hydrogen. fuel cell efficiency decreases as load increases. transportation. and using pure hydrogen and oxygen as reactants. Fuel cell vehicles running on compressed hydrogen may have a power-plant-to-wheel efficiency of 22% if the hydrogen is stored as high-pressure gas. resulting in a net increase in carbon dioxide production by using hydrogen in vehicles. It should be underlined that fuel cell (especially high temperature) can be used as a heat source in conventional heat engine (gas turbine system). which only has an efficiency of 33% to 48%. Furthermore. and storage into account. electrical output of the fuel cell has to still be converted into mechanical power with another efficiency drop. The comparable NEDC value for a Diesel vehicle is 22%. . In reference to the exemption claim. In this case the ultra high efficiency is predicted (above 70%). It is also important to take losses due to fuel production.

which may include lighting.Fuel cells cannot store energy like a battery. telecommunication equipment and modern naval ships. While a much cheaper lead-acid battery might return about 90%.  Fuel cell gas appliances up to 70 kW  Installation permitting guidance for hydrogen & fuel cells stationary applications  Standard for the installation of stationary fuel cell power systems Emergency power systems: Emergency power systems are a type fuel cell system. This heat can be captured and used to heat water in a micro combined heat and power (m-CHP) application. data centers. The ceramic can run as hot as 800 degrees Celsius. but in some applications. depending on conditions. and is therefore better suited for longterm storage. When the heat is captured. The overall efficiency (electricity to hydrogen and back to electricity) of such plants (known as round-trip efficiency) is between 30 and 50%. scientific laboratories. CHP units are being developed today for the European home market. they are combined with electrolyzes and storage systems to form an energy storage system. the electrolyze/fuel cell system can store indefinite quantities of hydrogen. Stationary fuel cell applications (or stationary fuel cell power systems) are stationary that are either connected to the electric grid (distributed generation) to provide supplemental power and as emergency power system for critical areas. . Solid-oxide fuel cells produce exothermic heat from the recombination of the oxygen and hydrogen. Codes and standards Stationary fuel cell applications is a classification in FC Hydrogen codes and standards and fuel cell codes and standards. They find uses in a wide variety of settings from residential homes to hospitals. or installed as a grid-independent generator for on-site service. to provide backup resources in a crisis or when regular systems fail. such as stand-alone power plants based on discontinuous sources such as solar or wind power. but does not consider production and distribution losses. The other main standards are Portable fuel cell applications and Fuel cell vehicle. total efficiency can reach 80-90% at the unit. generators and other apparatus.

Uninterrupted power supply: An uninterrupted power supply (UPS) provides emergency power and. has attracted attention as an . cerium oxide based materials.or samarium-doped cerium oxide materials possess higher oxide ion conductivity compared to zirconium based materials. its waste heat can be captured for beneficial purposes. chemical stability. other mixed oxides also provide an opportunity to develop oxide ion conducting electrolytes. under reducing conditions at high temperatures. below about 750oC (1382oF). However. It differs from an auxiliary power supply or standby generator. In addition to the traditionally used oxides of zirconium and cerium. and mechanical strength. provide line regulation as well to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available. containing among others gallium oxide. Scandium-doped zirconium oxide has higher conductivity than YSZ but high cost of scandium and detrimental ageing effects in scandium doped zirconium oxide make it less attractive in commercializing SOFCs. One mixture. exhibit significant electronic conductivity and dimensional change. Micro combined heat and power (MicroCHP) is usually less than 5 kWe for a home fuel cell or small business. Materials and cell designs Electrolyte Yttrium-doped zirconium oxide (YSZ) remains the most widely used material for the electrolyte in SOFCs because of its sufficient ionic conductivity. The only drawback of stabilized YSZ is the low ionic conductivity in the lower cell operation temperature regime. Operation at temperatures below about 600oC (1112oF) overcomes this problem. and cerium oxide based materials are successfully being used as electrolyte in SOFCs by Ceres Power Limited (UK). Gadolinium. depending on the topology. Cogeneration Cogeneration can be used when the fuel cell is sited near the point of use. which does not provide instant protection from a momentary power interruption. Two solutions that have been tried to resolve this problem are to decrease the thickness of the YSZ electrolyte and to find other materials to replace the yttrium.

and the electrochemical reduction of oxygen requires a series of elementary reactions and involves the transfer of multiple electrons. though in many cases the improved cathodic performance is found to decrease during the cell lifetime as a result of chemical or microstructural instability. However. In general. porous microstructure so that gaseous oxygen can readily diffuse through the cathode to the cathode/electrolyte interface. alternative cathode materials. iron. In spite of these drawbacks. have been developed and optimized for better performance. the cathode must have a stable. Finally. high electronic conductivity. and the electrical conductivities of ferrites and nickelites are low. typically containing transition metals such as cobalt. thermal expansion match with other cell components. Minimization of cathodic polarization losses is one of the biggest challenges to be overcome in obtaining high. Cathode The oxidant gas is air or oxygen at the SOFC cathode. the thermal expansion coefficient of cobaltites is much higher than that of the YSZ electrolyte. and compatibility and minimum reactivity with the electrolyte and the interconnection. has good electronic conduction.electrolyte. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (Japan) is using this as the electrolyte in its SOFCs and has successfully built and tested up to 10-kW size SOFC power systems. stable power densities from lower temperature SOFCs. For SOFCs operating at substantially lower temperatures. and/or nickel. Nevertheless. these . a reasonable thermal expansion match to YSZ. it has two drawbacks: uncertain cost of gallium. However. Lanthanum manganite. However. promising results have been reported using these materials. The SOFC cathode must meet the requirements of high catalytic activity for oxygen molecule dissociation and oxygen reduction. Moreover. and uncertain chemical and mechanical stability of the oxide. These stringent electrochemical and mechanical requirements greatly restrict the number of suitable candidate materials. chemical and dimensional stability in environments encountered during cell fabrication and cell operation. it possesses adequate electrocatalytic activity. these materials offer higher oxide ion diffusion rates and exhibit faster oxygen reduction kinetics at the cathode/electrolyte interface compared with lanthanum manganite. such as 650 to 800oC (1202 to 1472oF). and stability in the SOFC cathode operating environment. when substituted with low valence elements such as calcium or strontium. which.

Unless sufficient amounts of steam are present along with the hydrocarbon to remove carbon from the nickel surface. Nickel is an excellent catalyst for fuel oxidation. It has been shown that polarization resistance depends upon the grain size of the ionic conductor in the composite electrode and the volume fraction of porosity. a thin layer. This catalytic property is exploited in the so-called internal reforming SOFCs that can operate on fuels composed of mixtures of methane and water. In addition. it also catalyzes the formation of carbon from hydrocarbons under reducing conditions. stable in the reducing environment of the fuel. chemical stability with the electrolyte and interconnect. integrity of porosity for gas permeation. In these anodes. As a . it possesses a high thermal expansion coefficient. In addition. YSZ in the anode constrains nickel aggregation and prevents sintering of the nickel particles. and applicability to use with versatile fuels and impurities. cost effectiveness is always a factor for commercialization. The other requirements include matching of its thermal expansion coefficient with that of the electrolyte and interconnect. is used to reduce the chemical reaction between the cathode and YSZ. the anode may be destroyed. Therefore. generally of a cerium oxide based material. Microstructure also plays a major role in the cathode polarization. and provides better adhesion of the anode with the electrolyte. however. carbon dioxide). decreases the effective thermal expansion coefficient bringing it closer to that of the electrolyte. and must have sufficient porosity to allow the transport of the fuel to and the transport of the products of fuel oxidation away from the electrolyte/anode interface where the fuel oxidation reaction takes place. it is also highly active for the steam reforming of methane. is used. Nickel-YSZ composites are the most commonly used anode materials for SOFCs.materials are very reactive toward YSZ. Although nickel is an excellent hydrogen oxidation and methanesteam reforming catalyst. this is particularly true when a composite cathode. which shows a better performance compared to a single composition cathode. nickel has dual roles of the catalyst for hydrogen oxidation and the electrical current conductor. Anode The anode must be an excellent catalyst for the oxidation of fuel (hydrogen. electronically conducting. and exhibits coarsening of microstructure due to metal aggregation through grain growth at cell operation temperatures.

advanced SOFC designs place additional constraints on the anode. many cells are electrically connected together in a cell stack to obtain higher voltage and power. but the benefits obtained in terms of sulphur. have yielded some promising results in these designs. However. In spite of this drawback. and non-reactivity with other cell materials. Copper based anodes have also been proposed for intermediate temperature (<800oC. a thermal expansion coefficient close to that of the cathode and the electrolyte. nickel-YSZ composite remains the most commonly utilized anode material for SOFCs and are satisfactory for cells operating on clean. low permeability for oxygen and hydrogen to minimize direct combination of oxidant and fuel during cell operation. The requirements of the interconnection are the most severe of all cell components and include: nearly 100 percent electronic conductivity. To satisfy these requirements. this approach does not work for higher hydrocarbons. even when using methane as the fuel. hydrocarbon and/or redox tolerance are counterbalanced by other limitations (such as the difficulty of integrating such materials with existing cell and stack fabrication processes and materials). such as cerium oxide or strontium titanate/cerium oxide mixtures. Unfortunately. and it is generally not possible to operate nickel-based anodes on higher hydrocarbon-containing fuels without pre-reforming with steam or oxygen. Alternative materials. an interconnection is used in SOFC stacks. doped . due to the high catalytic activity of nickel for hydrocarbon cracking. <1472oF) SOFCs intended to operate directly on hydrocarbon fuels without prior reformation. reformed fuel. Interconnect Since a single cell only produces voltage less than 1 V and power around 1 W/cm2. stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres at the cell operating temperature since it is exposed to air (or oxygen) on the cathode side and fuel on the anode side. such as tolerance of oxidizing environments and/or the ability to tolerate significant quantities of sulphur and/or hydrocarbon species in the fuel stream.result. but the lack of catalytic activity for oxidation of fuel in copper and sintering of copper at the cell operating temperatures have limited their use in practical SOFCs. To connect multiple cells together. relatively high steam-to-carbon ratios are needed to suppress this deleterious reaction.

thermal expansion matching to other stack components (particularly for stacks using a rigid seal design). it is possible to use oxidation-resistant metallic materials for the interconnection. several critical issues remain. some surface coatings can be applied onto metallic interconnects to minimize scale growth. and higher electrical and thermal conductivity. scale electrical resistivity in the long term. To overcome some of these problems. such as seals and cell materials. Advantages of Fuel Cell:  Non pollutant. Ferritic stainless steels are the most promising candidates. significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs.lanthanum chromite is used as the interconnection for cells intended for operation at about 1000oC (1832oF). In cells intended for operation at lower temperatures (<800oC. high electrical conductivity not only through the bulk material but also in in-situ-formed oxide scales. and compatibility with the adjacent components such as seals and electrical contact layers. Although these alloys demonstrate improved performance over traditional compositions. and strong adhesion between the as-formed oxide scale and the underlying alloy substrate. <1412oF).  Environmental friendly. Compared to lanthanum chromite ceramic interconnects. the metallic alloys must satisfy additional requirements. corrosion and spalling under interconnect exposure conditions. Several new ferritic stainless steels have been developed specifically for SOFC interconnects. mechanical reliability and durability at the cell operating temperature. owing to the fact that some alloys in this family offer a protective and conductive chromium-based oxide scale. including resistance to surface oxidation and corrosion in a dual atmosphere (simultaneous exposure to oxidizing and reducing atmospheres). among these are chromium oxide scale evaporation and subsequent poisoning of cathodes. appropriate thermal expansion behavior. chemical compatibility with other materials in contact with the interconnect. metallic alloys offer advantages such as improved manufacturability. . ease of manufacturing and low cost. electrical resistance and chromium volatility. But to be useful for the interconnect application.

The hydrogen is stored in a 500 gallon tank at 200 PSI.9999% reliability. rural areas being one example. and in certain military applications. There the Stuart Island Energy Initiative has built a complete. and at the same time produces hot air and water from the waste heat. but fuel cells only need a larger storage unit (typically cheaper than an electrochemical device). remote weather stations. in ideal conditions they can achieve up to 99. In this application. closed-loop system: Solar panels power an electrolyzer which makes hydrogen. and runs a ReliOn fuel cell to provide full electric back-up to the off-thegrid residence. Since electrolyses systems do not store fuel in themselves. A fuel cell system running on hydrogen can be compact and lightweight. and have no major moving parts. Because fuel cells have no moving parts and do not involve combustion. This equates to around one minute of down time in a two year period. such as spacecraft. One such pilot program is operating on Stuart Island in Washington State. large parks. but rather rely on external storage units. The system generates constant electric power (selling excess power back to the grid when it is not consumed).  Hydration. A lower fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency is tolerated (typically 15-20%). Cogeneration: Micro combined heat and power (MicroCHP) systems such as home fuel cells and cogeneration for office buildings and factories are in the mass production phase. batteries would have to be largely oversized to meet the storage demand. they can be successfully applied in large-scale energy storage.Disadvantages of Fuel Cell:  Durability. Fuel cell applications: POWER: Fuel cells are very useful as power sources in remote locations. Some heat is . MicroCHP is usually less than 5 kWe for a home fuel cell or small business.  Infrastructure. rural locations. because most of the energy not converted into electricity is utilized as heat.

 Portable charging docks for small electronics (e. They find uses in a wide variety of settings from residential homes to hospitals.  Smartphone with high power consumption due to large displays and additional features like GPS might be equipped with micro fuel cells. typically around 80%.g. it can provide instant protection from a momentary power interruption. depending on the topology. telecommunication equipment and modern naval ships. the process is inefficient.lost with the exhaust gas just as in a normal furnace. In terms of energy however. generators and other apparatus. . provide line regulation as well to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available.  An uninterrupted power supply (UPS) provides emergency power and. data centers. a belt clip that charges your cell phone or PDA). to provide backup resources in a crisis or when regular systems fail. scientific laboratories. which may include lighting. and solid-oxide fuel cell prototypes exist.  Base load power plants  Electric and hybrid vehicles. and one could do better by maximizing the electricity generated and then using the electricity to drive a heat pump. Unlike a standby generator. Other applications:  Providing power for base stations or cell sites  Off-grid power supply  Distributed generation  Fork Lifts  Emergency power systems are a type of fuel cell system. Phosphoric-acid fuel cells (PAFC) comprise the largest segment of existing CHP products worldwide and can provide combined efficiencies close to 90% (35-50% electric + remainder as thermal) Moltencarbonate fuel cells have also been installed in these applications. so the combined heat and power efficiency is still lower than 100%.  Notebook computers for applications where AC charging may not be available for weeks at a time.

Hydrogen is safely stored on-site or produced within the fuel cell itself. flow from the cell to provide useful electrical power.4 Ultra Capacitors An Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC). Compared to conventional electrolytic capacitors the energy density is typically on the order of thousands of times greater. Super condenser. EDLCs also have a much higher power density. Fuel cells are a technology that both the public and private sectors are increasingly turning to for both primary and back-up power needs. the hydrogen separates into a proton and an electron. Electro chemical double layer capacitor. which cannot pass through the membrane. Fuel cells are quiet. At the anode. In comparison with conventional batteries or fuel cells. The electrons. The proton migrates to the cathode. from a few kilowatts for a remote telecommunications tower to megawatt-scale for hospitals and airports. Because they are modular. Pseudo capacitor. and the material properties of the plates and the material . where it reacts with the oxygen to form water. and produce no particulate emissions. 2. Small heating appliances. and an electrolytic solution. Compared to conventional electrolytic capacitors the energy density is typically on the order of thousands of times greater.also known as Super capacitor. the distance. have no moving parts. Although the understanding of the chemistry of fuel cells goes back more than a century. The amount of charge stored per unit voltage is essentially a function of the size. In comparison with conventional batteries or fuel cells. oxygen. A fuel cell stack requires only hydrogen (or a similar energy carrier). they can be configured for any size power needs. They are virtually maintenance free and can be both tested and operated remotely. Hydrogen and ambient air flow into the fuel cell. The basic design and electrochemical principle behind fuel cells is straightforward. which contains an anode and a cathode. is an electrochemical capacitor with relatively high energy density. or Ultra capacitor. EDLCs also have a much higher power density. they are very much a 21st century technology.

Because the charge is stored physically. Capacitors store electric charge. Ultra capacitors have the highest capacitive density available today with densities so high that these capacitors can be used to applications normally reserved for batteries. while the potential between the plates is limited by breakdown of the dielectric. Ultra Capacitors are not as volumetrically efficient and are more expensive than batteries but they do have other advantages over batteries making the preferred choice in applications requiring a large amount of energy storage to be stored and delivered in bursts repeatedly. The dielectric not only separates the electrodes but also has electrical properties that affect the performance of a capacitor. with no chemical or phase changes taking place. The carbon technology used in these capacitors creates a very large surface area with an extremely small separation distance. polymer films or aluminum oxide to . the process is highly reversible and the discharge-charge cycle can be repeated over and over again. U C construction: What makes Ultra capacitors different from other capacitors types are the electrodes used in these capacitors. Electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The super capacitors will supply power to the system when there are surges or energy bursts since super capacitors can be charged and discharged quickly while the batteries can supply the bulk energy since they can store and deliver larger amount energy over a longer slower period of time. variously referred to by manufacturers in promotional literature as Super capacitors also called ultra capacitors and electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) are capacitors with capacitance values greater than any other capacitor type available today. virtually without limit. Ultra capacitors are based on a carbon (nano tube) technology. This is why batteries and super capacitors are used in conjunction with each other.in between the plates (the dielectric). The most significant advantage super capacitors have over batteries is their ability to be charged and discharged continuously without degrading like batteries do. Ultra capacitors do not have a traditional dielectric material like ceramic. Capacitors consist of 2 metal electrodes separated by a dielectric material. Capacitance values reaching up to 400 Farads in a single standard case size are available.

The magnitude of voltage where charges begin to flow is where the electrolyte begins to break down.separate the electrodes but instead have a physical barrier made from activated carbon that when an electrical charge is applied to the material a double electric field is generated which acts like a dielectric. This is called the decomposition voltage. The surface area of the activated carbon layer is extremely large yielding several thousands of square meters per gram. The thickness of the electric double layer is as thin as a molecule. This large surface area allows for the absorption of a large amount of ions. . Structure of Ultra Capacitor The charging/discharging occurs in an ion absorption layer formed on the electrodes of activated carbon. The electric double layer formed becomes an insulator until a large enough voltage is applied and current begins to flow. The activated carbon fiber electrodes are impregnated with an electrolyte where positive and negative charges are formed between the electrodes and the impregnant.

The double layers formed on the activated carbon surfaces can be illustrated as a series of parallel RC circuits. As shown below the capacitor is made up of a series of RC circuits where R1, R2 …Rn are the internal resistances and C1, C2..., Cn are the electrostatic capacitances of the activated carbons.

When voltage is applied current flows through each of the RC circuits. The amount of time required to charge the capacitor is dependent on the CxR values of each RC circuit.

Obviously the larger the CxR the longer it will take to charge the capacitor. The amount of current needed to charge the capacitor is determined by the following equation: In= (V/Rn) exp (-t/ (Cn*Rn)) Ultra capacitor is a double layer capacitor; the energy is stored by charge transfer at the boundary between electrode and electrolyte. The amount of stored energy is function of the available electrode and electrolyte surface, the size of the ions, and the level of the electrolyte decomposition voltage. Ultra capacitors are constituted of two electrodes, a separator and an electrolyte. The two electrodes, made of activated carbon provide a high surface area part, defining so energy density of the component. On the electrodes, current collectors with a high conducting part assure the interface between the electrodes and the connections of the Ultra capacitors r. The two electrodes are separated by a membrane, which allows the mobility of charged ions and forbids no electronic contact. The electrolyte supplies and conducts the ions from one electrode to the other. Usually Ultra capacitors are divided into two types: double-layer capacitors and electrochemical capacitors. The former depends on the mechanism of double layers, which is result of the separation of charges at interface between the electrode surface of active carbon or carbon fiber and electrolytic solution. Its capacitance is proportional to the specific surface areas of electrode material. The latter depends on fast faraday redox reaction. The electrochemical capacitors include metal oxide Ultra capacitors and conductive polymer Ultra capacitors. They all make use of the high reversible redox reaction occurring on electrodes surface or inside them to produce the capacitance concerning with electrode potential. Capacitance of them depends mainly on the utilization of active material of electrode. The working voltage of electrochemical capacitor is usually lower than 3 V. Based on high working voltage of electrolytic capacitor, the hybrid super-capacitor combines the anode of electrolytic capacitor with the cathode of electrochemical capacitor, so it has the best features with the high specific capacitance and high energy density of electrochemical capacitor. The capacitors can work at high voltage without connecting many cells in series. The most important parameters of a super capacitor include the capacitance(C), ESR and EPR (which is also called leakage resistance).

Equivalent circuit Ultra capacitors can be illustrated similarly to conventional film, ceramic or aluminum electrolytic capacitors

This equivalent circuit is only a simplified or first order model of Ultra capacitors. In actuality Ultra capacitors exhibit a non ideal behavior due to the porous materials used to make the electrodes. This causes Ultra capacitors to exhibit behavior more closely to transmission lines than capacitors. Below is a more accurate illustration of the equivalent circuit for a Ultra capacitors

How to measure the capacitance There are a couple of ways used to measure the capacitance of Ultra capacitors 1. Charge method 2. Charging and discharging method. Charge method Measurement is performed using a charge method using the following formula. C=t/R t= .632Vo where Vo is the applied voltage.

Capacitance is measured per the following method: 1. 0 1 Capacitance Ultra capacitors have such large capacitance values that standard measuring equipment cannot be used to measure the capacity of these capacitors. Measure voltage drop between V1 to V2. I= current. Measure time for capacitor to discharge from V1 to V2.Charge and Discharge method This method is similar to the charging method except the capacitance is calculated during the discharge cycle instead of the charging cycle. Discharge rate to be 1mA/F. V = initial voltage. 5. Discharge capacitor through a constant current load. Calculate the capacitance using the following equation: C= I*(T2-T1) V1-V2 Where V1=0. 2. V2=0.7Vr.3Vr (Vr= rated voltage of capacitor) . 4. 6. V = ending voltage. Charge capacitor for 30 minutes at rated voltage. 3. Discharge time for constant current discharge t= Cx (V -V )/I 0 1 Discharge time for constant resistance discharge t= CRln (V /V ) 1 0 Where t= discharge time.

 Automotive. Charge capacitor using a constant current.measured using the following procedure 1. Calculate ESR using the following formula: Advantages of Ultra Capacitor:  Long life. After reaching rated voltage hold voltage for at least 1 minute. Applications:  Heavy and public transport.  Motor racing. 3.  Cells hold low voltages.ESR AC ESR . DC ESR . EDLC's have the potential to be deadly to human.  Due to rapid and large release of energy (albeit over short times). Disadvantages of Ultra Capacitor:  The amount of energy stored per unit weight is generally lower than that of an electrochemical battery.  Alternative energy. Discharge capacitor at a rate of 1mA/F.  Consumer electronics.  Computer systems  UPS systems .Measure using a 4 probe impedance analyzer at 1 kHz.  Good reversibility.  Low cost per cycle.  High output power. Measure the time it takes to have the voltage drop from V1 to V2. 4.  Very high rates of charge and discharge. 5. 2.

Calculation of load schedule 2. voltage sags. There are other different aspects related to power distribution system where the storage study is essential. This is also important in various analyses such as sustained interruptions. voltage regulation. Dispatch ability of Power 4. voltage stability. the island mode. 1. some are listed as follows. Optimal use of non-conventional energy sources 3. harmonics. Reduced insulation 6. Design of system elements: transformer. the switching transient mode. Transformer connections and ground faults 7. feeders . Power conditioners  Welders  Inverters  Automobile regenerative braking systems  Power supplies  Cameras  Power generators Importance of Proper Design of SCES and Future Scope of Work The utmost requirement of proper design and implementation of SCES is maintaining the reliability of the power distribution system in the grid connected mode. Ride trough capability of Supply 5. voltage flicker.

and Fη is the Faraday efficiency. . a simple electrolyzer model is developed using Simulink. where ie is the electrolyzer current.2.5 Electrolyzer Water can be decomposed into its elementary components by passing electric current between two electrodes separated by an aqueous electrolyte. Assuming that the working temperature of the electrolyzer is 40 ℃. The electrochemical reaction of water electrolysis is given by According to Faraday‟s law. hydrogen production rate of an electrolyzer cell is directly proportional to the electrical current in the equivalent electrolyzer circuit. nc is the number of electrolyzer cells in series. Faraday efficiency is expressed by According to the nH2 and ηF. The storage and consumption are also considered in this model. The ratio between the actual and the theoretical maximum amount of hydrogen produced in the electrolyzer is known as Faraday efficiency.

1 RENEWABLE ENERGY BASED HYBRID POWER SYSTEM Simulink circuit diagram of Hybrid circuit diagram .CHAPTER-3 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 3.

The wind turbine adopted is Southwest Wind power Air 403. In order to keep the supply and demand is balanced. a 500W proton exchange membrane fuel cell.  When the supply is bigger than the load need. The fuel cell is a accessory generator in this system and supplies insufficient power. Wind turbine and solar cell are the main sources to supply load demand. the electrolyzer model electrolyzes water to produce hydrogen and store it for further usage.  Thus. When wind speed is 12. and a power conditioner.  Solar cell adopted is SIEMENS SP75 and its maximum power is 75W. The system consists of a 75W solar cell. 60Hz AC. the system can circulate supply load demand and energy will not be wasted.5m/s. It is used to step up ultra capacitor voltage to DC 200V and invert to 120Vrms. The fuel controller consists of two PID controllers to limit the flows of hydrogen and oxygen. the wind turbine produces the maximum power 400W.  The power conditioner includes a boost circuit and a SPWM inverter.  Fuel cell model includes a fuel cell module and a fuel controller. an ultra-capacitors. . an electrolyzer. a 400W wind turbine.

at t=10s. Wind speed increases. the captured power increases and the contribution of the fuel . ultra capacitor. The load demand changes from 375W to 225W at 10s. Power tracking performance of the hybrid topology with respect to load demand change and environmental variations. The initial wind speed is 10 m/s. The solar cell initially supplies power at the radiation 400W/m2 and temperature 25°. the power demand changes from 375W to 225W at 10s as shown in Fig. fuel cell. power converter output. At 15s. from 10 to 12 m/s and decreases to 8 m/s at t=16s.1 Power tracking performance of hybrid power system Simulation results with step changes in load demand.CHAPTER-4 SIMULATION RESULTS OF THE HYBRID POWER SYSTEMS 4. However. The power tracking performance of the hybrid topology with respect to load demand change and environmental variations is shown in Fig.2 Current Variations Associated parameter variations in solar cell. 4. These step inputs cause changes in available power and load consumption. The fuel cell provides power for load requirement because of the output powers of the wind turbine and solar cell are not sufficient enough to supply load demand at t=0s to 10s. and ambient temperature are analyzed and shown in Figs. wind turbine. wind speed. the radiation increases to 600W/m2 and temperature also increases to 28°. Fig. radiation. and system performance are analyzed. With variation in load. as the wind speed increases.

the solar cell current and fuel cell current vary as shown in Fig. Similarly. Such changes in fuel cell current cause the stack voltage to vary significantly. With changes in load and environmental conditions. Generally. . the fuel cell current decreases to zero because load demand is reduced and the wind turbine increases output power. Fig. After t=16s. the contribution of the fuel cell starts at t=19. Current variations.1s. variation in fuel cell current is due to changes in power demand from the fuel cell with varying availability of wind energy. with sudden decrease in wind speed. Fig. Voltage variations. The use of an ultra capacitor in parallel with the fuel cell reduces the stack‟s output variation as shown in Fig.3 Voltage Variations These changes are reflected in the performance of the fuel cell system. a lower level of current implies higher stack voltage and vice versa. as the solar cells and wind turbines contributions are limited and fixed. 4. Any excess power is diverted to the electrolyzer during this period. During t=10s to t=16s.cell decrease. The stack current variation at t=0s to t=10s is due to start-up transients and load demand.

4 Hydrogen Variation With variations of the ultra-capacitor voltage between 49 and 62 V. The electrolyzer electrolyzes water to produce hydrogen by the excess power of the system and store it from t=10s to t=19. delivers a 120 Vrms. 60 Hz AC to the load. The inverter. The variation of hydrogen in storage tank is shown in Fig. The hydrogen is a fuel of fuel cell. the power converter unit regulates the load voltage. The system can circulate supply load demand and renewable energy will not be wasted. The controller in the boost converter adjusts the duty ratio so as to attain a fixed 200V DC in the inverter‟s input. on the other hand.1s. Hydrogen variation in storage tank. Fig. .4.

a novel renewable energy based hybrid power system is proposed and modeled for a stand-alone user with appropriate power controllers. The output fluctuations of the wind turbine varying with wind speed and the solar cell varying with both environmental temperature and sun radiation are reduced using a fuel cell. . Therefore. To overcome this deficiency of the solar cell and wind system. we integrated them with the FC/UC system using a novel topology. The available power from the renewable energy sources is highly dependent on environmental conditions such as wind speed. radiation. and suppress the effects of these fluctuations on the equipment side voltage. The proposed system can be used for off-grid power generation in non interconnected areas or remote isolated communities. The voltage variation at the output is found to be within the acceptable range.CHAPTER-5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE Conclusion In this paper. this system can tolerate the rapid changes in load and environmental conditions. Future Scope In this we can use Fuzzy logic controller of Hybrid Power System based on Renewable energy. and ambient temperature.

Operation and Control of Solar-Hydrogen Energy Systems. “Development of a Photovoltaic Array Model for Use in Power-electronics Simulation Studies. 2006. vol. Pan. Khan and M. 193-200.Electric Power Application. .” in Proc. 146. J. D. C. “A Fast Maximum Power Point Tracing for Photovoltaic Power Systems. 1999 IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Conf.” IEE Proc. 1. pp. T. P. T. vol. March 1999. 1997. Ulleberg. Elhadidy.com/. Aug.” Renewable Energy. Y. “Technical and Economic Assessment of Gidindependent Hybrid Photovoltaic-Diesel-Battery Power Systems for Commercial Loads in Desert Environments. pp. 11. Shaahid and M.mathworks.” Ph. 421-439. dissertation. [2] J. Nehrir. A. Iqbal. pp. J. 2007.” Renewable Energy. Chen. and Y. [7] O. pp. M. and C. [5] S. H. Huang. 2.D. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. B. A. S. pp. [6] D. Nelson. M. Manning. “Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Small WindFuel Cell Hybrid Energy System. Wang. Chu. Gow and C. [4] M. 1641-1656. “Stand-alone Power Systems for the Future: Optimal Design. Oct. 1794-1810.REFERENCES [1] C...” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. no. [3] The MathWorks http://www. 390-393. 2005. “Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of StandAlone Hybrid Wind/PV/Fuel Cell Power Generation Systems. vol.

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